Article

Sexuelle Dysfunktion und Hyper-sexualität bei Morbus Parkinson

Authors:
  • Movement Disorders Clinic Beelitz-Heilstätten, Germany
  • Movement Disorder Clinic Beelitz-Heilstaetten
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Abstract

Zusammenfassung Das idiopathische Parkinson-Syndrom (IPS) geht mit einer Reihe nicht motorischer Phänomene einher. Dabei spielen Störungen der Sexualfunktion und des Sexualverhaltens eine wichtige Rolle, da sie oft mit einer Verschlechterung der Lebensqualität und Zufriedenheit in der Partnerschaft verbunden sein können. Bei männlichen Parkinson-Patienten stehen erektile Dysfunktion, Ejakulationsstörungen und vermindertes sexuelles Verlangen im Vordergrund, wohingegen Frauen von verminderter Libido, unzureichender vaginaler Sekretion und Dyspareunie berichten. Anpassung der medikamentösen Therapie kann beim Beischlaf störende motorische Phänomene des IPS erfolgreich behandeln. PDE-5-Inhibitoren sind zur Behandlung der erektilen Dysfunktion auch bei IPS wirksam. Bei bis zu 10% der Patienten führt die medikamentöse Parkinsontherapie zu Hypersexualität, was für den Patient und dessen Umfeld eine erhebliche Belastung darstellt und strafrechtliche Konsequenzen haben kann. Behandler sollten sowohl sexuelle Dysfunktion als auch Hyper-sexualität offensiv erfragen und das Bewusstsein für das Auftreten dieser Symptome schärfen, um frühzeitig intervenieren zu können.

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Parkinson's disease (PD) presents unique personal and social challenges, particularly for those with onset before the age of 50 years. The aim of this article is to evaluate sexual and non-sexual aspects of relationship satisfaction among persons with young-onset PD and their partners. The main outcome measures were Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS) and Golombok-Rust Inventory of Marital State (GRIMS). Persons with PD (PWP) and partners who attended the 2005 National Parkinson Foundation Young Onset Network Conference were asked to complete a survey. Each survey included demographics, a clinical history questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), ISS, and GRIMS. Sixty PWP (63% men, 85% in a relationship) responded to the survey. Median age was 50 years (range 29-62), with a median age at symptom onset of 43 years (range 17-55). ISS scores indicated clinically significant sexual dissatisfaction in 37%. Relationship dissatisfaction measured by the GRIMS was scored as "poor" or worse in 57%. Depressive symptomatology was severe in 19% and mild in 33%. Sexual dissatisfaction (ISS) correlated with relationship dissatisfaction (GRIMS) (correlation coefficient [CC] = 0.58, P < 0.001). Relationship dissatisfaction (GRIMS) correlated with depressive symptomatology (BDI) (CC = 0.38, P = 0.007). No correlations were found with any demographic or disease characteristics. Thirty-two couples (both the PWP and their partner) completed the surveys. Sexual and relationship dissatisfaction among PWP paralleled that of their partner (ISS: CC = 0.48, P = 0.005; GRIMS: CC = 0.61, P < 0.001). Depressive symptomatology of the PWP correlated with their partners' relationship dissatisfaction (CC = 0.46, P = 0.010). In this study, sexual and relationship dissatisfaction were prevalent among young-onset PD patients. PD patients were similar to their partners in their level of sexual and relationship dissatisfaction. The degree of dissatisfaction did not correlate with demographics or self-reported disease characteristics. Self-reported depressive symptomatology among PD patients was adversely associated with both their and their partner's relationship satisfaction. Wiel
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To determine the frequency of new-onset compulsive gambling or hypersexuality among regional patients with Parkinson disease (PD), ascertaining the relationship of these behaviors to PD drug use. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients from 7 rural southeastern Minnesota counties who had at least 1 neurology appointment for PD between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2006. The main outcome measure was compulsive gambling or hypersexuality developing after parkinsonism onset, including the temporal relationship to PD drug use. Of 267 patients with PD who met the study inclusion criteria, new-onset gambling or hypersexuality was documented in 7 (2.6%). All were among the 66 patients (10.6%) taking a dopamine agonist. Moreover, all 7 (18.4%) were among 38 patients taking therapeutic doses (defined as >/=2 mg of pramipexole or 6 mg of ropinirole daily). Behaviors were clearly pathologic and disabling in 5: 7.6% of all patients taking an agonist and 13.2% of those taking therapeutic doses. Of the 5 patients, 2 had extensive treatment for what was considered a primary psychiatric problem before the agonist connection was recognized. Among the study patients with PD, new-onset compulsive gambling or hypersexuality was documented in 7 (18.4%) of 38 patients taking therapeutic doses of dopamine agonists but was not found among untreated patients, those taking subtherapeutic agonist doses, or those taking carbidopa/levodopa alone. Behaviors abated with discontinuation of agonist therapy or dose reduction. Because this is a retrospective study, cases may have been missed, and hence this study may reflect an underestimation of the true frequency. Physicians who care for patients taking these drugs should recognize the drug's potential to induce pathologic syndromes that sometimes masquerade as primary psychiatric disease.
