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Environmental Exposure to Glyphosate and Reproductive Health Impacts in Agricultural Population of Argentina

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Journal of Environmental Protection, 2018, 9, 241-253
http://www.scirp.org/journal/jep
ISSN Online: 2152-2219
ISSN Print: 2152-2197
DOI:
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 Mar. 26, 2018 241 Journal of Environmental Protection
Environmental Exposure to Glyphosate
and Reproductive Health Impacts in
Agricultural Population of
Argentina
Medardo Avila-Vazquez1, Flavia S. Difilippo1, Bryan Mac Lean1, Eduardo Maturano2,
Agustina Etchegoyen3
1Chair of Pediatric Clinic, Faculty of Medical Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Argentina
2Epidemiology Committee of Virology Institute Jose Maria Vanella, Faculty of Medical Sciences, National University of Cordoba,
Cordoba, Argentina
3Center for Environmental Research, Faculty of Exact Sciences, National University of La Plata, La Plata, Argentina
Abstract
Argentina annually utilizes 240,000 tones of glyphosate in industrial agricu
l-
ture and a change in the profile of morbi
dity is perceived for physicians of
agricultural areas; now reproductive disorders seem
to prevail. The objective
of this study is to determine concurrence of glyphosate exposure and repr
o-
ductive disorders in a typical argentine agricultura
l town (Monte Maíz). An
ecological study was developed with an environmental analysis of pollution
sources including measurements of glyphosate and other pe
sticides and a
cross-
sectional study of spontaneous abortions and congenital abnormalities
prevalence.
Glyphosate was detected in soil and grain dust and was found to
be at an even higher concentration in the village soil than in the rural area
;
650 tonnes of glyphosate are used annually in the region and manipulated i
n-
ner town contaminating the soil and
dust in suspension of the town creating
an burden of environmental exposure to glyphosate of 79 kg per person per
year. We do not find other relevant sources of pollution. The spontaneous
abortion and congenital abnormalities rates are three and two times
higher
than the national average reported by the national health (10% vs. 3% and 3
%
- 4.3% vs 1.
4% respectively). Our study verified high environmental exposure
to glyphosate in association with increased frequencies of reproductive di
s-
orders (spontaneous
abortion and congenital abnormalities) in argentine
agricultural village, but is unable to make assertions cause-effect. Further st
u-
dies are required with designs for such purposes.
How to cite this paper:
Avila-Vazquez
,
M
., Difilippo, F.S., Lean, B.M., Maturano
,
E
. and Etchegoyen, A. (2018) Environmen-
tal Exposure to Glyphosate and Reprodu
c-
tive Health Impacts in Agricultural Popul
a-
tion of Argentina
.
Journal of Environme
n-
tal Protection
,
9
, 241-253.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2018.93016
Received:
January 18, 2018
Accepted:
March 23, 2018
Published:
March 26, 2018
Copyright © 201
8 by authors and
Scientific
Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative
Commons Attribution
International
License (CC BY
4.0).
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Open Access
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
DOI:
10.4236/jep.2018.93016 242 Journal of Environmental Protection
Keywords
Glyphosate, Spontaneous Abortions, Congenital Abnormalities,
Environmental Exposure, Environmental Health
1. Introduction
In 1996, Argentina began to grow genetically modified (GM) seeds, and used
currently 25 million hectares where 12 million people live; these crops have gen-
erated a substantial increase in the pesticide consumption. In 2013, Argentina
sprayed 240,000 tons of Glyphosate [1] [2]. A change in the profile of morbidity
and mortality is perceived for physicians of agricultural areas; now reproductive
disorders and cancer seem to prevail [3] and recently the International Federa-
tion of Gynecology and Obstetrics expressed concern about reproductive health
impacts of exposure to toxic environmental chemical [4]. Monte Maíz town
(Union District in Province of Cordoba) lies at the heart of Argentina’s agricul-
tural area, the region of greater agricultural productivity in the country, where
soy, maize, and wheat are grown in the centre of the country. In recent years,
local governmental authorities along with local residents and doctors were wor-
ried about an increase apparent in the number of spontaneous abortions, conge-
nital abnormalities and cancer, thus requesting an assessment of health status to
the Faculty of Medical Sciences, National University of Cordoba (UNC). The
community had conducted a health census in 2007 (unpublished), carried out by
teachers and other volunteers, in which high rates of spontaneous abortions and
cancer were identified. There are few epidemiological studies on the environ-
mental health of rural populations in Argentina and very little has been pub-
lished to date. The objective of this study is the Monte Maíz environmental con-
tamination recorded, mainly the presence of glyphosate and other pesticides and
checking whether spontaneous abortions prevalence and congenital abnormali-
ties prevalence were increased. It was our goal to verify concurrence of glypho-
sate environmental exposure and those reproductive disorders; cancer rates were
also measured and this outcome has already been recently published by the au-
thors [5].
