ArticlePDF Available

Environmental Exposure to Glyphosate and Reproductive Health Impacts in Agricultural Population of Argentina

Journal of Environmental Protection, 2018, 9, 241-253
ISSN Online: 2152-2219
ISSN Print: 2152-2197
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 Mar. 26, 2018 241 Journal of Environmental Protection
Environmental Exposure to Glyphosate
and Reproductive Health Impacts in
Agricultural Population of
Medardo Avila-Vazquez1, Flavia S. Difilippo1, Bryan Mac Lean1, Eduardo Maturano2,
Agustina Etchegoyen3
1Chair of Pediatric Clinic, Faculty of Medical Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Argentina
2Epidemiology Committee of Virology Institute Jose Maria Vanella, Faculty of Medical Sciences, National University of Cordoba,
Cordoba, Argentina
3Center for Environmental Research, Faculty of Exact Sciences, National University of La Plata, La Plata, Argentina
Argentina annually utilizes 240,000 tones of glyphosate in industrial agricu
ture and a change in the profile of morbi
dity is perceived for physicians of
agricultural areas; now reproductive disorders seem
to prevail. The objective
of this study is to determine concurrence of glyphosate exposure and repr
ductive disorders in a typical argentine agricultura
l town (Monte Maíz). An
ecological study was developed with an environmental analysis of pollution
sources including measurements of glyphosate and other pe
sticides and a
sectional study of spontaneous abortions and congenital abnormalities
Glyphosate was detected in soil and grain dust and was found to
be at an even higher concentration in the village soil than in the rural area
650 tonnes of glyphosate are used annually in the region and manipulated i
ner town contaminating the soil and
dust in suspension of the town creating
an burden of environmental exposure to glyphosate of 79 kg per person per
year. We do not find other relevant sources of pollution. The spontaneous
abortion and congenital abnormalities rates are three and two times
than the national average reported by the national health (10% vs. 3% and 3
- 4.3% vs 1.
4% respectively). Our study verified high environmental exposure
to glyphosate in association with increased frequencies of reproductive di
orders (spontaneous
abortion and congenital abnormalities) in argentine
agricultural village, but is unable to make assertions cause-effect. Further st
dies are required with designs for such purposes.
How to cite this paper:
., Difilippo, F.S., Lean, B.M., Maturano
. and Etchegoyen, A. (2018) Environmen-
tal Exposure to Glyphosate and Reprodu
tive Health Impacts in Agricultural Popul
tion of Argentina
Journal of Environme
tal Protection
, 241-253.
January 18, 2018
March 23, 2018
March 26, 2018
Copyright © 201
8 by authors and
Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative
Commons Attribution
License (CC BY
Open Access
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 242 Journal of Environmental Protection
Glyphosate, Spontaneous Abortions, Congenital Abnormalities,
Environmental Exposure, Environmental Health
1. Introduction
In 1996, Argentina began to grow genetically modified (GM) seeds, and used
currently 25 million hectares where 12 million people live; these crops have gen-
erated a substantial increase in the pesticide consumption. In 2013, Argentina
sprayed 240,000 tons of Glyphosate [1] [2]. A change in the profile of morbidity
and mortality is perceived for physicians of agricultural areas; now reproductive
disorders and cancer seem to prevail [3] and recently the International Federa-
tion of Gynecology and Obstetrics expressed concern about reproductive health
impacts of exposure to toxic environmental chemical [4]. Monte Maíz town
(Union District in Province of Cordoba) lies at the heart of Argentina’s agricul-
tural area, the region of greater agricultural productivity in the country, where
soy, maize, and wheat are grown in the centre of the country. In recent years,
local governmental authorities along with local residents and doctors were wor-
ried about an increase apparent in the number of spontaneous abortions, conge-
nital abnormalities and cancer, thus requesting an assessment of health status to
the Faculty of Medical Sciences, National University of Cordoba (UNC). The
community had conducted a health census in 2007 (unpublished), carried out by
teachers and other volunteers, in which high rates of spontaneous abortions and
cancer were identified. There are few epidemiological studies on the environ-
mental health of rural populations in Argentina and very little has been pub-
lished to date. The objective of this study is the Monte Maíz environmental con-
tamination recorded, mainly the presence of glyphosate and other pesticides and
checking whether spontaneous abortions prevalence and congenital abnormali-
ties prevalence were increased. It was our goal to verify concurrence of glypho-
sate environmental exposure and those reproductive disorders; cancer rates were
also measured and this outcome has already been recently published by the au-
thors [5].
2. Material and Methods
An exploratory ecological study on reproductive disorders and environmental
pollution was performed, consisting on the one hand of an epidemiological
study (a cross-sectional study) with a household survey of health addressed to
the entire population (population survey), designed to geo-reference each record
in the village with use of nine ratios census (R) by National Institute Census that
divide the town into nine sectors outweighed demographically as seen in the
map of Figure 1. Through the household survey, we checked spontaneous abor-
tions prevalence (women aged between 15 and 45 years old who have suffered
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 243 Journal of Environmental Protection
Figure 1. Map Ratius Census of Monte Maíz by National Institute Census divide the town in nine sectors outweighed demo-
spontaneous or unexplained abortion on the last 5 years and with 5 or more
years of living in Monte Maíz) and congenital abnormalities prevalence (child-
ren with major congenital abnormalities alive at the time of the interview), these
were dependent variables, while sex, age, occupation, stay in the village, smoke,
ratio census residence, educational level and the presence of environmental con-
taminants were the independent variables. On the other hand, an environmental
analysis recording sources of contamination such as landfills, cell site (cell
tower), electric power transformers, industrial sites, stockpiles of grains, store-
houses of pesticides, and spraying machines. We interviewed community and
government stakeholders, business owners, city officials, teachers, farmers and
workers that sprayed pesticides, in order to recognize the performance of indus-
tries, local public services, and agribusiness (drinking water, sewer management,
household waste, industries pollutions, routines and doses of pesticides use).
Samples of environmental matrices (water, soil, grain husks) were collected and
analyzed by the Center for Environmental Research, Faculty of Exact Sciences of
National University of La Plata, which selected twelve internal and peripheral
sites in the town to examine the presence of glyphosate, its metabolite amino-
methylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and currently used pesticides (chlorpyrifos,
endosulfan, cipermetrina, atrazine, 2.4D, and epoxiconazole). Both pretreatment
and analysis of pesticides were performed under international regulations using
liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry [6] [7]. A dosage of arsenic (As) was
conducted in domestic water network using hydride generation atomic absorp-
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 244 Journal of Environmental Protection
tion spectrometry.
The study area was Monte Maíz, a town located on Provincial Route N˚11',
33˚12' South latitude and 62˚36' West longitude of Greenwich, at a height above
sea level of 114 metres; the town is 113 years old and has 7788 inhabitants (8045
including residents of surrounding rural areas). Agriculture is the main eco-
nomic activity with complementary metalworking industry that is located on the
Southern edge of the town [8].
