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Abstract and Figures

Vertebrata/Craniata, ‘Ostracodermi’, Pteraspidomorphi, Tetrapoda, Amniota, Synapsida, Mammalia, Primates, Haplorhini, Hominidae, Homo sapiens, lateral sensory (canal) line & pore systems, geology, palaeontology, evolutionary trend, origin, homology, philosophy of sciences, history of sciences, science, pseudo-sciences, relativism, Leonardo da Vinci, Zhuang Zhi, Wittgenstein, acumeridians & acupoints, acupuncture, medical Qigong, Qi, electro-magnetic field, Tao Yin
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Evolution of vertebrate acumeridians
by Alain R. M. BLIECK * & M. Edmonde R. RAZAFIMAHALEO **
* CNRS-UMR 8198 EvoEoPaleo, palaeontology team, & Université de Lille, Faculté des Sciences et
technologies, bâtiment SN5 (Sciences de la Terre), F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq cedex (France);
** Association Française d’Acupuncture, Groupe Lyonnais d'Etudes Médicales ; 38 rue Paul Doumer, F-59320
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
Key words………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
Foreword………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
Heterostracan lateral canal system & other basal vertebrate sensory line system……………………… 6
Human acupuncture meridian tracks……………………………………………………………………... 11
Animal acupuncture meridian tracks & identification of their physical support………………………. 13
Interpretations……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
Evolution and Transformism…………………………………………………………………………………. 18
Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
Acknowledgments……………………………………………………………………………………………... 19
Biblio- & Web-ography………………………………………………………………………………………... 21
« Nous dédions cette publication à nos petites-filles
Janelle, Isis, Inaya, Mahault & Sixtine
Le Club des Cinq »
Abstract. The meridian system in traditional Chinese medicine consists of a network of
channels in the human body through which energy flows, but despite ongoing research no
unambiguous scientific evidence for their existence has been put forward. Here we outline the
hypothesis that human acupuncture meridians, whatever their anatomical reality, can be
interpreted as homologous with the sensory line (canal) system known in phylogenetically
basal vertebrates/craniates, i.e. heterostracans. Likewise, we hypothesize that the external
double pores of the sensory line system may be homologous to external acupores. We make a
brief review of the condition of the Lateral Line System (LLS) in major phylogenetically
‘intermediate’ taxa, viz., ‘fish’, amphibians, and amniotes, and mention what may have been
conditions in oldest Cambrian-Ordovician basal vertebrates. Following Wittgenstein’s,
Zhuang Zhi’s and Leonardo da Vinci’s philosophy, we consider that description is enough to
get the process and function (Relativism). Cladistic phylogenetic analysis light shined. It
allowed to define the most parsimonious distribution of features such as basal conditions LS0
(unossified lateral lines 0), LS1, LS2, Lateral Canal System 1 (LCS1), LCS2, LLS and their
derived conditions Meridians (M) and Acupores (A), and then Governor and Conception
meridians (GM + CM). Dates of first minimal occurrence are evaluated: LS0 in Ediacaran?,
LS2 in Cambrian, M + A in Ordovician, GM + CM in Silurian. Proof vs. witness is
disciussed. Finally we propose some new path toward evolutionary relationships.
Key words. Vertebrata/Craniata, ‘Ostracodermi’, Pteraspidomorphi, Tetrapoda, Amniota,
Synapsida, Mammalia, Primates, Haplorhini, Hominidae, Homo sapiens, lateral sensory
(canal) line & pore systems, geology, palaeontology, evolutionary trend, origin, homology,
philosophy of sciences, history of sciences, science, pseudo-sciences, relativism, Leonardo da
Vinci, Zhuang Zhi, Wittgenstein, acumeridians & acupoints, acupuncture, medical Qigong,
Qi, electro-magnetic field, Tao Yin.
« Relativism is the idea that views are relative to differences in perception and
consideration. There is no universal, objective truth according to relativism; rather each
point of view has its own truth. » (Wikipedia 2018a). Consequently & pragmatically, a
‘complete’, detailed & ‘honnest’ description of facts and only facts is sufficient, and does
naturally lead to interpretation(s), hypotheses, theories, paradigms… These were earlier
Zhuand Zhi’s and da Vinci’s conceptual positions before Wittgenstein’s (1967) expressed
philosophy (Billeter 2002). We may thus conclude that facts equal interpretation or ‘fiction’,
and that facts and fictions are the two facets of ‘natural truth’, in other romantic words, they
are ‘factions’ (Wikipedia 2018b).
We tried to distinguish proof from witness in reporting general vs. personal
testimonies. « A witness-indistinguishable proof (WIP) is a variant of a zero-knowledge proof
for languages in NP. In a typical zero-knowledge proof of a statement, the prover will use a
witness for the statement as input to the protocol, and the verifier will learn nothing other
than the truth of the statement. In a WIP, this zero-knowledge condition is weakened, and the
only guarantee is that the verifier will not be able to distinguish between provers that use
different witnesses. In particular, the protocol may leak information about the set of all
witnesses, or even leak the witness that was used when there is only one possible
witness.Witness-indistinguishable proof systems were first introduced by Feige and Shamir.
Unlike zero-knowledge proofs, they remain secure when multiple proofs are being performed
concurrently. » (Wikipedia 2018h). « Dans l’échafaudage des théories du complot, une
grande valeur est accordée aux témoignages [witnesses]. En effet, plus ils sont nombreux,
plus les chances augmentent de trouver des contradictions entre eux, ce qui, pour les
partisans de ces thèses, devient alors la preuve irréfutable qu’il y a « anguille sous roche »
[Eel under Rock] et « qu’on nous cache des choses ». À l’inverse, cette abondance devrait
induire une analyse de cohérence qui est souvent en défaveur des allégations des
« conspirationnistes » (nom donné aux personnes qui propagent ces théories). » (Quirant
It does not seem that any scientific theory of the origin and existence of human
acupuncture meridian tracks was ever proposed. Here we focus on a possible homology
between heterostracan canal (sensory line) system and human acupuncture meridians. Li et al.
(2014) say that « the origin of meridians is closely related to the imageries derived by ancient
physicians experiencing the circulation of Qi in their bodies during Qigong practice. Based
on the cognitive experience from Qigong practice, as well as the symbolic analogy of the flow
of rivers and the irrigation system of agriculture, the meridian theory has constructed a
model of Qi and blood circulation. Such model is abstract and yet concrete, dialectic and yet
intuitive, definite and yet vague, integrated and yet independent, having profound influence
on the overall formation of traditional Chinese medicine theories. » This is quite vague and
unprecise. In the same way « The meridian system is a concept in traditional Chinese
medicine (TCM) about a path through which the life-energy known as "qi" flows. »
(Wikipedia 2017 after Novella 2012). This is again a non-rational definition. However, even
if meridians do not correspond to any known anatomical structure such as blood vessels
(either arteries or veins), or lymph conducts, or anything else, they must have an anatomical
support. They indeed do have effects, if we just bear witness from our own experience. Both
authors have been living together for ca. 40 years. One of us (ERR) used acupuncture needles
on the other (ARMB) for a series of disease such as rhumatoid polyarthritis, kidney polykyst
disease, liver polykyst disease, lung problems, etc. These have not been cured by, but
profoundly helped in restoring healthy conditions. Scientists of course object that (1) The
human body is quite well examined, an additional, as yet undiscovered anatomical structure is
thus highly unlikely; and (2) This is an anectode and in fact is unfalsifiable, as there is no
statistical base to define the ‘amelioration’. We try to show both the contraries.