2. Material and Methods
An exploratory ecological study on reproductive disorders and environmental
pollution was performed, consisting on the one hand of an epidemiological
study (a cross-sectional study) with a household survey of health addressed to
the entire population (population survey), designed to geo-reference each record
in the village with use of nine ratios census (R) by National Institute Census that
divide the town into nine sectors outweighed demographically as seen in the
map of Figure 1. Through the household survey, we checked spontaneous abor-
tions prevalence (women aged between 15 and 45 years old who have suffered
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
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10.4236/jep.2018.93016 243 Journal of Environmental Protection
Figure 1. Map Ratius Census of Monte Maíz by National Institute Census divide the town in nine sectors outweighed demo-
graphically.
spontaneous or unexplained abortion on the last 5 years and with 5 or more
years of living in Monte Maíz) and congenital abnormalities prevalence (child-
ren with major congenital abnormalities alive at the time of the interview), these
were dependent variables, while sex, age, occupation, stay in the village, smoke,
ratio census residence, educational level and the presence of environmental con-
taminants were the independent variables. On the other hand, an environmental
analysis recording sources of contamination such as landfills, cell site (cell
tower), electric power transformers, industrial sites, stockpiles of grains, store-
houses of pesticides, and spraying machines. We interviewed community and
government stakeholders, business owners, city officials, teachers, farmers and
workers that sprayed pesticides, in order to recognize the performance of indus-
tries, local public services, and agribusiness (drinking water, sewer management,
household waste, industries pollutions, routines and doses of pesticides use).
Samples of environmental matrices (water, soil, grain husks) were collected and
analyzed by the Center for Environmental Research, Faculty of Exact Sciences of
National University of La Plata, which selected twelve internal and peripheral
sites in the town to examine the presence of glyphosate, its metabolite amino-
methylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and currently used pesticides (chlorpyrifos,
endosulfan, cipermetrina, atrazine, 2.4D, and epoxiconazole). Both pretreatment
and analysis of pesticides were performed under international regulations using
liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry [6] [7]. A dosage of arsenic (As) was
conducted in domestic water network using hydride generation atomic absorp-
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
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10.4236/jep.2018.93016 244 Journal of Environmental Protection
tion spectrometry.
The study area was Monte Maíz, a town located on Provincial Route N˚11',
33˚12' South latitude and 62˚36' West longitude of Greenwich, at a height above
sea level of 114 metres; the town is 113 years old and has 7788 inhabitants (8045
including residents of surrounding rural areas). Agriculture is the main eco-
nomic activity with complementary metalworking industry that is located on the
Southern edge of the town [8].
2.1. Statistical Analysis
Crude rates were obtained through a database and numerical matrix, a bivariate
correlation Pearson analysis was conducted to assess the association of sponta-
neous abortions and congenital abnormalities with independent variables, in-
cluded the spatial distribution according to ratios census in which the town was
divided (R09-R18). We built maps for spontaneous abortions and congenital
abnormalities and pollution sources using Quantum GIS 2.4 software and
created contingency tables to perform relational measurements between expo-
sure and disease. For this end, the following software was used: INFOSTAT
(UNC), SPSS, and EPIDAT (PAHO). Rates of spontaneous abortions and con-
genital abnormalities of Monte Maíz were compared with the national rates re-
ported by the National Registry of Congenital Abnormalities (RENAC) of the
National Health Ministry [9].
2.2. Study Conduct
Physicians or medical students carried out the fieldwork during October 2014;
all health surveys were conducted by final year medicine students of UNC and
medical professors. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration
of Helsinki and under the framework of Act 9694 Article 2 of the Province of
Cordoba in accordance with the law regulating health research and was ap-
proved by the Bioethics Committee established by this law for observational stu-
dies [10]. All surveys were performed after obtaining informed consent.