2.1. Statistical Analysis
Crude rates were obtained through a database and numerical matrix, a bivariate
correlation Pearson analysis was conducted to assess the association of sponta-
neous abortions and congenital abnormalities with independent variables, in-
cluded the spatial distribution according to ratios census in which the town was
divided (R09-R18). We built maps for spontaneous abortions and congenital
abnormalities and pollution sources using Quantum GIS 2.4 software and
created contingency tables to perform relational measurements between expo-
sure and disease. For this end, the following software was used: INFOSTAT
(UNC), SPSS, and EPIDAT (PAHO). Rates of spontaneous abortions and con-
genital abnormalities of Monte Maíz were compared with the national rates re-
ported by the National Registry of Congenital Abnormalities (RENAC) of the
National Health Ministry [9].
2.2. Study Conduct
Physicians or medical students carried out the fieldwork during October 2014;
all health surveys were conducted by final year medicine students of UNC and
medical professors. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration
of Helsinki and under the framework of Act 9694 Article 2 of the Province of
Cordoba in accordance with the law regulating health research and was ap-
proved by the Bioethics Committee established by this law for observational stu-
dies [10]. All surveys were performed after obtaining informed consent.
3. Results
3.1. Environmental Analysis
In Monte Maíz the electrical network is powered by medium-voltage power dis-
tributed in the urban area, with substations of 33 kV to 380 w, no high voltage.
Has a sewer system with a domestic collection network reaching every home;
solid urban waste is collected by a municipal service that has a Solid Waste plant.
Their hinterland has soybeans on 45,000 ha and maize on 20,000 ha which are
main summer crops and wheat on 15,000 ha as a winter crop. We identified an
open landfill, 800 meters northeast of the town’s limit, with no evidence of fire
in the last 5 years. There is an absence of forestry across the periphery of the
town, which is replaced by soybean and maize crops, starting at the immediate
edge of houses. These crops are frequently treated, with pesticide, by ground
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 245 Journal of Environmental Protection
equipment and crop dusters. At the southwest of Monte Maíz, we found two li-
vestock breeding farms, and, on the west side, a flood zone, with ponds, a park,
and a sewage treatment plant between the crop fields.
There are two farm equipment industries, located at the southern tip of the
town; these factories use methane gas as a source of energy. The sources of elec-
tromagnetic radiation were two cellphone towers, located in R9 and R12 which
are highlighted on the map of pollution factors on Monte Maíz in Figure 2
(there are two other towers located outside of the urban area). The population of
Monte Maíz receives drinking water of very good quality, drinkable and arsen-
ic-free. Within the inhabited village, there are silos of cereal from where soy and
corn husks are released (grain dust) shown on the map in Figure 2 and were
identified twenty-two deposits for spraying machines and pesticide containers
used in the region.
Local agronomists and agrochemical applicators report that in Monte Maíz
GM soybean and corn crops use 10 kilograms of glyphosate per ha per year. Six
hundred and fifty tonnes of glyphosate are aerosolized in the area, creating a
general burden of environmental exposure to glyphosate of 79 kg per person per
year, which varies for agricultural or non-agricultural activity and for spatial
distribution of glyphosate. This region utilizes nine hundred seventy five tonnes
of all pesticides each year.
Figure 2. Map of environmental factors pollution on Monte Maíz and main sampling site.
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 246 Journal of Environmental Protection
3.2. Chemical Contaminants Test
Herbicide glyphosate and AMPA was detected in 100% samples of soil and husk.
In grain husks from silos, glyphosate and AMPA prevailed (505 and 607 ppb),
followed by chlorpyrifos (14 ppb) and epoxiconazole (2.3 ppb) as shown in Ta-
ble 1. Sampling site N˚6 (map in Figure 2), belonging to a children’s play-
ground, contained 68 times more glyphosate than site N˚5, belonging to a farm
field of resistant to glyphosate corn. Similarly, site N˚8, where the soil sample
was taken from the sidewalk next to pesticides deposits, had the highest concen-
tration of glyphosate (3868 ppb), AMPA (3192 ppb), and all pesticides.
Glyphosate also had the highest concentrations among all the matrices studied
(3868 ppb), exceeding by far the other pesticides: endosulfan II (337.7 ppb) and
chlorpyrifos (242 ppb) (see Table 1). There were minimal concentrations of pes-
ticides in drinking water; also, the arsenic in drinking water was less than 5 ppb.
3.3. Epidemiological Analysis
Overall, 92% households were visited, 4.8% corresponds to households that re-
fused to answer the survey. Some houses were uninhabited at the time of the vis-
it. The information was collected from 4859 people (62% of the population), its
characteristics are available in Table 2.
98 spontaneous abortions occurred in the last 5 years among 981 surveyed
women of reproductive age; 62 of them had only one event, 15 had two, and 2 of
them had three abortions, a unintended abortions prevalence rate of 10% per
100 women of reproductive age; 79 women among 981 were those who suffered
spontaneous abortions (8%).
Among the population studied there were 853 births in the last 10 years, 25
children presented major congenital abnormalities and were alive at the time of
the study (four abnormalities of nervous system, five genitals, four limbs, three
renal and urinary, two digestive, four cardiopathies and one biliary atresia,
cleft lip and thyroglossal cyst), a prevalence rate of 3% (Table 3), not including
Table 1. Measurements pesticides in environmental matrices, main findings. References located sampling site (S5, S6 and S8) in
map of Table 1. DNC: Detectable no quantifiable.
Center for Environmental Research, Faculty of Exact Sciences of National Uni-
versity of La Plata
S: Site sampling
Endosulfan I
Endosulfan II
S1 drinking water
<2 ppb <2 ppb <1 ppb <0.5 ppb DNC DNC DNC <0.005 ppb <0.005 ppb
S5 crop field
41 ppb 116 ppb <5 ppb 6.4 ppb 242 ppb <1.5 ppb 2.2 ppb 58 ppb 3 ppb
S6 childrens
playground soil
2792 ppb 797 ppb S/D S/D 4.4 ppb <1.5 ppb <1.5 ppb 4 ppb 3.4 ppb
S6 childrens
husks from silos
505 ppb 607 ppb S/D S/D 14 ppb DNC <1.5 ppb DNC 2.3 ppb
S8 pesticides
deposits soil
3868 ppb 3192 ppb 128 ppb 52.5 ppb 150.4 ppb 17.5 ppb 338 ppb 180 ppb 6.3 ppb
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 247 Journal of Environmental Protection
Table 2. Monte Maíz Population surveyed: characteristics, absolute numbers and per-
Number of individuals recorded 4959 (61.98%)
Male 2361 (47.61%)
Female 2597 (52.37%)
Average age of Population 36.03 years
People 0 - 15 years 1175 (23.69%)
People ≥16 years with complete primary education 3313/3744 (88.49%)
People with health insurance 3859 (78.01%)
Percentage of people with ≥5 years residence time 4141/4328 (95.68%)
Families of rural workers, farmers and agronomists 270 families, 970 persons
Smokers 793/3780 (20.98%)
Table 3. Results of epidemiological assessment: disease, number of cases and rate.
