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Mindfulness-Based Resilience Training to Reduce Health Risk, Stress Reactivity, and Aggression among Law Enforcement Officers: A Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy Trial

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... Published in 2016, a single-arm pilot study pioneered the field of MT within law enforcement officers (LEOs), suggesting positive effects following mindfulness-based resilience training (MBRT)-an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) adaptation designed to enhance resilience for LEOs in the context of stressors inherent to policingon outcomes such as perceived stress, burnout, emotional intelligence, and mental and physical health (66). Since then, three other trials have replicated and extended those benefits (67)(68)(69). ...
... Whereas, the scientific literature is still not clear about how long MBI effects last, its psychological benefits tend to decrease over time (111,112). Previous studies with MBIs and police personnel mental health follow-up have mixed results (67,68). Persistent salutary effects of MHBP after 6 months should be highlighted; however, the study design does not illuminate its longstanding impact as prolonged follow-up was not performed. ...
... MBI's "completion" has been defined as attending four or more sessions (112). In view of these criteria, our completion rate was high and comparable with previous MBI studies (162), including within the police (67,68). ...
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Background: Police officers' high-stress levels and its deleterious consequences are raising awareness to an epidemic of mental health problems and quality of life (QoL) impairment. There is a growing evidence that mindfulness-based interventions are efficacious to promote mental health and well-being among high-stress occupations. Methods: The POLICE study is a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) with three assessment points (baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up) where police officers were randomized to mindfulness-based health promotion (MBHP) ( n = 88) or a waiting list ( n = 82). This article focuses on QoL, depression and anxiety symptoms, and religiosity outcomes. Mechanisms of change and MBHP feasibility were evaluated. Results: Significant group × time interaction was found for QoL, depression and anxiety symptoms, and non-organizational religiosity. Between-group analysis showed that MBHP group exhibited greater improvements in QoL, and depression and anxiety symptoms at both post-intervention (QoL d = 0.69 to 1.01; depression d = 0.97; anxiety d = 0.73) and 6-month follow-up (QoL d = 0.41 to 0.74; depression d = 0.60; anxiety d = 0.51), in addition to increasing non-organizational religiosity at post-intervention ( d = 0.31). Changes on self-compassion mediated the relationship between group and pre-to-post changes for all QoL domains and facets. Group effect on QoL overall health facet at post-intervention was moderated by mindfulness trait and spirituality changes. Conclusion: MBHP is feasible and efficacious to improve QoL, and depression and anxiety symptoms among Brazilian officers. Results were maintained after 6 months. MBHP increased non-organizational religiosity, although the effect was not sustained 6 months later. To our knowledge, this is the first mindfulness-based intervention RCT to empirically demonstrate these effects among police officers. Self-compassion, mindfulness trait, and spirituality mechanisms of change are examined. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov . identifier: NCT03114605.
... Commonly conceptualized as providing "stress reduction" techniques, the embodied practices and didactic knowledge contained within MBIs enhance self-awareness and self-regulation (Vago and Silbersweig, 2012), deepen one's sense of interconnection and compassion (Hutcherson et al., 2008;Kang et al., 2014), and encourage exploration and acceptance of challenging emotions (Thompson and Waltz, 2010;Lindsay and Creswell, 2017) as an alternative to culturally engrained patterns of avoidance and emotional control (Pogrebin and Poole, 1995;Karaffa and Tochkov, 2013). Two pilot studies demonstrated the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of MBIs adapted for police personnel (Christopher et al., 2016;Grupe et al., 2021a), and three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated benefits of mindfulness training relative to waitlist control (WLC) for self-reported stress, burnout, mindfulness, alcohol use, negative affect, and global health (Christopher et al., 2018;Krick and Felfe, 2019;Trombka et al., 2021). Results for anxiety and depression symptoms have been mixed, which could partially be attributable to differences in sample characteristics: a study of primarily male police officers in the U.S. Northwest found no differences (Christopher et al., 2018), whereas a study of primarily female officers in Brazil found sizable and durable reductions in anxiety and depression symptoms (Trombka et al., 2021). ...
... Two pilot studies demonstrated the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of MBIs adapted for police personnel (Christopher et al., 2016;Grupe et al., 2021a), and three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated benefits of mindfulness training relative to waitlist control (WLC) for self-reported stress, burnout, mindfulness, alcohol use, negative affect, and global health (Christopher et al., 2018;Krick and Felfe, 2019;Trombka et al., 2021). Results for anxiety and depression symptoms have been mixed, which could partially be attributable to differences in sample characteristics: a study of primarily male police officers in the U.S. Northwest found no differences (Christopher et al., 2018), whereas a study of primarily female officers in Brazil found sizable and durable reductions in anxiety and depression symptoms (Trombka et al., 2021). ...
... Notably, MBIs have demonstrated benefits for immune system function, including relatively consistent decreases in C-reactive protein (CRP; Black and Slavich, 2016). No studies to our knowledge have investigated the impact of mindfulness training on inflammation in police officers, although one study provided tentative evidence for a lower cortisol awakening response (CAR) following mindfulness training (Christopher et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Unaddressed occupational stress and trauma contribute to elevated rates of mental illness and suicide in policing, and to violent and aggressive behavior that disproportionately impacts communities of color. Emerging evidence suggests mindfulness training with police may reduce stress and aggression and improve mental health, but there is limited evidence for changes in biological outcomes or the lasting benefits of mindfulness training. We conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 114 police officers from three Midwestern U.S. law enforcement agencies. We assessed stress-related physical and mental health symptoms, blood-based inflammatory markers, and hair and salivary cortisol. Participants were then randomized to an 8-week mindfulness intervention or waitlist control (WLC), and the same assessments were repeated post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Relative to waitlist control, the mindfulness group had greater improvements in psychological distress, mental health symptoms, and sleep quality post-training, gains that were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Intervention participants also had a significantly lower cortisol awakening response (CAR) at 3-month follow-up relative to waitlist control. Contrary to hypotheses, there were no intervention effects on hair cortisol, diurnal cortisol slope, or inflammatory markers. In summary, an 8-week mindfulness intervention for police officers led to self-reported improvements in distress, mental health, and sleep, and a lower CAR. These benefits persisted (or emerged) at 3-month follow-up, suggesting that this training may buffer against the long-term consequences of chronic stress. Future research should assess the persistence of these benefits over a longer period while expanding the scope of outcomes to consider the broader community of mindfulness training for police. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT03488875.
... At post-test and follow-up, relative to pre-test, burnout symptoms, sleep quality, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were improved. Further, Christopher et al. (2018) examined the effects of MBRT in 61 police officers in an RCT, comparing an intervention group with a no intervention control group. Those in the MBRT group reported greater improvement in aggression, organizational stress, burnout, sleeping problems, psychological flexibility, non-reactivity, and cortisol levels after the training at post-test. ...
... Surprisingly, no effect was found for resilience. This finding is consistent with the finding of Christopher et al. (2018), who also found no effect of mindfulness training on resilience. These scholars explain this by their small sample size and related reduced power. ...
... Effects remained stable or even improved at follow-up. This is contrary to the findings of Christopher et al. (2018) who found that the significant group differences (intervention vs. no intervention controls) at post-test disappeared at followup 3 months after the mindfulness-based intervention for police officers. These scholars explained their finding by low adherence to ongoing mindfulness practice in the period after the intervention, which may be quite common in the population of law enforcement officers. ...
Article
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Objectives Although the effectiveness of mindfulness-based intervention for various populations is well-documented, research examining these effects for police officers is limited. This study aimed to increase knowledge on (1) the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention in police officers and (2) potential mechanisms of change by relating changes in facets of mindful awareness to changes in stress. Methods In the present study, we investigated the effects of a 6-session group-based mindfulness-based intervention in police officers ( n = 82) on self-report measures, using a quasi-experimental design consisting of a within-group 6-week baseline period; pre-test, 6-week intervention; and post-test, 6-week follow-up. Multilevel analyses were used to test intervention effects. Using structural equation modeling, we analyzed whether changes in facets of mindfulness were associated with changes in various types of stress. Results After the intervention, police officers significantly and substantially improved on stress (primary outcome), facets of mindful awareness (explanatory variables), and related secondary outcomes including somatic complaints, sleep disturbances, positive affect, happiness, and work ability, while in baseline period, outcome measures did not change. Effects remained significant or improved further during the follow-up period. Further, we found that increases in particularly the facets of mindful awareness of acting with awareness and non-judging were associated with reductions in stress. Conclusions Mindfulness-based intervention appears beneficial for police officers. Further, increases in both attention and acceptance skills such as acting with awareness and non-judging seem to be most important in explaining reductions of stress in police officers.
... De acordo com os artigos desta revisão, uma intervenção varia em média entre três a doze semanas, mas pesquisas são prolongadas acrescentando um tempo extra após o período de intervenção, um seguimento ou "follow-up", torna possível observar os efeitos cumulativos e duradouros de uma prática em prazos mais longos (Gotink et al., 2017). Neste caso, os participantes são motivados a continuar a prática por conta própria, podendo prolongar-se por três meses (Brown et al., 2016;Christopher et al., 2018), seis meses (Agland et al., 2018;Ratcliff et al., 2016), nove meses (Gotink et al., 2017), doze meses (Jedel et al., 2014) ou mais. ...
... A regulação emocional constitui um fator chave na redução do estresse. Associa-se aos níveis de estresse diversos fatores psicológicos como ansiedade e depressão (Cahn et al., 2017;Christopher et al., 2018;Groesbeck et al., 2018;Meland et al, 2015;Orellana-Rios et al., 2018;Yoshihara et al, 2014), tensão, raiva, hostilidade, confusão (Christopher et al., 2018;Yoshihara et al 2014), agressão (Christopher et al., 2018); traços de personalidade como neuroticismo (Oken et al., 2017), temperamento e auto diretividade (Jensen et al., 2015), entre outros. ...
... A regulação emocional constitui um fator chave na redução do estresse. Associa-se aos níveis de estresse diversos fatores psicológicos como ansiedade e depressão (Cahn et al., 2017;Christopher et al., 2018;Groesbeck et al., 2018;Meland et al, 2015;Orellana-Rios et al., 2018;Yoshihara et al, 2014), tensão, raiva, hostilidade, confusão (Christopher et al., 2018;Yoshihara et al 2014), agressão (Christopher et al., 2018); traços de personalidade como neuroticismo (Oken et al., 2017), temperamento e auto diretividade (Jensen et al., 2015), entre outros. ...
Article
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The therapeutic use of meditative practices on the stress’ effects is recognized for its efficiency with a long history of scientific investigation. In this field, the Eastern traditions stand out, with a wide range of existing techniques, on which different research metodologies have been adopted to investigate the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms and the on stress’ effects and associated clinical conditions. This systematic review aims to identify the main characteristics of the investigative and methodological context regarding the use of cortisol measures to assess the therapeutic effects of meditative practices on stress. The survey was conducted using the PubMed and Web of Science platforms, with adaptation to the PRISMA protocol guidelines. Studies that used cortisol as the main biological marker of stress were included. A total of 52 articles were organized according to the main methodological characteristics identified in the review. The results were organized and discussed considering the main experimental design observed such short-term interventional studies; longitudinal researches for clinical and non-clinical population and cross-sectional comparisons between advanced meditators with a control group or beginners.