Article
The hypothalamus was systematically examined in 30 patients with pathologically documented idiopathic parkinsonism. Using Lewy body formation as a marker for nerve cell degeneration, we observed abnormalities in every hypothalamus examined. Of the thirteen hypothalamic nuclei that could be individually identified, none were exempt from Lewy body degeneration. The tuberomamillary nucleus and the lateral and posterior hypothalamic nuclei demonstrated the highest average Lewy body counts (16, 9, and 3, respectively); they were also the most frequently involved nuclei. These findings may aid in interpretation of the autonomic and endocrine abnormalities in patients with Parkinson disease.
Article
Plasma profiles of prolactin, growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol were evaluated in a group of untreated patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and a group of healthy age-matched controls. Plasma integrated concentrations of all hormones except prolactin were significantly lower in the patients as compared with the controls; however, prolactin nocturnal peak concentration was significantly elevated in the patients; nocturnal growth hormone levels were significantly reduced in the Parkinson group; ACTH and cortisol plasma concentrations were also consistently lower during most of the day in the patients with Parkinson's disease. These data confirm the presence of a hypothalamic disturbance in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, which can affect pituitary function.
Article
We evaluated the sexual function of 41 married men with Parkinson's disease (PD) and its relation to age, severity of PD, and depression. We used a group of 29 married men with arthritis for comparison. Total sexual functioning and categories of desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction did not differ significantly between patients with PD and arthritis. For both PD and arthritis, increased age, severity of illness, and depression were associated with reduced sexual function. These results suggest that sexual dysfunction is common in married men with PD, but no more so than in men with another chronic illness that does not involve the nervous system.
Article
Nineteen patients who were receiving L-dopa for parkinsonism were interviewed to assess the effect of L-dopa treatment on sexual behavior. Seven patients (37 percent) reported an activation of sexual behavior at some point during the therapy. Interview data suggested that such a report may actually result from at least three possible effects of L-dopa.
Article
The purpose of this study was to describe sexual function in a representative group of young patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-five patients (15 men, 10 women; age range 36-56 yrs) participated in a structured interview on sexual function. Forty percent of the men and 70% of the women reported changed libido while 33.4% of the men and 80% of the women experienced changed sexual activity after onset of PD. A tendency to changes in libido and sexual function was seen with increasing time of treatment and advanced Hoehn-Yahr stages. It is concluded that changes in libido and sexual function occur more frequently than previously reported, especially in women, and more attention should be paid to these problems.