Reproductive Impacts
Number of cases
Spontaneous abortions 98/981 10%
Women with spontaneous abortions 79/981 8%
Congenital abnormalities alive 25/853 3%
Congenital abnormalities total estimate 40/853 4,7%
malformed children who died during this period. Including the dead (calculated
in twelve cases) the rate of congenital anomalies would reach 4.3% because the
WHO estimates a congenital anomalies mortality of 40% in ten years [11].
Spontaneous abortions shown correlate with young women and women living
in R16 and R17 with a significance of 0.05%, these radiuses (R) are the ones
blown by the wind coming from where are the cereal stores. Congenital abnor-
malities showed no significant correlation with independent variables.
Association levels were measured as occurrence rate (ORs) arising from con-
tingency tables (2 × 2); the OR for spontaneous abortions in women from Ra-
dius 16 and Radius 17 with respect to other Radius was 1.29 (CI 0.71 - 2.34) with
a non significant p-value, so that despite the existence of apparent risk of abor-
tion in those areas, the presence of bias could not be excluded.
Seeds that are genetically manipulated to contain a transgene have the ability to
survive in saturated environments with glyphosate, an herbicide used to eradi-
cate other plants. Glyphosate interferes with the vital metabolism of plants, but
not with transgenic plants for which an alternative metabolic pathway was gen-
erated through bioengineering. Since 1996, when GM soy was introduced in Ar-
gentina, its use has continued to expand due to the high profit generated by its
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 248 Journal of Environmental Protection
commercialization and easy harvest [12] as the extension of this crop increases,
so does the use of glyphosate. Currently, Argentina is using 240,000 tons of gly-
phosate per year. This has increased year-on-year as a consequence of herbi-
cide-resistant weeds requiring higher doses of glyphosate and the combined use
of other herbicides as 2.4D, atrazine, etc. [13]. This increase has resulted in 5 kg
of glyphosate per person per year as potential exposure burden for all inhabi-
tants of the country, greater in agricultural areas.
Monte Maíz shows the effects of this agricultural model, as is a production
boom in the region, a high standard of living among its population, and the re-
location of local farmers in the village; these farmers left rural areas and moved
with their families work equipment and supplies. Deposits of agricultural
equipment are multiplying inside the village (twenty-two in total), the largest
deposits in town are in R15 and are five pesticide storage sites. A total of 650
tons of glyphosate per year is concentrated, manipulated and has surrounded the
town, which now faces fields that are sprayed daily. Glyphosate was found in
100% of soil and husk dust samples, the concentration was 10 times higher than
that of other pesticides, this demonstrates that, of all pesticides that pollute the
environment, glyphosate is the most prevalent. Concentrations found in inner
town are several times higher than in the soil in cultivated fields (see Table 1),
reaffirming the impression that the town is at the operational center of the
sprayed area. Glyphosate is also high in grain dust, it is also accompanied by
other pesticides their joint presence discards that glyphosate is high within the
village due to its use in gardening.
In metalwork factories, no significant pollution was found; the density per
km2 of the source of electromagnetic radiation such as cell site, high voltage
power lines, and electrical voltage transformers is low compared with source
electromagnetic radiation density in big cities, which minimizes the value of this
pollution; for example Nueva Cordoba, a neighborhood of Cordoba city,
which is located on the same surface as Monte Maíz with a larger population,
has nine cell sites, while there are only two towers in Monte Maíz [14], although,
a weakness of the study is the lack of electromagnetic radiation direct measure-
Moreover, household garbage management, sewage, and contaminant-free
water (for 16 years now) remove these contaminating factors from the observed
pathologies. Thus, pollution with glyphosate and to a lesser extent with other
pesticides is the predominant factor in the environmental contamination analy-
sis of Monte Maíz.
The rate of spontaneous abortions in five years (10%) in Monte Maíz was
three times higher than that reported in a national analysis conducted in 2005
for the National Health Ministry (0.6% per year) [15], and also higher than that
of a social-health survey recently conducted (2016) by our team in a neighbour-
hood of Cordoba where the prevalence of spontaneous abortions was 3.7% in 5
years [16]. The spatial distribution of abortions shows a backlog of cases in the
sector (R16 and R17) that is most contaminated with glyphosate-impregnated
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 249 Journal of Environmental Protection
grain husk, although the association is not significant. This increased prevalence
is consistent with the findings of Aiassa
et al.
that detected a spontaneous abor-
tions rate of 19% between 166 households in the farming village of Las Ver-
tientes (Cordoba, 180 km from Monte Maiz) [17]. The “Ontario Farm Family
Health Study” refers 18.7% of spontaneous abortions rate in farm families with a
significant risk for preconception exposure to glyphosate [18]. In our population
young mothers were linked to this perinatal outcome and not the other way
round; smoking was not linked to abortion either. The population is not inbred
(it is a large town made up of farmers and steelworkers) and its social structure
shows an excellent socioeconomic status measured in rate of unmet basic needs.
Neither maternal age, toxic habits or poverty may explain the high rate of spon-
taneous abortions in Monte Maiz.
There seems to be a clear link between exposure to pesticides, including gly-
phosate, and pregnancy loss, similar to the observations made by Settini in Italy
[19], or the systematic reviews of evidence-based medicine of Sanborn
et al.
MacMaster University, Canada, in 2007 [20] and updated in 2012 [21].
On the other hand, the National Registry of Congenital Abnormalities of Ar-
gentina (RENAC) in 2014 Report that between 281.249 newborns a total of 4.120
major structural congenital abnormalities were recorded, with a prevalence of
1.4% [9]; in Monte Maiz the prevalence (3%) was twice that of the national pre-
valence (see Table 3). It is worth mentioning that our data does not include
malformed children who died, which is why the difference could surely be even
greater. The types of congenital anomalies do not differ significantly from those
reported by the RENAC for the entire Province [9]. The national rate of anoma-
lies is generated from monthly reports issued by the neonatology services, there
may be underreporting of cases. By contrast, our data may be biased due to the
fact that they are self-referenced, and while this is a limiting factor for any study
of disease through surveys, it is unlikely in some less prevalent pathology where,
on the contrary, the most common error is type II. Data collected differently
may reflect discrepancies, thus generating an information bias. In any case, the
higher frequency of children born with congenital abnormalities in populations
exposed to agrochemicals is described for records from maternity hospitals [22],
case control [23] [24], american ecological studies [25] [26], and canadian sys-
tematic reviews [21], among others.