3. Results
3.1. Environmental Analysis
In Monte Maíz the electrical network is powered by medium-voltage power dis-
tributed in the urban area, with substations of 33 kV to 380 w, no high voltage.
Has a sewer system with a domestic collection network reaching every home;
solid urban waste is collected by a municipal service that has a Solid Waste plant.
Their hinterland has soybeans on 45,000 ha and maize on 20,000 ha which are
main summer crops and wheat on 15,000 ha as a winter crop. We identified an
open landfill, 800 meters northeast of the town’s limit, with no evidence of fire
in the last 5 years. There is an absence of forestry across the periphery of the
town, which is replaced by soybean and maize crops, starting at the immediate
edge of houses. These crops are frequently treated, with pesticide, by ground
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10.4236/jep.2018.93016 245 Journal of Environmental Protection
equipment and crop dusters. At the southwest of Monte Maíz, we found two li-
vestock breeding farms, and, on the west side, a flood zone, with ponds, a park,
and a sewage treatment plant between the crop fields.
There are two farm equipment industries, located at the southern tip of the
town; these factories use methane gas as a source of energy. The sources of elec-
tromagnetic radiation were two cellphone towers, located in R9 and R12 which
are highlighted on the map of pollution factors on Monte Maíz in Figure 2
(there are two other towers located outside of the urban area). The population of
Monte Maíz receives drinking water of very good quality, drinkable and arsen-
ic-free. Within the inhabited village, there are silos of cereal from where soy and
corn husks are released (grain dust) shown on the map in Figure 2 and were
identified twenty-two deposits for spraying machines and pesticide containers
used in the region.
Local agronomists and agrochemical applicators report that in Monte Maíz
GM soybean and corn crops use 10 kilograms of glyphosate per ha per year. Six
hundred and fifty tonnes of glyphosate are aerosolized in the area, creating a
general burden of environmental exposure to glyphosate of 79 kg per person per
year, which varies for agricultural or non-agricultural activity and for spatial
distribution of glyphosate. This region utilizes nine hundred seventy five tonnes
of all pesticides each year.
Figure 2. Map of environmental factors pollution on Monte Maíz and main sampling site.
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10.4236/jep.2018.93016 246 Journal of Environmental Protection
3.2. Chemical Contaminants Test
Herbicide glyphosate and AMPA was detected in 100% samples of soil and husk.
In grain husks from silos, glyphosate and AMPA prevailed (505 and 607 ppb),
followed by chlorpyrifos (14 ppb) and epoxiconazole (2.3 ppb) as shown in Ta-
ble 1. Sampling site N˚6 (map in Figure 2), belonging to a children’s play-
ground, contained 68 times more glyphosate than site N˚5, belonging to a farm
field of resistant to glyphosate corn. Similarly, site N˚8, where the soil sample
was taken from the sidewalk next to pesticides deposits, had the highest concen-
tration of glyphosate (3868 ppb), AMPA (3192 ppb), and all pesticides.
Glyphosate also had the highest concentrations among all the matrices studied
(3868 ppb), exceeding by far the other pesticides: endosulfan II (337.7 ppb) and
chlorpyrifos (242 ppb) (see Table 1). There were minimal concentrations of pes-
ticides in drinking water; also, the arsenic in drinking water was less than 5 ppb.
3.3. Epidemiological Analysis
Overall, 92% households were visited, 4.8% corresponds to households that re-
fused to answer the survey. Some houses were uninhabited at the time of the vis-
it. The information was collected from 4859 people (62% of the population), its
characteristics are available in Table 2.
98 spontaneous abortions occurred in the last 5 years among 981 surveyed
women of reproductive age; 62 of them had only one event, 15 had two, and 2 of
them had three abortions, a unintended abortions prevalence rate of 10% per
100 women of reproductive age; 79 women among 981 were those who suffered
spontaneous abortions (8%).
