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Review Study on the Physiological Properties and Chemical Composition of the Laurus nobilis

Authors:
  • ‎Al-Manara College of Medical Sciences

Abstract

The Laurus nobilis is one of the plants of the lauraceae species which has many physiological properties. It is an antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-oxidant and other properties that make laurel oil and its compounds a good and a valuable substance for use in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, chemically contains many compounds such as: turbines, anthocyanins coumarins and others.
The Pharmaceutical and Chemical Journal, 2018, 5(1):225-231
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Available online www.tpcj.org
Review Article
ISSN: 2349-7092
CODEN(USA): PCJHBA
Review Study on the Physiological Properties and Chemical Composition of the Laurus
nobilis
Oussama Mansour*1, Manal Darwish2, Ghenwa Ismail3, Zein al-abideen Douba2, Ali Ismaeel2,
Kamel Sabee Eldair2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, AL Andalus University, Tartous, Syria
2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, AL Andalus University, Tartous, Syria
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, AL Andalus University, Tartous, Syria
Abstract The Laurus nobilis is one of the plants of the lauraceae species which has many physiological properties.
It is an antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-oxidant and other properties that make laurel oil and its compounds a good
and a valuable substance for use in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, chemically contains many compounds such as:
turbines, anthocyanins coumarins and others.
Keywords Laurus nobilis, essential oil, pharmacology, chemical composition
Introduction
Laurus nobilis is traded as sweet bay leaf and true Romanor Turkish laurel. It is small evergreen tree of lauraceae
family. It is hardy multibranched tree with smooth bark that grows to about 10 m high [1-2]. It has alternate,
narrowly oblong-lanceolate leaves. The flowers are small and four lobed; the male has 8-12 stamens and female 2-4
staminodes. The fruit is 10-15 mm, ovoid and black when ripe [3].
These are aromatic and fragrant plants yielding fixed and volatile oil as well as camphor, it is native of south Europe
[4].
Laurus nobilis is a plant of industrial importance, used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The dried leaves and essential
oils are used extensively in the food industry for seasoning of meat products, soups and fishes. Its antimicrobial and
insecticidal activities are other factor for which bay is used in the food industry as a food preservative. The fruits
contain both fixed and volatile oils, which are mainly used in soap making [5]. Traditionally it is used in
rheumatism, dermatitis [6], gastrointestinal problems such as epigastric bloating, impaired digestion, eructation, and
flatulence. The aqueous extract is used in Turkish folk medicine as an anti-hemorrhoidal, anti-rheumatic, diuretic, as
an antidote in snakebites, for the treatment of stomachache [7-8] and diuretic [9]. Recently it is used in treating
diabetes and preventing migraine [10].
Pharmacology
Antioxidant Activity
The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of different extracts of laurel leaves were studied. Free radical
scavenging capacity (RSC) was evaluated measuring the scavenging activity on the DPPH, NO, O2• and OH
radicals. The effects on lipid peroxidation (LP) were also evaluated. Experimental results indicate that ethyl acetate
extract of leaves has exhibited the largest RSC capacity in neutralization of DPPH, NO,O2• and OH radicals. The
same result was obtained in investigation of extracts impact on LP. The in vivo effects were evaluated on some
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antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, LPx, Px, CAT and XOD, and GSH content) in the mice liver and blood-
hemolysate after treatment with the examined laurel extracts or in combination with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).
On the basis of the results obtained it can be concluded that the examined extracts exhibited a certain protective
effect, which is more pronounced on the liver than on blood hemolysate parameters. The results obtained indicate
toxicity of CCl4, probably due to the radicals involved in its metabolism. Combined treatments with CCl4 and the
examined extracts showed both positive and negative synergism. Based on the experimental results, the strongest
protective effect was shown by the EtOAc extract [11].
Antibacterial Activity
Staphylococcus aureus infection is of great importance on clinical view and prevalence in medical care centers, so
its prevention is also important. The main aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antibacterial activity of
hydroalcoholic solution of Laurus nobilis extract against Staphylococcus aureus. Laurus nobilis extract was assayed
for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion and agar dilution methods in order to determine the zone diameter of
inhibition compared with tetracycline zone diameter of inhibition as control. The extract showed antibacterial
activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicate the antibacterial use of the Laurus nobilise extract for
the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infection [12].
Laboratory studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of some essential oils from Laurus nobilis and Mentha
pulegium against Sitophilus zeamais on stored maize. The concentrated essential oils at different volumes of 0.5 μL,
1.5 μL, 2.5 μL, 5.0 μL and 10 μL, were poured on filter papers with 2 cm each. For diluted oils, the fixed volume of
15 μL of different concentrations of 1:150v/v, 1:100 v/v, 1:75 v/v, 1:50 v/v and 1:10 v/v either in methanol or n -
hexane were used to impregnate the filter papers. Treatments with the concentrated oils were more effective. All the
concentrations used from M. pulegium provided 100% adult mortality and no progeny production were achieved. L.
nobilis has revealed 100% adult mortality at 3.185 μL/cm2. Regarding the treatments with diluted oils once again the
oil from M. pulegium provided 100% adult mortality at concentrations of 1:50 v/v and 1:10 v/v. L. nobilis was not
effective at any of the concentrations used. There were no significant differences between the solvents used [13].