In 2010 Paganelli demonstrates as glyphosate-based herbicides produce tera-
togenic effects on vertebrates by impairing retinoic acid signaling [27] and in
recent years information on glyphosate genotoxicity in experimental models was
published, information that was previously unknown, using test for chromo-
somal aberrations, micronuclei and comet assay the damage to DNA strands was
verified [28] [29] even in human cells [30] [31]. More recently, these same stu-
dies were conducted in people environmentally and occupationally exposed to
pesticides in general and glyphosate in particular, which reported rates of genetic
damage well above those found in populations not exposed to pesticides used as
reference or control groups [32] [33].
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 250 Journal of Environmental Protection
The Monograph Working Group of IARC-WHO in Evaluation of Carcino-
genic Risks to Humans in 2015 reviews 1000 studies on glyphosate and chooses
200 relevant paper to conclude that there is strong evidence that exposure to
glyphosate or glyphosate-based formulations is genotoxic based on studies in
humans in vitro and studies in experimental animals [34], the occurrence of
damage to the DNA strands that when not repaired nor the cell removed can
lead to germ cell mutations with impact on reproductive health. Near Monte
Maíz, in Marcos Juarez City, published studies showed twice frequency of
chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in environmentally exposed people to
glyphosate or other pesticides [35] and genotoxicity in children exposed to pes-
ticides comparing to not expose [36].
This association is consistent with respect to abortions and malformations, the
biological plausibility is very rational for reproductive problems in their causal
link with 600,000 kg of glyphosate polluting the environment of Monte Maiz,
although recognize that the ecological fallacy cannot be discarded from this
analysis and the design of this study is limited for causality. The change in time
sequence could not be stated in this cross-sectional study, but local doctors
noted changes in the disease profile since the introduction of GM seeds and the
massive use of glyphosate. Although the methodological limitations of this ex-
ploration suggest that we acknowledge its limited scope, it highlights the associ-
ation at an evidence level and should be considered with caution given the small
size of the population, the self-referenced nature of the survey and the descrip-
tive modality of the study. The results of this study are also important because
they describe a health problem in the environment where the people are living.
5. Conclusion
This research detected an urban environment severely polluted by glyphosate
and other pesticides with high environmental exposure to glyphosate in the vil-
lagers and identified elevated frequencies of congenital abnormalities and spon-
taneous abortion, suggesting a link between environmental exposure to glypho-
sate and reproductive problems, although this was an exploratory and observa-
tional design unable to make direct causal assertions. However, from the point
of view of collective health, this link requires recommending the precautionary
application of measures to protect the population from this environmental ex-
To SUMA 400 Program, Secretary of University Extension from UNC that made
it possible to travel with a team of 70 people to Monte Maíz. To the Municipality
of Monte Maíz, that facilitated the stay of our team during the 5-day field work.
To the professors and students of Medicine and Geography from UN, to the
professors and students of Chemistry from the Faculty of Naturals and Exact
Sciences of National University of La Plata, that conducted the chemical field
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 251 Journal of Environmental Protection
work at Monte Maiz. And to “Ayni Translations” who carried out the translation
of the Spanish original to English.
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial inter-
[1] Lopez, G. (2010) La Agricultura Argentina al 2020. Fundación producir conservan-
do 2010.
[2] Avila-Vazquez, M. and Difilippo, F.S. (2016) Agricultura Tóxica y Pueblos Fumi-
gados de Argentina.
Crítica y Resistencias. Revista de conflictos sociales latinoame-
, No. 2, 23-45.
[3] Avila-Vazquez, M. and Nota, C. (2010) Report from the 1st NATIONAL MEETING
National University of Cordoba.
[4] Di Renzo, G.C., Conry, J.A., Blake, J., DeFrancesco, M.S., DeNicola, N., Martin Jr,
et al.
(2015) International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Opinion
on Reproductive Health Impacts of Exposure to Toxic Environmental Chemicals
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
, 131, 219-225.
[5] Avila-Vazquez, M., Maturano, E., Etchegoyen, A., Difilippo, F.S. and Maclean, B.
(2017) Association between Cancer and Environmental Exposure to Glyphosate.
International Journal of Clinical Medicine
, 8, 73-85.
[6] Scribner, E.A., Battaglin, W.A., Gilliom, R.J. and Meyer, M.T. (2007) Concentra-
tions of Glyphosate, Its Degradation Product, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and
Glufosinate in Ground- and Surface-Water, Rainfall, And Soil Samples Collected in
the United States, 2001-06:
US Geological Survey
. Scientific Investigations Report
2007-5122, 14-17.
[7] American Public Health Association (APHA) (2012) American Water Works Asso-
ciation (AWWA) & Water Environment Federation (WEF). Standard Methods for
the Examination of Water & Wastewater, 22nd Edition.
[8] Municipalidad de Monte Maíz (2015) Información General.
(2014) Análisis epidemiológico sobre anomalías
congénitas en recién nacidos, registradas en 2013. Ministerio de Salud.
[10] Ley 9694 (2009) Provincia de Córdoba. Sistema de Evaluación, Registro y Fiscaliza-
ción de las Investigaciones en Salud.
[11] Castillo Taucher, S. (2007) Servicios para la atención y la prevención de defectos
congénitos: Síntesis de una reunión de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y la
Fundación March of Dimes.
Revista Médica de Chile
, 135, 806-813.
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 252 Journal of Environmental Protection
[12] Aizen, M.A., Garibaldi, L.A. and Dondo, M. (2009) Expansión de la soja y diversi-
dad de la agricultura argentina.
Austral Ecology
, 19, 45-54.
[13] REDUAS (2013) The Use of Toxic Agrochemicals in Argentina Is Continuously In-
creasing; Analysis of Data from the Pesticide Market in Argentina.
[14] Open Signal (2014) Towers Identifier and Cell Coverage Map.
[15] Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad (CEDES) y Centro de Estudios de Pobla-
ción (CENEP) (2007) Morbilidad materna severa en la Argentina, Estimación de la
magnitud del aborto inducido.
[16] Avila-Vazquez, M., Maturano, E., Etchegoyen, A., Difilippo, F.S. and Maclean, B.
(2016) Informe Estudio de Salud Ambiental de Barrio San Antonio y Residencial
San Antonio, 2016. Red Universitaria de Ambiente y Salud.
[17] Aiassa, D. (2010) Exposición a Plaguicidas. Monitoreo de daño genético en pobla-
ciones humanas. 1
st National Meeting of Physicians in the Crop
Sprayed Towns
Cordoba, 10 August 2010, 18-20.