... 34 MBRT provides formal and informal mindfulness training specifically tailored to the needs and culture of the law enforcement community and has demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness in clinical trials. 34,35 Further research found reduced perceived stress, sleep disturbances, anxiety, burnout, and PTSD symptoms in LEOs after completion of MBRT. 36 Delivered over 8 weekly sessions, MBRT provides participants with strategies for coping with stressors inherent in policing. ...
... This theoretical model appears to be supported by preliminary data. Officers randomized to MBRT demonstrated significant reductions in burnout and trend-level reductions in alcohol use, 35 though a larger sample size would have increased the likelihood of a significant reduction. This is somewhat striking, given that MBRT does not involve any explicit interventions for reducing substance use. ...
... This study is a secondary analysis of data collected in an earlier clinical trial of MBRT, 35 which was approved by the Pacific University IRB and registered with ClinicalTrials .gov, registration number 02521454. ...
Article
Objective: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected in an earlier clinical trial of mindfulness-based resilience training (MBRT) (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number 02521454), where the MBRT condition demonstrated a significant reduction in self-reported burnout and trend-level reductions in alcohol use in law enforcement officers (LEOs). Given that MBRT is not designed to be a substance use intervention and does not contain explicit substance-related content, this study sought to clarify these findings by exploring whether improved burnout mediates reduced alcohol use. Method: Participants (n = 61) were sworn LEOs (89% male, 85% White, 8% Hispanic/Latinx) recruited from departments in a large urban metro area of the northwestern United States, and were randomized to either MBRT (n = 31) or no intervention control group (n = 30) during the trial. Results: MBRT group assignment predicted reduced burnout (b = 0.43, standard error [SE] = 0.14, p = 0.004), which subsequently predicted reduced alcohol use (b = 1.69, SE = 0.81, p = 0.045). Results suggest that reduced alcohol use was indirectly related to a reduction in burnout post-MBRT. Conclusion: Given that MBRT does not explicitly address substance use, these findings were interpreted to suggest that officers in the training acquired a new set of coping skills to deal with the operational and organizational stressors of police work.
... In contrast to frontline employees in health care, their work in administration does not include direct medical contact with patients. Four of these six studies, however-those by Buchanan and Reilly (2019) Eleven studies investigate employees working in high-risk environments that involve ensuring public safety and security, such as members of military services (Carr et al., 2013;de Visser et al., 2016;Fikretoglu et al., 2019), police officers (Arnetz et al., 2009;McCraty and Atkinson, 2012;Arble et al., 2017;Carleton et al., 2018;Christopher et al., 2018), firefighters (Joyce et al., 2018;, and disaster workers (Mahaffey et al., 2021). ...
... 4) and has its roots in Buddhist philosophy. Mindfulness, as a factor in improving health-related aspects like well-being and stress, was part of six studies in this review (Fortney et al., 2013;Jennings et al., 2013;Aikens et al., 2014;Crowder and Sears, 2017;Christopher et al., 2018;Rees et al., 2020). The specific approach to mindfulness differed among the authors. ...
... Twenty-nine of the 47 studies that included a quantitative measurement featured a scale directly related to the occupational setting or work context: e.g., Resilience at Work (Rogerson et al., 2016), Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Questionnaire (Jennings et al., 2013), and Police Stress Questionnaire (Christopher et al., 2018). Scales for general characteristics and traits not bound to a workrelated context are included in 46 articles. ...
Article
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The importance of resilience for employees' well-being and performance at work has grown steadily in recent years. This development has become even more pronounced through the recent COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences, including major changes in occupational settings. Although there is increasing interest in resilience in general and a growing number of publications focusing on the development of resilience in particular, many questions remain about resilience training, especially in organizational contexts. The purpose of this scoping review is to uncover what is known about resilience training in organizational contexts. A systematic search of four databases for articles published through 2021 was conducted. A total of 48 studies focusing on resilience training programs in organizational contexts were included in this review. The review provides relevant insights into resilience training programs by focusing on program characteristics, target group, study design, and outcomes. Based on the results, the main aspects that concern the development of resilience training programs for organizational settings and requirements for the study design for empirical investigation were summarized. The results of the review highlight possible directions for future research and offer useful insights for resilience-enhancing training programs in organizations.
... There are indications that higher mindfulness and resilience enable an individual to withstand stressors (Galante et al., 2021;Neufeld et al., 2020). Specifically, research has suggested that greater mindfulness may enhance, predict, and generate greater resilience (e.g., Anasori et al., 2020;Christopher et al., 2018;Lin et al., 2020). Joyce et al.'s (2018) meta-analysis of ways to improve individual resilience indicated that mindfulness techniques play a role in enhancing resilience. ...
... Mindfulness training has been found to contribute to the physiological and psychological resilience in professions that operate in high-stress environments, such as firefighting and law enforcement (Christopher et al., 2018). In a sample of Marines, mindfulness training was found to be related to physiological resilience (Johnson et al., 2014). ...
Article
Mindfulness and resilience are thought to be essential qualities of the military’s special operations community. Both are tested daily in Special Operations Forces (SOF) assessment and selection efforts to prepare candidates to persist through grueling training and complex combat situations; but these qualities are rarely measured. While military leadership places value on the concepts of mindfulness and resilience, there is minimal empirical research examining the role that they play in the completion of training. This longitudinal study followed three classes of SEAL candidates at Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL (BUD/S) training over their six-month selection program. We estimated logit models predicting successful completion of BUD/S and specific types of failure in that training environment with indexes of mindfulness and resilience at the start of the program as predictors of completion. The results indicate that (1) mindfulness is unrelated to completion, while (2) resilience is positively related to completion, and (3) The results indicate that mindfulness is generally unrelated to completion, while resilience generally predicts completion.
... This RCT has potential to meaningfully contribute to the nascent but growing literature on the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for first responders broadly [55][56][57][58][59][60] and firefighters, specifically. Given demonstrated efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for various psychological conditions [14][15][16], this trial builds on a large body of work and extends it to the understudied, chronically trauma-exposed population of firefighters. ...
... In summary, this pilot RCT examines the effect of a novel mindfulness-based intervention, the HAZMAT workshop, on behavioral health outcomes in firefighters. The results will build upon the preliminary evidence for the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for firefighters [26], specifically, and first responders [55][56][57][58][59][60], broadly, and extend a well-established literature on the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions among military and veteran personnel and populations meeting criteria for various types of psychological symptoms and conditions [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. This work has clinical import and potential to inform policy, if feasibility and preliminary efficacy is established. ...
Article
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Mindfulness-based interventions have demonstrated efficacy with regard to diverse psychological symptoms across populations. Few studies have evaluated the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for firefighters. This pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) is designed to determine the preliminary efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of a novel mindfulness-based workshop (entitled “Healthy Action Zone Mindful Attention Training” [HAZMAT]) developed for firefighters (Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT04909216). An anticipated sample size of 100 firefighters from a large fire department in the southern U.S. will be recruited. Firefighters will be randomized to: (1) HAZMAT workshop or (2) waitlist comparison condition. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and five follow-up time-points: post-workshop, 1-week follow-up, 1-month follow-up, 3-month follow-up, and 6-month follow-up. First, we will evaluate the acceptability of the HAZMAT workshop as defined by firefighters’ self-reported satisfaction with the workshop. Feasibility will be defined by the proportion of firefighters who start and complete the full workshop. Second, we will examine the efficacy of the HAZMAT workshop, as compared to waitlist, on psychological symptom reduction, as defined by: self-reported symptom severity of PTSD, depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and alcohol use at each follow-up time-point. Third, we will evaluate the impact of the HAZMAT workshop, as compared to waitlist, on putative treatment targets, indexed via self-reported levels of (1) mindful attention and (2) nonjudgmental acceptance each follow-up time-point.
... Total scores range from 7 to 49. Items were reverse-scored (i.e., sum of all items) such that higher scores represent higher levels of psychological flexibility. Research has indicated that the AAQ-II demonstrates adequate internal consistency, test-retest reliability (Bond et al., 2011), construct validity (Fledderus et al., 2012), and sensitivity to behavioral change following psychosocial interventions in police officer samples (Christopher et al., 2018). In the present sample, the internal consistency for the AAQ-II was adequate, Cronbach's α = .92. ...
... Descriptive statistics and zero-order correlations of study variables are presented as observed self-report scores (Table 1) and in indicator form (Table 2). Participants reported levels of psychological flexibility and well-being similar to those reported in other police samples (Christopher et al., 2018;Santa Maria et al., 2019). The potential diagnostic rates of PTSD, depression, and anxiety were 9.2%, 13.8%, and 10.9%, respectively (Kroenke et al., 2003(Kroenke et al., , 2007Lang et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Police officers experience a high number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) often associated with elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). In addition, PTSS are related to co‐occurring psychiatric symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression), alcohol misuse, and low perceived well‐being. Yet, behavioral processes that may account for the associations between PTSS and unfavorable outcomes remain unspecified. Psychological flexibility, or one's response to private experiences (e.g., PTE‐related memories) with an open, aware, and active approach, may be one such process. The present study aimed to evaluate psychological flexibility as both a mediator and moderator of PTSS and commonly co‐occurring psychiatric symptoms, alcohol use, and general well‐being, using cross‐sectional data provided by a sample of police officers (N = 459) recruited from three regionally distributed U.S. police agencies. Structural equation modeling indicated a well‐fitting model wherein psychological flexibility indirectly accounted for associations among PTSS and endogenous outcomes, χ2(107, N = 457) = 225.33, p < .001, CFI = .99, TLI = .98, RMSEA = .05, 90% CI [.04, .06], SRMR = .03. Psychological flexibility also moderated associations between PTSS and psychiatric symptoms, B = 1.58 (SE = 0.22), p < .001; and well‐being, B = −3.84 (SE = 0.46), p < .001. Although additional research is needed, these preliminary results suggest psychological flexibility may be a behavioral process that accounts for negative outcomes associated with PTSS and a productive intervention target in the context of PTSS and generalized distress. Further research regarding the role of psychological flexibility in PTSS‐related outcomes for police officers appears warranted.
... In our own work in Portland, Oregon (e.g., Christopher et al., 2018), we have explored the impact of mindfulness training aggression in law enforcement officers. In addition to improvements in stress reactivity and health, to our knowledge, this is the first RCT to demonstrate a reduction in aggression in a police sample. ...
... It is also argued that widening our cultural lenses, as proposed by CPs, may help psychology be more applicable in different fields, such as education or law enforcement. An illustration of this is our work (Christopher et al., 2018) with the police. It is hoped that a clearer and more thorough cultural understanding can promote interdisciplinary exchanges. ...