Article
There is a renewed interest in sexuality in chronic disease states. Whereas there is some literature on male sexuality in Parkinson's disease (PD), no study has been devoted exclusively to women. We compared 27 women who had PD with community controls matched for age and marital status by using the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning in Women. Approximately 50% of both samples were sexually active. The women with PD were more likely to be dissatisfied with the quality of the sexual experiences. There were significant differences in the two groups with respect to anxiety or inhibition, vaginal tightness, and involuntary urination. Preoccupation with health problems interfering with sex and dissatisfaction with body appearance were also more prevalent in parkinsonian women, but not statistically different from controls. The PD patients were less satisfied with their sexual relationships and with their partners, and were more depressed as a group when compared with controls (Beck Depression Inventory of 11.8 vs 6.3). In both groups, age was associated with significant changes in satisfaction and activity. In summary, qualitative differences exist in the sexual experiences of women with PD compared with controls.
Article
Penile erections were regularly induced by intermittent subcutaneous injections of apomorphine in five patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) complicated by motor fluctuations. Four of the patients reported erectile dysfunction before beginning apomorphine and two of these report a significant improvement in their sexual function resulting from apomorphine use. Animal studies suggest central D2-type dopamine receptor stimulation and oxytocin release from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus mediate the effect. Erections reported with other dopamine agonists and levodopa are probably mediated by the same mechanism. Apomorphine-induced erections in PD are probably more common than previously thought. The benefit of apomorphine on sexual function in some patients suggests a possible role in the treatment of impotence in PD.
Article
Sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), is the first in a new class of orally effective treatments for erectile dysfunction. During sexual stimulation, the cavernous nerves release nitric oxide (NO), which induces cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) formation and smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum. Sildenafil facilitates the erectile process during sexual stimulation by inhibiting PDE5 and thus blocking the breakdown of cGMP. Sildenafil alone can cause mean peak reductions in systolic/diastolic blood pressure of 10/7 mm Hg that are not dose related, whereas the heart rate is unchanged. Sildenafil and nitrates both increase cGMP levels in the systemic circulation but at different points along the NO-cGMP pathway. The combination is contraindicated because they synergistically potentiate vasodilation and may cause excessive reductions in blood pressure. Erectile dysfunction is a significant medical condition that shares numerous risk factors with ischemic heart disease, and hence a substantial overlap exists between these patient groups. From extensive clinical trials, the most commonly reported cardiovascular adverse events in patients treated with sildenafil were headache (16%), flushing (10%), and dizziness (2%). The incidences of hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, and syncope and the rate of discontinuation of treatment due to adverse events were <2% and were the same in patients taking sildenafil and those taking placebo. Retrospective analysis of the concomitant use of antihypertensive medications (beta blockers, alpha blockers, diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and calcium antagonists) in patients taking sildenafil did not indicate an increase in the reports of adverse events or significant episodes of hypotension compared with patients treated with sildenafil alone. In clinical trials, the incidence of serious cardiovascular adverse events, including stroke and myocardial infarction, was the same for patients treated with sildenafil or placebo. Concurrent disease states, such as renal or hepatic impairment, or concomitant use of inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP3A4 could increase systemic exposure to sildenafil. Since the US market launch in April 1998, monitoring of spontaneous adverse event reports in association with sildenafil has demonstrated a pattern that is generally consistent with the experience observed during clinical development, with the exception of infrequent reports of priapism. In conclusion, extensive clinical testing has shown that overall treatment with sildenafil for up to 1 year is well tolerated and is associated with a low incidence of adverse events that result in discontinuation of treatment in <3% of patients.
Article
Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is a phosphodiesterase type V inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction. Ten men with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and erectile dysfunction were prescribed 50-100 mg sildenafil citrate to use in eight sexual encounters over a 2-month period. Patients underwent Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) evaluations and completed a Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and a Sexual Health Inventory-M version (SHI-M) at baseline and after 8 weeks. There was statistically significant improvement in total SHI-M scores (23.8 +/- 2.0 vs 16.6 +/- 2.8; p = 0.01), overall sexual satisfaction (p = 0.03), satisfaction with sexual desire (p = 0.04), ability to achieve erection (p = 0.02), ability to maintain erection (p = 0.03), and ability to reach orgasm (p = 0.04) with use of sildenafil citrate. UPDRS and BDI scores were not significantly changed. Side effects included headache in one patient during three sexual encounters. In this open-label study, sildenafil citrate significantly improved sexual function in men with PD and erectile dysfunction.