[18] Arbuckle, T.E., Lin, Z. and Mery, L.S. (2001) An Exploratory Analysis of the Effect
of Pesticide Exposure on the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion in an Ontario Farm
. Environmental Health Perspectives
, 109, 851-857.
[19] Settimi, L., Spinelli, A., Lauria, L., Miceli, G., Pupp, N., Angotzi, G.,
et al
. (2008)
Spontaneous Abortion and Maternal Work in Greenhouses.
American Journal of
Industrial Medicine
, 51, 290-295.
[20] Sanborn, M., Kerr, K.J., Sanin, L.H., Cole, D.C., Bassil, K.L. and Vakil, C. (2007)
Non-Cancer Health Effects of Pesticides: Systematic Review and Implications for
Family Doctors.
Canadian Family Physician
, 53, 1712-1720.
[21] Sanborn, M., Bassil, K., Vakil, C. and Kerr, K. (2012) Systematic Review of Pesticide
Health Effects. Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Ontario
College of Family Physicians, Toronto.
[22] Trombotto, G.L. (2009) Tendencia de las Malformaciones Congénitas Mayores en el
Hospital Universitario de Maternidad y Neonatología de la Ciudad de Córdoba en
los años 1972-2003. Un Problema Emergente en Salud Pública (tesis). Universidad
Nacional, Córdoba.
[23] Benitez Leite, S., Macchi, M.L. and Acosta, M. (2007) Malformaciones congénitas
asociadas a agrotóxicos.
), 34, 111-121.
[24] Silva, S.R., Martins, J.L., Seixas, S., Silva, D.C., Lemos, S.P. and Lemos, P.V. (2011)
Congenital Defects and Exposure to Pesticides in São Francisco Valley.
Revista Bra-
sileira De Ginecologia E Obstetricia
, 33, 20-26.
[25] Winchester, P.D., Huskins, J. and Ying, J. (2009) Agrichemicals in Surface Water
and Birth Defects in the United States.
Acta Paediatrica
, 98, 664-669.
[26] Schreinemachers, D.M. (2003) Birth Malformations and Other Adverse Perinatal
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 253 Journal of Environmental Protection
Outcomes in Four U.S. Wheat-Producing States.
Environmental Health Perspec-
, 111, 1259-1264.
[27] Paganelli, A., Gnazzo, V., Acosta, H., López, S.L. and Carrasco, A.E. (2010) Gly-
phosate-Based Herbicides Produce Teratogenic Effects on Vertebrates by Impairing
Retinoic Acid Signaling.
Chemical Research in Toxicology
, 23, 1586-1595.
[28] Dallegrave, E., Mantese, F.D., Coelho, R.S., Pereira, J.D., Dalsenter, P.R. and Lange-
loh, A. (2003) The Teratogenic Potential of the Herbicide Glyphosate-Roundup in
Wistar Rats.
Toxicology Letters
, 142, 45-52.
[29] Cava, T. and Könen, S. (2007) Detection of Cytogenetic and DNA Damage in Peri-
pheral Erythrocytes of Goldfish (
) Exposed to a Glyphosate For-
mulation using the Micronucleus Test and the Comet Assay
. Mutagenesis
, 22,
[30] Mañas, F., Peralta, L., Raviolo, J., García Ovando, H. and Garcia-Schuler, H. (2009)
Genotoxicity and Oxidative Stress of Glyphosate:
In Vivo
in Vitro
vironmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
, 28, 37-41.
[31] Alvarez-Moya, C., Silva, M.R., Ramírez, C.V., Gallardo, D.G., Sánchez, R.L.,
Aguirre, A.C. and Velasco, A.F. (2014) Comparison of the
in Vivo
in Vitro
Genotoxicity of Glyphosate Isopropylamine Salt in Three Different Organisms
. Ge-
netics and Molecular Biology
, 37, 105-110.
[32] Simoniello, M.F., Kleinsorge, E.C. and Carballo, M.A. (2010) Evaluación bioquímica
de trabajadores rurales expuestos a pesticidas.
), 70, 489-498.
[33] Paz-y-Miño, C., Sánchez, M.E., Arévalo, M., Muñoz, M.J., Witte, T., De-la-Carrera,
G.O. and Leone, P.E. (2007) Evaluation of DNA Damage in an Ecuadorian Popula-
tion Exposed to Glyphosate.
Genetics and Molecular Biology
, 30, 456-460.
[34] Guyton, K.Z., Loomis, D., Grosse, Y., El-Ghissassi, F., Benbrahim-Tallaa, L., Guha,
et al
. (2015) Carcinogenicity of Tetrachlorvinphos, Parathion, Malathion, Di-
azinon, and Glyphosate.
The Lancet Oncology
, 16, 490-491.
[35] Peralta, L., Mañas, F., Gentile, N., Bosch, B., Mnedez, A. and Aiassa, D. (2011) Eva-
luación del daño genético en pobladores de Marcos Juárez expuestos a plaguicidas:
Estudio de un caso en Córdoba, Argentina.
, 2, 7-26.
[36] Bernardi, N., Gentile, N., Mañas, F., Méndez, A., Gorla, N. and Aiassa, D. (2015)
Assessment of the Level of Damage to the Genetic Material of Children Exposed to
Pesticides in the Province of Córdoba.
Archivos Argentinos De Pediatria
, 113,
... A similar situation is in Argentina, which has been accused of using huge amount of pesticides, including 240,000 tons of glyphosate per year. This has resulted in glyphosate and AMPA being detected in 100% of samples of studied water bodies and soils [44]. The levels of glyphosate in waters ranged from 0.10 to 0.70 mg·L −1 , while in sediments and soils values were between 0.5 and 5.0 mg·kg −1 . ...
... The levels of glyphosate in waters ranged from 0.10 to 0.70 mg·L −1 , while in sediments and soils values were between 0.5 and 5.0 mg·kg −1 . Glyphosate also had the highest concentrations among all the matrices studied (3868 ppb), exceeding by far the other pesticides: endosulfan II (337.7 ppb) and chlorpyrifos (242 ppb) [44,45]. The highest rate of detection was found in stream sediment samples (glyphosate 95%, AMPA 100%), followed by surface water (glyphosate 28%, AMPA 50%) and then groundwater (glyphosate 24%, AMPA 33%) [46]. ...
Full-text available
Pesticides are well known for their high levels of persistence and ubiquity in the environment, and because of their capacity to bioaccumulate and disrupt the food chain, they pose a risk to animals and humans. With a focus on organophosphate and triazine pesticides, the present review aims to describe the current state of knowledge regarding spatial distribution, bioaccumulation, and mode of action of frequently used pesticides. We discuss the processes by which pesticides and their active residues are accumulated and bioconcentrated in fish, as well as the toxic mechanisms involved, including biological redox activity, immunotoxicity, neuroendocrine disorders, and cytotoxicity, which is manifested in oxidative stress, lysosomal and mitochondrial damage, inflammation, and apoptosis/autophagy. We also explore potential research strategies to close the gaps in our understanding of the toxicity and environmental risk assessment of organophosphate and triazine pesticides.
