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Are survivalists malevolent?

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Abstract

Survivalist plan and prepare for a major disaster. This research describes construction of the 8-item Survivalist Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) and its nomological network which highlights that survivalists are disagreeable, low in rationality, and high in psychopathy, Machiavellianism and narcissism. This suggests relatively high malevolence as well as high capacity for self-preservation. They are also fantasizers of sensation seeking, deep learners, and high in entrepreneurial intent which suggests ingenuity and ambition. They are also of lower general ability and lower rationality which suggests some limitations in the way they analyze information. Compared to the general population, survivalists are potentially dangerous in terms of personality (e.g., they are high scorers on the Dark Triad) and behavior (e.g., they may stockpile weapons) but also have strong preservation instincts that might be of benefit, at least to themselves, should disaster strike.

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... Of the 52 articles suggested, only 22 articles provided brief instrument question development information. [2][3][4]7,8,[15][16][17][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] However, none of these articles specifically focused on instrument development. A few researchers analyzed data from nationally representative surveys that included questions on HEP, such as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire, 6 Health Retirement Survey, 5,12 General Social Survey, 11 and the Public Readiness Index's Readiness Quotient. ...
... The authors of 21 articles provided their instrument questions in their articles. 2,5,7,12,[14][15][16][17]19,20,24,25,28,29,33,[35][36][37][38][39][40] Some authors asked broad questions about HEP, such as "did you assemble a disaster supply kit?," whereas others asked about the presence of specific supply kit items such as flashlights, radios, food, and water. Only 8 articles contained information on pilot-testing of the instrument. ...
... Only 8 articles contained information on pilot-testing of the instrument. 2,4,8,22,32,34,41,42 A total of 15 articles included instrument reliability data, 5,8,11,12,16,20,23,26,27,34,[36][37][38]41,43 and 4 articles contained validity data. 8,12,36,44 The remainder of the articles provided no instrument development data or reliability and validity information. ...
Article
Objective The main objective of this research was to generate a consensus on the conceptual definition of household emergency preparedness from experts representing multiple disciplines and countries, in order to facilitate the development of an all-hazards, comprehensive, valid, and reliable instrument. Methods Questions were generated via 3 methods: literature search, using existing instruments, and expert panels using the Delphi technique. Results Panelists (n = 154) representing 36 countries came to a consensus that household emergency preparedness is defined as the completion of several preparedness actions and assembling a kit that can be transported in an evacuation. The new 51-question instrument demonstrates face, content, and criterion validity and internal consistency reliability (α = 0.96). The instrument assesses whether specific preparedness actions have been taken, and the presence or absence of essential supplies that could enable households to safely endure conditions that disasters would likely present (loss of power, water limitations, and/or lack of access to additional supplies for a few days). Conclusion A valid and reliable instrument provides researchers with a replicable approach to assessment of preparedness levels, which is necessary to plan mitigation strategies, enhance health promotion, prevent injuries, and increase resilience for individuals and communities. The instrument can provide evidence to support interventions addressing health needs of community members following a disaster.
... Narcissism positively affects entrepreneurial intention. Mathieu and St-Jean, 2013;Hmieleski and Lerner, 2016;Do and Dadvari, 2017;Jackson, 2018;Wu et al., 2019a;Al-Ghazali and Afsar, 2020 Narcissism positively affects intrapreneurship intention. Tucker et al., 2017 The relationship between narcissism and entrepreneurial intention is a U shape. ...
... For this reason, scholars have called for much-needed research on the significant role of time in various entrepreneurial activities and phenomena (McMullen and Dimov, 2013;Grijalva and Harms, 2014;Levesque and Stephan, 2020). However, a vast majority of researchers who are concerned with the relationship in question used cross-sectional data to conduct their studies (e.g., Hmieleski and Lerner, 2016;Tucker et al., 2017, Baldegger et al., 2017Jackson, 2018 also see Table 1), and overlooked the importance of time. This is not conducive to researchers' exploration of the causal or dynamic relationship between variables, nor does it help transform the researchers' prior perspectives (e.g., studying entrepreneurship as an act, McMullen and Dimov, 2013) in preparation for in-depth analysis of the entrepreneurial process. ...
Article
