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Abstract

Overview of PCA-item loadings. Results of loadings after rotation from PCA-analysis for 32/62-PSDQ (Robinson et al., 1995) and new dog-directed parenting styles in 518 Dutch dog owning parents; presented are the loadings ≥ |0.4|. (PDF)
1
S1 Table - Overview of PCA-item loadings
Results of loadings after rotation from PCA-analysis for 32/62-PSDQ (Robinson et al., 1995) and new dog-directed parenting styles in 518 Dutch dog owning parents; presented
are the loadings |0.4|.
Item
µ±s.d.
Authoritarian
32-items
Authoritarian
62-items
Authoritarian
- correction
orientated
(new DD-
PSDQ)
Authoritative
32-items -
intrinsic
Authoritative
62-items -
intrinsic
Authoritative
- intrinsic
value
orientated
(new DD-
PSDQ)
Authoritative
32-items -
training
Authoritative
62-items -
training
I use a poke of my finger, or
short kick to snap my dog out of
it when it misbehaves. AN*
0.8±1.0
-0.6
0.6
0.7
-
-
-
-
-
I use short pulls on the leash or
pull back when my dog pulls.AN
1.6±1.2
-
0.6
-
-
-
-
-
-
I allow my dog to jump up on
people, as long as it is friendly.
PM
0.6±0.9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I have good times together with
my dog. AV*
3.7±0.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
When two dogs are fighting, I
discipline first and think about
why it happened later. AN
2.1±1.4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I encourage my dog to ‘be dog’
even when it results in a dirty or
wet dog. AV*
3.4±0.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.4
I lure my dog with reward to
solicit certain behaviour, even
when it is misbehaving at that
moment.PM
2.4±1.3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.5
I scold or criticize when my
dog's behaviour doesn't meet my
expectations.AN*
0.6±0.8
-0.6
0.5
0.8
-
-
-
-
-
I show respect for my dog' s
needs by encouraging my dog to
‘be dog’.AV*
3.4±0.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.4
I set strict well-established rules
for my dog.PM
1.3±1.0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I let my dog know how I feel
about its good and bad
behaviour.AV*
2.9±1.0
-
0.4
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
I use threats as punishment
without feeling need for
justification towards my dog.AN*
0.4±0.8
-0.5
0.6
-
-
-
-
-
-
I take into account my dog's
preferences in making plans.AV*
3.0±1.0
-
-
-
0.5
0.4
0.5
-
-
When I ask my dog to do
something, he should do so,
because I said so and I am its
boss.AN*
2.2±1.2
-0.5
0.6
-
-0.5
-
-
-
-
I am unsure on how to solve my
dog's misbehaviour.PM
0.9±1.0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I practice behaviour step by step
with my dog, so I am sure he
understands what I ask of
him.AV*
3.1±1.0
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.6
0.6
I demand that my dog does
things.AN
1.5±1.2
-
0.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
I channel my dog's
misbehaviour into a more
acceptable activity.AV
3.1±0.9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.6
I shove my dog when he is
disobedient.AN
0.7±0.9
-
0.6
-
-
-
-
-
-
I use more or higher value
reward (food or toy) when I
believe my dog should really do
something in a situation.AV*
2.9±1.2
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.7
0.5
I encourage my dog to show
how it feels by its body
language, I see growling as a
signal of my dog’s emotion for
example.AV*
2.0±1.3
-
-
-
0.5
0.4
0.6
-
-
I guide my dog by punishment
more than by tapping into its
natural needs.AN
0.3±0.7
-
0.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
I know the names of my dog’s
play mates.AV
3.1±1.1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I find it difficult to discipline
my dog.PM*
0.8±1.0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I give praise when my dog is
good.AV*
3.7±0.6
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.6
0.6
3
I use a corrective slap when my
dog misbehaves.AN*
0.7±1.0
-0.7
0.7
0.8
-
-
-
-
-
I play and have fun with my
dog.AV
3.7±0.6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.5
I set consequences when my
dog acts contrary to my
wishes.PM
2.0±1.3
-
-0.4
-
-
-
-
-