... A study showed that GBH exposure results in the reduction of sperm motility in men (Anifandis et al. 2018). Furthermore, there is a correlation in miscarriages in women who are occupationally exposed to GBHs during their pregnancies (Avila-Vazquez et al. 2018). GBHs and AMPA are believed to interfere with normal neurotransmission, resulting in alterations to the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis (Van Bruggen et al. 2018). ...
... Glyphosate has been detected in blood of humans in a mean concentration of 0.0007-0.7 mM [10]. Exposure to glyphosate is associated with different types of cancer [24,25], adverse effects on the reproduction of rats and humans [26,27], promotion of carcinogenesis in rats [28], toxicity [6], liver and kidney damage [29]. Although the mechanism responsible for the genotoxicity of glyphosate is not well defined, it is speculated that glyphosate causes an increase in free radicals (ROS). ...
Full-text available
Glyphosate is a controversial herbicide. Its genotoxicity and presence in various ecosystems have been reported. The use of ascorbic acid and resveratrol could protect different organisms from glyphosate-induced genetic damage. In the present study, specific genetic damage induced by glyphosate was evaluated in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus, Ambystoma mexicanum and human lymphocytes. Simultaneously, the antigenotoxic capacity of various concentrations of ascorbic acid and resveratrol was evaluated by means of pretreatment and simultaneous treatment protocols. The 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM concentrations of glyphosate induced significant genotoxic activity (p < 0.05) in human lymphocytes and in erythrocytes of the species studied, and could cause genomic instability in these populations. The reduction in genetic damage observed in human lymphocytes exposed to high concentrations of glyphosate is only apparent: excessive genetic damage was associated with undetectable excessive tail migration length. A significant (p < 0.05) antigenotoxic effect of ascorbic acid and resveratrol was observed in all concentrations, organisms and protocols used. Both ascorbic acid and resveratrol play an important role in maintaining the integrity of DNA. Ascorbic acid in Oreochromis niloticus, Ambystoma mexicanum reduced glyphosate-induced genetic damage to a basal level. Therefore, our data indicate that these antioxidants could help preserve the integrity of the DNA of organisms exposed to glyphosate. The consumption of antioxidants is a useful tool against the genotoxicity of glyphosate.
... Discovering acute toxicities seems reliable after glyphosate has become the focus of research interest. By carefully considering the roles of the brain, one would predict glyphosate can cause other health problems [100][101][102][103]. In addition, one should predict potential ecological impacts [104]. ...
When this article is submitted for reprint, at least 252,400,057 people or 76% of the population in the U.S. have received at least one dose of mRNA vaccines. I started predicting the dangers of mRNA vaccines before March 2021 and update my article periodically. My prior model study enabled me to identify many flaws in the foundation of medicine, and I also considered consistent failure in predicting drug side effects in the past and systematic failure of FDA in keeping out dangerous drugs such as Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and swine flu vaccine from the market. By studying mRNA expression dynamics and kinetics, I predicted that mRNA vaccines may adversely affect brain, all vital organs, cancer growth, human genome integrity, viral evolution, pre-existing chronic diseases, fetus development, etc. I found the number of deaths caused by mRNA vaccines was grossly underestimated, and that 95% effectiveness rate and 90% death rate reduction are meaningless and misleading. Now, case reports on liver damages start appearing. I urge societies to question disease risk theory. If a drug can harm one or more persons in a specific way by nonaccident, this same harm must happen to all others who have exposed to the drug. The concealment of drug injuries can be attributed to human massive organ reserves, the interference effects of thousands of life factors, expected lags in damages realization, the use of symptom-based method, etc. After those flaws are corrected, anyone should see the brutal reality that the same harm must happen to all exposed persons. In this reprinted article, I urge governments and societies to sponsor studies to understand how mRNA vaccines damage liver and brain, what could be done to mitigate future adverse impacts and how to prevent humanity disasters like this from happening again.
... On the other hand, there are few studies that can inform an understanding of atrazine transport in the central Pampean region in Cordoba, Argentina. The Argentinean Pampas region is one of the world's top agricultural regions, particularly for soybeans and maize at equal scale (FAOSTAT n.d.), and there are documented concerns regarding the health and environmental effects of intensive use of pesticides (Butinof et al. 2015;Avila-Vazquez et al. 2018). ...
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to analyze atrazine (ATZ) spatial distribution in groundwater and present the factors related to its leaching potential in an area under intensive agricultural activity within the fluvio-Aeolian plain of the province of Córdoba, Argentina. Using tools such as soil and groundwater sampling and analysis, batch tests and numerical modeling, the variables that control the atrazine sorption and leaching potential were evaluated. The herbicide was detected in 14.7% of groundwater samples (0.14 to 1.26 μg L⁻¹) becoming a leachable herbicide with moderate potential for groundwater pollution according to the calculated GUS (Groundwater Ubiquity Score) index. Hydrogeological characteristics influenced its distribution in the unconfined aquifer. Areas with a thin vadose zone (VZ) showed the highest atrazine levels, while the lithology of the vadose zone was also critical. In areas with a predominance of coarse-textured sediments (sands and gravels), low clay percentages and lower Koc, atrazine exhibits high mobility, which makes possible its transport to the unconfined aquifer at sites with a deep water table (≈25 m below surface). Herbicide spray application generally coincides with the rainy seasons, which contributes to high leaching rates. Numerical modeling indicated that transport of water and ATZ occurs both through micropores continuously, and macropores episodically. Groundwater has become a secondary environmental subsystem affected by the presence of ATZ due to advective, dispersive and reactive processes which allow its transport through the VZ. Even at relatively low concentrations, the presence of atrazine in groundwater requires long-term planning to monitor and control.
... As for human health, their role as endocrine disrupting chemicals 23 and as substances that cause genetic material damage has been reported 24,25 . An increase in medical conditions such as hypertension and hypothyroidism, a higher impact on allergic, respiratory and obstructive lung diseases, Alzheimer and Parkinson diagnosis, rheumatic and skin diseases, neurological and neurocognitive disorders, together with an increase in miscarriages, congenital malformations and oncological diseases (cancer, lymphoma, leukemia) that exceed the national average by far [26][27][28] . ...