The effects of various methods of drying on the chemical quality and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of
Laurus nobilis were studied. The most prominent component in the air-dried, fresh leaf and microwave-dried leaf
oils is 1,8 Cineole (58.8, 35.62 and 42.9% respectively). The essential oil has undergone significant chemical
transformation in its monoterpenoids when the leaves of plant in the question were dried by the three different
methods.
The oils have screened for antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus
hirae) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and two fungal species (Penicilium
digitatum and Alternaria sp). The microbial strains tested have been found sensitive to all essential oils studied [14].
Neuroprotective activity
The effects of n-hexane fraction from Laurus nobilis leaves on dopamine induced intracellular reactive
oxygenspecies (ROS) production and apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was investigated.
Compared with apomorphine (APO, IC50=18.1 μM) as a positive control, IC50 value of hexane fraction for DA-
induced apoptosis was 3.0μg/ml, and two major compounds from, costunolide and ehydrocostus lactone, were 7.3
μM and 3.6 μM, respectively.
Hexane fraction and these major compounds significantly inhibited ROS generation in DA-induced SH-SY5Y cells.
A rodent 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of PD was employed to investigate the potential neuroprotective
effects of hexane fraction in vivo. 6-OHDA was injected into the substantianigra of young adult rats and an immune
histochemical analysis was conducted to quantitate the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons.
Hexane fraction significantly inhibited 6-OHDA-induced TH-positive cell loss in the substantianigra and also
reduced DA induced α-synuclein (SYN) formation in SH-SY5Y cells and shown to be neuroprotective [15].
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Anticholinergic activity
Essential oil, ethanolic extract and decoction of Laurus nobilis were analyzed for their activity towards
acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme. It showed AChE inhibitory capacity higher than 50% in the essential oil
fraction. It also showed a high inhibition value of AChE in the ethanolic fraction 64% [16].
Insect repellent activity
Essential oils extracted from the seeds of fresh foliage of laurel Laurus nobilis Linn. were tested for their repellent
activity against the adult females of Culexpipiens, usually the most common pest mosquito in urban and suburban
settings in the Antalya province. The essential oils showed repellent activity [17].
Other Activities
An α-glucosidase inhibition assay was applied to evaluate the in-vitro antidiabetic activity of the essential oil. IC50
values were obtained for laurel essential oil, 1, 8-cineole, 1-(S)-α-pinene and R-(+)-limonene: 1.748 μL/mL, 1.118
μL/mL, 1.420 μL/mL and 1.300 μL/mL, respectively. We also found that laurel essential oil and 1,8-cineole
inhibited the α-glucosidase competitively while 1-(S)-α-pinene and R-(+)-limonene were uncompetitive inhibitors
[18]. In other study effect of laurel leaf extract (Laurus nobilis) on biochemical parameters and histo-morphology of
rat liver induced by toxic damage of CCl4 was studied. Result of the later study revealed that L. nobilis extract have
capacity to manage metabolic and histological abnormalities of hepatocytes toxic damage induced by CCl4 [19].
Mathematical Modelling and the Determination of Some Quality Parameters of Air-dried Bay Leaves (Laurus
nobilis L.) were dried at 40, 50 and 60 ºC air temperatures and 5, 10, 15% relative humidity and also under sun and
shade in outdoor areas to see whether any significant difference of quality occurs in drying with hot air. During the
drying tests with hot air, air flow velocity was held stable and the samples were hung in the drying channels as the
surface of the leaves were held parallel to the direction of air flow. To find out the moisture content changes of the
samples, weight loss from the leaves were recorded at fixed intervals. Then, the data obtained from the drying tests
were applied to various well-known semi empirical mathematical models of drying. As part of this effort five well-
known models with drying rate constant as a function of air temperature and both temperature and relative humidity
were tested for goodness of fit. Furthermore, to determine the effects of the drying conditions on the colour and the
amount of essential oil of the bay leaves, fresh leaves and the leaves dried under different conditions were
compared. Among all the drying models the Page model was found to satisfactorily describe the kinetics of
convection drying of bay leaves. It was concluded that no significant loss of quality occurs when drying bay leaves
at 608C air temperature [20]. Commercial Laurus nobilis L. essential oils against post-harvest phytopathogenic
fungi on rice. Rice is exposed in the field and in stored conditions to a great variety of fungi that can cause a lot of
diseases with potential risk to consumers. In the present study, the chemical composition of commercial Laurus
nobilis L. essential oils and antifungal activity against five pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains
has been investigated. Thirty-seven compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were
identified by GC and GC/ MS. 1,8-Cineole (51.95%), a-terpinyl acetate (12.93%) and the monoterpene hydrocarbon
sabinene (9.56%) were the main compounds in bay leaf essential oil [21]. Identification of cytotoxic sesquiterpenes
from Laurus nobilis L. a new sesquiterpene, lauroxepine and six known sesquiterpene lactones were obtained
through bioactivity-directed isolation from a methanol extract of the fruits of Laurus nobilis. The hexane-soluble
part of the methanol extract yielded lauroxepine, costunolide and gazaniolide, while the dichloromethane-soluble
part of the methanol extract afforded costunolide and four other sesquiterpene lactones including santamarine,
reynosin, 11,13-dehydrosantonin and spirafolide. The new sesquiterpene lauroxepine and spirafolide have a rare
molecular structure carrying an oxepine ring. Structures of the compounds were determined through 1D and 2D
NMR and mass (EIMS) techniques. The extracts were investigated for both ovarian cytotoxic activity and DNA
damaging properties against three yeasts. Among the three tested extracts prepared from flowers, leaves and fruits of
L. nobilis the most cytotoxic active extract against ovarian cancer cell line was found to be the fruit extract with 98%
inhibition. Among all tested extracts only the fruit extract showed marginal inhibition (63.2%) against one DNA
repair-deficient yeast strain (pRAD52 Gal). Six known sesquiterpene lactones were found to be highly cytotoxic
against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line, however, lauroxepine was not found to be active in A2780 [22].
