PosterPDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Challenging student, government and wider society thinking on informality through 'bottom up' and 'top down' dialogue can lead to better outcomes for residents in informal settlements and slums-for example, changing understanding through knowledge creation which can lead to improved housing, water, sanitation and governance arrangements. Many partners involved in the studio commented on better appreciating the dynamics of social capital and processes in the kampungs, rather than solely focusing on visions of redevelopment anchored primarily on physical forms to create 'new places'. Government institutions are willing to learn from evidence based experiences especially if they can be applied in their own policy settings. Nothing can replicate the positive impact on students 'learning by doing' and applying typology analysis to understand form types. This contributes to more effective ways of understanding 'complexity' and 'order' in informal settlements, thus, enriching the potential policy responses for upgrading by stakeholders. As well, documenting the workings of informal settlements must be a priority given planning and design theory and practice looks down' on such settlements. If we continue to just focus on mainstream Euro-American planning tools, methods and concepts, we do not gain a deeper appreciation of the diversity and complexity of the real city with its myriad socio-cultural groupings. Planning and design operates in a world of inequities and disadvantage and the need for 'humanitarian' planning which recognizes local contexts and circumstances is now greater than ever.
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
Content may be subject to copyright.
Written and designed by:
Assoc. Prof. Paul Jones (Team Leader-Sydney University, Australia)
Assoc. Prof. Sri Maryati (Team Leader - Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Indonesia).
Dr. Ninik Suhartini (Tutor-Sydney University, Australia)
December, 2017
IMPACTS AND BENEFITS OF THE STUDIO
Challenging student, government and wider society thinking on
informality through ‘bottom up’ and ‘top down’ dialogue can lead
to better outcomes for residents in informal settlements and slums
- for example, changing understanding through knowledge creation
which can lead to improved housing, water, sanitation and governance
arrangements. Many partners involved in the studio commented on
better appreciating the dynamics of social capital and processes in the
kampungs, rather than solely focusing on visions of redevelopment
anchored primarily on physical forms to create ‘new places’.
Government institutions are willing to learn from evidence based
experiences especially if they can be applied in their own policy
settings.
Nothing can replicate the positive impact on students ‘learning by
doing’ and applying typology analysis to understand form types. This
contributes to more effective ways of understanding ‘complexity’ and
order’ in informal settlements, thus, enriching the potential policy
responses for upgrading by stakeholders. As well, documenting the
workings of informal settlements must be a priority given planning
and design theory and practice looks down’ on such settlements. If
we continue to just focus on mainstream Euro-American planning
tools, methods and concepts, we do not gain a deeper appreciation
of the diversity and complexity of the real city with its myriad socio-
cultural groupings. Planning and design operates in a world of
inequities and disadvantage and the need for ‘humanitarian’ planning
which recognizes local contexts and circumstances is now greater
than ever.
MAIN RULES DETERMINING FORM AND STRUCTURE
IN LEBAK SILIWANGI
The 2017 studio used typologies as an important tool to identify
major rules that determine form and structure. The 3 key overarching
rules that emerged were:
Rule 1: Settlement Structure is Situated within a Legacy of Past
Major Development Decisions
Rule 2: Contestation of Public - Private Space Determines
Interface Types and Alleyway Alignment
Rule 3: Change in Housing Form is Progressive by Small Scale
Adaptation and Renewal
In respect of Rule 2, staff and students were able to identify 4 primary
interface form types by which the front dwelling edge ‘push’ their
boundaries to shape and recongure the nature of the alleyway. The
above 3 rules were considered essential in explaining the evolution
of the ‘irregular’ form and structure including process of adaptation
and transformation from one type to another.
TOOLS OF ANALYSIS
A multi-disciplinary toolkit is employed with a special emphasis on
understanding processes of adaptation and transformation:
Demographics/population
Land use change
Spatial patterns of land use
Land tenure
Social networks and livelihoods
Building form and street/alleyway evolution
Governance
Evolution of morphological units including plots and blocks
Alleyway hierarchy/movement patterns
Typologies: physical and non-physical
Approaches to upgrading (at scale)
Mapping, drawing/sketching, dialogue, photography, dialogue
and listening.
For services and infrastructure - preference analysis and supply-
demand analysis.
An regular block pattern denes
the urban structure including the
alleyway hierarchy in kampung
Lebak Siliwangi, Bandung, Indonesia.
Images: Dadi Rusdiana.