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Although narcissism is an important factor influencing entrepreneurial activity and outcomes, not much research has been conducted on the relationship between narcissism and entrepreneurship. To summarize the current literature on this relationship and provide an agenda for further in-depth research, a systematic review was conducted based on the PRISMA guidelines using Web of Science, Elsevier ScienceDirect, and EBSCO host databases. Accordingly, 33 articles have been identified as being eligible for the final synthesis. The findings of the present study showed, in general, that (1) life history theory, person-environment fit theory (P-E theory), and career choice theory were mostly used to explore the topic of narcissism and entrepreneurial intention, social exchange theory was used to analyze narcissistic entrepreneurs' entrepreneurial motives and attitudes, and upper echelons theory (UET) was applied to research on the relationship between narcissism and entrepreneurial outcomes, (2) Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and narcissistic sub-dimension of the Dark Triad were frequently used self-report scales among 23 identified empirical studies, and (3) narcissism has both bright and dark sides to entrepreneurial activities and outcomes. While narcissism makes potential entrepreneurs have higher entrepreneurial intentions and greater willingness to take risks, it also prevents entrepreneurs from discovering opportunities, acquiring resources, and learning from failure. Besides, results also showed that relations between narcissism and entrepreneurial intentions and performance are more complex. For a deeper understanding of this complex relations and advancing research on narcissism and entrepreneurship, more research is necessary to explore the relations between narcissism and entrepreneurship-related variables from a temporal perspective and at the team level, examine the relationship between narcissism and entrepreneurship ethics, and investigate the interaction effects of narcissism and other personalities.
... The SBQ (Jackson, 2018) focuses specifically on prepping behaviors that may be adopted by survivalists. The questionnaire contains eight items that explore prepping behaviors rated on a 5point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). ...
... Half of the items focus on physical behaviors (e.g., I have stockpiled food and water to survive a potential major disaster) and half assess planning behaviors (e.g., I have a plan I could put into operation to survive a potential major disaster). The overall scale has shown to have excellent internal reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.90 and both subscales have been confirmed to have strong internal reliability both yielding a Cronbach's alpha of 0.87 (Jackson, 2018). ...
Article
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“Doomsday prepping” is a phenomenon which involves preparing for feared societal collapse by stockpiling resources and readying for self-sufficiency. While doomsday prepping has traditionally been reported in the context of extremists, during the COVID-19 pandemic, excessive stockpiling leading to supply shortages has been reported globally. It is unclear what psychological or demographic factors are associated with this stockpiling. This study investigated doomsday prepping beliefs and behaviors in relation to COVID-19 proximity, demographics, coping strategies, psychopathology, intolerance of uncertainty (IU), and personality in 384 participants (249 female) in an online study. Participants completed a number of questionnaires including the Post-Apocalyptic and Doomsday Prepping Beliefs Scale and a scale designed for the current study to measure prepping in the context of COVID-19. These were analyzed using ANOVAs, correlational, and mediation analyses to examine relationships between psychometric variables and stockpiling. Prepping beliefs and behaviors were higher in males than females and positively associated with anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, IU, and traditional masculinity traits. Older age, male gender, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and traditional masculinity predicted unique variance in prepping. The relationship between gender and stockpiling was mediated by social learning (witnessing other people panic buying) and the perceived threat of COVID-19 (doomsday interpretations) while proximity and personal vulnerability to COVID-19 were non-significant. Results indicate that panic buying was influenced more by witnessing others stockpiling, personality, and catastrophic thinking rather than by proximity to danger. Education could target these factors in ongoing waves of the pandemic or future catastrophes.
... Psychopathy and sadism, by contrast, are both characterized by antisocial tendencies (Foulkes, 2019;Leistico et al., 2008), so they may not be associated with these concerns about social instability. Additionally, dark traits have been linked to having thoughts about and preparing for major emergencies (Jackson, 2018). Thus, those who are high in dark traits may have beliefs about emergencies in general that affect their perceptions of the pandemic. ...
Article
As the COVID-19 pandemic and interventions intended to minimize its spread continue to impact daily life, personality research may help to address the different ways in which people respond to a major global health crisis. The present study assessed the role of dark personality traits in predicting different responses to the pandemic. A nationally representative sample of 412 Americans completed measures of the Dark Tetrad as well as perceptions of COVID-19 threat, emergency beliefs, and positive and negative affect in response to COVID-19. Narcissism and Machiavellianism predicted greater negative affect and perceptions of threat during the pandemic, while psychopathy predicted positive affect. Conversely, sadism predicted greater positive affect. Dark personality also showed some predictive ability in explaining pandemic-related behaviors (e.g., more frequent cleaning) but not others (e.g., social distancing). Our findings provide evidence for differences in how dark personality traits predict individual responses to global crises.
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