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We have a study was aimed at evaluating the ability of polyphenolic and antioxidant-rich bay leaf extract (BLE) to
protect testicular malfunction in experimental cryptorchidism based on histopathological and biochemical
clarifications. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of ten animals each. The first group served as the
control, the second and the fourth group received 60 mg/kg body weight of BLE daily for fifty six days. The third
and fourth group was rendered cryptorchid with the fourth group subsequently treated orally with 60 mg/kg body
weight of BLE daily for fifty six days. The animals were sacrificed and testis eight/volume and sperm parameters
were determined. Animals with untreated cryptorchidism showed significantly reduction in testis weight/volume
(p<0.05), testis weight/body weight ratio, sperm parameters (p<0.005) compared to the control and group treated
with BLE-alone. Treatment of the cryptorchid rats with BLE significantly improved the sperm parameters (p<0.05)
and testicular SOD and CAT activity levels when compared to cryptorchid rats that were not treated. This showed
that deleterious and degenerative changes associated with cryptorchidism were mildly averted by simultaneous
treatment with BLE [23]. Toxicity of naturally occurring compounds of Lamiaceae and Lauraceae to three stored-
product insects The compounds 1,8-cineole, camphor, eugenol, linalool, carvacrol, thymol, borneol, bornyl acetate
and linalyl acetate occur naturally in the essential oils of the aromatic plants Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus
officinalis,Thymus vulgaris and Laurus nobilis. These compounds were evaluated for fumigant activity against
adults of Sitophilus oryzae, Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum. The insecticidal activities varied with
insect species, compound and the exposure time. The most sensitive species was S. oryzae, followed by Rhyzopertha
dominica. Tribolium castaneum was highly tolerant of the tested compounds. 1,8-Cineole, borneol and thymol were
highly effective against S. oryzae when applied for 24 h at the lowest dose (0.1 ml/720 ml volume). For Rhyzopertha
dominica camphor and linalool were highly effective and produced 100% mortality in the same conditions. Against
Tribolium castaneum no oil compounds achieved more than 20% mortality after exposure for 24 h, even with the
highest dose (100 ml/720 ml volume). However, after 7 days exposure 1,8-cineole produced 92.5% mortality,
followed by camphor (77.5%) and linalool (70.0%). These compounds may be suitable as fumigants because of their
high volatility, effectiveness, and their safety [24].
Chemical Composition
The volatiles of fresh leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits from bay (Laurus nolilis L.) were isolated by solvent
extraction and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their odor quality was characterized
by gas chomatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (HRGC-O-MS) and aroma extract dilution analysis
(AEDA). In fresh bay leaves 1,8-cineole was the major component, together with R-terpinyl acetate, sabinene, R-
pinene, α-pinene, α-elemene, R-terpineol, linalool and eugenol. Besides 1,8-cineole and the pinenes, the main
components in flowers were R-eudesmol, α-elemene and α-caryophyllene, in fruits (E)-α-ocimene and
biclyclogermacrene, in buds (E)-α-ocimene and germacrene D. The aliphatic ocimenes and farnesene were absent in
leaves. By using HRGC-O-MS 21 odor compounds were identified in fresh leaves. Application of AEDA revealed
(Z)-3-hexenal (fresh green), 1,8-cineole (eucalyptus), linalool (flowery), eugenol (clove), (E)- soeugenol (flowery),
and an unidentified compound (black pepper) with the highest flavor dilution factors.
Differences between buds, flowers, fruits, and leaves with regard to the identified odor compounds are presented
[25].
Terpenoids
Various sesquiterpene lactones were found to present in Laurus nobilis such as 10-epigazaniolide, Gazaniolide,
spirafolide, costunolide, eynosin and santamarine [26], 5α,9-dimethyl-3-methylene-3,3α,4,5,5α,6,7,8-ctahydro-1-
oxacyclopenta[c]azulen-2-one and 3β chlorodehydrocostus lactone along with other sesquiterpene lactones such as
dehydrocostuslactone, artremorine [27] and, Lauroxepine, 11,13-ehydrosantonin [28], 5α,9-dimethyl-3-methylene-
3,3α,4,5,5α,6,7,8-octahydro-1-oxacyclopenta[c]azulen-2-one and -chlorodehydrocostuslactone [29],
deacetyllaurenobiolide [30], 5αH,7αH-eudesman-4α,6α,11,12-tetraol and 1β,15-dihydroxy-5αH,7αH-eudesma-
3,11(13)-dien-12,6α-olide [31], Trypanocidal terpenoidzaluzanin D [32]. Two steroisomeric monoterpine alcohol
such as Cis and trans-thuj-2-en-4-ol were obtained in the essential oil of Laurus nobilis [33].