An approach to student learning in informal settlements developed
by the Urban and Regional Planning discipline in the School
of Architecture, Design and Planning, University of Sydney in collaboration with
the Department of City and Regional Planning,
School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development, ITB
undertaken in a joint studio-studying Bandung, Indonesia, February, 2017
For further information on the contents of this publication, contact:
Paul Jones paul.r.jones@sydney.edu.au
Sri Maryati smaryati@pl.itb.ac.id
sydney.edu.au/architecture sappk.itb.ac.id
IMPROVING STUDENT LEARNING AND UNDERSTANDING
OF THE FORM AND STRUCTURE OF
INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS
INFORMAL URBANISM STUDIO 2017
FORM
INFORMAL
OF THE
KEY LEARNING PRINCIPLES
Recognize and acknowledge the permanency of informal
settlements
Critically question existing conceptualizations, assumptions and
‘business as usual’ perspectives on informal settlements
Understand and analyze contexts through cross disciplinary
approaches/tools
Accept urban rights to housing, land and services as basic 'human
rights'
View informal settlements as a product of socio-cultural expression
- thus, physical form and social processes are inextricably linked
Upgrade via in situ methods where possible building on social
capital and existing governance arrangements
Collaborate, engage, partner and share experiences in the
development process
Acknowledge that everyone is not equal in the development
process
THE CONCEPT
Inner city informal settlements and slums are under increasing pressure
for redevelopment as governments and private sector seek land for
higher return land use development driven by modernist secular
visions. Many solutions are preoccupied with redevelopment or
relocation, often based on a preferred physical form of development,
jobs and economic growth models. A focus only on these concerns
means that recognition of the importance of the underlying social
processes and governance used by urban dwellers in 'making places'
are forgotten or ignored.
It is within this setting that the concept evolved to use a studio and
semester long educational experience as a "entry point" to increase
student and wider society understanding of urbanism created in
informal settlements and slums. Central to the studio design is the
creation of knowledge opportunities for participation based on
cross-cultural groups of students working together with a kampung
community (informal settlement) and other partners. In 2017, for
example, the studio was joined by Professor Paulo Silva from the
University of Aviero, Portugal, sharing his views on the evolution of
settlements in Portugal. As well, the Bandung City Government also
presented and shared their kampung upgrading plans and policies.
The studio found that partners in the studio are willing to 'borrow
and adapt' what is relevant to their own settings. They are willing
to collaborate with universities they perceive as 'neutral' and not
'biased' in the development process. This collaborative approach
using insightful tools of analysis such as typologies to highlight
that order does exist brings together theory and practice to deepen
our understanding of informal settlements and slums at a range of
levels. In 2017, the theme of the studio focused on understanding
expressions of form in terms of housing expansion and alleyway
interface.
THE NEED FOR CRITICAL REFLECTION ON THEORY AND PRACTICE
From many perspectives, informal settlements and slums have
become a major urban policy concern. Globally, they account for
around a billion urban dwellers living their lives in unacceptable
housing, with inadequate levels of basic services and infrastructure
provision. Despite their growth and permanency in the urbanisation
process in the Asia- Pacic region they remain marginalized in
mainstream education curriculum and not well understood in wider
society. Informal settlements and slums continue to be stereotyped
with negative connotations, despite their social and economic
contribution to shaping and making the contemporary city. Urban
disadvantage and inequities are most visible in informal settlements.
With the globalization of education, many planning and design
students come from overseas and need 'new' tools and methods to
properly address diverse urban issues that characterize their cities
including informal settlements. In this context, a main challenge is
to develop a wider learning experience which promotes insightful
student led understanding on city complexity. This is best done
connecting students with vested stakeholders willing to share and
learn from experiences and new perspectives. Upgrading of informal
settlements should not only focus on physical form outcomes, but
should be cognisant of understanding the value of supporting
existing social networks, livelihoods, and governance arrangements.
There is an overdue need for global, national and local leadership on
what better outcomes in informal settlements look like.
THE INFORMAL URBANISM STUDIO IN PRACTICE
The studio is viewed as an integrated part of a wider learning experience
(pre-studio, in-country studio, and post-studio) and is based upon the
above key principles. The studio model used in 2015 and 2016 in the
Tamansari kampungs of Pulosari and Lebak Siliwangi was based on a
number of steps coordinated by the respective planning disciplines
at Sydney University and ITB. These were: (1) agreement by kampung
leaders to allow students and other stakeholders to engage with the
local community, (2) cultural preparedness including student language
training, (3) in-country eldwork and analysis, (4) public exhibition
of Sydney University and ITB student analysis including ideas for
renewal/upgrading propositions, and (5) student self-reection on
their learning experiences.
During the in-country eldwork, students worked together in groups
observing and undertaking baseline surveys, mapping and sharing
experiences. This included interviews with local leaders and residents,
plus typologies of housing forms, alleyways and other elements to
show processes of adaptation and transformation. As well, contextual
lectures were provided by the Bandung City Government, ITB and
Sydney University lecturers and the World Bank on Indonesian
urbanisation and current kampung urban renewal plans. Ideas,
policies and experiences were shared as the underlying drivers
of change were identied as part of a shift towards a student led
learning experience.
At the end of the studio, students presented to stakeholders their
ndings on the social, economic and physical context of the kampung
and implications for informal settlement upgrading. On return to
Australia, students presented their joint work at a public exhibition
which was supported by Indonesian and Australian partners, such as
the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs, ITB and the Indonesian
Consul General in Sydney. There was a continual emphasis on analysis,
engagement, dialogue and reection so as to: (1) challenge existing
conceptions of the social and cultural kampung fabric, (2) share
experiences and perspectives on local processes shaping kampung
form and structure, and (3) create new knowledge.
Multiple form congurations dene alleyways. Image: Paul Jones.
In country studio-ITB Bandung. Image: Ninik Suhartini.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.