Needles that are operated on traditional acupuncture points, do have a kind of
« electric » effect that moves from the points down to feet, along what seems to be « canals »
or « channels » of the body, i.e., what Chinese physicians call « meridians ». This calls in
physical and mental understanding to a physical support to meridians. What is this support ?
We propose here an apparently not yet envisaged solution based upon our own experience in
early/lower vertebrate (fish) anatomy, and in particular a group of basal taxa generically
called Heterostraci (Vertebrata/Craniata, Pteraspidomorphi), and in traditional global Chinese
medicine. The pattern or description of the facts described here below will be considered first.
L. Wittgenstein does justify to just give description of a phenomenon as follows : « The world
is all that is the case. What is the case—a fact—is the existence of states of affairs. A logical
picture of facts is a thought. A thought is a proposition with sense. A proposition is a truth-
function of elementary propositions. » (Wittgenstein 1921, 1984, Tractatus Logico-
Philosophicus; translated in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2014). It appears that
24 centuries before, the Chinese taoist philosopher Zhuangzi (a.k.a. Zhuang Zhou or
Tchouang Tseu, a possible mythic individual such as it is now referred to as Zhuang Zhi
book, or Nanhuazhenjing) was doing the same with his own manner. « Zhuangzi’s chief
strategy as a writer seems to have been to undermine our ordinary notions of truth and value
by claiming a very radical form of fact and value relativity. !We call this approach
“relativism” because Zhuangzi’s basic claim is that what we take to be facts are only facts in
relation to our distorted view of the world, and what we take to be good or bad things only
appear to have positive and negative value because our mistaken beliefs lead us into arbitrary
prejudices. » (Eno 2010). However, even if we consider facts to be primordial, we propose
some new path toward evolutionary relationships at the end of the paper.
Heterostraci are a supposedly monophyletic small group (taxon) of early/lower
vertebrates known from the Early Silurian to Late Devonian (Frasnian), that is, from ca. 440
million years (Ma) Before Present (BP) to ca. 372 Ma BP (ICS 2017). They were typical
elements of a palaeocontinent called the Old Red Sandstone Continent (ORSC) because of
deposits of sedimentary rocks called Old Red Sandstone (ORS): Old because they are old,
Red because they are red, due to warm humid climatic conditions, Sandstone because they are
mostly composed of sandstones, eventually sands and clays as in the East Baltic Region and
the Russian Platform on European Russia. ORS is a post- to late-tectonic deposit of the
Caledonian orogeny (mountain building) that occurred during a long period of the Palaeozoic
Era, i.e., Silurian and Devonian mostly. It is the result of erosional processes of the mountains
being built by plate tectonic activity of the Earth when the ORSC and two other
palaeocontinents of the time, viz., Siberia and Gondwana, were converging in order to
constitute at the end of the Palaeozoic Era a single huge landmass called Pangea (see, e.g.,
Scotese 2003, 2011). Heterostraci were mainly inhabitants of near shore seas of the time,
along the main landmasses (ORSC, Siberia and Gondwana). Some of them were perhaps
fresh water, lacustrine or fluvial inhabitants.
Anatomically, Heterostraci a.k.a. as heterostracans are a basal (‘primitive’) taxon of
vertebrates/craniates (Fig. 1). Their main features are as follows: occurrence of neural crests,
epidermal placodes, fin radials (1 on Fig. 1); vertebrae (V on Fig. 1); dermoskeleton in mouth
and pharynx (2); extensive dermoskeleton over the entire body (3 on Fig. 1; Euvertebrata
sensu Turner et al. 2010); extensive lateral-line system enclosed in grooves and canals,
vertical semicircular canals forming loops, cerebellum (4); median dorsal and median ventral
bony plates (P); single paired branchial opening (H). Where we see that they developed a
Fig. 1. Right: Phylogenetic (cladistic, that is, based upon parsimony analysis, not probabilistic)
relationships of basal vertebrates/craniates with location of monophyletic groups Pteraspidomorphi
and Heterostraci. Note that ‘Cyclostomi’ are here considered as paraphyletic in Janvier’s (2007, 2008)
concept although they are now most often considered as monophyletic (e.g. Schultze 2016). Captions:
P- Pteraspidomorphi, H- Heterostraci, C- Craniata, V-Vertebrata. Nodes: 1- neural crests, epidermal
placodes, fin radials; 2- dermoskeleton in mouth and pharynx; 3- extensive dermoskeleton over the
entire body (Euvertebrata sensu Turner et al. 2010); 4- extensive lateral-line system enclosed in
grooves and canals, vertical semicircular canals forming loops, cerebellum; 5- endoskeleton lined with
calcified cartilage or perichondral bone; 6- pectoral fins in postbranchial position; 7- jaws
(Gnathostomata - crown group gnathostomes); 8- teeth (Eugnathostomata sensu Turner et al. 2010).
Left: Stratigraphical distribution of taxa in the geological time scale. On top left, ages are given in
million years (Myr).
system of sensory lines homologous to the lateral lines of Recent fishes such as teleosts (most
of the fish that human beings eat, as, e.g., herring, tuna, sole, carp, catfish, etc.). In
Heterostraci, these sensory lateral lines are enclosed in bony canals and eventually open
grooves as, e.g., in a small subgroup from the Devonian of North Siberia called amphiaspids.
Fig. 2. Double pore system of lateral sensory canals of a the pteraspid
heterostracan Miltaspis anatirostrata from the Lower Devonian of Spitsbergen
after Blieck (1982, fig. 13, 15 and 16A). A-B, dorsal shields in dorsal view; C-
reconstruction of dorsal shield in dorsal view. Abbreviations: cmda-c- dorsal
transverse commissures, lc- lateral canal, ld- lateral (median) dorsal canal, pic-
pineal canal, soc- supraorbital canal; other abbreviations are for dorsal unpaired
and paired bony plates of the shield.
Most sensory lines in heterostracans are enclosed in canals, that communicate with outside
through a system of double pores (Fig. 2). This system is very simple and well, symmetrically
organized (3A-D; Kiaer & Heintz 1935). Basically it is composed of two longitudinal parallel
canals that run from the anterior part of the dorsal face of the head down to its posteriormost
part (Fig. 3A), with a series of transverse, smaller canals (lc on Fig. 3A) and a V-shaped
paired canal diverging from what is called the pineal macula (soc), a thin layer of bone being
located above the equivalent (homologous in evolutionary term) of our pineal organ a.k.a. as
the conarium or epiphysis cerebri or even pineal eye. In this pattern, what is interesting to our
present purpose is the pair of longitudinal canals known as lateral and median longitudianl
canals (ldc and mdc on Fig. 3A). This pattern may be a bit more complicated in some other
heterostracans such as the one depicted on Fig. 3D where the lateral longitudinal canals (ldc)
are sinuous, but strictly identical (homologous) to the previous ones. Even more complicated
patterns made of anastomosed small and longer canals in a kind of dense network are known
(Fig. 3B-C). The latter are interpreted as more derived (‘evolved’) conditions for
heterostracans. Small portions of this lateral system are known on the flank scales of some
heterostracans such as the one depicted on Fig. 3A (Kiaer & Heintz 1935, fig. 50 and 52).