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Glycosides
Laurus nobilis leaves yielded four nonpolar flavonoids kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(3",4"-di-E-p-coumaroyl)- rhamnoside,
kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2",4"-di-E-pcoumaroyl)-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2"-4"-coumaroyl)- rhamnoside
and a new product kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2",4"-di-Z-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside [34]. Five new mega stigmane
glucosides name dlaurosides AE and a new phenolic glucoside were isolated from the methanolic extract of L.
nobilis L. leaves [35]. Kaempferol- 3-hamnopyranoside, and kaempferol-3, 7- di-rhamnopyranoside were isolated
from Laurus nobilis aqueous ethanolic extract [36].
Anthocyanin
The major anthocyanins were characterized as cyanidin 3-O-glucosideand cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside. Furthermore,
two minor anthocyanins were detected and identified as 3-O-glucoside and 3-Orutinoside [37].
Essential oil
The major constituents of this oil were 1,8-cineole (35.7%), trans-abinene hydrate (9.7%), α-terpinyl acetate (9.3%),
methyl eugenol (6.8%), sabinene (6.5%) and eugenol (4.8%). In the volatile of the bud stage, thirty-six compounds
amounting 98.8% of the total components were identified which included 1,8-cineole (34.9%), α-terpinyl acetate
(12.1%), trans-sabinene hydrate (11.9%), methyl eugenol (8.1%), sabinene (6.0%) and eugenol (3.8%) as main
components. In the oil obtained from the flowering stage, thirty-six components were identified, which represented
about 95.5% of the total composition.
1,8-Cineole (31.4%), α-terpinyl acetate (11.4%), trans-sabinene hydrate (9.8%), methyl eugenol (9.4%), sabinene
(5.8%) and eugenol (5.5%) were the principal components of this oil [38]. The main components of the oil were
identified. 1,8-Cineole along with α-terpinylacetate, terpinene-4- ol, α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene, linalool acetate.
It also found to contain (E)-β-cymene, β-longipinene, cadinene, α-terpinyl acetate, α-bulnesene [39], terpinene-4-ol
(4.25%), sabinene. The acyclic monoterpenes linalool and myrcenol were present in smaller amounts, while cumin
aldehyde, dimethylstyrene, eugenol, methyl eugenol and carvacrol were found [40].
Conclusion
Many research on the Chemical composition and pharmacological potential of Laurus nobilis published so far. It
was revealed from these articles that Laurus nobilis possesses significant in vitro and in vivo pharmacological
potential for the treatment of different ailments and diseases and found to be safe.
Laurel extracts have also been found to antioxidant, antibacterial, neuroprotective and Anticholinergic activities.
Many chemical compounds have been found such as Terpenoids, Glycosides, Essential oil and Anthocyanin which
responsible laurus effects. Further research studies are needed to obtain more scientific data on this miraculous
plant.
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39. Marzouki, H., Piras, A., Marongiu, B., Rosa, A., & Dessi, M. A. (2008). Extraction and separation of
volatile and fixed oils from berries of Laurus nobilis L. by supercritical CO2. Molecules, 13(8), 1702-1711.
40. Yalçın, H., Anık, M., Şanda, M. A., & Çakır, A. (2007). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis
of Laurus nobilis essential oil composition of northern Cyprus. Journal of medicinal food, 10(4), 715-719.
... The study of medicinal plants is becoming increasingly important, either from the popular knowledge (Barraza et al., 2014) and from the point of view of knowledge of the pharmacological properties of plants (de Almeida et al., 2003;Kumar, 2006;Wiart, 2007;Giogetti et al., 2011). Regarding Laurus nobilis, many studies have been conducted on other biological activities, among others, antioxidant protection (Kaurinovic et al., 2010;Ozcan et al., 2010;Al-Hashimi & Mahmood, 2016;Akcan et al., 2017;Alejo-Armijo et al., 2017); insecticidal effect (Chahal et al., 2016;Jemaa et al., 2011;Salehi et al., 2014); antimicrobial effect (Fratianni et al., 2007;Ozcan et al., 2010;Fukuyama et al., 2011;El et al., 2014;Videla et al., 2016;Aliberti et al., 2016;Fidan et al., 2019); antibacterial effects (Moghtader & Farahmand, 2013;Ouibrahim et al., 2013;Chahal et al., 2017;Mansour et al., 2018); antifungal effects (Marrufo et al., 2013;Rosello et al., 2015;Chahal et al., 2017); acaricidal effect (Macchioni et al., 2006); analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity (Sayyah et al., 2003;Esra et al., 2007;Kaileh et al., 2007;Alejo-Armijo et al., 2017;Maajida et al., 2019). ...