Chapter
During 2020, the twin pandemics of COVID-19 and social unrest exposed significant socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities within the United States. Unfortunately, psychotherapy has often reflected these disparities. If psychotherapy is to remain meaningful and credible it needs to be inclusive of the needs and characteristics of all, not just of a privileged few. However, this does not mean that psychotherapy has not strived to diversify. In fact, significant advances in the field are the results of these efforts. In this article, the intersections between culture and psychotherapy are examined through three distinct types of psychotherapy underscoring their strengths and limitations and using these to propose future areas of cultural psychotherapy research. It is hoped that an enhanced awareness of these distinctions will lead psychologists to more effectively embrace a psychotherapy that is more efficacious and beneficial for all.
... Ein starker Effekt, der hier gefunden wurde, bedeutet, dass die befragten Teilnehmenden gegen Ende der Intervention durchschnittlich deutlich mehr positive und deutlich weniger negative affektive Empfindungen erlebt haben als in den Wochen vor der Intervention.Während 26 der 105 vorliegenden Studien den Aspekt Angst untersucht haben, wurde dieser in nur einer der MBSR-Studien beleuchtet. Molek-Winiarska und Z˙ołnierczyk-Zreda(2018) fanden hier einen mittelstarken Effekt. Das heißt, dass der MBSR-Kurs bei den Teilnehmenden im Durchschnitt zu einer mittelstark ausgeprägten Senkung von selbst eingeschätztem Angstempfinden geführt hat. ...
... ). Wie wichtig die Sinnhaftigkeit der Arbeit für andere gesundheits-assoziierte Aspekte ist, wiesen mehrere Studien nach (siehe auchWellmann et al., 2020). Van Wingerden et al.(2018) zeigten beispielsweise einen Zusammenhang zwischen Sinnhaftigkeit der Arbeit und Wohlbefinden.Ivtzan et al. (2013) fanden einen Einfluss von Sinnhaftigkeit der Arbeit auf den individuellen Arbeitseinsatz (Commitment) und Esch(2019) diskutierte die Rolle der Sinnhaftigkeit der Arbeit in der Entstehung von Burnout.Die genannten Aspekte Freude und Motivation ließen sich auch der oben diskutierten Kategorie Wohlbefinden zuordnen, weil beide Aspekte stark mit Lebenszufriedenheit oder auch Glück assoziiert sind. Gleichzeitig ist die Konsequenz aus Motivation und Freude sowie auch einer verbesserten Konzentrationsfähigkeit und Präsenz, eine verbesserte Arbeitsleistung. ...
Technical Report
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Achtsamkeit wird in Anlehnung an Jon Kabat-Zinn vielfach so verstanden: Ich lenke meine Aufmerksamkeit auf den gegenwärtigen Moment, ohne zu bewerten. Als aktueller Gesundheitstrend findet diese Form der Stressbewältigung ihren Weg immer öfter auch in betriebliche Gesundheitsprogramme, z. B. mit Trainingsangeboten zu Yoga, Meditation oder Qigong. Der iga.Report 45 zeigt, welche Wirkungen verschiedene Formen von Achtsamkeitstrainings im Arbeitskontext haben können. Doch die Analyse der Wirksamkeit ist komplex: Zum einen existieren verschiedene Definitionen für Konzepte der Achtsamkeit, zum anderen sind in der Literatur viele Outcomes durch überwiegend subjektive Einschätzungen der Teilnehmenden geprägt. Die umfangreiche Literaturrecherche brachte 105 relevante und methodisch hochwertig angelegte Studien hervor, die einer Wirksamkeitsanalyse für 7 Outcome-Kategorien unterzogen wurden (siehe Evidence Gap Map). Die Analyse ergab zum Beispiel, dass nahezu alle Programme eine deutliche Wirksamkeit in Bezug auf Aspekte der psychischen Gesundheit zeigten. Vor allem das Stresserleben wurde durch die Achtsamkeitstrainings stark gesenkt. Mittlere bis starke Wirkungen stellten sich aber auch auf zahlreiche weitere Parameter heraus. Interviews mit Expertinnen und Experten für Achtsamkeit ergänzen die Analyse um Anregungen für die betriebliche Umsetzung.
... Skill development appears to instigate other mechanisms that can reduce distress and promote resilience such as improved emotional control and self-regulation [67], value clarification [68], body and introspective awareness [69], self-compassion [70], and shifts in self-perspective [71,72]. MBRT and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) appear to mitigate negative health outcomes through enhanced coping [73], augmented wellness [74], and self-efficacy [55], as well as decreased symptoms of burnout [55,74], negative affect [54], and health complaints [54]. MBRT research with PSP has evidenced positive effects for police officers and law enforcement [55,75,76]. ...
... Skill development appears to instigate other mechanisms that can reduce distress and promote resilience such as improved emotional control and self-regulation [67], value clarification [68], body and introspective awareness [69], self-compassion [70], and shifts in self-perspective [71,72]. MBRT and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) appear to mitigate negative health outcomes through enhanced coping [73], augmented wellness [74], and self-efficacy [55], as well as decreased symptoms of burnout [55,74], negative affect [54], and health complaints [54]. MBRT research with PSP has evidenced positive effects for police officers and law enforcement [55,75,76]. ...
Article
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Background—Public safety personnel (PSP) are at heightened risk of developing mental health challenges due to exposures to diverse stressors including potentially psychologically traumatic experiences. An increased focus on protecting PSP mental health has prompted demand for interventions designed to enhance resilience. While hundreds of available interventions are aimed to improve resilience and protect PSPs’ mental health, research evidence regarding intervention effectiveness remains sparse. Methods—Focus groups with PSP elicited a discussion of psychoeducational program content, preferred modes of program delivery, when such training should occur, and to whom it ought to be targeted. Results—The results of thematic analyses suggest that PSP participants feel that contemporary approaches to improving mental health and resilience are lacking. While welcomed, the provision of sporadic one-off mental health and resilience programs by organizations was seen as insufficient, and the available organizational mental health supports were perceived as being questionable. The available programs also left participants feeling insufficiently prepared to deal with personal mental health problems and in discussing mental health concerns with co-workers. Conclusions—Participants reported needing more engaging methods for delivering information, career-long mental health knowledge acquisition, and a systems approach to improve the workplace culture, particularly regarding mental health.
... Eastern [142,143,146,149,150,[152][153][154]156,159,181,182,187,189,191,193,233,239,250] 19 ( 59,60,63,67,69,70,79,80,84,94,101,108,110,117,124,[130][131][132]135,137,166,168,171,198,200,202,[213][214][215]225,244] 32 (14.5%) ...
... Western [42,[44][45][46]48,51,52,64,69,70,77,89,93,97,107,114,118,120,121,125,126, Western [41,63,66,68,74,75,78,81,[85][86][87][88]95,96,104,105,108,110,112,127,129,131, Western [39,40,43,[47][48][49][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60]62,64,66,67,[71][72][73][74]76,79,[81][82][83][84][85]90,92,94,95,[98][99][100][101][102][103][104]106,109,111,[113][114][115][116][117][118][119]122,123,126,128,[130][131][132][133][135][136][137][138][139][140]162,[164][165][166] ...
Article
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Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of psychological interventions to foster resilience. However, little is known about whether the cultural context in which resilience interventions are implemented affects their efficacy on mental health. Studies performed in Western (k = 175) and Eastern countries (k = 46) regarding different aspects of interventions (setting, mode of delivery, target population, underlying theoretical approach, duration, control group design) and their efficacy on resilience, anxiety, depressive symptoms, quality of life, perceived stress, and social support were compared. Interventions in Eastern countries were longer in duration and tended to be more often conducted in group settings with a focus on family caregivers. We found evidence for larger effect sizes of resilience interventions in Eastern countries for improving resilience (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28 to 0.67; p < 0.0001; 43 studies; 6248 participants; I2 = 97.4%). Intercultural differences should receive more attention in resilience intervention research. Future studies could directly compare interventions in different cultural contexts to explain possible underlying causes for differences in their efficacy on mental health outcomes.
... Nevertheless, the majority followed MBSR [46]. For example, mindfulness-based resilience training (MBRT) was developed based on MBSR [47]. Other interventions include mindfulness meditation, loving-kindness meditation [33], and JW2016 brief mindfulness meditation [48]. ...
... Scholars recommended incorporating scientifically validated mindfulness interventions into organizational training and workplace health promotion programs [32,47]. There are different types of mindfulness interventions. ...
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Mindfulness has rapidly become a significant subject area in many disciplines. Most of the work on mindfulness has focused on the perspective of health and healthcare professionals, but relatively less research is focused on the organizational outcomes at the workplace. This review presents a theoretical and practical trajectory of mindfulness by sequential integration of recent fragmented scholarly work on mindfulness at the workplace. The review showcases that most contemporary practical challenges in organizations, such as anxiety, stress, depression, creativity, motivation, leadership, relationships, teamwork, burnout, engagement, performance, well-being, and physical and psychological health, could be addressed successfully with the budding concept of mindfulness. The causative processes due to higher mindfulness that generate positive cognitive, emotional, physiological, and behavioral outcomes include focused attention, present moment awareness, non-judgmental acceptance, self-regulatory functions, lower mind wandering, lower habit automaticity, and self-determination. Employee mindfulness could be developed through various mindfulness interventions in order to improve different organizational requirements, such as psychological capital, emotional intelligence, prosocial behavior, in-role and extra-role performance, financial and economic performance, green performance, and well-being. Accordingly, this review would be beneficial to inspire academia and practitioners on the transformative potential of mindfulness in organizations for higher performance, well-being, and sustainability. Future research opportunities and directions to be addressed are also discussed.
... The police profession is associated with numerous challenges that can have a significant impact on mental and physical health. Several empirical studies show that a high percentage of police officers suffer from mental disorders such as depression, PTSD and substance use disorders (1,2). In addition, the suicide rate among police officers is higher compared to the general population (3). ...
... These include, for example, delivering death notifications, accidents, confrontation with death and the accumulation of these stressful tasks. In addition, there is also the population's increasing tendency toward violence, low social acknowledgment, as well as attacks and insults (1,9). At the same time, police officers also report that there is often a lack of adequate training for difficult missions, such as delivering death notifications or handling individuals dealing with suicidal behavior. ...
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Background: Police officers are at high risk for mental and physical health problems and suicidal ideation. The specific risk factors are numerous and concern stressful missions and administrative aspects of the police profession. So far, the police get only little training on specific missions as well as on coping with stress and suicidal ideation in the police profession. In this study we test the efficacy of the online training COPS (Coping with Suicide) for police officers. Methods: A total of 142 police officers from Germany and Switzerland participated in the study; complete data (baseline and post) are available from 102 participants. The training consisted of three modules covering the topics of delivering death notifications, dealing with individuals with suicidal ideation and dealing with one's own distress and suicidal ideation in the police profession. The primary outcomes are perceived knowledge and self-rated competence regarding the contents of the program, actual knowledge as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety (PHQ-9), and attitudes toward suicide (ATTS). The data are collected at baseline and after completing the training. Results: We found a significant increase in knowledge as well as in perceived competence after completing the training. Mental health and attitudes toward suicide did not change significantly. Years on the job had no moderating effect on the effectiveness of the training. Discussion: The results suggest that a short e-learning program significantly improves knowledge and self-rated competence in delivering death notifications, in suicide prevention and stress management. It can be easily integrated into the daily routine of police-officers, and participants could participate at their own pace and from any location. One limitation of this study is the lack of a control-group. Further advantages and limitations of this study are discussed. Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.drks.de/drks_web/ , identifier: DRKS00023882.