This line does continue the paired lateral longitudinal canal which is seen on the ventral bony
head shield (ibid., fig. 52).
Fig. 3.Heterostracan lateral canal system (sensory lines) from Denison (1964)
and Elliott (1983). Captions: A- Poraspid, B-C- Irregulareaspid, D- Pteraspid.
Abbreviations of canal names: ldc- lateral dorsal, mdc- median dorsal, soc- supra-
orbital, tc- transverse commissure.
In basal Pteraspidomorphi, viz. Ordovician arandaspids, which may be interpreted as
more basal or plesiomorphous (‘primitive’) than heterostracans proper (Fig. 3), the pattern of
sensory lines is simpler and different from the heterostracan one (Fig. 4). It is made of a series
of small oblique grooves on the dorsal bony head shield and along the upper part of the
margins of ventral bony head shield. Additionally the anterior part of the dorsal head shield
shows two symmetrical loops behind the eyes which are forwardly directed (Fig. 3) contrary
to heterostracan eyes which are antero-dorsally directed (Fig. 3A-D). This pattern of
arandaspids (Sacabambaspis on Fig. 4) would thus be a ‘primitive’ condition for the canal
sensory system of pteraspidomorphs. It might as well possibly be interpreted as ‘primitive’
(plesiomorphous in cladistic phylogenetic term) for all basal vertebrates (V on Fig. 1) and
craniates (C). This is not clear yet in the general phylogeny of all chordates (see, e.g., Janvier
Fig. 4. Artist’s reconstruction of the basal
Ordovician arandaspid pteraspidomorph
Sacabambaspis after Žigaitė & Blieck (2013, fig.
28.2). Median length of the animal is ca. 30 cm.
Predecessors to vertebrates (predecessors, not ancestors; ancestors can not be logically
defined in the fossil record, they can only be theoretically reconstructed after a phylogenetic
analysis) are known in the Lower Cambrian of South China at ca. 515 Ma BP under
Myllokunmingia (possible synonym Haikouichthys). Myllokunmingia was an amphioxus-like
small elongated finless animal which was possibly burrowing at bottom of Cambrian
epicontinental seas. It shows some vertebrate features such as two front eyes, V-shaped
(‘primitive’ state) myomeres, a paired row of branchial external openings (‘primitive’
pharyngotremy), a possible dorsal (vertebrate state) and caudal (‘primitive’ state known in
many ‘worms’) fins, a possible dorsal notochord (true derived vertebrate feature) (references
in Nelson et al. 2016). It is presently considered as the most basal ‘vertebrate’ (craniate) (Fig.
1). Eventual sensory line or lateral canal system has not been described yet in this Chinese
animal. The result is that we do not know what was the most ‘primitive’ (basal) condition of
sensory line system in vertebrates. Many other supposed vertebrates of Cambrian and
Palaeozoic age have all been discarded (e.g. conodonts, Pikaia, yunnanozoans, etc.; see, e.g.,
Turner et al. 2010, Blieck et al. 2011, and work in progress by Blieck et al. on the Handbook
of Paleoichthyology, vol. IB, Schultze H.-P. ed., Dr F. Pfeil publ., München, Germany).
Acupuncture of traditional Chinese medicine, together with other « technical fields »
such as moxibustion, Qigong, Chinese food therapy, herbal medicine, Tui na (massage by
acupressure, ear therapy… is an alternative medicine that treats patients by needle insertion
and manipulation at acupoints (APs) in the body, it is practised for over 2000 years in Asia.
« The underlying mechanisms of acupuncture and moxibustion are not self-evident, thus
engendering considerable research interest. » (Hobbs 2009).
Several very recent medical studies shew how acupoints are functioning and what
physiological effects they have when stimulated. « Acupuncture causes collagen fiber
contraction, which results in soluble actin polymerization and actin stress fiber formation,
and thus affects the nervous and immune systems. In addition, acupuncture leads to molecular
changes at APs in tissues at the cellular level, and the local biophysicochemical reactions at
the APs send signals to the organs via the tissue fluid and blood circulatory systems for
optimal adjustment of the body's organs. » (Ding et al. 2014; already Ahn & Martinssen 2007
who shew « that these acupoints have an electric activity »). « To date, no unique anatomical
acupoint structures have been found. However, noxious sensory signals from visceral organs
produce hypersensitive spots on the skin (neurogenic spots), caused by cutaneous neurogenic
inflammation, in the dermatome that overlaps with visceral afferent innervations. Here, we
show that an acupoint is one form of neurogenic inflammation on the skin. » (Kim et al.
2017). A systematic review of biophysical studies on electric, acoustic, thermal, optical,
magnetic, isotopic, and myoelectric aspects of meridians and acupoints was processed by Li
et al. (2012; see also Hobbs 2009), who « suggest that meridians/acupoints have biophysical
characteristics which are different from nonacupuncture points. »
Fig. 5. Human acupuncture meridian tracks from
(Viewed on January 2nd, 2018. After Cheng 1987, figs 53-54).
On all acupuncture meridian charts for human beings, the meridians are elements of a
network of mostly longitudinal canals (channels) that run from the head down to the feet (Fig.
5). Following various Chinese schools of acupuncture (Xue et al. 2015), this pattern shows a
more or less important number of longitudinal canals. Indeed, acupuncture point location
varies among acupuncturists (Bäumler et al. 2012). However, basically this pattern shows
three paired longitudinal canals, the most median one going from near to the clavicles to the
feet on the ventral face of the body (Fig. 5A) (e.g., Cheng 1987). Dorsally two paired
longitudinal canals are shown (Fig. 5B). They merge with a third paired canal coming from
the arms, at base of the head and run to the summit of the head down to its frontal part near to
the eyes. These canals make acupoints being interconnected with each other.
Acupuncture meridians are also known among a great diversity of animals including
domestic ones, and in particular our preferred pets (elephants, cattle, horses, dogs, cats,
monkeys, and rabbits). For instance, meridians on horses are mostly made of longitudinal
canals, both on ventral and dorsal faces of the animal, with paired longitudinal items and an
unpaired median longitudinal one on both the ventral and the dorsal faces. This scheme is
homologous to the human one which, in turn, may be used as a bauplan for mammals.
Other vertebrates such as birds and « reptiles » (this old zoological term does in fact
refer to non-homeothermic amniotic tetrapods, it is a paraphyletic group in cladistic analysis
concept, and has no ‘natural’ existence in classifications, other than Linnean; it may be kept
for practical and popular reasons) are also treated in acupuncture. « Meridian points on lizards
are easily transposed from canine acupoints » (Mader 2006), so that it seems that the mammal
bauplan may be applied to at least other amniotes (« reptiles », birds and mammals, and
perhaps some of their fossil related groups such as dinosaurs, marine « reptiles », pterosaurs,
etc.). Amphibians may also have easily identifiable or accessible points (Mader 2006). « A
meridian-like distribution of Alcian blue existed after it was injected into a fish's body and
suggested a new animal model for meridian study … They were similar to the locations of the
governor, conceptual vessel, and urinary bladder meridians, respectively, on the human body
according to the classic theory of traditional Chinese medicine » (Wang et al. 2015), arguing
in favour of the meridians as being physical canals (channels, tubes, vessels), and suggesting
that a generalized bauplan would be identifiable for all vertebrates! However, « if [Wang et
al.’s (2015)] hypothesis is true, then in essence the sensory line system should have been
colored in this fish. I am not sure that is the case. After all, if it were the case, they should
have been able to draw the meridian system for fish. Also, and more importantly the authors
transpose from fish to humans in the abstract, but not really in the paper, suggesting they
have little substance to their claims.” (van Bocxlaer B., pers. com. To A. B., 16/01/2018).