... Numerous investigations have been carried out on the chemical composition of Laurus nobilis L. (Novak, 1985;Kilic et al., 2004;Fang et al., 2005;Dellacqua et al., 2006;Fukuyama et al., 2011;Patrakar et al., 2012;Alejo-Armijos et al., 2017;Caputo et al., 2017;Mansour et al., 2018;Fidan et al., 2019) The definition of pain, according to the International Association for the Study of Pain states that: "Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described by the patient as related to that injury" According to the above, pain is a sensory experience that should be expressed through language. If we wished to study pain in animals is a requirement that animals can talk. ...
... Linalool, R-terpinyl acetate, and some monoterpene hydrocarbons, such as -pinene and sabinene, were discovered as well. Sesquiterpene lactones, flavones (apigenin and luteolin), flavonols (kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin) (13), alkaloids, glycosylated flavonoids, monoterpene, and germacrene alcohols have all been isolated from L. nobilis leaves and fruits in earlier phytochemical studies (14). Sesquiterpene lactones are found in roots and leaves, and two different chemical types have been identified, with laurenobiolide and costunolide as significant components, respectively (15). ...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Laurus Nobilis (Bay leaves) alcoholic extract on glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and urea levels; moreover, it was attempted to examine the histological changes induced in the liver and kidney among female albino rats treated with Depakene (Sodium Valproate). The L. nobilis leaves were dried in the shade, and they were then ground in mechanical processing. The resulting substance (250 gm) was processed in 70% ethanol for 24 h using a Soxhlet extractor at 45°C. Before being measured, the extract was concentrated in vacuo and stored in a vacuum desiccator until the elimination of all the solvents. In total, 20 female adult Wistar rats (230-250 g) were bred in the Animal House Lab at the University of Kufa, Faculty of Education for Girls, Kufa, Iraq. These animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=5), housed in a typical laboratory setting, and given a standard diet and water. Each animal received the treatments intraperitoneally for 30 days. The experimental groups were designed as follows: group 1 (the control) was given only physiological saline solution; group 2 received alcoholic extract of L. nobilis leaves at a dose of 150 mg/kg BW; group 3 received Depakene (Sodium Valproate) at a dose of 500 mg/kg BW; and group 4 received alcoholic extract+Depakene at a dose of 150 mg/kg BW and 500 mg/kg BW. The animals were euthanized following anaesthesia 24 h after the last day of the experiment. Heart blood samples were gathered in gel tubes, the serum was then centrifuged for 15 min at 3000 rpm to measure the biochemical parameter levels, which included glucose, HbA1C, ALT, AST, creatinine, and urea. The liver and kidney organs were removed and placed in a 10% formaldehyde solution instantly. Following fixation, they were processed as usual before being embedded in paraffin for histological analysis. Morphological changes were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining techniques. The recorded data showed a major drop (P<0.05) in blood glucose and HbA1c levels in group 2 which was given ethanol extract, compared to the other groups. Interestingly, the level of blood glucose and HbA1c levels reduced significantly in group 4, which was given L. nobilis+Depakene, compared to the control and the animals treated with only Depakene. Moreover, the results showed a major rise (P<0.05) in the liver enzyme among the animals treated with Depakene, compared to other groups. On the other hand, the recorded data showed a substantial drop (P<0.05) in creatinine levels in the animals treated with L. nobilis leaves extract (group 2) and group 4, compared to group 3 and the control group, respectively. However, no changes were recorded in the case of urea levels among the groups. Finally, the findings of this study showed that the ethanol extract of L. nobilis leaves was effectively reduced the adverse effects of Depakene. On the other hand, it had a significant effect on the reduction of blood glucose.
... Those gained a lot of interest as a potential source of natural bioactive molecules and are subjected to several studies for their possible use as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of infectious diseases (Serag et al., 2019;Djenadi et al., 2020). Infections by strains of the Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus type are a public health threat and its prevention is paramount (Manning et al., 2015;Mansour et al., 2018). Some papers reported the antimicrobial activity of phenolic extract from L. nobilis leaves (Liu et al., 2009;Yakhlef et al., 2011;Eadlapalli et al., 2016), but, in our best acknowledge, any investigation was performed on alkaloids extract of L. nobilis leaves. ...
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Laurus nobilis one of medicinal and aromatic plant endemic to the Mediter-ranean region. It is highly appreciated for the condiment benefits of its leaves. Due to its richness in bioactive compounds, the leaves are also used in traditional therapy to treat several infectious diseases. Phenolic com-pounds and alkaloids are particularly important because they are used in many pharmaceutical, food supplement, and cosmetic fields. The presence of phenolic compounds and alkaloids in L. nobilis leaves attracted our atten-tion due to their various functions such as antioxidant capacity and antibac-terial properties. The main objective of this study was to determine antioxi-dant and antibacterial activities of phenolic and alkaloid extracts of L. nobilis. The quantification of antioxidant substances allowed obtaining phenolic compounds content of 86.46 EAG mg/g and a total alkaloids yield of 700 μg/g. The results of antioxidant activity show that, although the alkaloid concen-trations are low, their antioxidant power is higher than phenolic compounds. The results of antibacterial activity of L. nobilis extracts revealed that the highest inhibition was recorded for alkaloid extract against staphylococcal strains responsible for food poisoning. However, L. nobilis phenolic com-pounds showed better activity against phytopathogenic strains associated particularly with potato rot.