Full-text available
Resumen El objetivo del artículo es contribuir a la comprensión y visibilización de los conflictos y controversias en torno al uso de agroquímicos en las provincias de Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero y Salta, Argentina. Se relevaron y sistematizaron fuentes de información secundaria, con el fin de llevar adelante un primer análisis contextual de los marcos regulatorios, las políticas públicas y la emergencia de procesos de construcción social de los riesgos ambientales y sanitarios. El análisis fue organizado en torno a tres dimensiones: normativa, político-institucional y territorial-sanitaria. En las tres jurisdicciones existen leyes específicas que regulan el uso de agroquímicos y cierta institucionalidad destinada a su implementación, control y monitoreo. No obstante, y en concordancia con lo ocurrido a nivel regional e internacional, el estudio relevó una multiplicidad de situaciones y/o eventos conflictivos que problematizan los impactos ambientales y sanitarios. La política relativa a la utilización de agroquímicos está fragmentada en múltiples regulaciones, instituciones y escalas de competencias, marco dentro del cual la política sanitaria y ambiental poseen un lugar rezagado. Más allá de ciertos avances, no hay reconocimiento oficial del daño a la salud y el ambiente generado por el uso de agroquímicos.
... Discovering acute toxicities seems reliable after glyphosate has become the focus of research interest. By carefully considering the roles of the brain, one would predict glyphosate can cause other health problems [100][101][102][103]. In addition, one should predict potential ecological impacts [104]. ...
Full-text available
Several mRNA vaccines are used on the population in the U.S. I started predicting the dangers of mRNA vaccines before March 2021 and update my findings periodically. My prior model study enabled me to identify many flaws in clinical trials, side-effect evaluation methods and mechanism studies, and I also considered consistent failure in predicting drug side effects in the past and systematic failure of FDA in keeping out dangerous drugs from market. I found that the risks of vaccination cannot be determined by experiments alone and must be determined by using a combination of methods. By studying mRNA expression dynamics and kinetics, I predict that vaccination with mRNA vaccines may increase cancer risks, multiple organ failure risks, earlier death risks, genome alteration speeds by one or more mechanisms, alter the normal selection process for viral evolution resulting in more virulent viruses, and aggravate chronic diseases or cause healed diseases to relapse. Two root problems are practical inability to control expression sites and severe adverse reactions from repeated vaccination. Based on mRNA bio-distribution, the mRNA mainly strikes the liver and other vital organs, and poses grave dangers to persons whose vascular functional reserves are relatively small, or whose vascular systems are temporarily burdened by other causes such as viral infections or life activities. If an mRNA vaccine is administered on a pregnant woman by second or booster shots, spike protein synthesis in fetus brain disrupts the highly regulated protein synthesis processes, resulting in potential brain damages. In less than a year, most of my early predicted damages are being materialized or are on the track to hit the population. In this update, I present a benefits-and-risks map to show how the number of deaths caused by mRNA vaccines is grossly underestimated and why claimed benefits like 95% effectiveness rate and 90% death rate reduction are meaningless and misleading.
The massive use of agrochemicals has made possible to increase food production on a global scale; however, it has also caused multiple impacts on the environment and human health. In several South American countries, currently predominates an agro-industrial production model based on a technological package that includes transgenic seeds resistant to the herbicide glyphosate (GLY), as well as specialized machinery and other inputs. Such is the case of Argentina, a country in which transgenic soybean, corn, and cotton monocultures occupy millions of hectares and represent a large part of foreign exchange earnings. This model implies the discharge of massive amounts of GLY and other agrochemicals into the environment, also affecting the health of rural populations. In contrast to its use in grain production, GLY and other herbicides have been widely used in Colombia in the control of illicit crops, in particular Erythroxylum spp. In the present work, different socio-environmental aspects of the use of GLY in Argentina and Colombia are analyzed, contributing to the discussion on the need to implement new production models that value biological diversity and guarantee the provision of ecosystem services.
Full-text available
Este artículo explora las consecuencias del uso de agroquímicos en Salta y Santiago del Estero, provincias del norte argentino. Ofrece una caracterización y análisis del rol de las autoridades competentes y las normativas, así como un abordaje de la conflictividad en torno a las consecuencias de las fumigaciones, con énfasis en la contaminación del agua y sus efectos en la salud. A partir de fuentes secundarias y de entrevistas con diferentes actores, los hallazgos muestran que existen leyes específicas y cierta institucionalidad destinada a la conservación ambiental en general y de los recursos hídricos en particular, junto con normas que regulan el uso de agroquímicos. No obstante, existen conflictos que, con diverso grado de visibilidad, problematizan los efectos sanitarios y ambientales en las escalas locales. En consecuencia, la crítica situación sanitaria e hídrica regional se vuelve central, a través de renovados interrogantes que emergen desde una perspectiva de justicia ambiental.
Full-text available
Background: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay farm transgenic seeds glyphosate resistant. Argentina annually utilizes 240,000 tonnes of glyphosate in agriculture. A change in the profile of morbidity and mortality is perceived in agricultural areas; cancer seems to prevail. Monte Maiz is a typical argentine agricultural town with 8000 inhabitants; the Mayor and residents of Monte Maiz requested an environmental health study due to perceived increase in cancer frequencies. Methods: An exploratory ecological study was developed to assess the urban environmental contamination and the frequencies and distribution of cancer through an environmental analysis of pollution sources including measurements of pesticides in water, soil and grain dust, and a cross-sectional study of cancer patients that explore associations with different variables. Results: Glyphosate was detected in soil and grain dust and was found to be at an even higher concentration in the village soil than in the rural area. 650 tonnes are used annually in the region and manipulated inner town. We do not find other relevant sources of pollution. Cancer incidence, prevalence, and mortality are between two and three times higher than the reference values (Globocan 2012, WHO) for the entire nation (706/100,000 persons vs. 217/100,000; 2123/100,000 persons vs. 883.82/100,000 and 383/100,000 persons vs. 115.13/100,000, respectively). Conclusion: This study detects high glyphosate pollution in association with increased frequencies of cancer in a typical argentine agricultural village, and by design, cannot make claims of causality. Other study designs are required, but if we corroborate the concrescence of high exposure to glyphosate and cancer.
Full-text available
Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals during pregnancy and breastfeeding is ubiquitous and is a threat to healthy human reproduction. There are tens of thousands of chemicals in global commerce, and even small exposures to toxic chemicals during pregnancy can trigger adverse health consequences. Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and related health outcomes are inequitably distributed within and between countries; universally, the consequences of exposure are disproportionately borne by people with low incomes. Discrimination, other social factors, economic factors, and occupation impact risk of exposure and harm. Documented links between prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals and adverse health outcomes span the life course and include impacts on fertility and pregnancy, neurodevelopment, and cancer. The global health and economic burden related to toxic environmental chemicals is in excess of millions of deaths and billions of dollars every year. On the basis of accumulating robust evidence of exposures and adverse health impacts related to toxic environmental chemicals, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) joins other leading reproductive health professional societies in calling for timely action to prevent harm. FIGO recommends that reproductive and other health professionals advocate for policies to prevent exposure to toxic environmental chemicals, work to ensure a healthy food system for all, make environmental health part of health care, and champion environmental justice.