Among the population studied there were 853 births in the last 10 years, 25
children presented major congenital abnormalities and were alive at the time of
the study (four abnormalities of nervous system, five genitals, four limbs, three
renal and urinary, two digestive, four cardiopathies and one biliary atresia,
cleft lip and thyroglossal cyst), a prevalence rate of 3% (Table 3), not including
Table 1. Measurements pesticides in environmental matrices, main findings. References located sampling site (S5, S6 and S8) in
map of Table 1. DNC: Detectable no quantifiable.
Center for Environmental Research, Faculty of Exact Sciences of National Uni-
versity of La Plata
.
S: Site sampling
Glifosato
AMPA
Atrazina
Clorpirifos
Endosulfan I
Endosulfan II
Cipermetrina
Epoxiconazol
S1 drinking water
network
<2 ppb <2 ppb <1 ppb <0.5 ppb DNC DNC DNC <0.005 ppb <0.005 ppb
S5 crop field
soil
41 ppb 116 ppb <5 ppb 6.4 ppb 242 ppb <1.5 ppb 2.2 ppb 58 ppb 3 ppb
S6 childrens
playground soil
2792 ppb 797 ppb S/D S/D 4.4 ppb <1.5 ppb <1.5 ppb 4 ppb 3.4 ppb
S6 childrens
playground
grain
husks from silos
505 ppb 607 ppb S/D S/D 14 ppb DNC <1.5 ppb DNC 2.3 ppb
S8 pesticides
deposits soil
3868 ppb 3192 ppb 128 ppb 52.5 ppb 150.4 ppb 17.5 ppb 338 ppb 180 ppb 6.3 ppb
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Table 2. Monte Maíz Population surveyed: characteristics, absolute numbers and per-
centages.
Characteristics
Magnitude
Number of individuals recorded 4959 (61.98%)
Male 2361 (47.61%)
Female 2597 (52.37%)
Average age of Population 36.03 years
People 0 - 15 years 1175 (23.69%)
People ≥16 years with complete primary education 3313/3744 (88.49%)
People with health insurance 3859 (78.01%)
Percentage of people with ≥5 years residence time 4141/4328 (95.68%)
Families of rural workers, farmers and agronomists 270 families, 970 persons
Smokers 793/3780 (20.98%)
Table 3. Results of epidemiological assessment: disease, number of cases and rate.
Reproductive Impacts
Number of cases
Rate
Spontaneous abortions 98/981 10%
Women with spontaneous abortions 79/981 8%
Congenital abnormalities alive 25/853 3%
Congenital abnormalities total estimate 40/853 4,7%
malformed children who died during this period. Including the dead (calculated
in twelve cases) the rate of congenital anomalies would reach 4.3% because the
WHO estimates a congenital anomalies mortality of 40% in ten years [11].
Spontaneous abortions shown correlate with young women and women living
in R16 and R17 with a significance of 0.05%, these radiuses (R) are the ones
blown by the wind coming from where are the cereal stores. Congenital abnor-
malities showed no significant correlation with independent variables.
Association levels were measured as occurrence rate (ORs) arising from con-
tingency tables (2 × 2); the OR for spontaneous abortions in women from Ra-
dius 16 and Radius 17 with respect to other Radius was 1.29 (CI 0.71 - 2.34) with
a non significant p-value, so that despite the existence of apparent risk of abor-
tion in those areas, the presence of bias could not be excluded.
4. Comments
Seeds that are genetically manipulated to contain a transgene have the ability to
survive in saturated environments with glyphosate, an herbicide used to eradi-
cate other plants. Glyphosate interferes with the vital metabolism of plants, but
not with transgenic plants for which an alternative metabolic pathway was gen-
erated through bioengineering. Since 1996, when GM soy was introduced in Ar-
gentina, its use has continued to expand due to the high profit generated by its
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10.4236/jep.2018.93016 248 Journal of Environmental Protection
commercialization and easy harvest [12] as the extension of this crop increases,
so does the use of glyphosate. Currently, Argentina is using 240,000 tons of gly-
phosate per year. This has increased year-on-year as a consequence of herbi-
cide-resistant weeds requiring higher doses of glyphosate and the combined use
of other herbicides as 2.4D, atrazine, etc. [13]. This increase has resulted in 5 kg
of glyphosate per person per year as potential exposure burden for all inhabi-
tants of the country, greater in agricultural areas.