Article
Central nervous system processes are fundamental to sexual function. Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological bases for erection. Based largely on rat models, there is adequate understanding presently of the general anatomical areas of the brain that relate to sexual function, including the medial amygdala, medial preoptic area, paraventricular nucleus, the periaqueductal gray, ventral tegmentum and others. There is also a burgeoning body of evidence implicating nitric oxide, dopamine, serotonin and oxytocin as critical central neurotransmitters involved in various aspects of sexual function. The role of dopamine, in particular, appears fundamental in the mediation of erectile responses in both animals and man. Additionally, clinical research with apomorphine, a D1/D2 agonist, has shown significant promise in improving erections in men with a wide range of erectile difficulties. Finally, a new classification matrix has been proposed for existing treatments for erectile dysfunction based upon the putative site and mechanism of action. Implications for the further development of neuropharmacological agents in this area are discussed.
Article
Answers from a multiple choice questionnaire on the opinions about public sexual attitudes, on emotion from personal sexual practice, on personal sexual function, and on general health perception were compared between 121 patients with Parkinson's disease (mean age 45 years) and 126 age and sex matched community derived controls. Patients were more dissatisfied with their present sexual functioning and relationship, and perceived their general health as poorer than the controls, whereas opinions about public sexual attitudes were only marginally different. No differences were found for sexual function. Further analysis showed that the perception of sexual functioning and general health in younger patients with Parkinson's disease is considerably influenced by depression and state of unemployment.
Article
Although patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience pelvic organ dysfunction of the urinary bladder, bowel and genital organs, an accurate incidence of the dysfunction and its characteristics have yet to be ascertained. We devised a detailed questionnaire on these three pelvic organ functions in PD patients and control subjects, in our search for a hallmark that would distinguish between the two groups. The PD group comprised 115 patients; 52 men and 63 women, age range 35-69 (average 59) years old, average duration of illness 6 years, median Hoehn and Yahr stage 3. All were taking levodopa with/without dopamine agonists. The control group comprised 391 local individuals who were undergoing an annual health survey; 271 men and 120 women, age range 30-69 (average 48) years old. The questionnaire had three parts: bladder (nine questions), bowel (four questions), and sexual (three questions for women, five for men) function. Each question was scored from 0 (none) to 3 (severe) with an additional quality of life (QOL) index scored from 0 (satisfied) to 3 (extremely dissatisfied). The completion rate was 100% for bladder and bowel functions, whereas for sexual function, it was 95% (control) and 88% (PD) for men and 82% (control) and 60% (PD) for women. As compared with the control group, the frequency of dysfunction in the PD group was significantly higher for urinary urgency (women 42%, men 54%), daytime frequency (28%, 16%), nighttime frequency (53%, 63%), urgency incontinence (25%, 28%), retardation (44% of men), prolongation/poor stream (men 70%), straining (women 28%); constipation (63%, 69%), difficulty in expulsion (men 57%), diarrhea (men 21%); decrease in libido (84%, 83%), decrease in sexual intercourse (55%, 88%), decrease in orgasm (men 87%), and in men, decreases in erection (79%) and ejaculation (79%). The QOL index for the PD patients was significantly higher for bladder (27%, 28%) and bowel (46%, 59%) but not for sexual dysfunction, despite the group's high prevalence of sexual dysfunction. In the PD patients, fecal incontinence was associated with urinary incontinence. Stress urinary incontinence and a decrease in libido were more common in women than in men. Bladder and bowel dysfunction, but not sexual dysfunction increased with the Hoehn and Yahr stage. Sexual dysfunction, but neither bladder nor bowel dysfunction, increased with age. Patients taking levodopa and bromocriptine more frequently had bladder (voiding phase) dysfunction than those taking levodopa only. The findings show that bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction are all prominent in patients with PD. Amelioration of pelvic organ dysfunction, particularly bowel dysfunction which most affects the quality of life, therefore should be a primary target in the treatment of patients with PD.