This does cast doubt about a strict homology of meridians and lateral line system. So, if Wang
et al.’s (2015) hypothesis is correct, the lateral line system of bony enclosed canals of dermal-
epidermal origin of our preferred weird Silurian-Devonian fish a.k.a. heterostracans is
homologous to the acupuncture meridian network of channels with electric activity and a
series of other physiological effect.
From a primary, very basic comparison of heterostracan lateral sensory canals and
external double pore rows with human acupuncture meridian supposed channels and
electrically active acupoints to a brief review of equivalent (probably homologous) patterns in
all ‘intermediate’ taxa in a cladistic phylogenetic point of view, it appears (1) that an apparent
generalized ‘bauplan’ (in old gradualistic sense), that is, a series of synapomorphies, may be
defined and observed for all vertebrates ( craniates if cyclostomes are monophyletic), and (2)
that those canals/channels are physically observable in certain Recent fish. So, the ‘esoteric’
theoretical term of ‘channels’ currently used by acupuncture physicians, either Asian or
Westerner, for naming their beloved meridians does actually correspond to physical canals
(channels, tubes, vessels or whatever) that scientists, biomedical researchers as well as
clinicians will have to track over all vertebrates from the earliest/most ‘primitive’
(plesiomorphous) ones — including what palaeontologists call ‘ostracoderms’, i.e., ossified
fossil agnathan (jawless) vertebrates as Pteraspidomorphi, Osteostraci, Galeaspida,
Pituriaspida, Thelodonti, and placoderms, i.e., ossified fossil jawed but toothless vertebrates
as Acanthothoraci, Rhenanida, Antiarcha, Petalichthyida, Ptyctodontida, Arthrodira to the
most ‘evolved’ (apomorphous) ones such as crown Gnathostomata including
Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes), Acanthodii (exclusively fossil spiny ‘sharks’),
Osteichthyes (such as teleosts that we like to eat), and Sarcopterygii (such as lungfishes,
cœlacanths, and tetrapods with amphibians, ‘reptiles’, birds, mammals and their allied). This
is certainly a huge scientific program for the next tens of years to come.
Even if we declare in introduction that we focus primarily on the pattern and neither
the function nor the evolutionary relationships, because we follow the philosophy of
singularity and strength of description over interpretation, we have a few ideas on the latter.
Let us again look at the very simple pattern of heterostracan sensory lateral canal system (Fig.
3) and at the human acupuncture meridian pattern that is most probably a mammalian pattern
(Fig. 5). What is evident is the common pattern on both dorsal (posterior) and ventral
(anterior) faces of both organisms where we have a double paired row of longitudinal canals
which, at first glance and in absence of a detailed phylogenetic analysis with location of all
possible kinds of patterns, would be topologically homologous. The longitudinal lateral canals
(ldc) would be homologous to the paired lateral longitudinal, dorsal and ventral meridians
(Fig. 5 A-B). A ventro-lateral topographical symmetry of longitudinal meridians is observed
on human beings (Figs 3 and 5). However, on the latter, both their ventral and dorsal faces
show a longitudinal unpaired median meridian canal (Governor Meridian and Conception
Meridian, Fig. 5) that has no equivalent on heterostracans (compare Fig. 5 and 3). We suggest
that this median unpaired longitudinal meridian canal of human (and probably mammalian)
beings is a derived (‘evolved’) feature which appeared during the evolutionary processes
giving rise to vertebrates on Earth, sometimes between the Silurian and the end Devonian
(from Llandovery to Frasnian at ca. 440 Ma Before Present [BP] to ca. 372 Ma BP) and the
origin of Homo (very early Quaternary at ca. 2,5 Ma BP). This may have even occurred
earlier if it concerns mammals (Early Cretaceous at ca. 120 Ma BP for crown mammals:
Hartenberger 2001, Wikipedia 2018c), or synapsid pelycosaurs, interpreted as ‘precursors’ of
mammals (Early Permian at ca. 250 to 300 Ma BP; ICS 2017). This means that this transition
from a heterostracan-like to a mammal-like pattern may have occurred in a geologically short
interval between 372 Ma BP and 300 Ma BP, given all the possibilities. This time slice would
have been enough for going from a bony enclosed system of canals to a soft tissue system of
channels. Wanting to have a logical parsimonious basis for interpreting the time & taxic
distribution of acupuncture characteristics, we tested this through a cladistic analysis. Figure 6
is based upon the following facts :
- Multiple witnesses: acupuncture practitioning on H. sapiens, mammals (primates, dogs,
cats, hedgehog…), ‘reptiles’…
- Proofs: the occurrence of Governor Meridian in teleost & +/- complete system of
acupoints in at least amniotes,
- Proofs: the occurrence of LCS/LLS in euvertebrates (ossified vertebrates/craniates),
including ostracoderms, placoderms (LCS) & eugnathostomes (LLS).
It gives the factual translation of the philosophical postures just recalled here above.
The parsimonious analysis of these facts is as follows (Fig. 7):
- Interpretation of the distribution of characters of previous cladogramme (P. Tassy, pers.
comm., email 11/03/2018): LCS appears two times with ostracoderms & placoderms
(even not sure they are homologous) – taxa location uncertain;
- LLS = eugnathostome synapomorphy – LLS in teleosts & in other ‘fish’ à either several
reversions, or particular changes, or not-understandable à in fact, most probably
eugnathostome synapomorphy;
- LLS lost in tetrapods – associated to A à ?homology LLS-A à A is a LLS state?
- M is a synapomorphi of [Actinops + Sarcops] = Osteichthyans;
- GM is an autapomorphy of teleosts.
Therefore, we can propose datings of a sequence of steps of character acquisition:
- Silurian ca. – 430 My à osteichthyans : Governor Meridian + Conception Meridian ;
- Ordovician ca. – 470 My à eugnathostomes : Meridians + Acupoints ;
- Cambrian ca. – 520 - 485 My à vertebrates / craniates : Lateral Sensory System 2 ;
- ?Ediacaran ca. – 635 My or older à chordates : Lateral Sensory System 0.
Fig. 6. Vertebrate (craniate) phylogeny: lateral sensory system vs. acumeridians.
Fig. 7. Roots & Faction.
The following implications of latter analysis are as follows :
- Phylogeny light shines !
- ‘origin(s)’ of LCS ?
- LLS ‘appears’ at least with eugnathostomes à eugnathostome
synapomorphy ?
- M ‘appear’ perhaps with osteichthyans (actinops + sarcops incl. tetrapods) à
osteichthyan synapomorphy ?