... Refueling through proper self-care becomes evident to many after years of resource depletion, but, unfortunately, this realization is frequently accompanied by long-term physical, psychological, or financial injuries. Wellness programs that seek to address one or two of the facets of human health have shown short-term progress but fail to provide evidence of improvement over time (Christopher et al., 2018;Song & Baicker, 2019). For wellness efforts to stand the test of time and continued exposure to adverse experiences, they must provide a holistic and tool-centric approach to the daily practice of personal maintenance, and they must be supported, at the very least, by the organization and by the profession . ...
Chapter
Substance abuse in the law enforcement profession continues to infect the group’s physical health and mental stability. Over the years this dynamic has been extensively hypothesized, researched, and analyzed for causations and correlations in both the cognitive and behavioral realms. Positive outcomes and accomplishments with lowering this unhealthy behavior risk factor among law enforcement are few in numbers. The research also demonstrates the need for uniformed protocols and policies for obtaining toxicology samples, analysis, and reports involving self-inflicted deaths of law enforcement officers. From our historical review and research, a new paradigm and perspective is needed to confront this risk factor and challenge the increasing rate of intoxicated law enforcement officer suicides.
... A recent review article identified only six articles on mindfulness and police officers (Chopko et al., 2018). While new research continues to inform this growing area (e.g., Christopher et al., 2018;Eddy et al., 2019), only one study has examined the moderating effects of specific trait mindfulness facets (i.e., acting with awareness, nonjudging, nonreactivity) on stress symptoms in police officers experiencing operational and organizational stressors (Kaplan et al., 2018). In their study, Kaplan et al. (2018) found that nonreactivity moderated the relationship between operational stressors and stress symptoms, such that the relationship was not statistically significant for police officers higher in nonreactivity. ...
Article
Policing is a high-stress occupation, and officers frequently experience high rates of occupational (i.e., operational and organizational) stressors that can result in mental health symptoms such as stress, anxiety, and depression. Trait mindfulness facets and self-compassion have been consistently associated with lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression; yet, they have been understudied in police officers. The objective of the present study is to examine whether trait mindfulness facets (i.e., observing, describing, acting with awareness, nonjudging, and nonreactivity) and self-compassion moderate the relationship between operational and organizational stressors with stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms in a sample of Canadian police officers. Canadian police officers (n = 130) completed online self-report measures assessing their levels of operational and organizational stressors, trait mindfulness and self-compassion, and stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Moderation analyses indicated that the nonjudging facet of mindfulness moderated the relationship between operational and organizational stressors with anxiety symptoms, such that the relationship between operational and organizational stressors with anxiety was not statistically significant for police officers higher in nonjudging. Implications for future research are discussed.
... The impact of MBIs on emotional regulation is crucial for organizations and, according to the literature, mindfulness interventions are a useful resource that favor improvements in employee health. For example, previous studies claim that mindfulness can raise awareness of early warning signs of stress prior to it becoming unmanageable and that it also provides tools to offset the negative effects of stress on wellbeing and job performance (Christopher et al., 2018). Other authors have put their focus on the resilience building qualities that can protect workers from adverse outcomes and help them develop in a complex and rapidly changing work environment (Kinman et al., 2020). ...
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Work stress is consistently linked with the deterioration of cognitive and mental health, limitations in everyday workplace performance, and an increased risk of developing diseases. A common thread binding these consequences appears to be stress-associated alterations in neuropsychological functions and affective domains, especially those reliant on hippocampal, prefrontal, and amygdala brain area. Although research broadly supports the claim that the practice of mindfulness meditation for the reduction of the consequences of stress and the promotion of health exert positive effects on workplaces, the precise neuropsychological benefits of Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in the context of organizations remain elusive. In this review, we will analyze the impairments imposed by stress on the brain areas and functions and the benefits of MBIs from a neuropsychological point of view. This is significant since there is a centrality of cognitive functions in core processes necessary for work achievements, such as emotion regulation, problem-solving, and learning. The promotion of wellbeing is a responsibility shared between workers and organizations. Developing healthy environments allows workers to exercise greater control over their work, face work challenges, work productively and develop their talent.
... Specifically, inter-group conflicts significantly predicted the psychological wellbeing of only male prosecutors, but not of their female counterparts . This finding contrasts with previous studies, which reported no gender differences in the psychological well-being of prosecutors (Christopher et al ., 2018;Jackson et al ., 2020) . Plausibly, male prosecutors express frustration, anger or impatience more than their female counterparts (Rossouw & Rothmann (2020) . ...
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We explored gendered group conflict effects on forms of occupational stress and psychological well-being of prosecutors in Botswana. A convenience sample of 92 prosecutors (female = 52%; married = 35.9%; mean years of service = 6.38 years, SD = 3.84 years) responded to the Psychological Well-being Scale and Group Conflict sub-scales of the Generic Job Stress Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that male prosecutors experience high occupational stress from intra-group conflict. Women’s nature of emotional responsiveness predisposed them to intra-group conflict effects more than their male counterparts. Human resources managers should consider the impact of intra-group conflict on women when developing occupational well-being intervention programmes for prosecutors.
... Only nine studies addressed enhancing or developing resilience as a second or third objective and/or hypothesis and used a valid resilience measure as a secondary outcome measure [26,34,35,46,49,51,54,56,63], concluding that the vast majority of studies had resilience as their main focus. ...
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Resilience interventions have been gaining importance among researchers due to their potential to provide well-being and reduce the prevalence of mental disorders that are becoming an increasing concern, especially in Western countries, because of the costs associated. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the intervention studies carried out in the last decade in adult population samples, evaluate their methodological quality and highlight the trends of these types of interventions. This review was performed using systematic literature searches in the following electronic databases: B-on, PubMed, PsycNet and Science Direct. The application of eligibility criteria resulted in the inclusion of 38 articles, of which 33 were randomized controlled trials and the other five were nonrandomized controlled studies. Although most studies showed statistical significance for their results, these were constrained by the great heterogeneity of the studies, the lack of power of the samples and their fair methodological quality. Therefore, it is important to consolidate the theoretical basis and standardize certain methodologies so that the effects of the interventions can be compared through a meta-analysis.
... The replete associations of resilience as a protective factor led researchers to develop resilience-based interventions. For example, researchers surmised promising results from mindfulness-based resilience interventions for firefighters (Joyce et al., 2019) and LEOs (Christopher et al., 2018). Moreover, Antony and colleagues (2020) concluded that resilience training programs demonstrated potential to reduce occupational stress among first responders. ...
Article
First responders are continually exposed to trauma-related events. Resilience is evidenced as a protective factor for mental health among first responders. However, there is a lack of assessments that measure the construct of resilience from a strength-based perspective. The present study used archival data from a treatment-seeking sample of 238 first responders to validate the 22-item Response to Stressful Experiences Scale (RSES-22) and its abbreviated version, the RSES-4, with two confirmatory factor analyses. Using a subsample of 190 first responders, correlational analyses were conducted of the RSES-22 and RSES-4 with measures of depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress, anxiety, and suicidality confirming convergent and criterion validity. The two confirmatory analyses revealed a poor model fit for the RSES-22; however, the RSES-4 demonstrated an acceptable model fit. Overall, the RSES-4 may be a reliable and valid measure of resilience for treatment seeking first responder populations.
... While continuing to spend time embedded in the police agency our team consumed research, books, and articles relevant to the intersection of mindfulness and policing. A few particularly helpful resources were the book "In Search of the Warrior Spirit" (Strozzi-Heckler, 2007), which provides an illuminating account of how the author trained U.S. Special Forces soldiers in awareness practices, and published research with police officers from the Pacific group (Christopher et al., 2016(Christopher et al., , 2018 and on similar adapted mindfulness training for other first responders or military populations (Denkova et al., 2020;Jha et al., 2016Jha et al., , 2017Johnson et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
The introduction of mindfulness practices into law enforcement has the potential for broad benefits for police officers and community members alike, but the impact of this work depends on careful consideration of contextual factors specific to conducting research and training in this population and environment. This chapter provides an overview of the authors' experiences over the past five years adapting, delivering, and studying the impact of mindfulness training in a Midwestern U.S. police agency. The authors detail strategies and practices that have proved beneficial in the implementation and uptake of this training. Themes that are addressed include developing diverse and meaningful partnerships, preparing outside researchers and trainers to work in a police context, adapting mindfulness for policing, and logistical issues. Key considerations for the future of mindfulness in policing include the challenge of widespread implementation and expanding the focus of research and training to encompass community well-being.
... In regard to attrition from military services, the attrition rate of 15% was consistent with previous resilience training research among high-stress cohorts like military personnel [27,70] and police officers [25]. Furthermore, pretest scores between those who continued the OS and those who dropped out demand particular attention: Cadets who dropped out had higher scores in chronic stress and symptoms of depression at pretest. ...
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Abstract: Resilience is understood as an acquired skill to cope with acute and chronic stress. Ac-cordingly, the present study aimed to determine the effect of resilience training on mental health problems during chronic stress. To this end, we conducted a quasi-experimental study with 127 male cadets (mean age: 21 years) of the Swiss Armed Forces’ officers’ school. Whereas the inter-vention group (IG) received resilience training in addition to the standard officer's education program, the control group (CG) completed the officers’ school as usual. Data assessment includ-ed pre- and post- measurement of chronic stress, symptoms of depression, and vital exhaustion in both groups. Motivation for training was collected before the first trainings session. Those who received the resilience training reported no change in chronic stress, whereas participants in the CG showed a significant increase in chronic stress over time (pη2 = .025). Further, significant dif-ferences between IG and CG were only found for symptoms of depression: Participants in the IG reported significantly decreased symptoms of depression, while this was not the case for partici-pants in the CG. Within the IG, participants' training motivation strongly influenced the effective-ness of the resilience training. More specifically, motivated individuals were more likely to bene-fit from the resilience training than unmotivated ones. Outcome data suggest that resilience training appeared to favorably impact on chronic stress and related mental health symptoms; however, the motivation for the training seemed to be an essential prerequisite.
... Tailoring shift work [20] and team-based health promotion [21] has significantly reduced stress and injury rates among LEOs too [22]. Furthermore, the introduction of mindfulness-based interventions has shown improvements to stress and quality of life among LEOs [23][24][25]. However, there has been little attempt to leverage technology in the field to provide real-time notification of LEO stress. ...