... Those gained a lot of interest as a potential source of natural bioactive molecules and are subjected to several studies for their possible use as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of infectious diseases (Serag et al., 2019;Djenadi et al., 2020). Infections by strains of the Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus type are a public health threat and its prevention is paramount (Manning et al., 2015;Mansour et al., 2018). Some papers reported the antimicrobial activity of phenolic extract from L. nobilis leaves (Liu et al., 2009;Yakhlef et al., 2011;Eadlapalli et al., 2016), but, in our best acknowledge, any investigation was performed on alkaloids extract of L. nobilis leaves. ...
Article
Full-text available
Laurus nobilis is one of medicinal and aromatic plant endemic to the Mediter-ranean region. It is highly appreciated for the condiment benefits of its leaves. Due to its richness in bioactive compounds, the leaves are also used in traditional therapy to treat several infectious diseases. Phenolic compounds and alkaloids are particularly important because they are used in many pharmaceutical, food supplement, and cosmetic fields. The presence of phenolic compounds and alkaloids in L. nobilis leaves attracted our attention due to their various functions such as antioxidant capacity and antibac-terial properties. The main objective of this study was to determine antioxi-dant and antibacterial activities of phenolic and alkaloid extracts of L. nobilis. The quantification of antioxidant substances allowed obtaining phenolic compounds content of 86.46 EAG mg/g and a total alkaloids yield of 700 µg/ g. The results of antioxidant activity show that, although the alkaloid concentrations are low, their antioxidant power is higher than phenolic compounds. The results of antibacterial activity of L. nobilis extracts revealed that the highest inhibition was recorded for alkaloid extract against staphylococcal strains responsible for food poisoning. However, L. nobilis phenolic compounds showed better activity against phytopathogenic strains associated particularly with potato rot.
... Laurel leaves square measure used as spices in varied recipes. The oil obtained from the extracts of laurel leaves is employed in enterprise to form seasoning soap [6]. The essential oil extracted from laurel leaves (0. eightieth -3%) encompass: essential oils, "consistent with the strategy of gathering and storage". ...
... Baytop (1984) explained that Laura plant extract has been traditionally used by orally to treat flatulence, digestive problems, nerve pain, and epilepsy. It has been found that several chemical compounds such as glycosides, terpenoids, anthocyanin, and essential oil are the causes of Laurus plant activities (Mansour et al., 2018). Gülçin et al. (2002) appeared that Laurus leaves contain active compounds such as isoquinoline alkaloids, vitamin E, essential oils, lauric acid, parthenolides, dimethyl styrene, cumin aldehyde, eugenol, and caracole. ...
Article
The present study was conducted in order to assess the chemical composition of Laurus, its antioxidant activities, and benefit from the Laurus extract effect on neurotoxicity caused by lead acetate (Pb). Chemical profile was assayed by using liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS). In this study, 40 male rats were divided into four groups (10 rats per each group): (1) control group, (2) Laurus group: rats treated with 250 mg/kg b. wt. of Laurus leaves extract, (3) Pb group: rats treated with 100 mg/kg b. wt. of lead acetate, (4) Pb + Laurus group: rats treated with 250 mg/kg b. wt. of Laurus leaves extract in addition to lead acetate for 30 days. At the end of experiment, some estimates were calculated from blood samples, brain tissue, and histological examination. The results showed that the extract is highly affluent in total flavonoids, total phenolic, and also has antioxidant activity. The LC-MS appeared a wide range of compounds in the extract. The oxidative stress resulted from exposure to lead acetate has been reported to cause reduction in body and brain weights, levels of RBCs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), GSH, SOD, and CAT in addition to increase in levels of WBCs and MAD. Moreover, Laurus leaves extract notably lessened the biochemical changes caused by lead acetate in the blood, homogenate, and brain tissue (P < 0.05). The current study indicates the antioxidant activity of Laurus leaves extract and assumes that it has a defensive role against the oxidative damage caused by lead in a rat's brain.
... The oil floats and then cools until it freezes and then collects. Laurel oil also known as Mediterranean bay laurel, is widely grown in Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Syria, Morocco, Algeria, Mediterranean Islands, and California [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. ...
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The effect of ripening time of the laurel fruits (from the region of Kassab in Syria) between October to December on the chemical composition of fatty acids in laurel oil extracted from the fruits (green, brown and black) by hexane using gas chromatographic analysis after converting fatty acids to methyl esters (FAMEs) was studied. It was found that the ratios of fatty acids change with the time of growth and with the maturation of the fruits. The proportion of lauric acid was decreasing with the time of growth (37.596% to 22.301% from October to December) and with the transformation of fruits from green to black (37.596% to 27.641% in October, 33.614% to 25.860% in November and 27.719% to 22.301% in December).The proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) increases, while the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) decreases with the transition of the oil extracted from the green fruits to the oil extracted from the black fruits as well as with the ripening time.
