Article

# A review of technology and policy deep decarbonization pathway options for making energy-intensive industry production consistent with the Paris Agreement

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## Abstract

The production of commodities by energy-intensive industry is responsible for 1/3 of annual global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The climate goal of the Paris Agreement, to hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels while pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C, requires global GHG emissions reach net-zero and probably negative by 2055–2080. Given the average economic lifetime of industrial facilities is 20 years or more, this indicates all new investment must be net-zero emitting by 2035–2060 or be compensated by negative emissions to guarantee GHG-neutrality. We argue, based on a sample portfolio of emerging and near-commercial technologies for each sector (largely based on zero carbon electricity & heat sources, biomass and carbon capture, and catalogued in an accompanying database), that reducing energy-intensive industrial GHG emissions to Paris Agreement compatible levels may not only be technically possible, but can be achieved with sufficient prioritization and policy effort. We then review policy options to drive innovation and investment in these technologies. From this we synthesize a preliminary integrated strategy for a managed transition with minimum stranded assets, unemployment, and social trauma that recognizes the competitive and globally traded nature of commodity production. The strategy includes: an initial policy commitment followed by a national and sectoral stakeholder driven pathway process to build commitment and identify opportunities based on local zero carbon resources; penetration of near-commercial technologies through increasing valuation of GHG material intensity through GHG pricing or flexible regulations with protection for competitiveness and against carbon leakage; research and demand support for the output of pilot plants, including some combination of guaranteed above-market prices that decline with output and an increasing requirement for low carbon inputs in government procurement; and finally, key supporting institutions.

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... A literature evaluating industrial decarbonization technologies and policies has been emerging over the past few years [5][6][7][8]. Starting with these cross sectoral studies, we use a socio-technical approach to focus on understanding industrial decarbonization via natural gas. ...
... The latter route may open doors to myriad options either in isolation or combined, such as replacing fossil fuels and feedstocks with biomass, synthetic hydrocarbons, or a hybrid of electrification and hydrogen. Industrial symbiosis-where waste products from an industry serve as feedstocks for another industry-can additionally improve efficiency [8]. We explore each of these options further (see Figs. 8 and 9). ...
... The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) project CO 2 savings from CHP and WHP akin to comparably sized solar photovoltaics, wind, and natural gas combined cycle at the same or lower cost. Fig. 8. Generalized energy-intensive industry decarbonization options [8]. ...
Article
Natural gas is an important and highly flexible fuel across the industry sector globally. It provides fuel and energy services for both heat and power, and is also as a key feedstock in many industrial processes. Natural gas-based industrial technologies typically have lower capital costs, operating costs, and electricity consumption than coal-based technologies. These features make natural gas preferable for industrial use as compared to other fossil fuels. However, the future of natural gas remains uncertain, especially for industry planning to be net-zero or carbon neutral by mid-century. This review addresses the role that natural gas might play in global industrial decarbonization, and how it can help decarbonize industrial processes. We undertake a comprehensive and critical review of more than 400 studies on the topic of industrial decarbonization via natural gas. The review also provides evidence of critical barriers that range from financial and infrastructural to geopolitical and governance issues along with promising avenues for future research.
... The British government consider CCUS as being key technologies for securing carbon dioxide mitigation from EI industrial subsectors (see Figure 2; Griffin et al., 2016Griffin et al., , 2018a. Obviously, innovations in capture technologies are likely to occur over the timespan in 2050 (Bataille et al., 2018;Cooper and Hammond, 2018;Griffin et al., 2016Griffin et al., , 2018aLeeson et al., 2017;Wesseling et al., 2017). The development of carbon dioxide transport hubs will require an interlinking of industrial and power station networks for onward storage, typically beneath the North Sea. ...
... Options for producing sustainable hydrogen included 'thermochemical routes' (such as steam methane reforming (SMR) and coal/biomass gasification); biological routes (such as anaerobic digestion, photo fermentation and bioelectrochemical systems); 'electrolytic routes' (such as those utilising an alkaline electrolyser, solid oxide electrolyser and polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyser); and finally, a suite of innovative technologies under the umbrella title 'solar to fuels' (or 'artificial photosynthesis'). Hydrogen-based processing is also favoured by a number of research groups in Northern Europe, although they recognise that it is likely to be expensive (Bataille et al., 2018;Wesseling et al., 2017). The process conventionally used to produce hydrogen is SMR employing NG as the feedstock. ...