Monte Maíz shows the effects of this agricultural model, as is a production
boom in the region, a high standard of living among its population, and the re-
location of local farmers in the village; these farmers left rural areas and moved
with their families work equipment and supplies. Deposits of agricultural
equipment are multiplying inside the village (twenty-two in total), the largest
deposits in town are in R15 and are five pesticide storage sites. A total of 650
tons of glyphosate per year is concentrated, manipulated and has surrounded the
town, which now faces fields that are sprayed daily. Glyphosate was found in
100% of soil and husk dust samples, the concentration was 10 times higher than
that of other pesticides, this demonstrates that, of all pesticides that pollute the
environment, glyphosate is the most prevalent. Concentrations found in inner
town are several times higher than in the soil in cultivated fields (see Table 1),
reaffirming the impression that the town is at the operational center of the
sprayed area. Glyphosate is also high in grain dust, it is also accompanied by
other pesticides their joint presence discards that glyphosate is high within the
village due to its use in gardening.
In metalwork factories, no significant pollution was found; the density per
km2 of the source of electromagnetic radiation such as cell site, high voltage
power lines, and electrical voltage transformers is low compared with source
electromagnetic radiation density in big cities, which minimizes the value of this
pollution; for example Nueva Cordoba, a neighborhood of Cordoba city,
which is located on the same surface as Monte Maíz with a larger population,
has nine cell sites, while there are only two towers in Monte Maíz [14], although,
a weakness of the study is the lack of electromagnetic radiation direct measure-
ments.
Moreover, household garbage management, sewage, and contaminant-free
water (for 16 years now) remove these contaminating factors from the observed
pathologies. Thus, pollution with glyphosate and to a lesser extent with other
pesticides is the predominant factor in the environmental contamination analy-
sis of Monte Maíz.
The rate of spontaneous abortions in five years (10%) in Monte Maíz was
three times higher than that reported in a national analysis conducted in 2005
for the National Health Ministry (0.6% per year) [15], and also higher than that
of a social-health survey recently conducted (2016) by our team in a neighbour-
hood of Cordoba where the prevalence of spontaneous abortions was 3.7% in 5
years [16]. The spatial distribution of abortions shows a backlog of cases in the
sector (R16 and R17) that is most contaminated with glyphosate-impregnated
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10.4236/jep.2018.93016 249 Journal of Environmental Protection
grain husk, although the association is not significant. This increased prevalence
is consistent with the findings of Aiassa
et al.
that detected a spontaneous abor-
tions rate of 19% between 166 households in the farming village of Las Ver-
tientes (Cordoba, 180 km from Monte Maiz) [17]. The “Ontario Farm Family
Health Study” refers 18.7% of spontaneous abortions rate in farm families with a
significant risk for preconception exposure to glyphosate [18]. In our population
young mothers were linked to this perinatal outcome and not the other way
round; smoking was not linked to abortion either. The population is not inbred
(it is a large town made up of farmers and steelworkers) and its social structure
shows an excellent socioeconomic status measured in rate of unmet basic needs.
Neither maternal age, toxic habits or poverty may explain the high rate of spon-
taneous abortions in Monte Maiz.
There seems to be a clear link between exposure to pesticides, including gly-
phosate, and pregnancy loss, similar to the observations made by Settini in Italy
[19], or the systematic reviews of evidence-based medicine of Sanborn
et al.
in
MacMaster University, Canada, in 2007 [20] and updated in 2012 [21].
On the other hand, the National Registry of Congenital Abnormalities of Ar-
gentina (RENAC) in 2014 Report that between 281.249 newborns a total of 4.120
major structural congenital abnormalities were recorded, with a prevalence of
1.4% [9]; in Monte Maiz the prevalence (3%) was twice that of the national pre-
valence (see Table 3). It is worth mentioning that our data does not include
malformed children who died, which is why the difference could surely be even
greater. The types of congenital anomalies do not differ significantly from those
reported by the RENAC for the entire Province [9]. The national rate of anoma-
lies is generated from monthly reports issued by the neonatology services, there
may be underreporting of cases. By contrast, our data may be biased due to the
fact that they are self-referenced, and while this is a limiting factor for any study
of disease through surveys, it is unlikely in some less prevalent pathology where,
on the contrary, the most common error is type II. Data collected differently
may reflect discrepancies, thus generating an information bias. In any case, the
higher frequency of children born with congenital abnormalities in populations
exposed to agrochemicals is described for records from maternity hospitals [22],
case control [23] [24], american ecological studies [25] [26], and canadian sys-
tematic reviews [21], among others.