Article
I was interested in the recent paper by Hussain et al 1 describing the efficacy of sildenafil citrate for erectile dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease or multiple system atrophy (MSA). Their findings provide reassurance that this popular drug is both effective and safe in parkinsonian patients provided orthostatic hypotension is recognised as a …
Article
Many patients with Parkinson disease (PD) suffer from nonmotor symptoms including depression, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, decreased energy level, and an overall decline in quality of life. Comorbid depression, hypothyroidism, and sleep disorders may account for some, but not all, of these problems. Testosterone deficiency affects 20% to 25% of males over the age of 60 years in the general population and may cause signs and symptoms of the nonmotor symptoms seen in PD. We observed numerous patients with PD whose nonmotor symptoms were refractory to treatment. To determine whether treatment of comorbid testosterone deficiency in male patients with PD can lead to improvements in refractory nonmotor symptoms. Case studies were reviewed of the first 5 male patients who had PD with symptoms of testosterone deficiency who were treated in our clinic. All patients had low serum testosterone levels. Screening for testosterone deficiency symptoms using the St Louis Testosterone Deficiency Questionnaire was performed for 4 of the 5 patients. Additionally, to assess the prevalence of PD, total testosterone levels in 68 patients in our PD registry were sent for evaluation. Following testosterone replacement therapy, all 5 patients experienced significant improvements in their refractory nonmotor symptoms. Of 68 male patients with PD enrolled in our PD registry, 24 (35%) had plasma evidence of testosterone deficiency. We also noted that the risk of testosterone deficiency per decade was found to increase 2.8-fold per decade (P<.001), paralleling that which is found in the general elderly male population. The findings from this study reveal the heretofore unrecognized high prevalence of testosterone deficiency in elderly male patients with PD similar to that found in the general population. These symptoms, which may be refractory to antidepressants, anxiolytics, and antiparkinsonian medications, may respond to treatment with testosterone. More rigorous controlled studies will need to be undertaken to examine the treatment of this common comorbidity in male patients with PD.
Article
Pathological gambling is a rare potential complication related to treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). However, the etiology of this behavior is poorly understood. To examine the relationship between medical therapy for PD and pathological gambling. In our routine movement disorders practice (2002-2004), we encountered 11 patients with idiopathic PD who had recently developed pathological gambling. We assessed the relationship to their medical therapy and compared them with cases identified by systematic review of the existing literature on pathological gambling and PD. All 11 patients with PD and pathological gambling were taking therapeutic doses of a dopamine agonist; 3 of these patients were not treated with levodopa. In 7 patients, pathological gambling developed within 3 months of starting to take or escalating the dose of the agonist; in the other 4 with a longer latency, gambling resolved after the agonist use was discontinued. Pramipexole dihydrochloride was the agonist in 9 of 11 cases in our series and 10 of 17 in the literature (68% in total). Dopamine agonist therapy was associated with potentially reversible pathological gambling, and pramipexole was the medication predominantly implicated. This may relate to disproportionate stimulation of dopamine D(3) receptors, which are primarily localized to the limbic system.
Article
Pathological hypersexuality developed in 13 patients with PD and two patients ultimately diagnosed clinically with MSA. Hypersexuality began within 8 months after starting dopamine agonist therapy in 14 of 15 cases, including four on agonist monotherapy. It resolved in the four cases where the agonist was stopped, despite continued levodopa therapy. This was not an isolated behavioral problem in most, with additional compulsive or addictive behaviors coinciding in nine patients (60%). A systematic literature review of pathological hypersexuality in PD revealed similar medication histories; combining these cases with our series, 26 of 29 patients (90%) were on adjuvant dopamine agonists.