Article
In the period since 2010 successive UK Governments have produced various decarbonisation strategies for industry. This article scrutinises the most recent version that was published in March 2021: the Industrial Decarbonisation Strategy (IDS). It contrasts the policy content of the IDS with previous industrial roadmaps, action plans and strategies (including the Clean Growth Strategy of 2017). In addition, it compares the proposals in the IDS with the latest recommendations of the UK Government's independent Climate Change Committee, as well as drawing on lessons learned from the techno-economic assessments published by the author and his collaborators for a number of key ‘Foundation Industries’. The latter emit significant shares of UK industrial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions: the iron and steel (∼25%), chemicals (∼19%), cement (∼8%), pulp and paper (∼6%), and glass (∼3%) sectors. They also produce some 28 million tonnes of materials per year, which are worth £52 billion to the UK economy, and account for ∼10% of UK total CO 2 emissions.
... These basic materials account for approximately 22% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Bataille, 2019). Technically, it is possible to reduce emissions from these industries to zero but this requires major innovation and investments efforts over a sustained period of time (Bataille et al., 2018). A challenge for policy-making is the national responsibility for implementing climate policy enshrined in the Paris Agreement as opposed to the global nature of the markets that these industries operate on. ...
... The changes necessary for deep decarbonization of EIIs are not about replacing specific technical components but requires technological changes to the very core production processes and will thus be systemic, that is, will require changes to all surrounding systems that support this technology such as infrastructures, regulations and market regimes. All of these options need public support, especially to support RD&D efforts to demonstrate functionality and to reveal the true production cost in the coming 5 to 10 years (Bataille et al., 2018;Napp et al., 2014). The technical options available for a deep decarbonization in industry can be structured as: ...
Chapter
Basic materials are traded globally and responsible for roughly 22 % of global carbon emissions. It is technically possible for the energy intensive industries (EIIs) that produce these materials to reach zero emission, but at a cost. So far, the fear of carbon leakage has been a barrier for implementing ambitious domestic climate policies that targets theses globally traded commodities. The introduction of border carbon adjustments (BCAs) for levelling the global playing field has been suggested to ameliorate these concerns. However, another way is to focus more on innovation, adopting green industrial policies and to cooperate internationally for developing technologies for net zero EIIs. In this chapter we explore the opportunities for enhanced cooperation for enabling deep decarbonisation for EIIs and how that links to BCAs. We argue for establishing a green materials club focussing on long-term technology development and discusses limitation and opportunities for this approach. A green materials club could ease the conflicts between trade and ambitious climate policy and complement BCAs.
... This means that while there are certainly gains to be made in implementing the best available technologies in less advanced plants, eliminating remaining emissions will require massive investments in the development and deployment of new low-carbon innovations for existing industrial systems. While some of the technological and process innovations that form part of these solutions are commercially viable or in pilot stages (Bataille et al. 2018), others still require considerable research and development (Skoczkowski et al. 2020). Below we review technological options to achieve deep decarbonisation in the steel and cement sectors. ...
... Given the high capital intensity and long investment cycles of industrial production sites, there is a window of opportunity at times of major reinvestments, where the choices made can be absolutely decisive for decarbonisation (Bataille et al. 2018;Nill 2003). This issue is relevant at a company level as well as globally. ...