-0.4
I show sympathy when my dog
is hurt or frustrated. AV
3.0±1.1
-
-
-
-
0.6
-
-
-
I punish by taking away toys
from my dog.AN*
0.2±0.7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I spoil my dog.PM*
2.3±1.1
-
-
-
0.6
0.6
-
-
-
I give comfort when my dog is
upset.AV*
2.5±1.3
-
-
-
0.6
0.6
0.6
-
-
I yell or shout when my dog
misbehaves.AN*
1.1±1.1
-0.7
0.6
0.8
-
-
-
-
-
I am easy going and relaxed
with my dog.AV
3.3±0.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I allow my dog to greet
someone else, regardless of that
person’s appreciation of dogs.PM
1.2±1.2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I practice certain behaviour with
my dog before asking this
behaviour in a more difficult
situation.AV
2.9±1.1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.7
I raise my voice to make my
dog improve.AN*
1.9±1.2
-0.7
0.6
0.6
-
-
-
-
-
I show patience with my dog.AV
3.2±0.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I grab my dog when it is being
disobedient.AN*
1.1±1.1
-0.6
0.6
0.5
-
-
-
-
-
I threaten with punishments
towards my dog and do not
actually do them.PM*
0.3±0.7
-0.4
0.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
I am responsive to my dog's
feelings or needs.AV*
3.2±0.9
-
-
-
0.5
0.4
0.6
-
0.5
I allow my dog to give input on
decisions for instance with
regard to the route we follow on
walks.AV*
1.6±1.3
-
-
-
0.7
0.6
0.7
-
-
I struggle with my dog.AN
0.4±0.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
I am confident about training
skills towards my dog.PM
0.7±0.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I think about why rules should
be obeyed by my dog.AV*
3.3±0.9
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.6
0.6
I am more concerned with own
feelings than with my dog's
feelings.AN
1.1±1.0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I tell my dog ‘good dog’ when
he tries to follow guidance, even
if he does not succeed.AV
3.0±1.0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I punish by giving my dog ‘time
out’ and walking away if he
misbehaves, even if he finds the
situation he is in
uncomforting.AN*
1.1±1.2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I help my dog to understand the
impact of its behaviour by
offering him choices in
situations.AV*
1.5±1.3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I am afraid that disciplining my
dog for misbehaviour will cause
him to like me less.PM
0.4±1.0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I take my dog's desires into
account before asking him to do
something.AV*
1.9±1.2
-
-
-
0.6
0.5
0.7
-
-
I can explode in anger towards
my dog when he does
something he knows I don’t
want him to do.AN*
0.4±0.7
-0.6
0.6
0.6
-
-
-
-
-
I am aware of problems or
concerns about my dog that
neighbours (may) have.AV
1.9±1.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I threaten my dog with
punishment more often than
actually giving it.PM*
0.4±0.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I express affection, for instance
by rubbing my dog under its
chin.AV
3.6±0.7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I ignore my dog's misbehaviour
such as chasing game, barking
0.9±1.2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
at other people or peeing against
stores in a shopping area.PM
I use physical punishment as a
way to improve my dog’s
behaviour.AN*
0.6±1.0
-0.6
0.6
0.8
-
-
-
-
-
I carry out discipline after my
dog misbehaves.PM
1.7±1.2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I feel bad towards my dog when
making a mistake in guiding
it.AV
1.9±1.3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I let my dog know what I expect
from him.AV
3.2±0.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I give into my dog when he
causes a commotion about
something or doesn’t do
something I want it to.PM*
0.8±1.0
-
-
-
-
0.5
-
-
-
I think about why my dog does
something when it
misbehaves.AV
3.2±0.9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.6
AN - Authoritarian item in the original PSDQ, AV - Authoritative item in the original PSDQ, PM - Permissive item in the original PSDQ, * - 32-PSDQ
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