Article
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Background Law enforcement officers (LEOs) are exposed to chronic stress throughout the course of their shift, which increases the risk of adverse events. Although there have been studies targeting LEO safety through enhanced training or expanded equipment provisions, there has been little attempt to leverage personal technology in the field to provide real-time notification of LEO stress. This study tests the acceptability of implementing of a brief, smart watch intervention to alleviate stress among LEOs. Methods We assigned smart watches to 22 patrol LEOs across two police departments: one suburban department and one large, urban department. At baseline, we measured participants’ resting heart rates (RHR), activated their watches, and educated them on brief wellness interventions in the field. LEOs were instructed to wear the watch during the entirety of their shift for 30 calendar days. When LEO’s heart rate or stress continuum reached the predetermined threshold for more than 10 min, the watch notified LEOs, in real time, of two stress reduction interventions: [1] a 1-min, guided breathing exercise; and [2] A Calm app, which provided a mix of guided meditations and mindfulness exercises for LEOs needing a longer decompression period. After the study period, participants were invited for semi-structured interviews to elucidate intervention components. Qualitative data were analyzed using an immersion-crystallization approach. Results LEOs reported three particularly useful intervention components: 1) a vibration notification when hearts rates remained high, although receipt of a notification was highly variable; 2) visualization of their heart rate and stress continuum in real time; and, 3) breathing exercises. The most frequently reported type of call for service when the watch vibrated was when a weapon was involved or when a LEO was in pursuit of a murder suspect/hostage. LEOs also recollected that their watch vibrated while reading dispatch notes or while on their way to work. Conclusions A smart watch can deliver access to brief wellness interventions in the field in a manner that is both feasible and acceptable to LEOs.
... Future studies on the mental impact of pregnancy loss should consider e.g. measurements of salivary cortisol (Christopher et al., 2018, Turakitwanakan et al., 2013. ...
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Research question Can participating in a tailored 7-week meditation and mindfulness program with additional standard supportive care versus only standard supportive care reduce perceived stress for women with recurrent pregnancy loss? Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. In total 76 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to either standard supportive care or to a 7-week meditation and mindfulness program led by an instructor in addition to standard supportive care. Results At intervention completion (7 weeks after) perceived stress decreased significantly both in the intervention group; p = < 0.001 and in the control group; p = < 0.006. The decrease in perceived stress in the intervention group was significantly larger; p = 0.027 compared with the control group. At the 12-month follow-up perceived stress was still significantly decreased in both groups compared with baseline; p = < 0.0001 in the intervention group and p =0.002 in the control group. Conclusion This first RCT of a tailored meditation and mindfulness intervention for women with RPL document that a 7-week daily at-home meditation and mindfulness program combined with group sessions reduced perceived stress significantly more than our standard supportive care program. Future studies should address the most effective format and the “dose” needed for an impact on perceived stress levels. The trial is registrated on Clinicaltrial.gov as NCT03905395.
... All studies were rated at a low risk of bias due to clear selection criteria for control groups except for one sample from a different police district [85]. Most studies adequately ascertained participation in the programming being assessed (n = 34); however, three studies were either unclear about program completion or participation [68,77,86] and five studies of self-paced online programs reported very low participation or completion [62,64,[74][75][76]. ...
Article
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Background Public safety personnel and frontline healthcare professionals are at increased risk of exposure to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTE) and developing posttraumatic stress injuries (PTSI, e.g., depression, anxiety) by the nature of their work. PTSI are also linked to increased absenteeism, suicidality, and performance decrements, which compromise occupational and public health and safety in trauma-exposed workers. Evidence is lacking regarding the effectiveness of “prevention” programs designed to mitigate PTSI proactively. The purpose of this review is to measure the effectiveness of proactive PTSI mitigation programs among occupational groups exposed to PPTE on measures of PTSI symptoms, absenteeism, and psychological wellness. Methods Five electronic databases were searched per PRISMA guidelines for English or French peer-reviewed studies from 2008 to 2019 evaluating PTSI and psychological wellness in adults exposed to occupational PPTE. The risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results We identified 42 studies evaluating 3182 public safety and frontline healthcare professionals, PPTE-exposed educational staff, and miners. Significant overlap was found across program themes that included mindfulness, psychoeducation, resilience promotion, and stress management strategies. Post-program effect sizes were small (SMD < 0.5) to moderate (SMD < 0.8) for reductions in PTSI symptoms and for promoting measures of well-being as indicated by a meta-analysis on 36 studies. There was no evidence for significant reductions in substance use, absenteeism, or biomarkers of distress except for heart rate. Subgroup analyses indicated that multimodal programs effectively improved general psychological health, while resilience programs improved measures of depression, burnout, coping, and resilience. Effect sizes for resilience, depression, and general psychological health improvements were greatest immediately or 1-month post-training, while improvements in PTSD symptoms and coping were larger at longer follow-up. Studies were of moderate quality and risk of bias. Conclusions The current results showcase modest evidence for time-limited reductions in PTSI following participation in holistic programs that promote resilience, stress, and emotion regulation among at-risk workers. Implications for organizational implementation of proactive PTSI mitigation programs and areas of future research are discussed. Systematic review registration PROSPERO (CRD42019133534)
... Refueling through proper self-care becomes evident to many after years of resource depletion, but, unfortunately, this realization is frequently accompanied by long-term physical, psychological, or financial injuries. Wellness programs that seek to address one or two of the facets of human health have shown short-term progress but fail to provide evidence of improvement over time (Christopher et al., 2018;Song & Baicker, 2019). For wellness efforts to stand the test of time and continued exposure to adverse experiences, they must provide a holistic and tool-centric approach to the daily practice of personal maintenance, and they must be supported, at the very least, by the organization and by the profession . ...
Chapter
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Suicide is a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon that is neither easily understood nor explained. Though we will never know or fully understand the reasoning or intention behind such a death, it is imperative that the information left behind be used in a meaningful way, so as to reduce deaths by suicides and future attempts.
Article
The article presents the results of an empirical study of personality traits of officers of the Ministries of Emergency Situations and Internal Affairs. The study is aimed at revealing specific combinations of personality traits - personality constructs characterizing specialists of different extreme occupations. 80 individuals took part in the research work. The pronouncedness of personality traits in the officers of the Ministry of Emergency Situations (MES) and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA) was compared using the following techniques and methodologies: S.Maddy Hardiness Survey; Holmes-Rahe Stress and Social Adjustment Scale; Method for Diagnosing of Emotional Burnout Levels by V.V. Boyko; California Psychological Inventory (CPI). The MIA officers have been found to have more pronounced personality traits such as vitality and hardiness (according to the S. Maddy Survey), social presence, independence, responsibility, socialization, making a good impression, "ordinary guy" impression, feeling of well-being, achievement through subordination, intellectual effectiveness, manliness (according to CPI). The comparison of the factor structures revealed invariant (with significant factor loading in both groups) and variable (with significant factor loading in one group) elements. The following personality constructs have been identified in the personality structure of the MIA officers: transactional leadership, strategy of variational adjustment in situations of uncertainty, strategy of taking responsibility under the given conditions, personal and social normativity. The following personality constructs have been identified in the personality structure of the MES officers: role-related masculinity, role-related empathy, strategy of volitional control in situations of uncertainty, strategy of variational adjustment under the given conditions.
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The objective of this scoping review was to broadly identify relevant research pertaining to fatigue risk management and synthesize the research to inform aspects of risk management model known as the RACE model (recognize hazards, assess risks, implement controls, and evaluate effectiveness of controls) that will be integrated into a broader management system framework using Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA).
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Objectives To test the magnitude of the relationship between self-reported stressor exposure and perceived stress in police officers using a novel measure of daily work events, and whether dispositional mindfulness and resilience moderate this relationship.MethodsA total of 114 law enforcement officers from a mid-sized Midwestern US city completed daily logs of job stressors and associated perceived stress, as well as additional self-report measures of perceived stress, trait mindfulness and resilience, and demographics and work information. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to cluster job stressors into a smaller number of components in a data-driven manner. Linear mixed-effects models were used to test the relationship between stressor exposure and perceived stress for each component, and the moderation of this relationship by trait mindfulness and resilience.ResultsThe PCA categorized stressor exposure into three components: (1) acute or traumatic line-of-duty stressors, (2) routine daily stressors, and (3) interpersonal stressors. Results of mixed models showed robust positive relationships between self-reported stressor exposure and corresponding perceived stress across all 3 components. Dispositional mindfulness (but not resilience) moderated the association between stressor exposure and perceived stress for routine stressors, such that individuals with higher dispositional mindfulness showed a relatively attenuated relationship between exposure to routine daily stressors and resulting perceived stress.Conclusions Police officers high in dispositional mindfulness may experience daily routine stressors as less stressful, which can reduce the accumulation of general stress in the long term and which could help buffer against negative health outcomes associated with perceived stress.Trial registrationClinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03488875
Article
Inducing mindfulness has shown a promising effect on reducing aggression in both clinical and nonclinical populations, possibly because mindfulness can improve emotion regulation. The present study examined the association between mindfulness and aggression through potential mediating effects of several emotion regulation strategies. University and community samples of U.S. adults completed questionnaires on mindfulness, emotion regulation strategies, and trait aggression. Results indicate that mindfulness was associated with rumination and expressive suppression, which mediated the mindfulness‐aggression relationship. Most facets of mindfulness were unrelated to the use of reflection and cognitive reappraisal. The nonjudging of experience facet of mindfulness was negatively related to hostility through rumination and expressive suppression. In contrast, the observing mindfulness facet was positively related to verbal aggression and hostility; these relations were mediated by rumination and expressive suppression.
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In the last three decades, mindfulness and resilience have received extensive scholarly attention. Research has burgeoned and they have both become “buzz words” in the social sciences and mental health fields. That said, they are often presented as unrelated qualities, skills, or states, and few studies and texts have examined their linkages and/or how they complement each other. Masten’s (2001, 2009) seminal papers and subsequent book (2014) that presented resilience as “ordinary magic” have had large impacts on resilience scholarship, bringing forth that resilience is much more of a common human occurrence and proclivity than previously considered. In this paper, we explore the potential for mindfulness to be a potentially overlooked and ubiquitous protective factor in the development and maintenance of resilience. To achieve this, we propose that mindfulness is fundamental to resilience by investigating linkages between mindfulness and resilience yet to be thoroughly explored in the literature, and discuss how mindfulness is logically connected to resilience. Likewise, we suggest that the complementary interplay between mindfulness and resilience is readily applicable and highly germane, as mindfulness may beget resilience and vice versa.
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Introducción: la resiliencia ha sido definida como la resistencia frente a experiencias psicosociales adversas. Tiene un rol importante en varios trastornos mentales, asociándose, por ejemplo, a la severidad en el trastorno depresivo mayor y a la calidad de vida en el trastorno afectivo bipolar. La esquizofrenia es un trastorno mental severo que destaca por producir dificultades en múltiples dominios de la vida y una alta morbimortalidad. El objetivo de esta revisión fue sintetizar la evidencia disponible acerca de la importancia de la resiliencia en la esquizofrenia. Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed, LILACS y SciELO, seleccionando artículos en inglés y español, que incluyeran personas con esquizofrenia y midieran la resiliencia. Veinticinco artículos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Resultados: las personas con esquizofrenia tenían una menor resiliencia que sujetos sanos (9 estudios). El nivel de resiliencia se asoció inversamente con los síntomas negativos (3 estudios), síntomas positivos (1 estudio), depresión (4 estudios), desesperanza (3 estudios) y suicidio (1 estudio). Por otro lado, la resiliencia se asoció positivamente con la calidad de vida (5 estudios), funcionalidad (4 estudios) y salud física (2 estudios). En dos estudios se evaluaron intervenciones orientadas a potenciar la resiliencia de pacientes con esquizofrenia, mostrando resultados poco concluyentes. Discusión: es llamativa la escasa literatura que aborda el tema de la resiliencia en esquizofrenia. Los hallazgos de la presente revisión sitúan a la resiliencia como un factor determinante de la evolución y expresión clínica de esta enfermedad.