Technical Report
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This report focuses on “active engagement”, where investors engage with high-emitting sectors, through companies in which they hold ownership stakes and with the actors to whom they provide debt financing, and place expectations on them to adopt new low-emissions technologies, practices and business models. To engage effectively, investors need to understand: • What high-emitting companies and sectors should be doing to decarbonise production processes or to shift business models; • The policies and other system conditions necessary for companies to succeed with their decarbonisation strategies; and • When sectors and companies can adopt credible transition strategies that investors can support, and when other strategies, such as divestment, are likely to be more impactful. The report provides insights from sustainability experts focused on four high-emitting sectors – steel, cement, agricultural commodities, and oil and gas. In assessments that can be read independently, we highlight what investors need to know about these sectors if they really aim to influence them, including the decarbonisation pathways that appear most promising. Our analysis concludes with a set of broader lessons and questions regarding the role of investors in engaging with climate-intensive sectors. T
... The recent 1.5 °C-compliant scenario by the International Energy Agency (IEA) suggests that steelmaking-related CO2 emissions must be reduced by 91% by 2050 but also as much as 24% already by 2030 [5]. Consequently, due to the typically long investment cycles in the steel industry and the need for drastic process innovation, development and commercialization of near-zero CO2 BF alternatives must occur during the 2020s [6,7]. ...
... DRI carburization will lead to higher top gas temperatures and, thus, higher reducing gas temperatures after internal heat exchange.7 This equation was originally misprinted in paper I. ...
... Barriers due to insufficient exposure to technology for implementing green supply chain practices create a challenging environment for businesses. Bataille (2018) has stated that modifications of the SC require implementation of those specific technologies that are able to use recyclable materials, conserve energy and manufacture high quality products. Li et al. (2015b) also argued that, along with quality, production quantity must also be maintained in order to cater to the demands of the market. ...
Article
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Over the past decade, there has been a constant spotlight on introducing sustainability in the supply chain (SC). The materialistic human greed for production and consumption has led to a radically increased level of greenhouse gases. SC has become its principal contributor. We are addressing this socio-economic environmental challenge by developing a multi-stakeholder framework and focusing on a knowledge-based net zero supply chain, as there are no concrete existing studies that have investigated current state-of-the-art operations in this relevant field. Therefore, this research has been conducted to investigate the drivers, barriers and practices through which net zero economy (NZE) can be attained in a knowledge-based SC. In this regard, the paper conducts an exploratory systematic review of selected articles from peer-reviewed journals. The findings indicate that primary stakeholders (i.e. organisations and suppliers) require to take an active role in bringing about sustainable changes in practice. However, external perspectives (i.e. government, society, consumers and community) have also been identified as sources that create challenges as well as have the potential to aid sustainable industrial practices. Additionally, progress can be enhanced through proper policies, regulations and a knowledge-based conceptual framework to pave the way for a sustainable environment. Proper practices for NZE also provide scope for economic growth through cost-effective production. This paper will be beneficial for practitioners as well as policy makers on a global scale who aim to attain NZE for sustainability.
... Although several authors have successfully approximated the energy savings from campaigns targeted to citizens, the effects of campaigns on companies still remain relatively unexplored. Therefore, both practitioners and academics should approach the assessment of energy savings deriving from information and training campaigns targeted to energy-intensive industries, which still maintain a great potential to contribute to the energy transition required for a sustainable society [5] and to reach the Paris Agreement objectives [53]. A further step of the investigation may assess cost-benefits of energy efficiency information and training campaigns, to evaluate if the ratio between the expenditure incurred and energy saved is better or worse than other policy instruments set to reduce energy consumption. ...
Article
Full-text available
Energy efficiency is a pillar for the energy system transition and for reaching the Sustainable Development Goals. In the light of the “energy efficiency first!” principle, European member states enforce policies to spread energy saving throughout the whole energy chain involving both citizens and industries. In this context, information and training campaigns arise as valuable support tools to disseminate energy efficiency and, therefore, for reducing energy consumption. Although various studies have evaluated the impact of information campaigns targeted to citizens, there is a lack of investigations that assess the impact of campaigns dedicated to industry sectors. This study discusses the results of a survey targeted at energy-intensive Italian companies, with a sample of 300 responses. Starting from the analysis of drivers that trigger the implementation of energy efficiency measures, the paper proposes an approach to evaluate the amount of energy savings linked to the Italian information and training program targeted to industries carried out by the Italian Energy Efficiency Agency. Results show that although information campaigns are not a crucial driver for companies, they are recognized as a factor that contributes to the implementation of energy efficiency practices. Findings show that roughly 1.4% of energy savings noted by interviewed companies to the Italian Energy Efficiency Agency are a direct effect of the information and training program. This outcome has significant implications, especially for decision-makers, giving evidence of the efficacy of information campaigns on industries, which have great potential for the transition to low carbon production systems.