- LLS disappears with tetrapods (terrestrial);
- LCS-LLS-M = same complex lateral sensory system = L2S;
- Evolutionary trend is: LCS0 à LCS1 à LCS2 à LLS à A + M à
Governor M (dorsal) & Conception M (ventral) à next?
No more coment is needed. All what could be said was said. Where we see, once
again, that facts exceed fiction into a faction pattern & process (Fig. 9).
Fig. 8. Facts, falsehood, myths & deceits from Vote NO on E” Official Site (2018).
To understand how and ‘why’ soft structures homologous to ossified sensory line
canals evolved toward a complex network of acumeridians is out of the scope of this paper.
Nevertheless, we are confident in the fact that science is able to ’proove’ this evolutionary
trend. It needs mobilizing all four main fators that influence evolutionary development of
(palaeo)biological organisms, i.e., genetics and evolutionary developmental biology,
evolutionary palaeoenvironmental conditions through space and time (historical
palaeogeography and palaeochorology), epigenetics and biomechanics. This complex
scentific programme will most probably be able to give credit to our hypothesis. We hope
having open a new research topic by comparing two apparently very distinct fields of
scientific and (bio)medical activities. This kind of interdisciplinary contacts is always fruitful.
We also hope not to seem being totally crazy to both our human scientific communities. In
any way, at the end of such a story, the best is perhaps to go back home as did Diogenes the
Cynic when going back to his Tub (Wikipedia 2018i).
Acknowledgments. A. R. M. B. & E. R. R. thank Mrs Claudine Goor & Mr Alain
Muchembled (who followed the Qigong course given by E. R. R. on Sunday, January 7th,
2018) for providing information on taoism and useful discussion; and Dr Bert van Bocxlaer
(CNRS UMR 8198 EvoEcoPaleo, Villeneuve d’Ascq, France) for his thorough review of a
preliminary version of this paper. Philippe Le Vigouroux (Association Française pour
l’Information Scientifique and Science et pseudo-sciences editor) & Pascal Tassy (emeritus
Prof. Dr. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris) carefully read previous versions of
this paper. Their critical comments & advices on both the structure, logic and rationalism of
the paper (PLV) and the cladistic analysis (PT) were of high quality help. Apart of that,
ARMB would like to express his warmest acknowledgments to the following concepts, truth,
personnalities & objects, viz., the Void, Sky (?Paradise and/or Hell), Earth, Life, parents,
brother, family, the Club of Five, our 23 yo female cat ‘Poupoune’ who passed two years ago,
dogs, hedgehog, Tintin & Milou, La Marque Jaune, Adèle Blanc Sec, Blake & Mortimer, Enki
Bilal, Hergé, Astérix & Obélix, Uderzo & Goscinny, Papa Talon, le Marsupilami, Gaston
Lagaffe, Jens Harder, Gotlib, ‘Vernon Sullivan’, Druillet, Loane Sloane, Ekhö, the primary
school Michelet (Loos, Nord), secondary schoollycée’ Louis Pasteur (Lille), University of
Lille, Prof. Drs J. Dercourt & F. Meilliez, the Société Géologique du Nord (La Neuville-en-
Flandre), the teaching higher school ‘Ecole Normale Supérieure’ (St Cloud), Prof. Dr. R.
Blanchet, the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle – Institut de Paléontologie & C. N. R. S.
(Paris), Prof. Drs D. F. Goujet & H. Lelièvre, Drs. E. Heintz [not the Norwegian
palaeoichthyologist, but French CNRS Quaternary palaeomammalogist], Ph. Janvier, a.k.a.,
The Three Parisian Mousquetaires (sensu Prof. Dr. Susan Turner, Brisbane, Australia) who,
as everybody knows or should know were four (Wikipedia 2018d) & constituted another
Gang of Four (Wikipedia 2018e) including one of us (ARMB) in the 1970s-1980s, that
correspond to end of the Thirty Glorious years beginning of the Thirty Bad years
(Wikipedia 2018 f, g), University Pierre & Marie Curie Paris 6, Prof. Drs R. Hoffstetter, P.
Tassy, F. Bergerat & alii, the Société Française pour l’Information scientifique & its journal
Science & pseudo-sciences, Prof. Ph. Le Vigouroux, Pteraspidomorphi e tutti quanti agnathi,
cod, stockfish et gadidae alterae, ® Apple, ® Macintosh, ® iPhone, the Association
Française de Paléontologie, the City of Paris, Japanese & Scottish whisky, sausage, cheese,
peanuts, ersatzkaviarpasta, schnaps, ® Aquavit, vodka, orange & grenade juice …
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Béarnais abstract).
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January 3rd, 2018; Chinese jokes are very difficult to translate, so that they are not given
Résumé & mise en contexte & perspective
Rechercher au cours de l’histoire évolutive des vertébrés (Homme, Mammifères, ‘Reptiles’,
Amphibiens, ‘Poisson’, ‘Agnathes’, premiers vertébrés), les structures homologues des méridiens
d’acupuncture, connus depuis près de 6 000 ans des Médecins Traditionnels Chinois (MTC) ;
Suivre la piste de ces structures en remontant le temps profond, celui des archéologues,
préhistoriens, paléontologues & des géologues, depuis notre espèce vivante Homo sapiens jusqu’à
l’origine des vertébrés (animaux à vertèbres) quelque part au moins dans le Cambrien entre 540 et
490 millions d’années Avant le Présent (- 540 à 490 Ma BP), voire au-delà dans le Précambrien
terminal que l’on appelle Ediacarien [du nom d’un site fossilire australien de conservation
exceptionnelle ou Fossil-Lagerstätte] daté de 540 à - 635 Ma BP ;
Au plan de l’anatomie comparée au sens de Georges Cuvier [considéré au moins par les Français
comme le fondateur de la paléontologie des vertébrés à la suite de ses travaux pratiques et
théoriques dans les carrières de gypse de Montmartre, à Paris], décider si le système des canaux
sensoriels latéraux des ‘ostracodermes’, en particulier celui des ptéraspidomorphes, est
homologue du réseau des méridiens d’acupuncture humains.
G. Cuvier a traversé sept régimes politiques différents au cours des années troubles depuis
l’après-Révolution française en 1795 jusqu’à la Seconde Restauration en 1832, soit 37 ans de
« survie » politique, académique, sociale, scientifique, humaine, pour terminer Baron & Pair de
France. Il est inhumé au cimetière parisien du Père Lachaise - pas mal pour un petit ‘Français’ issu
d’une modeste famille luthérienne de Montbéliard qui, à l’époque de sa naissance en 1769 [soit 60
ans après la publication de la Philosophie Zoologique de Lamarck, père de la théorie du
Transformisme, et 10 ans après celle de L’Origine des espèces de Darwin, père de la théorie de
l’évolution biologique par transformation des espèces sous l’influence du milieu], appartenait aux Ducs
de Montbéliard, dépendance du Saint Empire Romain Germanique.