Article
To examine the safety and use of apomorphine as prescribed in general medical practice in England as a treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). Apomorphine hydrochloride (marketed as Uprima, Abbott Laboratories Ltd, UK) is licensed in the UK as a sublingual therapy for ED. It is the first treatment for ED with a central mode of action. This postmarketing observational cohort study was conducted using prescription-event monitoring (PEM) methods. Exposure information was obtained from dispensed prescription data for patients first prescribed apomorphine between October 2001 and December 2002. Outcome data were derived from Green-Form questionnaires posted to prescribing physicians > or = 6 months after the date of the first apomorphine prescription for each patient. The study cohort comprised 11 185 patients, 99.3% (11,111) of whom were men, with a median (interquartile range) age of 61 (54-68) years. The most frequently reported prescribing indication was ED and the most frequently reported reason for stopping apomorphine was that it was 'not effective'. In addition, the percentage of patients for whom apomorphine was reported to have been effective was relatively low. Headache was the most commonly reported adverse drug reaction, and the most frequently reported clinical condition occurring in the first month of observation. A small number of events (24) were reported that were not listed in the current Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) and were considered by the prescribing general practitioner (GP) to be associated with apomorphine use. The proportion of patients for whom apomorphine was reported to be effective was low. Also, 'not effective' was the most frequently reported event and a high percentage of patients stopped apomorphine because it was 'not effective'. The most frequently reported clinical adverse events (headache and nausea) were those listed in the SPC. A small number of reports for unlabelled events were thought by prescribers to be related to apomorphine use. The confounding factors of patient age and coexisting disease should be considered when assessing data from this study.
Article
We surveyed 297 patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with systematic screens and rigorous definitional criteria. Pathologic hypersexuality lifetime prevalence was 2.4%. Compulsive shopping was 0.7%. Combined with our pathologic gambling data, the lifetime prevalence of these behaviors was 6.1% and increases to 13.7% in patients on dopamine agonists.
Article
Impulse control disorders (ICDs), including pathological gambling, trichotillomania, kleptomania and others, have been conceptualized to lie along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum. Recent data have suggested that these disorders may be considered addictions. Here, we review the genetic and neuropathological bases of the impulse control disorders and consider the disorders within these non-mutually exclusive frameworks.
Article
Do patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) report gambling or other abnormal behaviors as previously reported in Parkinson disease. This survey study was sent to 261 idiopathic RLS patients, and it included the Gambling Symptoms Assessment Scale, Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale, and questions pertaining to sexual activity and novelty-seeking behaviors. Ninety-nine patients responded to the survey, and 77 were actively taking 1 or more dopaminergic medications. Of the 70 respondents who answered the gambling questions, 5 (7%) noted a change in gambling, with 4 (6%; 95% confidence interval, 2%-14%) stating that increased urges and time spent gambling occurred specifically after the use of dopaminergic medications (2 on pramipexole, 1 on ropinirole, and 1 on levodopa and pramipexole). Increased sexual desire was reported by 4 (5%) of the 77 respondents, 3 (4%; 95% confidence interval, 1%-11%) reported that this occurred specifically after the use of dopaminergic medications (1 on pramipexole, 1 on ropinirole, and 1 on levodopa). One patient reported both an increase in gambling and sexual habits. This exploratory survey study revealed the development of gambling and/or increased sexuality in patients with RLS. These data raise the possibility that, as in Parkinson disease, RLS patients should be cautioned about potential behaviors that may occur with the use of dopaminergic medications. Further prospective studies are needed to assess the relationship between these medications and compulsive behaviors associated with the treatment of RLS.
Sexualität und Partnerschaft bei Morbus Parkinson
  • K M Beier
  • M Lüders
  • Bsa
Beier KM., Lüders M. BSA. Sexualität und Partnerschaft bei Morbus Parkinson. Fortschritt Neurologie und Psychiatrie 2000; 68: 564-75.
Hypersexualität als Komplikation dopaminerger Therapie bei Parkinson'scher Krankheit
  • H P Vogel
  • R Schiffter
Vogel HP, Schiffter R. Hypersexualität als Komplikation dopaminerger Therapie bei Parkinson'scher Krankheit. Pharmacopsychiatry 1983; 16(4): 107-10.