... While being a facilitator of clean energy transition, the ISI is one of the most energy and emission intensive industries across the globe (Ahlström et al., 2020;Bataille et al., 2018). Currently, this industry accounts for 25% of industrial CO 2 emissions and 22% of energy consumption in the industrial sector (Brunke and Blesl, 2014;Llera et al., 2022;Ren et al., 2021). ...
Article
Industrial-environmental management is a multi-objective optimization problem plagued with multiple uncertainties. Most studies only optimize few objectives and often neglect these uncertainties. This study builds a 6-objective optimization problem to quantify energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER) potentials in China's iron and steel industry. First, uncertainties are simulated through 100,000-time random sampling, NSGA-II and the mean-effective objective mechanism are applied to calculate optimal solutions. Finally, a global sensitivity analysis is performed to classify uncertainty parameters based on their impacts on objectives' performance. Results show: (1) There exist significant discrepancies between objectives' performance under certainty and uncertainty. For example, the deterministic CO2 intensity is 1148 kg/t, which is 11.93% lower than its value under uncertainty. Therefore, neglecting uncertainty increases the risk of noncompliance with policy targets as they might be too strict; (2) Two critical uncertainty parameters (steel ratios and technology penetration rates) have the most severe impacts on objectives' performance, hence, reducing their fluctuation can minimize uncertainties when estimating ECER potentials; (3) By-product recycling and energy efficiency measures have good performance in all objectives, thus, should be prioritized. Moreover, from 77-strategies assessed, 11 are identified as key-strategies due to their large ECER effects, hence, should be strongly promoted.
... The CO 2 emissions are regulated within the Energy efficiency regulation (IMO, 2011). However, due to the Paris Agreement and other strategies that promote decarbonization of each sector (Bataille et al., 2018), including the maritime sector, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) set a goal for international shipping to reduce the total annual GHGs by at least 50 % by 2050, compared to 2008 levels (IMO, 2020). The most promising way to accomplish this goal is to replace the conventional ship power system with an alternative one and implementing zero-emissions shipping options. ...
Conference Paper
Environmental regulations and emissions targets are pushing the shipping industry towards the implementation of alternative decarbonization measures. Among them, the application of zero-emission solutions, such as the use of hydrogen and electricity, are highlighted. Although with their implementation, the exhaust gas while the ship is operating is absent, their environmental performance needs to be investigated from the life-cycle point of view. Therefore, the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed, where the emissions released through the life-cycle of the power system with hydrogen and electricity are investigated and compared to the diesel power system configuration. The comparison indicated that the hydrogen produced through the process of electrolysis (green hydrogen) is the best ecological solution with respect to all investigated emission products, while the second-most environmental friendly zero-emission alternative is the full electrification of a ship with a Lithium-ion battery.
... The CO 2 emissions are regulated within the Energy efficiency regulation (IMO, 2011). However, due to the Paris Agreement and other strategies that promote decarbonization of each sector (Bataille et al., 2018), including the maritime sector, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) set a goal for international shipping to reduce the total annual GHGs by at least 50 % by 2050, compared to 2008 levels (IMO, 2020). The most promising way to accomplish this goal is to replace the conventional ship power system with an alternative one and implementing zero-emissions shipping options. ...
Book
Full-text available
... This includes the raw materials to produce PEG, MF resins, epoxy, alkoxide (alkoxysilane), methacrylate and acrylate consolidants. With the signing of the Paris Agreement in 2015 [23][24][25][26][27][28], many countries and institutions pledged to phase out the use of fossil fuels by 2050. What does this mean for the polymers used regularly in the conservation laboratory? ...