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Law enforcement officers (LEOs) are at increased risk for sleep disorders relative to the general population. Common LEO occupational stressors, including critical incidents and shift work, predict sleep disturbance, which in turn negatively impacts health, performance, and community safety. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-Sleep Disturbance 4-item (PROMIS SD4) was developed to assess self-reported sleep quality, satisfaction, and difficulties falling asleep. Previous studies suggest PROMIS-SD short-forms (4-, 6-, and 8-items) have good psychometric properties; however, evaluation of this easily-administered measure in high-stress, frontline populations is limited. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the PROMIS-SD4 in a sample of LEOs (N = 111). A confirmatory factor analysis suggests that the original one-factor solution, with a correlated error-term, provides an excellent fit to the data, SBχ2(2) = 1.62, p = .23, CFI = .99, RMSEA = .12, SRMR = .01. The PROMIS SD4 demonstrated good reliability (α = .85) and evidence of convergent validity correlations in the expected direction with domains of psychological distress, positive health outcomes, reactivity, and body experience (all p’s < .05). Results suggest that the PROMIS-SD4 is a valid and reliable measure of sleep disturbance among LEOs.Trial registration Trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02521454. Date of registration: August 13, 2015
Article
In the course of their duties, correctional employees face exposure to a variety of potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs). Recent research points to an array of consequences of work experiences on the psychological well-being of correctional staff, including the development of mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, general anxiety disorder, and major depressive disorder. Drawing on an open-ended survey response among provincial and territorial correctional employees (n = 269) in Canada, we consider the experiences of correctional employees who self-report an anxiety, mood, or other mental health disorder, with a particular focus on how such experiences are tied to work conditions and occupational environments. Findings demonstrate that, for many, mental health struggles are intimately tied to both operational and organizational factors – the former referring to job duties and the latter referring to social relations of work. How mental health status is navigated is intimately shaped by occupational norms and meanings tied to mental health, namely stigma. Despite the perceived link between work and mental health outcomes, mental health suffering is understood and responded to as a private problem – with fallout on the personal lives and welfare of staff. We discuss the implications of training paradigms and general understandings of mental health responsibility.
Article
This study used a qualitative grounded theory approach to explore disaster experiences of law enforcement officers (LEO)s ( n = 56), in two high disaster areas of the United States. Respondents indicated that disasters cause increased stress on LEOs from fatigue, extended shifts, changing duties, increased workload, work–family role conflict, and new operational expectations and challenges within the agency during disasters. Family safety was also identified as a critical stressor and pre-occupation for LEOs during disaster policing, as well as an enhanced reliance on critical thinking as an adaptive response to untrained for challenges that are unique to disasters.
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Objective Workplace mental health is relevant to public safety organizations due to the exposure that many public safety personnel (PSP) have to psychological trauma in the course of their daily work. While the importance of attending to PSP mental health has been established, the implementation of workplace mental health interventions is not as well understood. This scoping review describes workplace mental health interventions and their implementation in public safety organizations. Methods English published primary studies with any publication date up to July 3, 2020 were considered. JBI methodology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews was followed. Results 89 citations met inclusion criteria out of the 62,299 found. Articles and reports found were largely published within the last decade, most frequently from Western nations, and most often applied to police, followed by firefighters. The focus of interventions was commonly stress management and resilience, and a frequent implementation strategy was multi-session group training. Comprehensive quality improvement initiatives, a focus on supervisors and managers, and interventions across primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, were infrequent. Conclusion Public safety organizations are frequently reporting on stress management and resilience interventions for police and firefighters, implemented through multi-session group training. A focus across a range of PSP, including paramedics, corrections officers, and emergency dispatchers, using implementation strategies beyond group training, is suggested. This area of research is currently expanding, with many studies published within the past decade; ongoing evaluation of the quality of interventions and implementation strategies is recommended.
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The Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is one of the most widely used mindfulness measurement instruments due to the ability of the instrument to assess not only how the individual is at present, but also provides accurate conclusions about the impact of each mindfulness practice that has been practiced before. Unfortunately, the Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is not available in Indonesian. The study was conducted to redesign the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) developed by Baer et al. (2006) in English which consisted of 39 items representing 5 aspects, namely acting with awareness, non-assessing experiences, observing, non-reactivity of inner experiences, and describing in words. The questionnaire redesign in Indonesian version and developed into 40 items consisting of 8 items representing acting with awareness, 9 items representing non-judging of experience, 8 items representing observing, 7 items representing non-reactivity of inner experiences, and 8 items represent describing with words. The questionnaire was arranged in a submitted rating scale format with choices that had been arranged in semantic differential format where response options are presented on a bipolar scale. Kuesioner lima aspek mindfulness atau yang lebih dikenal Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) adalah salah satu instrumen pengukuran mindfulness yang paling banyak digunakan disebabkan oleh kemampuan instrumen ini menilai bukan hanya bagaimana individu pada saat ini, namun juga memberikan penilaian yang akurat tentang dampak dari setiap praktik mindful yang telah dipraktekkan sebelumnya. Sayangnya saat ini instrumen Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) belum tersedia dalam bahasa Indonesia. Penelitian dilakukan untuk membuat rancangan kuesioner lima aspek mindfulness atau Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) yang telah dikembangkan oleh Baer et al. (2006) menggunakan bahasa Inggris yang terdiri dari terdiri dari 39 butir yang mewakili 5 aspek yaitu acting with awareness, non-judging of experience, observing, non-reactivity of inner experience, dan describing with words. Kuesioner tersebut yang dirancang kembali dalam bahasa Indonesia dan berkembang menjadi 40 butir yang terdiri dari 8 butir pernyataan mewakili aspek acting with awareness, 9 butir pernyataan mewakili aspek non-judging of experience, 8 butir pernyataan mewakili aspek observing, 7 butir pernyataan mewakili aspek non-reactivity of inner experience dan 8 butir pernyataan mewakili aspek describing with words. Kuesioner disusun dalam format submitted rating scale dengan pilihan respon disusun dalam format semantic differential dimana pilihan respon disajikan dalam skala bipolar.
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Introducción Antecedentes: La anorexia nerviosa (AN) y la bulimia nerviosa (BN) son enfermedades mentales graves y crónicas que afectan a un alto porcentaje de la población. Un número creciente de estudios han informado de alteraciones neuropsicológicas en esta población, que aparentemente contribuyen a la aparición y progresión del trastorno, y que repercuten en la eficacia del tratamiento y la recuperación. Metodología: El objetivo de esta Revisión Narrativa es resumir los hallazgos relativos al perfil neuropsicológico de las mujeres con AN y BN en diferentes fases de tratamiento. Resultados: La evidencia disponible sugiere que las mujeres con AN y BN presentan un perfil de déficits de cognición ejecutiva y social. Estos resultados son consistentes con la evidencia de los hallazgos de neuroimagen de alteraciones cerebrales estructurales en las áreas frontales y en los circuitos frontales-subcorticales. Conclusiones: El conocimiento de los perfiles neuropsicológicos de las mujeres con AN y BN ofrece información clave para entender la presentación clínica de esta población y los retos en la adherencia y beneficio del tratamiento. Los estudios futuros deberían explorar la eficacia de las intervenciones dirigidas a las deficiencias neuropsicológicas y cómo contribuyen al tratamiento habitual.
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For decades, American police departments have maintained a risk management approach to the problem of police officer suicides—to minimize risk, particularly liability resulting from litigation. Virtually all police departments in the United States have a policy whereby any police officer in such a situation must be removed, at least temporarily but in certain circumstances permanently, from active service. Unfortunately, this is a major reason why many troubled police officers never seek help. This dynamic absolutely must change. We need to alter police culture to remove the threat and stigma associated with seeking help. This can only be accomplished with a “top down” approach. Police managers need to speak openly and honestly about these matters and must highlight the success stories of those who have survived these challenges.
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Military personnel and frontline emergency workers may be exposed to events that have the potential to precipitate negative mental health outcomes such as depression, symptoms of post‐traumatic stress and even post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Programmes have been designed to build psychological resilience before staff are deployed into the field. This review presents a synthesis of the literature on these “pre‐deployment resilience‐building programmes”. shorturl.at/pDHUX
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The article analyzes the state of the mentoring system during personnel adaptation within the penitentiary system. Mentoring is a fundamental method of working with a mentee to introduce them into the activities of a closed occupational group. However, nowadays, mentoring in institutions of the penitentiary system is often of a formal nature. This does not allow institutions to use the full potential of mentoring to replenish a closed occupational group with high-quality human capital. A mentee should be introduced into professional relations not only at the formal, but also at the informal level, since informal communications play an important role when a closed occupational group accepts a new member. The purpose of the article is to identify the main features of mentoring, its functions that allow achieving personnel related, strategic and social results in functioning of the penal enforcement system. To achieve this goal, an expert survey was conducted with the senior officers of correctional institutions, which allowed identifying practical aspects of implementing personnel adaptation using the mentoring institute. The modern institution of mentoring is reflected in the functions of labor adaptation, which are implemented by a mentor through interaction with a mentee. The performance effectiveness of the functions of adaptation is determined not only by the achievement of high labor activity indicators by a new employee, but also by the construction of effective communications that should be arranged with colleagues, as well as with people in detention. The result of the study will be an understanding of the features of an effective mentoring system for a closed occupational group of the penitentiary system and possible ways to improve it.
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Objectives The purpose of this exploratory non-randomized controlled study was to determine the acceptance and effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) co-designed by a police officer. Methods A pretest-posttest control group design was followed. Participants (MBI group = 20; control group = 18) answered baseline and post-training self-reported measures. In addition, the weekly emotional state of the MBI group was collected. Paired-samples t-test and analysis of covariance were performed for pre-post within-group and between-group differences, respectively, as well as linear mixed effects analysis of repeated measures for week-by-week data. Results High acceptance and attendance rates, as well as significant pre-post within-group differences in the MBI group in mindfulness (η² = 0.43), self-compassion (η² = 0.43), depression (η² = 0.54), anxiety (η² = 0.46), stress (η² = 0.51), difficulties in emotion regulation, sleep quality (η² = 0.57), and burnout (η² = 0.31–0.47), were identified. Moreover, police officers who underwent the MBI experienced a week by week decrease of anger, disgust, anxiety, sadness, and desire. Finally, after adjusting for pre-test scores, significant between-group differences were found in the way of attending to internal and external experiences (observing mindfulness facet; ηp² = 0.21), depression symptoms (ηp² = 0.23), general distress (ηp² = 0.24), and the degree of physical and psychological exhaustion (personal burnout; ηp² = 0.20). Conclusions The preliminary effectiveness of this MBI on psychopathology and quality of life outcomes in Spanish police officers was discussed. Previous evidence regarding the promising use of MBIs in this population was supported.