In 2010 Paganelli demonstrates as glyphosate-based herbicides produce tera-
togenic effects on vertebrates by impairing retinoic acid signaling [27] and in
recent years information on glyphosate genotoxicity in experimental models was
published, information that was previously unknown, using test for chromo-
somal aberrations, micronuclei and comet assay the damage to DNA strands was
verified [28] [29] even in human cells [30] [31]. More recently, these same stu-
dies were conducted in people environmentally and occupationally exposed to
pesticides in general and glyphosate in particular, which reported rates of genetic
damage well above those found in populations not exposed to pesticides used as
reference or control groups [32] [33].
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10.4236/jep.2018.93016 250 Journal of Environmental Protection
The Monograph Working Group of IARC-WHO in Evaluation of Carcino-
genic Risks to Humans in 2015 reviews 1000 studies on glyphosate and chooses
200 relevant paper to conclude that there is strong evidence that exposure to
glyphosate or glyphosate-based formulations is genotoxic based on studies in
humans in vitro and studies in experimental animals [34], the occurrence of
damage to the DNA strands that when not repaired nor the cell removed can
lead to germ cell mutations with impact on reproductive health. Near Monte
Maíz, in Marcos Juarez City, published studies showed twice frequency of
chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in environmentally exposed people to
glyphosate or other pesticides [35] and genotoxicity in children exposed to pes-
ticides comparing to not expose [36].
This association is consistent with respect to abortions and malformations, the
biological plausibility is very rational for reproductive problems in their causal
link with 600,000 kg of glyphosate polluting the environment of Monte Maiz,
although recognize that the ecological fallacy cannot be discarded from this
analysis and the design of this study is limited for causality. The change in time
sequence could not be stated in this cross-sectional study, but local doctors
noted changes in the disease profile since the introduction of GM seeds and the
massive use of glyphosate. Although the methodological limitations of this ex-
ploration suggest that we acknowledge its limited scope, it highlights the associ-
ation at an evidence level and should be considered with caution given the small
size of the population, the self-referenced nature of the survey and the descrip-
tive modality of the study. The results of this study are also important because
they describe a health problem in the environment where the people are living.
5. Conclusion
This research detected an urban environment severely polluted by glyphosate
and other pesticides with high environmental exposure to glyphosate in the vil-
lagers and identified elevated frequencies of congenital abnormalities and spon-
taneous abortion, suggesting a link between environmental exposure to glypho-
sate and reproductive problems, although this was an exploratory and observa-
tional design unable to make direct causal assertions. However, from the point
of view of collective health, this link requires recommending the precautionary
application of measures to protect the population from this environmental ex-
posure.
Acknowledgements
To SUMA 400 Program, Secretary of University Extension from UNC that made
it possible to travel with a team of 70 people to Monte Maíz. To the Municipality
of Monte Maíz, that facilitated the stay of our team during the 5-day field work.
To the professors and students of Medicine and Geography from UN, to the
professors and students of Chemistry from the Faculty of Naturals and Exact
Sciences of National University of La Plata, that conducted the chemical field
M. Avila-Vazquez et al.
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10.4236/jep.2018.93016 251 Journal of Environmental Protection
work at Monte Maiz. And to “Ayni Translations” who carried out the translation
of the Spanish original to English.
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial inter-
ests.
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... A similar situation is in Argentina, which has been accused of using huge amount of pesticides, including 240,000 tons of glyphosate per year. This has resulted in glyphosate and AMPA being detected in 100% of samples of studied water bodies and soils [44]. The levels of glyphosate in waters ranged from 0.10 to 0.70 mg·L −1 , while in sediments and soils values were between 0.5 and 5.0 mg·kg −1 . ...
... The levels of glyphosate in waters ranged from 0.10 to 0.70 mg·L −1 , while in sediments and soils values were between 0.5 and 5.0 mg·kg −1 . Glyphosate also had the highest concentrations among all the matrices studied (3868 ppb), exceeding by far the other pesticides: endosulfan II (337.7 ppb) and chlorpyrifos (242 ppb) [44,45]. The highest rate of detection was found in stream sediment samples (glyphosate 95%, AMPA 100%), followed by surface water (glyphosate 28%, AMPA 50%) and then groundwater (glyphosate 24%, AMPA 33%) [46]. ...