Le gypse est une roche sédimentaire saline constituée presqu’exclusivement d’un seul
minéral, le gypse, qui « est une espèce minérale composée de sulfate dihydraté de calcium de
formule CaSO4·2H2O. Le mot gypse désigne ainsi à la fois un corps chimique composé minéral
naturel et une roche évaporite majeure ». Les carrières de gypse de Montmarte « dont le gypse fut
exploité depuis l'époque gallo-romaine et transformé par les nombreux fours à chaux de la butte
Montmartre, ont longtemps servi à confectionner le plâtre le plus fin et le plus réputé, tant pour la
construction que pour les moulages : le ‘plâtre de Paris’ ou ’blanc parisien’ ». Le gypse de Montmartre
a livré de très nombreux squelettes complets ou subcomplets de mammifères fossiles qui ont fait sa
réputation & celle de Cuvier qui, en particulier, avait épaté la galerie de paléontologie du Muséum
National d’Histoire Naturelle en mettant au jour les os marsupiaux soutenant la poche ventrale de la
sarigue dite de Montmartre, un petit animal encore visible à l’entrée de la galerie. Il se raconte que,
par les jours de pleine Lune, il hante les atmosphères sombres du Muséum. Mais ce n’est peut-être
qu’une légende urbaine.
Les ostracodermes’ sont un groupe très primitif de vertébrés ayant vécu entre 472 et
374 Ma BP, mais on devrait en trouver dans les roches plus anciennes du Cambrien dès 540 Ma
BP, voire même dans celles de la fin de l’Ediacarien vers 550 Ma BP, qui correspondent à ce qu’on
a appelé l’ « Explosion cambrienne » à cause de l’apparition quasi-simultanée des biominéralisations
animales et végétales, phosphate de calcium, carbonates, silicates, jouant en outre un rôle de
détoxification des métaux lourds, en dehors du rôle principal de structure interne et/ou externe de
soutien, squelette, coquille, carapace (comme celle des ‘ostracodermes’ de l’Ordovicien au Dévonien).
Si on ne connaît pas encore de vertébrés ossifiés avant l’Ordovicien, c’est certainement pour au
moins sept raisons : (1) les roches du Cambrien et de l’Ediacarien sont rares à l’affleurement, (2) il y a
trop peu de géologues & paléontologues pour explorer ces roches en dehors des « Indiana Jones »
des pays ‘riches’ comme les USA, la Chine, la Russie, le Canada, l’Union européenne, l’Australie, la
Nouvelle-Zélande …, (3) les fossiles sont toujours rares, (4) la prospection n’est pas une science
exacte à la « Jurassic Park », (5) les Fossil-Lagerstätten sont rares, eux aussi, (6) les vertébrés sont
des animaux timides, (7) ils étaient à l’origine handicapés par le fait qu’ils ne respiraient pas par le
nez, organe qui était alors utilisé pour la marche « la tête en bas » comme chez les Rhinogrades
(, (8) etc.
« Un Lagerstätte (en allemand; littéralement lieu de stockage; pluriel Lagerstätten) est un
dépôt sédimentaire qui contient une grande diversité de fossiles ou des fossiles très complets. Les
paléontologues les classent en deux sortes :
Les Konzentrat-Lagerstätten (Lagerstätten de concentration) sont des dépôts particulièrement
riches en fossiles d'éléments organiques désarticulés, par exemple des os. Ces Lagerstätten
sont moins spectaculaires que les Konservat-Lagerstätten, qui sont plus célèbres. Leur contenu
s'est déposé sur une longue période. En effet, l'accumulation d'os en l'absence d'autres
sédiments prend du temps. Les dépôts qui sont issus d'une communauté vivant in-situ, comme
les récifs ou les bancs d'Huîtres ne sont pas considérés comme des Lagerstätten;
Les Konservat-Lagerstätten (Lagerstätten de conservation) sont des dépôts connus pour
l'excellente préservation des organismes fossiles qu'ils contiennent, les parties molles étant
conservées sous forme d'empreintes. Ceci est dû à un recyclage biologique incomplet. Par
exemple, dans des conditions anoxiques (absence d'oxygène), comme dans une boue
dépourvue d'oxygène, les bactéries communes de la décomposition sont absentes, ainsi la
décomposition prend suffisamment de temps pour que le sédiment conserve l'empreinte des
parties molles. La taphonomie particulière qui a permis la fossilisation varie selon les sites. Les
lagerstätten de conservation apportent des témoignages cruciaux pour la compréhension de
moments importants de l'histoire de l'évolution.
Le lagerstätte des schistes de Burgess [Colombie britannique au Canada] est associé à l'explosion
cambrienne et le lagerstätte du calcaire de Solnhofen [Allemagne] est associé aux premiers
oiseaux : Archaeopteryx ».
Les decines traditionnelles indigènes comme la Médecine Traditionnelle Chinoise
(MTC), la médecine ayurvédique indienne, les anciennes médecines naturelles occidentales [qui ont
été massacrées par le Christianisme dès le Moyen-Age sous couvert de sorcellerie & d’Inquisition], les
médecines traditionnelles amérindiennes, inuites, lapones, sibéroarctiques, japonaises, coréennes, du
Sud et du Sud-Est asiatiques, d’Australie (aborigène), océaniennes, malgache, africaines & des
régions actuellement occupées par l’Islam [qui lui aussi a éradiqué ces médecines antiques et tente
de continuer de le faire en Occident de nos jours], sont toutes les héritières des traditions
chamaniques. Celles-ci sont connues depuis le Mésolithique jusqu’au moins le Paléolithique moyen,
comme les grottes de Koonalda en Australie, de Bhimbetka en Inde, de Maros en Indonésie, les
grottes Chauvet, Cosquer, d’Altamira, Lascaux, Solutré & Isturitz en Europe. Ces grottes ont été
interprétées par Jean Clottes comme des sites de rites chamaniques, immédiatement formés par
les médias à la recherche du « buzz » pour en faire les premiers « temples » du monde. Quoiqu’il en
soit, ces chamanes préhistoriques possédaient nécessairement, comme les chamanes actuels de
Sibérie et des autres gions « naturelles » du monde contemporain, les connaissances en
herboristerie, minéraux, champignons éventuellement hallucinogènes & toutes autres médications
mises à leur disposition par leurs environnements naturels. Attention cependant de ne pas tomber
dans le piège d’un « naturalisme bobo & kéké de petit-bourgois occidental » en mal d’ésotérisme à
bas coût, prétexte à des voyages lointains en avion, le moyen de transport le plus polluant du
moment. Les sites chamaniques sont le plus souvent aujourd’hui, comme dans la préhistoire, des
sites de plein air ne laissant aucune trace fossile, ce qui induit toutes les rêveries possibles dont ont
besoin des cerveau ayant perdu tout contact avec la nature. Il reste que les grottes ornées étaient et
restent des hauts lieux de l’art mondial où « Anges ou démons, les artistes exorcisent nos peurs ».
Tout ceci amène dès lors à faire le lien raisonné & connu des MTC et autres médecines aborigènes-
indigènes, y compris celles de nos grand’mères et grand’tantes d’Europe et de Madagascar avec la
philosophie Tao Yin qui comprend, entre autres, les techniques des arts martiaux, des méditations
(yoga), du self-contrôle de la respiration, de la façon de marcher, de l’acupuncture, de la
digitopuncture, des moxas, de l’auriculothérapie, de la phytothérapie, du Qigong & du Qigong médical,
du Tai-Chi-Chouan, etc. Toutes ces techniques visent un seul but : « ‘Tradition, pensée et pratique
s’unissent et s’explicitent dans et par le rite. … Nous comprenons difficilement qu’un simple geste
rituel, qu’une simple posture puissent constituer l’un des plus hauts lieux de la pensée.’ YU DAN (Le
bonheur selon Confucius) ».