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Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco is an endemic species from the Azores, traditionally used in all the islands as a seasoning in cooking. The studies carried out with this species refer mainly to its essential oils. The study that was developed here allowed, for the first time, to determine the chemical composition and biological activities of the ethanol extract, fractions, and pure compounds from L. azorica. The hexane fraction was analyzed by GC–MS and revealed the presence of 48 compounds, comprising mainly fatty acids, fatty alcohols and terpenes, the family of fatty alcohols identified here for the first time in the genus Laurus. Three sesquiterpene lactones—costunolide, 11,13-dehydrosantonin and reynosin—were isolated for the first time in L. azorica from the same fraction, and structurally characterized using spectroscopic techniques. The compounds identified belong to families known to have relevant medicinal and nutritional properties. Regarding antioxidant activities, the results obtained showed a moderate radical scavenging effect of extracts and fractions, while in the β-carotene bleaching assay, costunolide was shown to be the most active (IC50 = 4.08 ± 0.76 μg/mL), about 3.6 times more active than the standard, gallic acid, which presented IC50 = 14.56 ± 0.13 μg/mL. Although the inhibition of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes was not detected, the ethanol extract showed good inhibitory activity of tyrosinase, with an IC50 of 12.04 ± 0.23 μg/mL, only 6.6-fold lower than the control kojic acid. The results presented deepen the knowledge about a little studied species, opening new perspectives for the development of value-added applications in the food and cosmeceutical fields.
Chapter
The reproductive system comprises a series of internal and external organs that function collaboratively to produce male germ cells that fuse with female germ cells to produce offspring. Reproductive health encompasses the proper functioning of the reproductive system at all stages of life. The male reproductive system is susceptible to various diseases, disorders, and dysfunction, which may develop during multiple phases of life. Adverse and life-threatening effects of modern therapies targeting reproductive conditions are widespread. Recently, an alternative to modern medicine that takes advantage of nature's benefits has been investigated. Herbal medicine has long been used to treat various diseases in different countries, especially among rural and ethnic peoples, due to its profitability, easy availability, low cost, ease of use, and little to no adverse effect. Various medicinal plants have been evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of various reproductive dysfunctions. This chapter summarizes multiple medicinal plants and their extracts used to treat common reproductive disorders in this chapter.
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Aim. To study the qualitative composition and the quantitative content of the essential oil components from Laurus nobilis L. unripe fruits. Results and discussion. In the essential oil from Laurus nobilis L. unripe fruits 31 compounds were determined; among them 28 substances were identified. A high content was characteristic for spatulenol (1947.1 mg/kg) and betulenol (925.3 mg/kg). Experimental part. The raw material for obtaining the essential oil (unripe fruits) of Laurus nobilis L. was harvested in November 2017 in Alushta and the village of Rybalskoe, Crimea. The component composition of the essential oil of the unripe fruits from Laurus nobilis L. was studied and the constituents of the essential oil were identified by chromato-mass spectrometry using an Agilent Technology 6890N chromatograph. The component composition of the essential oil was revealed by comparing the results obtained with data from the NIST 02 mass spectrum library (more than 174.000 substances). Conclusions. The component composition of the essential oil from Laurus nobilis L. unripe fruits harvested in Ukraine has been studied. Taking into account the set of the biologically active compounds found in the essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. it can be argued that further pharmacognostic studies of fruits of this plant as the medicinal raw material with the predicted pharmacological activity (e.g., antimicrobial and skin cleansing) are promising.
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The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from the leaves of the Laurus nobilis plant (from the Northern Cyprus Mountains) by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Of the 81 compounds representing 98.74% of total oil, monocyclic monoterpenes such as 1,8-cineole (58.59%), �-terpinyl acetate (8.82%), and terpinene-4-ol (4.25%) were the main components. Bicyclic monoterpenes such as �- and �-pinene (3.39–3.25%) and sabinene (3.32%) were also identified. The acyclic monoterpenes linalool (0.19%) and myrcenol (0.10%) were present in smaller amounts, and so were the sesquiterpenes. o-Cymene (1.30%) and p-cymene (1.83%) were the main, while cumin aldehyde (0.24%), dimethylstyrene (0.08%), eugenol (0.16%), methyl eugenol (0.05%), and carvacrol (0.05%) were found as minor, aromatic compounds of laurel oil.
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In present study effect of laurel leaf extract (Laurus nobilis) on biochemical parameters and histomorphology of rat liver induced by toxic damage of CCl4 was studied. Introduction of CCl4 in animals was always carried out in fatal to 36 hours. A single injection of the L. nobilis extract ssimultaneously with CCl4 leads to 100% survivability. To evaluate the degree of hepatocyte damage in experimental modeling hepatitis de Ritis index was used. It has been reported that intraperitoneal injection of a lethal dose of CCl4 activates hepatocyte damage in the key markers, such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ -glutamiltransferase, bilirubin, urea, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerides. Simultaneous treatment of CCl4 with Laurus nobilis leaves extract prevented death and exhibit a normalizing effect on the main indicators of liver damage and index de-Ritis. Result of the present study revealed that L. nobilis extract have capacity to manage metabolic and histological abnormalities of hepatocytes toxic damage induced by CCl4
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The effects of various methods of drying on the chemical quality and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Laurus nobilis were studied. The most prominent component in the air-dried, fresh leaf and microwave-dried leaf oils is 1,8 Cineole (58,8, 35.62 and 42,9% respectively). The essential oil has undergone significant chemical transformation in its monoterpenoids when the leaves of plant in the question were dried by the three different methods. The oils have screened for antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and two fungal species (Penicilium digitatum and Alternaria sp). The microbial strains tested have been found sensitive to all essential oils studied.