Thesis
Im Zuge der Globalisierung, Digitalisierung und des gesellschaftlichen Wandels, hat sich die Arbeitswelt in den letzten Jahren stark verändert. Diese Veränderungen stellen erhöhte Anforderungen an die psychische Gesundheit der Beschäftigten. Die Prävention psychischer Störungen am Arbeitsplatz und die Frage, wie Arbeit gesund gestaltet werden kann, gewinnt daher zunehmend an Bedeutung. Eine zentrale Rolle nimmt dabei die Führungskraft ein, da diese maßgeblich die Arbeitsumgebung und die Arbeitsprozesse gestaltet und im direkten Kontakt mit ihren Mitarbeitenden steht. Zudem haben in den letzten Jahren achtsamkeitsbasierte Programme zur Prävention psychischer Störungen enorm an Bedeutung gewonnen, deren Wirksamkeit im Arbeitskontext jedoch oft in Frage gestellt wurde. Ziel dieser Dissertation ist es, die Wirksamkeit und potentielle Wirkmechanismen achtsamkeitsbasierter Programme in der Arbeitswelt zu prüfen und deren Integration im Rahmen der gesunden Führung zu untersuchen. Zu diesem Zweck ist die vorliegende Dissertationsarbeit in insgesamt vier Abschnitte gegliedert. In Abschnitt 1 wird der Effekt psychischer Belastungen von N = 2.287 Studienteilnehmenden im Hinblick auf deren Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage und Krankheitskosten in den folgenden zwei Jahren geprüft, um die langfristigen ökonomischen Folgen psychischer Belastungen zu erörtern und die Relevanz von Präventionsangeboten aus einer sozioökonomischen Perspektive zu beurteilen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen einen signifikanten Zusammenhang zwischen subjektiv erlebter psychischer Belastung und späteren Arbeitsunfähigkeitstagen bzw. Krankheitskosten. So zeigt sich, dass schwer belastete Personen 27mal so viele Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage im ersten Jahr und 10mal so viele Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage im zweiten Jahr aufweisen, verglichen mit Personen ohne psychische Belastungen. Außerdem zeigten schwer belastete Personen 11fach erhöhte Krankheitskosten im ersten Jahr und 6fach erhöhte Krankheitskosten im zweiten Jahr, verglichen mit nicht belasteten Personen. Auch schon bei leichten und mittleren psychischen Belastungen zeigten sich signifikant erhöhte Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage und Krankheitskosten (2fach bis 11fach erhöht). Diese Ergebnisse verdeutlichen die sozioökonomische Relevanz psychischer Belastungen und bilden eine empirische Grundlage für die Annahme, dass durch effektive Präventionsmaßnahmen sowohl individuelles Leid gelindert als auch sozioökonomische Kosten reduziert werden können. In Abschnitt 2 wird in Form einer Übersichtsarbeit der aktuelle Forschungsstand zu achtsamkeitsbasierten Programmen in der Arbeitswelt skizziert und deren Wirksamkeit und potentielle Wirkmechanismen metaanalytisch geprüft. Über k = 56 randomisiert-kontrollierte Interventionsstudien hinweg zeigen sich kleine bis mittlere Effekte (g = 0,32 bis 0,77) auf unterschiedlichen gesundheitsbezogenen Variablen (z.B. Wohlbefinden, Stress, subsyndromale Symptome, Burnout und somatische Beschwerden) sowie arbeitsbezogenen Variablen (z.B. Arbeitsengagement, Arbeitszufriedenheit und Produktivität), die bis zu 12 Wochen nach der Intervention bestehen bleiben. Diese Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass achtsamkeitsbasierte Programme effektiv in verschiedenen Arbeitskontexten eingesetzt werden können und somit eine gute Grundlage zur Prävention psychischer Störungen in der Arbeitswelt bilden. In Abschnitt 3 wird der Zusammenhang zwischen gesunder Führung und psychischer Gesundheit aus Perspektive von Führungskräften und deren Mitarbeitenden in einem querschnittlichen Studiendesign mit Hilfe von Mehrebenenanalysen untersucht, um den komplexen Zusammenhang zwischen Führung und Gesundheit besser zu verstehen. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die Einschätzungen der gesunden Führung zwischen Führungskräften und ihren Mitarbeitenden deutlich abweichen und nur auf konkreten Verhaltensdimensionen signifikante Zusammenhänge aufweisen. Die subjektive Wahrnehmung der gesunden Führung durch die Mitarbeitenden zeigt einen signifikanten Zusammenhang mit deren psychischer Gesundheit, nicht aber die Selbsteinschätzungen der Führungskräfte. Insgesamt weisen diese Ergebnisse darauf hin, dass die subjektive Wahrnehmung gesunder Führung eine wichtige Determinante für die psychische Gesundheit bei der Arbeit darstellt, dass das Thema gesunde Führung jedoch expliziter im Arbeitskontext ausgestaltet werden sollte, um ein gemeinsames Verständnis von gesunder Führung zwischen Führungskräften und Mitarbeitenden zu schaffen. In Abschnitt 4 wird dargestellt, wie die gesunde Führung mit Hilfe einer gezielten Intervention gefördert werden kann und welche Rolle das Konzept der Achtsamkeit dabei einnimmt. Die achtsamkeitsbasierte Intervention umfasst drei Seminartage (à 8 Stunden) zu i) gesunder Selbstführung, ii) gesunder Mitarbeiterführung und iii) Umgang mit psychisch belasteten Mitarbeitenden sowie zwei Nachhaltigkeitstermine (à 3 Stunden). Anschließend werden die Wirksamkeit sowie potentielle Wirkmechanismen der Intervention in einem quasiexperimentellen Studiendesign sowohl auf Ebene der Führungskräfte als auch auf Ebene der Mitarbeitenden empirisch geprüft. In 12 Unternehmen nahmen insgesamt 117 Führungskräfte an der Intervention teil. Die Führungskräfte und deren 744 Mitarbeitende machten Angaben zu ihrer psychischen Belastung sowie zur gesunden Führung zu drei Messzeitpunkten (Prä, Post, 3 Monate Follow-Up). Diese Angaben wurden mit einer passiven Kontrollgruppe, basierend auf Propensity Score Matching, verglichen. Hierarchische lineare Modelle ergaben, dass die Führungskräfte, die an der Intervention teilgenommen haben, eine signifikant stärkere Abnahme der psychischen Belastung und eine Zunahme der gesunden Selbst- und Mitarbeiterführung im Zeitverlauf aufzeigen als die gematchten Kontrollpersonen (g = 0,27 bis 0,55). Der signifikante Interventionseffekt auf die psychische Belastung der Führungskräfte wird durch die Häufigkeit der selbstständig durchgeführten Achtsamkeitsübungen moderiert und durch eine Zunahme der gesunden Selbstführung vermittelt. Auf Mitarbeiterebene ergaben sich keine signifikanten Effekte zwischen den Gruppen im Zeitverlauf. Es zeigte sich jedoch ein signifikanter Zusammenhang zwischen der subjektiv erlebten gesunden Führung und der späteren psychischen Belastung. Dies deutet darauf hin, dass die subjektive Wahrnehmung der gesunden Führung eine wichtige Determinante der psychischen Gesundheit von Mitarbeitenden darstellt. Insgesamt tragen diese Ergebnisse zu unserem Verständnis bei, wie eine gesunde Führung effektiv trainiert werden kann, um die gesunde Selbst- und Mitarbeiterführung der teilnehmenden Führungskräfte zu erhöhen und deren psychische Belastung zu reduzieren. Die Ergebnisse weisen jedoch gleichermaßen auf die Herausforderung hin, Interventionsprogramme weiter zu verbessern, um deren indirekte Effektivität auf Mitarbeiterebene zu erhöhen. Diese Dissertation trägt insgesamt dazu bei, die Bedeutung der Prävention psychischer Störungen in der Arbeitswelt zu verdeutlichen und zeigt Möglichkeiten auf, wie eine effektive Prävention in Unternehmen ausgestaltet werden kann.
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A mixed literature review was made to map the knowledge on mindfulness for conflict resolution. Bibliometric and qualitative coding was applied to studies indexed by Scopus. Those studies come from medicine, psychology and law areas, to shape an emerging interdisciplinary field with Eastern and Western theoretical approaches. The former serves to manage negative emotions of the counterparts and biases of the mediator; the second to identify common interests and find solutions to citizen, family, corporative and sociopolitical conflicts. In both cases, the idea of the lawyer as a “gladiator” gives place to that of him/her as a “peacemaker”. Based on these findings, it is suggested to advance future research concerning the degree of openness for applying mindfulness in conflict resolution, as well as to promote mindfulness training for lawyers, professionals from linked areas and community mediators as peacemakers in sites of major social conflict such as Colombia.
Chapter
Polizist*innen sind in vielerlei Hinsicht mit dem Thema Suizid konfrontiert. Zum einen haben sie im Rahmen der Überbringung von Todesnachrichten Kontakt mit Angehörigen nach einem Suizid. Darüber hinaus werden sie häufig zu Einsätzen mit Personen mit Suizidgedanken gerufen und weisen selbst eine oft berufsbedingte psychische Belastung auf, die eine eigene Suizidalität zur Folge haben kann. Deswegen wurde das Online-Programm „COPS“ entwickelt. Den Teilnehmenden werden Kommunikationsstrategien, psychologisches Hintergrundwissen, Handlungsleitfäden sowie Methoden zur Stressbewältigung vermittelt.