Article
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Conserving the world’s cultural and natural heritage is considered a key contributor to achieving the targets set out in the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals, yet how much attention do we pay to the methods we use to conserve and protect this heritage? With a specific focus on wooden objects of cultural heritage, this review discusses the current state-of-the-art in heritage conservation in terms of sustainability, sustainable alternatives to currently used consolidants, and new research directions that could lead to more sustainable consolidants in the future. Within each stage a thorough discussion of the synthesis mechanisms and/or extraction protocols, particularly for bio-based resources is provided, evaluating resource usage and environmental impact. This is intended to give the reader a better understanding of the overall sustainability of each different approach and better evaluate consolidant choices for a more sustainable approach. The challenges facing the development of sustainable consolidants and recent research that is likely to lead to highly sustainable new consolidant strategies in the future are also discussed. This review aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion of sustainable conservation and highlight the role that consolidants play in truly sustainable heritage conservation.
... Heavy industry in general, and the steel industry in particular, face specific technological and economic challenges in this process (Davis et al., 2018). In their broad analysis of several heavy industries, Bataille et al. (2018) differentiate between three main technical strategies to achieve climate neutrality: (1) the use of sustainable biomass; (2) carbon capture and storage (CCS); and (3) the use of renewable electricity. These three technical strategies are complemented by energy and material efficiency strategies to reduce steel use and to increase secondary production aiming at a more circular economy. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the move to a hydrogen-based primary steel production envisioned for the near future in Europe, existing regional industrial clusters loose major assets. Such a restructuring of industries may result in a new geographical distribution of the steel industry and also to another quality of vertical integration at sites. Both implications could turn out as drivers or barriers to invest in new technologies and are thus important in respect to vertical integration of sites and to regional policy. This paper describes an approach to model production stock invest for the steel industries in North-Western Europe. Current spatial structures are reproduced with capacity, technical and energy efficiency data on the level of single facilities like blast furnaces. With the model developed both investments in specific technologies and at specific production sites can be modelled. The model is used to simulate different possible future scenarios. The case with a clear move to hydrogen-based production is compared to a reference scenario without technological shift. The scenarios show that existing trends like movement of production to the coast may be accelerated by the new technology but that sites in the hinterland can also adapt to a hydrogen economy. Possible effects of business cycles or a circular economy on regional value chains are explored with a Monte-Carlo analysis.
... CO 2 is the major Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and an increase in its concentration in the atmosphere causes global warming [6]. Within the scope of the Paris Agreement adopted in 2015 which advocates the reduction of GHGs [7], IMO set a goal of reducing GHG emissions from international shipping by 50% up to 2050 compared to the 2008 levels [8]. In the most recent GHG Study, [9], IMO reported that in 2018 the shipping sector generated 2.89% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions, while in 2012 this share was 2.76%. ...
Article
This paper investigates the viability of different fuel cell types in a ship power system, where hydrogen and ammonia are considered as zero-carbon fuels. The identification of alternatives to diesel-powered ships is performed by taking into account the environmental and economic indicators of the considered power systems, determined by Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life-Cycle Cost Assessment (LCCA), and further compared with the existing diesel power systems of three passenger ships operating in Croatian coastal waters. Special attention is paid to fuel origin, where fossil fuels (grey fuel), fossil fuels followed by CO2 capture (blue fuel), and those produced from renewable energy sources (green fuel) are considered. The results of the research indicate that fuel cell systems with grey hydrogen and grey ammonia are not environmentally friendly, while fuel cell systems with the blue and green types of these fuels have a lower impact on the environment than a diesel-powered ship, with a reduction of up to 84% in CO2-eq emissions when green ammonia is used. Regarding profitability, the diesel-powered ship has the lowest total costs, while the second most cost-effective option is the fuel cell system with blue ammonia as fuel with 27%-43% higher costs than a diesel-powered ship, depending on which type of fuel cell is used. Although blue ammonia is a cheaper fuel than diesel fuel, the lifetime costs of the fuel cell power system are affected by relatively high investment costs (fuel cell, battery, cracker, etc.) and equipment replacement costs.