Full-text available
Hace 18 años se instauró en Argentina un sistema de producción agraria cimentada en el uso de semillas transgénicas y aplicación masiva de agrotóxicoso plaguicidas. Desde entonces los vecinos de los pueblos fumigados protestan porque se ven afectados en su salud y los médicos de esos pueblos corroboran un cambio del patrón de enfermedad y de muerte en estas comunidades. Trastornos endócrinos e inmunológicos, neumopatías crónicas, abortos espontáneos en mujeres sanas, malformaciones congénitas y cáncer son las enfermedades que se reiteran en poblaciones expuestas a dosis crecientes de agrotóxicos. Estudios epidemiológicos e investigaciones de laboratorios confirman el vínculo entre pesticidas, como glifosato, y daños en la salud. A pesar de las protestas y denuncias, aumenta el consumo de agrotóxicos y las empresas biotecnológicas preparan nuevas semillas que auguran un futuro cercano de mayor toxicidad y contaminación, lo cual pone en peligro la salud colectiva.
Full-text available
Introduction: In the past decades, several authors have investigated the genotoxicity caused by exposure to chemicals, but there are no reports on studies analyzing such effects on children in Argentina. The objective of this study was to establish the micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells in children from urban areas with environmental exposure (through inhalation) and to compare it with the micronucleus frequency in children from urban regions far from areas subjected to spraying. Population and methods: Fifty children living in the town of Marcos Juárez (Córdoba) at different distances from pesticide spraying areas and twenty-five children from the city of Río Cuarto (Córdoba), who are considered not exposed to pesticides, were studied; the micronucleus assay in buccal mucosa cells was used. Results: A significant difference was observed between exposed children living less than 500 m from areas subjected to spraying and those who were not exposed. Forty percent of exposed children suffer some type of persistent condition, which may be associated with chronic exposure to pesticides. Conclusions: Results indicate that genotoxicity is present in a group of children compared to the other one, and highlight the importance of the micronucleus assay in buccal mucosa cells for genetic biomonitoring and public health surveillance. This assay is capable of detecting a level of damage that can be reversible.
Full-text available
Los pesticidas utilizados en agricultura pueden representar un riesgo potencial para la salud de los agricultores expuestos y para el medio ambiente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar trabajadores frutihortícolas expuestos a plaguicidas, categorizados por: exposición directa (n = 45), exposición indirecta (n = 50) y controles (n = 50) mediante biomarcadores de exposición y efecto: colinesterasa (ChE), acetilcolinesterasa (AChE), catalasa (CAT), peroxidación de lípidos (TBARS), Indice de Daño Ensayo Cometa (IDEC) e Indice de Daño Ensayo Reparación (IDER). Los resultados indican: a) inhibición significativa de AChE (p < 0.001) en expuestos directos e indirectos; b) aumento en los niveles de TBARS (p < 0.001) en los directos; c) reducción de CAT significativa (p < 0.01) y d) aumento de IDEC e IDER (p < 0.001) en ambos grupos. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan modificaciones en el balance oxidativo junto con daño al ADN en los trabajadores estudiados. Estos hallazgos representan una contribución en la evaluación subclínica de exposición a agroquímicos en nuestro país.
Full-text available
There is considerable controversy with regard to the genotoxicity of glyphosate, with some reports stating that this compound is non-toxic for fish, birds and mammals. In this work, we used the comet assay to examine the genotoxicity of glyphosate isopropylamine (0.7, 7, 70 and 700 μM) in human lymphocytes, erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus and staminal nuclei of Tradescantia (4430) in vitro and in vivo. Cells, nuclei and fish that had and had not been exposed to 5 mM N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Significant (p < 0.01) genetic damage was observed in vivo and in vitro in all cell types and organisms tested. Human lymphocytes and Tradescantia hairs showed lower genetic damage in vivo compared to in vitro, possibly because of efficient metabolization of the herbicide. In O. niloticus erythrocytes, significant (p < 0.001) genotoxicity was observed at ≥ 7 μM, whereas in vitro, glyphosphate was genotoxic in human lymphocytes and Tradescantia hairs at ≥ 0.7 μM. These results indicate that glyphosate is genotoxic in the cells and organisms studied at concentrations of 0.7-7 μM.
Full-text available
On 17-19 May 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation held a meeting in Geneva: The Management of Birth Defects and Haemoglobin Disorders. Meeting participants included 18 experts from developing and industrialized countries, including the author and nine staff from WHO Headquarters. The meeting had five goals: (A) ratify the data on the global toll of birth defects presented in the MOD Global Report; (B) agree upon a definition of terms; (C) develop a collaborative plan for strengthening care and prevention of birth defects; (D) develop a plan for strengthening care and prevention of haemoglobin disorders; and (E) determine how potential stakeholders could contribute to these efforts. The consensus for each of the goals were: a) Participants endorsed the estimates in the MOD Global Report, b) Participants concluded that the term "birth defect" is synonymous with the term "congenital disorder", whereas the term "congenital anomalies" should be avoided, c) Participants agreed that 70% of birth defects could be prevented, ameliorated or treated effectively, by the strengthening of medical genetic services, d) Participants agreed that efforts must be made to improve the control of hemoglobin disorders in developing countries, and e) Progress will require the combined efforts and political will of the WHO
Full-text available
RESUMEN Introducción: La exposición a plaguicidas es un riesgo reconocido para la salud humana. Se describe la relación entre la exposición de los padres y malformaciones congénitas en el neonato. Objetivo: Estudiar la asociación entre la exposición a pesticidas y malformaciones congénitas en neonatos naci- dos en el Hospital Regional de Encarnación, Itapúa- Paraguay. Material y Método: Estudio prospectivo de casos y contro- les de marzo/2006 a febrero/2007. Se consideró caso a todo neonato con malformación congénita, y control a todo niño sano del mismo sexo que naciera inmediatamente después. No se incluyeron los nacimientos ocurridos fuera del hospi- tal. Se consideró exposición a cualquier contacto con agro- químicos, así como a otros factores de riesgo conocidos para malformación congénita. Resultados: Se analizaron 52 casos y 87 controles. El promedio de nacimientos por mes fue de 216. Los factores de riesgo asociados significativamente fue - ron: vivir cerca de campos fumigados (OR 2.46 IC95%1.09- 5.57,p
Full-text available
We analyzed the consequences of aerial spraying with glyphosate added to a surfactant solution in the northern part of Ecuador. A total of 24 exposed and 21 unexposed control individuals were investigated using the comet assay. The results showed a higher degree of DNA damage in the exposed group (comet length = 35.5 μm) compared to the control group (comet length = 25.94 μm). These results suggest that in the formulation used during aerial spraying glyphosate had a genotoxic effect on the exposed individuals.