« Tao Yin ou daoyin ou dao yin (… « guidage et étirement ») est une forme de gymnastique
douce chinoise pratiquée dès l’antiquité, pouvant être associée à des exercices respiratoires (), des
exercices de concentration mentale () et une technique d’acupression (…). C’est l’une des
nombreuses pratiques visant à préserver ou à rétablir la santé et à prolonger la vie appelées
yǎngshēng (…). C'est aussi l’un des précurseurs des actuels qìgōng et de certaines techniques des
courants d’alchimie interne comme Quanzhen. La gymnastique dǎoyǐn est particulièrement liée à la
culture taoïste, mais a été adoptée également par des moines bouddhistes. Le terme dǎoyǐn est
mentionné dans le Zhuangzi qui cite aussi les figures du « classique de l'ours » () et de l’« oiseau
qui s'étire » () que l’on retrouve sous les Hàn dans le « jeu des cinq animaux » (). Un ensemble
de quarante quatre « Figures de dǎoyǐn » () a été retrouvé dans la tombe N°3 de Mawangdui.
Différentes traditions sont apparues au fil du temps : le dǎoyǐn attribué aux deux immortels de
l’antiquité Chìsōngzǐ (…) et Wáng Zǐqiáo (…), la gymnastique respiratoire inventée par le moine
Jiànzhēn (…) des Tang, le dǎoyǐn du moine Guǎngdù (…) des Song, la série des « huit pièces de
brocart » () attribuée par la légende aux généraux Zhongli Quan des Han ou Yue Fei des Song -
mais datant sans doute du xiiie siècle - et la « méthode dǎoyǐn des personnes âgées » () créé par
Cáo Tíngdòng (…) des Qīng. Le dǎoyǐn est pratiqué de préférence en intérieur, isolé du sol par une
natte, dans une pièce ni trop vaste ni trop exigüe et de luminosité moyenne, pour préserver l’équilibre
du yin et du yang. Pour un but thérapeutique, selon le Huangdi neijing, le moment de la journée et la
direction à laquelle fait face le pratiquant doivent correspondre à l’élément de la partie souffrante.
Selon Tao Hongjing, la période idéale pour tous les exercices est de 1 heure à 11 heures du matin,
période où le souffle est à son apogée. » Cet ensemble rituel vise en fait à l’immortalité du corps & de
l’esprit. Il permet d’être et de se maintenir en bonne santé tout au long de la vie (Long Life Learning ou
LLL avant l’heure).
En matière d’immortalité, on sait depuis longtemps, par les médecins occidentaux, que l’être
humain peut vivre jusque 120 ans dans de bonnes conditions de LLL. Li Qing Yun, un médecin
traditionnel Chinois & chercheur en MTC qui travaillait pour des Chinois fortunés disposant de scribes
efficaces & fiables, a vécu 256 ans de 1677 à 1933, ses dates de naissance & de mort ayant été
fidèlement enregistrées. Pendant son apprentissage du Tao Yin, il a eu un maître taoïste qui aurait
vécu quelques 500 années. Bien entendu, ceci est du pain béni pour les médias à la recherche du
sensationnel même lorsqu’ils exposent fidèlement les faits objectifs contrôlés & répétés. C’est « dans
leurs gèbes ». Cette donnée pourtant objectivement vérifiée (du moins celle de Li Qing Yun) est bien
entendu en contradiction évidente avec ce que veulent nous faire croire les clans mafieux du monde
médical & biomédical, soutenus & protégés des scandales en tous genres par le Conseil de l’Ordre
des Médecins. Ceci « est une autre histoire ». On sait pourtant par l’étude de quelques méduses
actuelles dont Turritopsis nutricula que l’immortaité existe.
On sait également, même en médecine « blanche », que le système nerveux central &
périphérique ainsi que les autres réseaux que sont les systèmes lymphatiques & paralymphatiques
sont ‘immortels’. On peut dès lors supposer sans risque de se tromper que les réseaux homologues
des systèmes sensoriels latéraux (SSL ou LSS en Anglais) & du réseau des acuméridiens le sont
aussi. On sait par ailleurs que le corps humains renferme un réseau unique constitué entièrement de
neurones, les cellules du cerveau, jusqu’au bout des pieds et des mains. Ce réseau neuronal est
immortel, il met tous les organes en inter-connexion permanente & envoie au cerveau toutes les infos
nécessaires au bon fonctionnement de l’organisme. Le cerveau n’est rien d’autre que la tour de
contrôle qui transmet les infos aux organes & veille à leur sécurité. Ceci a bien entendu de
nombreuses implications sociétales, scientifiques & philosophiques qui sortent du cadre de ce petit
Pourtant l’immortalité existe, nous l’avons rencontrée. De à souhaiter qu’elle soit
atteignable par le quidam moyen, il n’y a qu’un pas que l’un de nous (ARMB) a déjà franchi. Il espère
vivre plusieurs cycles de 119 ans, 119 étant ègal à 17 x 7, deux des nombres à forte charge
symbolique voire kabbalistique. « Le mot kabbale ne désigne pas un dogme, mais un courant à
l'intérieur du judaïsme et un état d'esprit. » ce qui rejoint le taoïsme & en montre la valeur universelle.
Seuls christianisme & islam (mais à vérifier, ce qui dépasse aussi le but du présent article) ont
sabordé volontairement tous ces aspects de la vie de tous les jours. Ils continuent de le faire dans le
monde entier sous le prétexte fallacieux de forces obscures qui, en fait les dépassent & leur font peur,
une peur ancestrale devant l’inconnu que l’homme préhistorique a certainement connue devant les
« mystères » du ciel & de la nature. Tout ceci n’a pas lieu d’être et l’un de nous au moins, mais
vraisemblablement nous deux, « croyons » (= nous tenons pour vrai jusqu’à preuve du contraire [cf. le
débat preuve / témoignage dans l’article principal ci-avant]) que nous pouvons vivre éternellement.
Bien entendu le corps humain a des limites physiologiques tel que le vieillissement cellulaire que le
Tao Yin permet de contrôler partiellement et de prolonger jusqu’au moins 256 voire env. 500 ans (voir
Li Qing Yun & son maître).
Fin de l’histoire ? Peut-être pas si on en croit les développements les plus récents de la
robotique alliée à l’Intelligence Artificielle. Ces deux disciplines de très haute technologie réalisent
des avancées considérables en particulier dans les pays asiatiques (Chine, Japon, Inde,
probablement aussi Indonésie & Malaisie) pour des raisons différentes. Le résultat est là cependant,
qui incite à penser qu’on pourra prochainement fabriquer des androïdes (humanoïdes) mâles &
femelles doués d’intelligence (artificielle) reproduisant tous les aspects des comportements humains :
pensée, esprit, sens moral, éthique & esthétique, LLL (apprentissage), sexualité, etc. au sein d’une
enveloppe « charnelle » hyper-réaliste. Ce qui ne manque pas d’inquiéter à juste titre. Ces androïdes
devront en permanence rester sous contrôle humains &, en cas de problème, être déconnectés,
désactivés, annihilés tout comme on intime à un chien bien dressé de s’asseoir. Si accident il y a, il ne
pourra être imputé qu’à l’erreur humaine et/ou sa malveillance. On n’aura à craindre des révoltes du
type de celles des iRobots que si et seulement si nous le « décidons », volontairement ou non.