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The present study was designed to determine the effects of the essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae) and its three main components on α-glucosidase and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity. The chemical composition of the essential oil from Laurus nobilis L. leaves was analyzed by GC/GC-MS and resulted in the identification of 29 compounds, representing 99.18% of the total oil. 1,8-cineole (68.82%), 1-(S)-α-pinene (6.94%), and R-(+)- limonene (3.04%) were determined to be the main components. The antioxidant features of the essential oil and its three main components were evaluated using inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals, inhibition of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation assays. The results show that the DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radical as well as hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities of the essential oil are greater than the positive controls and the three main components of the oil when tested independently. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the oil occurred less frequently than with 1,8-cineole and R-(+)- limonene alone, but the effects were more pronounced than those seen with 1-(S)-α-pinene and the positive controls. An α-glucosidase inhibition assay was applied to evaluate the in-vitro antidiabetic activity of the essential oil. IC50-values were obtained for laurel essential oil, 1, 8-cineole, 1-(S)-α-pinene, and R-(+)-limonene: 1.748 μL/mL, 1.118 μL/mL, 1.420 μL/mL and 1.300 μL/mL, respectively. We also found that laurel essential oil and 1, 8-cineole inhibited the α-glucosidase competitively while 1-(S)-α-pinene and R-(+)-limonene were uncompetitive inhibitors.
Book
Continuing the high standards set by the widely acclaimed first and second volumes of Medicinal Plants of the World: Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Medicinal Uses, Ivan A. Ross now comprehensively documents in Volume 3 the medicinal value of 16 major plant species widely used around the world in medical formulations. The plants for this volume are Camellia sinenis, Cannabis sativa, Cocos nucifera, Coffea arabica, Daucus carota, Ferula assafoetida, Hordeum vulgare, Larrea tridentata, Nicotiana tabacum, Olea europaea, Oryza sativa, Plantago ovata, Saccharum officinarum, Serenoa repens, Sesamum indicum, and Zingiber officinale. The author's exhaustive summary of available scientific data for each plant provides detailed information on how the plant is used in different countries, describing its traditional therapeutic applications and what is known from its use in clinical trials. Additional material presented includes a botanical description with a color photo of each plant for identification, the common names used for the plant throughout the world, and a listing of the plant's known chemical constituents. A comprehensive bibliography cites the literature available from a wide range of disciplines. Medicinal Plants of the World: Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Medicinal Uses, Volume 3, offers a unique collection of vital scientific information for pharmacologists, herbal medicine practitioners, drug developers, phytochemists, medicinal chemists, phytologists, toxicologists, and researchers who want to explore the many uses of plant materials for medicinal and related purposes. Its wealth of significant information will reveal little-known facts about these plants and open new horizons of application for the many novel drugs and drug candidates found in them.
Article
The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Laurus nobilis L. has been examined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometery (MS). The main components of the oil were identified. 1,8-Cineole was the major component in the oil together with -terpinyl acetate, terpinene-4-ol, -pinene, -pinene, p-cymene, linalool and terpinene-4-ylacetate. The essential oil was tested against Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens larvae. The results obtained show that the essential oil could be considered as natural larvicidal agents.
Article
The antioxidant activities of laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) berries extracts were evaluated using a DPPH assay, a beta-carotene/linoleic acid assay and the Rancimat method. Pericarp and kernel of berries were extracted by different extraction methods with solvents of different polarities. Extraction method and extracting solvents significantly affected the yield, total phenolics and antioxidant activity of the extracts. Total phenolic content varied from 142.4 to 168.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g(-1) in pericarp extracts and from 233-240.4 mg GEA g(-1) in kernel extracts. Kernel extract by Soxhlet method with 80% ethanol showed the highest scavenging activity of 50.78% at 12 mu g ml(-1) by the DPPH. Fifty percent ethanol extract of pericarp exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity (85.56%) by the beta-carotene/linoleic acid system. Protection Factor of all kernel extracts determined by the Rancimat method was comparable with that of BHT. No correlation was found between the total phenolics and antioxidant activities of the extracts.
Article
Bay leaf belongs to the family Lauraceae, and it is one of the most popular culinary spices in all Western countries. Bay leaf has been used as herbal medicine and has pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-diabetes and anti-inflammatory effects. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis), which are responsible for inducing apoptosis using bioassay-directed isolation. The isolation of active compounds was carried out in three steps: multiple extractions, fractionation using column chromatography and purification using semi-preparative HPLC. The structure of separated compounds was determined on the basis of 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance data, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry data, and electron ionization mass spectrometry. Six compounds were identified; all of them are sesquiterpene lactones.