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... A study showed that GBH exposure results in the reduction of sperm motility in men (Anifandis et al. 2018). Furthermore, there is a correlation in miscarriages in women who are occupationally exposed to GBHs during their pregnancies (Avila-Vazquez et al. 2018). GBHs and AMPA are believed to interfere with normal neurotransmission, resulting in alterations to the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis (Van Bruggen et al. 2018). ...
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... Discovering acute toxicities seems reliable after glyphosate has become the focus of research interest. By carefully considering the roles of the brain, one would predict glyphosate can cause other health problems [100][101][102][103]. In addition, one should predict potential ecological impacts [104]. ...
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... Discovering acute toxicities seems reliable after glyphosate has become the focus of research interest. By carefully considering the roles of the brain, one would predict glyphosate can cause other health problems [100][101][102][103]. In addition, one should predict potential ecological impacts [104]. ...
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Chapter
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Introduction: In the past decades, several authors have investigated the genotoxicity caused by exposure to chemicals, but there are no reports on studies analyzing such effects on children in Argentina. The objective of this study was to establish the micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells in children from urban areas with environmental exposure (through inhalation) and to compare it with the micronucleus frequency in children from urban regions far from areas subjected to spraying. Population and methods: Fifty children living in the town of Marcos Juárez (Córdoba) at different distances from pesticide spraying areas and twenty-five children from the city of Río Cuarto (Córdoba), who are considered not exposed to pesticides, were studied; the micronucleus assay in buccal mucosa cells was used. Results: A significant difference was observed between exposed children living less than 500 m from areas subjected to spraying and those who were not exposed. Forty percent of exposed children suffer some type of persistent condition, which may be associated with chronic exposure to pesticides. Conclusions: Results indicate that genotoxicity is present in a group of children compared to the other one, and highlight the importance of the micronucleus assay in buccal mucosa cells for genetic biomonitoring and public health surveillance. This assay is capable of detecting a level of damage that can be reversible.
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Los pesticidas utilizados en agricultura pueden representar un riesgo potencial para la salud de los agricultores expuestos y para el medio ambiente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar trabajadores frutihortícolas expuestos a plaguicidas, categorizados por: exposición directa (n = 45), exposición indirecta (n = 50) y controles (n = 50) mediante biomarcadores de exposición y efecto: colinesterasa (ChE), acetilcolinesterasa (AChE), catalasa (CAT), peroxidación de lípidos (TBARS), Indice de Daño Ensayo Cometa (IDEC) e Indice de Daño Ensayo Reparación (IDER). Los resultados indican: a) inhibición significativa de AChE (p < 0.001) en expuestos directos e indirectos; b) aumento en los niveles de TBARS (p < 0.001) en los directos; c) reducción de CAT significativa (p < 0.01) y d) aumento de IDEC e IDER (p < 0.001) en ambos grupos. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan modificaciones en el balance oxidativo junto con daño al ADN en los trabajadores estudiados. Estos hallazgos representan una contribución en la evaluación subclínica de exposición a agroquímicos en nuestro país.
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There is considerable controversy with regard to the genotoxicity of glyphosate, with some reports stating that this compound is non-toxic for fish, birds and mammals. In this work, we used the comet assay to examine the genotoxicity of glyphosate isopropylamine (0.7, 7, 70 and 700 μM) in human lymphocytes, erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus and staminal nuclei of Tradescantia (4430) in vitro and in vivo. Cells, nuclei and fish that had and had not been exposed to 5 mM N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Significant (p < 0.01) genetic damage was observed in vivo and in vitro in all cell types and organisms tested. Human lymphocytes and Tradescantia hairs showed lower genetic damage in vivo compared to in vitro, possibly because of efficient metabolization of the herbicide. In O. niloticus erythrocytes, significant (p < 0.001) genotoxicity was observed at ≥ 7 μM, whereas in vitro, glyphosphate was genotoxic in human lymphocytes and Tradescantia hairs at ≥ 0.7 μM. These results indicate that glyphosate is genotoxic in the cells and organisms studied at concentrations of 0.7-7 μM.
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