Homo sapiens est déjà engagé dans le Futur immédiat & lointain. A elle & lui de savoir ce
qu’elle/il veut & pas seulement pour ses enfants mais pour elle/lui-me ! Nous arrêtons ici ces
développements qui en appellent pourtant quantité d’autres. L’objectif de cet article sur les
acuméridiens & les Pteraspidomorphi n’était pas entièrement défini avant d’écrire ce « résumé pour
tout public ». Il est venu comme ça, tout comme le faisait Leonardo da Vinci à la Renaissance avec
son écriture automatique dont une version moderne est assurée par la fonction parole’ des
smartphones. Nous n’avons pas d’actions chez les GAFAM ni les NATU. Au-delà des polémiques,
c’est pourtant un bon investissement écolonomique.
N.B. Une grande partie des données exposées ici provient d’articles de Wikipedia :édia:Accueil_principal en Français. Dans certains cas, il est préférable de
consulter la version en Anglais ou dans une autre langue :,, etc, en sachant que Wikipedia existe actuellement en 261
langues différentes ( et qu’elle continue
d’améliorer la qualité de ses articles et d’étendre le nombre de langues disponibles. Ce site participatif global &
libre est entièrement financé par une fondation américaine & les dons individuels des utilisateurs. Il n’accepte
aucune publicité commerciale ou autre. Quelques autres données sont issues d’autres sites Web :,
© A.R.M. Blieck van Bleich & E.R. Razafimahaleo
Haubourdin, Vallorcine & Villeneuve d’Ascq
France d’en haut & d’en bas
le 21/03/2018
c i o z o r e n a h P
c i o z o e l a
na i noveD
411.2 ±2.8
416.0 ±2.8
422.9 ±2.5
428.2 ±2.3
c i o z o r e n a h P
c i o z o e l a
Pc i o z o s e M
suor e f i nob r aC na i mreP cissaruJcissairT
150.8 ±4.0
~ 155.6
161.2 ±4.0
164.7 ±4.0
167.7 ±3.5
171.6 ±3.0
175.6 ±2.0
183.0 ±1.5
189.6 ±1.5
196.5 ±1.0
199.6 ±0.6
203.6 ±1.5
216.5 ±2.0
~ 228.7
237.0 ±2.0
~ 245.9
~ 249.5
251.0 ±0.4
318.1 ±1.3
260.4 ±0.7
253.8 ±0.7
265.8 ±0.7
268.0 ±0.7
270.6 ±0.7
275.6 ±0.7
284.4 ±0.7
294.6 ±0.8
299.0 ±0.8
303.4 ±0.9
307.2 ±1.0
311.7 ±1.1
na i nav l y s
-si ssiM
na i pp i s
359.2 ±2.5
345.3 ±2.1
328.3 ±1.6
374.5 ±2.6
385.3 ±2.6
391.8 ±2.7
397.5 ±2.7
407.0 ±2.8
443.7 ±1.5
436.0 ±1.9
439.0 ±1.8
418.7 ±2.7
naehc r A ciozoretorP
n a i r b m a c e r P
c i o z o r e n a h P
c i o z o n e Cc i o z o s e M
70.6 ±0.6
65.5 ±0.3
83.5 ±0.7
85.8 ±0.7
~ 88.6
93.6 ±0.8
40.4 ±0.2
37.2 ±0.1
33.9 ±0.1
28.4 ±0.1
48.6 ±0.2
55.8 ±0.2
58.7 ±0.2
~ 61.1
99.6 ±0.9
112.0 ±1.0
125.0 ±1.0
130.0 ±1.5
~ 133.9
140.2 ±3.0
145.5 ±4.0
suoecat e rC enegoe l aP enegoeN
me t s y S
do i r eP
me h t o n o E noE
me h t a r E
ega t S
se i reS
me h t o n o E
me h t a r E
me t s y S
ega t S
se i reS
do i r eP
me h t o n o E
me h t a r E
me t s y S
do i r eP
me h t o n o E
ega t S
se i reS
do i r eP
International Commission on Stratigraphy
421.3 ±2.6
426.2 ±2.4
Series 3
Stage 3
Stage 2
Stage 5
Stage 9
Stage 10
Stage 4
Series 2
na i r bmaC na i c i vod rO
~ 503
~ 506.5
~ 510 *
~ 515 *
~ 521 *
~ 528 *
460.9 ±1.6
471.8 ±1.6
488.3 ±1.7
~ 492 *
~ 496 *
~ 499
542.0 ±1.0
455.8 ±1.6
445.6 ±1.5
468.1 ±1.6
478.6 ±1.7
na i r u l i S
me h t a r E
me t syS
359.2 ±2.5
145.5 ±4.0
* y ran re ta uQ
Copyright © 2008 International Commission on Stratigraphy
Subdivisions of the global geologic record are
formally defined by their lower boundary. Each unit
of the Phanerozoic (~542 Ma to Present) and the
base of Ediacaran are defined by a basal Global
Standard Section and Point (GSSP ), whereas
Precambrian units are formally subdivided by
absolute age (Global Standard Stratigraphic Age,
GSSA). Details of each GSSP are posted on the
ICS website (
Numerical ages of the unit boundaries in the
Phanerozoic are subject to revision. Some stages
within the Cambrian will be formally named upon
international agreement on their GSSP limits. Most
sub-Series boundaries (e.g., Middle and Upper
Aptian) are not formally defined.
Colors are according to the Commission for the
Geological Map of the World (
The listed numerical ages are from 'A Geologic
Time Scale 2004', by F.M. Gradstein, J.G. Ogg,
A.G. Smith, et al. (2004; Cambridge University Press)
and “The Concise Geologic Time Scale” by J.G. Ogg,
G. Ogg and F.M. Gradstein (in press)
This chart was drafted by Gabi Ogg. Intra Cambrian unit ages
with * are informal, and awaiting ratified definitions.
* The status of the Quaternary is not yet decided. Its base may be assigned as the base of the Gelasian and extend the base
of the Pleistocene to 2.6 Ma. The “Tertiary” comprises the Paleogene and Neogene and has no official rank.
Hadean (informal)
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Object: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been taught widely in the both Eastern and Western world countries. This study compared the origin, student source, duration, and curriculum design of TCM higher education programs in China and five Western countries. Method: We searched the Internet and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database to gather relevant information. Result: All the six countries offer acupuncture and/or Chinese herbal medicine programs at universities and/or private schools. However, there are great large differences among them in the education of curriculum and TCM students enrollment and curriculum policies of TCM courses. Conclusions: There are large differences among their curriculum and enrollment policies. This comparison should provide information about the further development of international standards in TCM education.
Frankfurt-a/Main, 8 Bänder (incl. Bd. 1: Tractatus logico-philosophicus)
  • Philosophische Untersuchungen
Philosophische Untersuchungen, Frankfurt-a/Main, 8 Bänder (incl. Bd. 1: Tractatus logico-philosophicus). [In German]