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In order to increase the cost-efficiency, availability and ease of accessing and delivering mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), clinical and research interest in mindfulness-based self-help (MBSH) interventions has increased in recent years. Several studies have shown promising results of effectiveness of MBSH. However, like all self-help interventions, dropout rates and disengagement from MBSH are high. The current study explored the facilitators and barriers of engaging in a MBSH intervention. Semi-structured interviews with members of healthcare staff who took part in an MBSH intervention (n = 16) were conducted. A thematic analysis approach was used to derive central themes around engagement from the interviews. Analyses resulted in four overarching themes characterising facilitation and hindrance to engagement in MBSH. These are “attitude towards engagement”, “intervention characteristics”, “process of change” and “perceived consequences”. Long practices, emerging negative thoughts and becoming self-critical were identified as the key hindrances, whilst need for stress reduction techniques, shorter practices and increased sense of agency over thoughts were identified as the key facilitators. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
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Background: The objective of this randomized clinical experiment was to test the influence of a mindfulness meditation practice, when delivered during 1 session of active chemotherapy administration, on the acute salivary cortisol response as a marker of neuroendocrine system activity in cancer patients. Methods: A mindfulness, attention-control, or resting exposure was assigned to 57 English- or Spanish-speaking colorectal cancer patients at 1 county oncology clinic and 1 university oncology clinic at the start of chemotherapy. Saliva samples were collected at the start of chemotherapy and at subsequent 20-minute intervals during the first 60 minutes of chemotherapy (4 samples in all). Self-reporting on biobehavioral assessments after chemotherapy included distress, fatigue, and mindfulness. Results: An area-under-the-curve analysis (AUC) showed a relative increase in cortisol reactivity in the mindfulness group after adjustments for biological and clinical measures (β = 123.21; P = .03). More than twice as many patients in the mindfulness group versus the controls displayed a cortisol rise from the baseline to 20 minutes (69% vs 34%; P = .02). AUC values were uncorrelated with biobehavioral measure scores, although mindfulness scores were inversely correlated with fatigue (r = -0.46; P < .01) and distress scores (r = -0.54; P < .01). Conclusions: Findings suggest that mindfulness practice during chemotherapy can reduce the blunting of neuroendocrine profiles typically observed in cancer patients. Implications include support for the use of mindfulness practice in integrative oncology. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
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Mindfulness-based interventions encourage home practice to cultivate the development and enhancement of skills. The degree to which adolescents practice mindfulness outside of sessions and whether such home practice relates to measurable outcomes has not been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of home practice compliance on cognitive and psychological outcomes, as well as the relationship between intervention expectations and home practice compliance in adolescents participating in a school-based mindfulness program. As part of a randomized controlled trial, participants completed either a mindfulness meditation (n = 76) or hatha yoga (n = 92) intervention. Pre- and post-intervention measures of working memory capacity, perceived stress, anxiety, and mindfulness were collected. Participants also completed a daily home practice log during the intervention in which they recorded the number of minutes spent practicing mindfulness meditation or hatha yoga. Results indicated that home practice compliance was poor relative to suggested home practice in both intervention groups; however, the hatha yoga group reported significantly more home practice than the mindfulness meditation group (p = 0.003). Hatha yoga participants who engaged in more home practice (upper tertile) showed a statistically significant decrease in perceived stress, while those who reported the lowest amount of home practice (bottom tertile) showed an increase in stress. In the yoga condition, intervention expectations were positively correlated with home practice (ρ = 0.28, p < 0.05). Current findings suggest that home practice compliance is related to stress reduction in hatha yoga interventions for adolescents. Limitations and avenues for future research are discussed.
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Objective: The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on salivary cortisol levels in healthy adult populations. Method: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published between January 1980 and June 2015 in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane library. The PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines were followed. The pooled effect sizes were calculated with the random-effects model, using Hedges' g-values, and heterogeneity was measured using the I² statistic. The contribution of different characteristics of participants and programmes were assessed by meta-regression models, using beta coefficients. Results: Five RCTs with 190 participants in total were included in this systematic review. The overall effect size (ES) for improving the state of health related to cortisol levels was moderately low (g = 0.41; p = 0.025), although moderate heterogeneity was found (I² = 55; p = 0.063). There were no significant differences between active (g = 0.33; p = 0.202) and passive (g = 0.48; p = 0.279) controls, but significant differences were found when comparing standard (g = 0.81; p = 0.002) and raw (g = 0.03; p = 0.896) measures. The percentage of women in each study was not related to ES. Nevertheless, age (beta = −0.03; p = 0.039), the number of sessions (beta = 0.33; p = 0.007) and the total hours of the MBI (beta = 0.06; p = 0.005) were significantly related to ES, explaining heterogeneity (R² = 1.00). Conclusions: Despite the scarce number of studies, our results suggest that MBIs might have some beneficial effect on cortisol secretion in healthy adult subjects. However, there is a need for further RCTs implemented in accordance with standard programmes and measurements of salivary cortisol under rigorous strategies in healthy adult populations.
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High-stress jobs require both appropriate physiological regulation and behavioral adjustment to meet the demands of emergencies. Here, we investigated the relationship between the autonomic stress response and behavioral adjustment after errors in special police cadets. Sixty-eight healthy male special police cadets were randomly assigned to perform a first-time walk on an aerial rope bridge to induce stress responses or a walk on a cushion on the ground serving as a control condition. Subsequently, the participants completed a Go/No-go task to assess behavioral adjustment after false alarm responses. Heart rate measurements and subjective reports confirmed that stress responses were successfully elicited by the aerial rope bridge task in the stress group. In addition, greater heart rate increases during the rope bridge task were positively correlated with post-error slowing and had a trend of negative correlation with post-error miss rate increase in the subsequent Go/No-go task. These results suggested that stronger autonomic stress responses are related to better post-error adjustment under acute stress in this highly selected population and demonstrate that, under certain conditions, individuals with high-stress jobs might show cognitive benefits from a stronger physiological stress response.
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Expectancy, arguably the prime component of the placebo effect, has been shown to significantly modify the effects of many treatments. Furthermore, various forms of mind-body interventions have demonstrated effective improvements in outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between pretreatment expectations and symptom reduction in a secondary analysis of 3 mind-body intervention programs. An adjusted correlation and regression analysis compared data from a 6-question expectancy questionnaire to a self-reported clinical impression of change score. Only 1 of the 6 expectancy questions in 1 of the 3 studies reached significance (B = 0.087; P = .025). The combined data from all 3 studies did not reveal significant expectancy effects. The positive effects of mindfulness meditation appear to be independent of an expectancy effect.
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Primary care physicians experience high rates of burnout, which results in diminished quality of life, poorer quality of care, and workforce attrition. In this randomized controlled trial, our primary aim was to examine the impact of a brief mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) on burnout, stress, mindfulness, compassion, and resilience among physicians. A total of 33 physicians completed the baseline assessment and were randomized to the Mindful Medicine Curriculum (MMC; n = 17) or waitlist control group (n = 16). Participants completed self-report measures at baseline, post-MBI, and 3-month follow-up. We also analyzed satisfaction with doctor communication (DCC) and overall doctor rating (ODR) data from patients of the physicians in our sample. Participants in the MMC group reported significant improvements in stress (P < .001), mindfulness (P = .05), emotional exhaustion (P = .004), and depersonalization (P = .01) whereas in the control group, there were no improvements on these outcomes. Although the MMC had no impact on patient-reported DCC or ODR, among the entire sample at baseline, DCC and ODR were significantly correlated with several physician outcomes, including resilience and personal achievement. Overall, these findings suggest that a brief MBI can have a positive impact on physician well-being and potentially enhance patient care.
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Attention is critical for successful performance in demanding real-world situations. Yet, protracted periods of high demand may compromise attention and increase off-task thinking. Herein, we investigate if mindfulness training (MT) may promote cognitive resilience by curbing attentional lapses in high-stress cohorts. Two military cohorts were recruited during their high-stress predeployment interval. Mindfulness-based Mind Fitness Training (MMFT)® was provided to one group (MT, N = 31) but not the other group (military control group, MC, N = 24). The MT group attended an 8-week MMFT® course and logged the amount of out-of-class time spent practicing formal MT exercises. The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) was used to index objective attentional performance and subjective ratings of mind wandering before (T1) and after (T2) the MT course. In the MT group, changes in SART measures correlated with the amount of time spent engaging in MT homework practice, with greater objective performance benefits (indexed by A′, a sensitivity measure), and reduced subjective reports of mind wandering over time in those who engaged in high practice vs. low practice. Performance measures in the low practice and MC groups significantly declined from T1 to T2. In contrast, the high practice group remained stable over time. These results suggest that engaging in sufficient MT practice may protect against attentional lapses over high-demand intervals. Based on these results, we argue that MT programs emphasizing greater engagement in mindfulness practice should be further investigated as a route by which to build cognitive resilience in high-stress cohorts.
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One purpose of the present study was to examine how exposure to police stressors was associated with increased risk for physical, psychological and interpersonal negative outcomes. Another purpose was to identify ‘healthy’ or ‘unhealthy’ coping mechanisms that mediate these associations between police stressors and negative outcomes. Participants included 201 police officers from small departments under 100 officers (96% male; mean age = 40.3 years; 91% Caucasian; 55% Patrol Officer rank; mean years of service = 15.0 years), who completed anonymous surveys that included the 25-item Law Enforcement Officer Stress Survey (LEOSS) and measures of health problems, self-esteem and aggression to romantic partners and police partners. They also reported 12 ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ coping mechanisms as suggested by the Theory of Threat Appraisal and Coping (exercise, sleep, eating fruit and vegetables, family support, police support, religiosity, alcohol, tobacco, snacks, caffeine, expressed anger, repressed anger). Higher exposure to police stressors was associated with increased risk for health problems, low self-esteem, partner aggression and police aggression. Repressed anger was the ‘unhealthy’ coping mechanism most significantly associated with officers' reports of police stressors. Mediation analysis revealed that only the removal of repressed anger dropped associations between police stressors and the four negative outcomes to non-significance. Present results demonstrate that the most prevalent coping mechanism used by stressed police officers may not always be associated with improvements in outcomes. Employee assistance programmes for officers with high levels of police stressors should focus on anger-management and anger-expression skills.
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Evidence is accumulating that mindfulness training is useful in reducing stress for health care workers and may increase the quality of their interactions with patients. To evaluate how health care workers experience mindfulness training, a review was conducted, synthesising published qualitative papers on the experiences of health care workers currently practising or those in clinical training who had attended mindfulness training. A systematic search yielded 14 relevant studies. Quality appraisal using the Critical Appraisal Skills programme tool identified that four studies were of a lower quality, and as they did not contribute uniquely to the analysis, they were omitted from the review. The synthesis describes health care workers’ experiences of overcoming challenges to practice in mindfulness training, such as shifting focus from caring for others to self-care, leading to an experiential understanding of mindfulness and a new relationship to experience. Perceived benefits of mindfulness training ranged from increased personal wellbeing and self-compassion to enhanced presence when relating to others, leading to enhanced compassion and a sense of shared humanity. Outcomes are discussed in terms of training focus and participant motivation, clinical and theoretical implications and avenues for further research.
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Background: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant medical morbidity, which may be mediated by hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) dysfunction and reflected in cortisol output. Many veterans with PTSD are hesitant to engage in trauma-focused exposure treatments; therefore briefer, non-exposure-based treatments are needed; one such promising approach is an abbreviated Primary Care brief Mindfulness Program (PCbMP). Objective: This study investigated the relationship between dose-response to participation in a veterans PCbMP program and diurnal cortisol. Cortisol reflects HPA function and PTSD is associated with HPA dysregulation. Research design: Veterans with PTSD were identified in PC and randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU, n=21) or participation in brief 4-week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction program (n=19). Subjects: Veterans (n=40) (mean age, 48±16 y; 90% men) with PTSD referred through their VA PC provider and randomly assigned to PCbMP or TAU. Measure: As an objective indicator of HPA function, salivary diurnal cortisol was measured from samples collected across 2 consecutive days at baseline and follow-up. Results: Analyses revealed that significant changes in cortisol were associated with PCbMP treatment engagement and dosing (number of mindfulness program sessions completed). Veterans completing 4 mindfulness-based meditation sessions significantly reduced their cortisol awakening response (P≤0.05); and had significant changes in cortisol area under the curve increase compared with TAU participants (P≤0.05). Results indicate that PCbMP has a beneficial physiological impact on veterans with PTSD with a minimum of 4 weeks of practice.