Conference Paper

Usage patterns and impacts of a mobility flat rate traced with a Smartphone App

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... The overall high WTP for bundles may not be unreasonable and was observed in Switzerland before. In an experiment, the national train company (SBB) offered a mobility package called "SBB Greenclass" (a price bundle) 6 (Becker et al., 2018). Greenclass included a 1st class GA travelcard, a BMW i3, park and ride, car-sharing, bicycle-sharing, and vouchers for taxi journeys (total value of CHF 250). ...
Thesis
Technological innovations in recent decades have led to a further decrease in transport costs. As a result, global passenger transport, which is a primary enabler of increased globalisation, is at an all-time high. This has led to interconnectedness of states, organisations and people on a scale never seen before. While this development has many positive sides, such as increased overall prosperity, the transportation sector is also a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions and thus a primary driver of climate change. In parallel, digital transformation is leaving its mark on the transport sector. It is a principal driver of future transport directions, including automated driving, passenger drones and the autonomous delivery of goods. More subtly, today's transport system is already being transformed. New business models that rely on tight digital integration of services have started to appear and new mobility services such as ride sourcing, (e-)bike sharing and e-scooter sharing have been introduced in many cities around the world. Specifically, two developments connected to digital transformation have driven the emergence of new mobility services and have increased analysts' ability to study the transportation system. First, as a consequence of the high market penetration of smartphones, there is a direct interface between most individuals and mobility providers. This allows for the comprehensive personalisation of services: the location of the customer, information about capacities of transport networks and complementary information (such as weather data) can be taken into account when a service is offered. Second, the cost and effort required to obtain data on individuals, including their location, has decreased, enabling this information to be used to inform the design of transport policies. This thesis presents three contributions that are to a great extent driven by the global trends of digital transformation and subsequent personalisation. Two contributions are part of the broad topic of new mobility services, which are likely to shape future (urban) transport systems: Mobility as a Service (MaaS) bundles and electric bicycle-sharing systems. A wide array of shared and highly integrated services may contribute to a decrease in emissions and have the potential to ease the tension between increasing mobility and mitigating the environmental burden of the transport system. The third contribution assumes a more global perspective and examines one of the primary determinants of daily commuting patterns: choice of residential location relative to an individual's work location. A personal network survey was conducted to study the effects of proximity to personal contacts on residential location choice and its connection to commuting. The first contribution of the thesis shows that MaaS bundles may indeed be an attractive option for a certain share of the population. However, the results also suggest that not all services are viewed as complementary by potential customers. Including non-complementary services may decrease the propensity of customers to choose a particular bundle. Operators should thus carefully target bundles to potential customers. The second contribution analyses free-floating e-bike sharing. Free-floating (e-)bike-sharing services are often part of MaaS bundles and provide the flexibility that traditional public transportation sometimes lacks. This chapter shows that free-floating e-bike sharing is part of an ongoing evolution of bicycle-sharing systems. The competitive position of e-bike sharing compared to traditional modes of urban transportation is also examined. Drivers of e-bike-sharing demand are analyzed and it is shown that population, workplace density and proximity to central locations are among the most important drivers of demand. Transferability of the models to new areas is also analysed and discussed. The question of how personal networks affect residential location choice is answered using data from a personal network survey that was collected as part of this thesis. It is shown that personal networks are an important factor and ignoring them may lead to an overestimation of commute time in analyses of residential location choice. Partial compensation of longer commutes may be achieved through higher access to individual social capital that is provided by proximity to personal contacts. This potentially affects transport policies aimed at reducing time spent commuting.
... The overall high WTP for bundles may not be unreasonable and was observed in Switzerland before. In an experiment, the national train company (SBB) offered a mobility package called SBB Greenclass (a price bundle) 7 (Becker et al., 2018). Greenclass included a 1st class GA travelcard, a BMW i3, park and ride, car sharing, bicycle-sharing, and vouchers for taxi journeys (total value of CHF 250). ...
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Novel approaches to service bundling in the passenger transportation market are enabled by technology driven innovations and give rise to so called Mobility as a Service (MaaS) concepts. These approaches promise to increase the accessibility of existing public transportation services, possibly decrease car ownership rates and lower the environmental burden of the transportation system. However, the potential effects of comprehensive service bundles in the passenger transportation market are still largely unclear. In a competitive market, the potential success of MaaS bundles follows consumer valuation of the bundles as compared to valuation of stand-alone services. Thus, the difference between the bundle and sum-of-parts willingness to pay (WTP) is an indicator for the valuation of the bundling itself (which includes service integration valuation) and effects the competitiveness of the service bundles. In this study, several discrete choice experiments were conducted to indirectly estimate consumers' WTP for stand-alone transportation services and service bundles. The results indicate that public transportation, car sharing, and park and ride services are valuated significantly higher when offered in a bundle instead of as a stand-alone service. Bicycle-sharing, electrical bicycle (e-bike) sharing and taxi services are valuated lower. Potential consumers also exhibit a high WTP for a smartphone application that integrates the services and manages ticketing and payment. Consequently, subscription-based pure bundles for all transportation modes may not be the optimal strategy for mobility providers. Instead, it may be better to bundle public transportation with car sharing and park and ride to exploit the higher WTP and offer (electric) bicycle-sharing and taxi services on a pay-per-use basis. In this way, profitability of a public transportation system could be increased.
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Stated Preference Design for Exploring Demand for
  • M Matyas
  • K Kamargianni
Matyas, M. and K. Kamargianni (2017) Stated Preference Design for Exploring Demand for "Mobility as a Service" Plans, paper presented at the 5 th International Choice Modelling Conference, Cape Town.