... This also applies to non-clustered heavy industry. Both Chiappinelli et al. (2021) and Bataille et al. (2018) researched policy pathways for deep decarbonization of energy-intensive industries; they concluded that in order to accelerate the commercialization of the decarbonization technologies, a mix of precise innovation and market uptake policies along the value chain are needed. This includes prioritizing research into supporting institutions and business models, deployment subsidies (contracts for difference), a carbon price and border protection, all integrated into a comprehensive industrial policy framework aiming at the deep emission reduction goals (Nilsson et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Industrial clusters are considered more resource- and greenhouse gas-efficient than stand-alone industrial plants, but clustering may also act as a barrier to radical changes required for deep greenhouse gas emission reductions. Here we explore how clustering in an energy-intensive chemical industry cluster may influence attainability of the deep emission reduction targets. Chemelot, located in the southeast of the Netherlands, was willing to collaborate and we adopt a qualitative system dynamics approach based on expert interviews and group model building sessions. We found that clustering may hinder reaching deep emission reductions by three reinforcing feedback mechanisms, or ‘traps’, related to: incremental changes; short-term focus; and companies acting alone. The system dynamics analysis also identified potential mechanisms to escape from these traps, notably: (1) increasing cluster autonomy; (2) activating public support; (3) promoting changes in the supply chain; and (4) attracting long-term investors. The findings can inform policymakers on how to steer industrial clusters towards deep emission reductions, and support industrial cluster decision-makers on both internal and external strategies. Key policy insights • Industrial clustering may offer opportunities to accelerate deep greenhouse gas emission reductions, but it could also cause carbon lock-in because of increased physical and organizational interdependency, which favours incremental changes, short-term focus, and solitary actions rather than collective actions, at the cost of deep greenhouse gas emission reductions. • To fully exploit the potential benefits of industrial clustering for greenhouse gas emission reductions, policies need to take into account the causal relations that operate in a self-reinforcing way to lock the cluster into high greenhouse gas emissions, and that can help escape them. • A coordinating authority operating across the cluster is necessary to ensure effective collaboration within a chemical cluster so as to escape carbon lock-in. • Policies addressing emissions along the full value chain (i.e. to include scope 3) might be mutually beneficial with the circularity and low-emission ambitions of the chemical industry.
... In the conditions of rapid scientific and technological progress, the growth in world production, and the growth of energy consumption all over the world, achieving the stated goals requires a revision of energy policies of most developed and developing countries [3][4][5][6][7]. Considering the circular economy (CE) concepts, many countries are developing or already following the programs to transfer the economy to a new sustainable and low-carbon path of its development, attract investments in the development of green technologies, and force polluting enterprises to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere [8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, most countries of the world are implementing the transition to the low-carbon economy which implies the need to carry out a full-scale eco-modernization of the energy sector. Green energy may be identified as one of the core concerns of energy sector modernization as it allows a considerable decrease in emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. Therefore, nuclear and renewable energy may become key areas of global energy development in the near future, which is also in agreement with circular economy concepts. However, public opinion (and other controversial visions/aspects) is one of the barriers to their development. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between attitudes towards nuclear and renewable energy in two countries: a EU country (Italy) and a non-EU country (Russia), considering the level of their development. The authors conducted a survey among residents regarding their attitude towards nuclear and renewable energy, as well as their attitude to the present energy policy. The cluster analysis technique was used to analyze the results. The obtained results confirmed the dependence between the level of development of nuclear and renewable energy and the public attitude towards it. The national energy policy also might influence public opinion on the development of nuclear or renewable energy. The authors identified public attitude as one of the key factors in the development of energy and the achievement of environmental and social sustainability.
... For this purpose, they focused on the hydrogen energy systems. However, they mainly highlighted the high-cost problem of Bataille et al. (2018) also examined the new products for industrial decarbonization. They mainly discussed that technological development provides an opportunity to decrease the costs of these products. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to find out the significant stages of new product development process for the industrial decarbonization of sustainable economies by using interval type-2 (IT2) fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL). The findings demonstrate that commercialization is the most significant process of new product generation process of industrial decarbonization. Moreover, it is also concluded that with respect to the sub-criteria, cost analysis, and performance evaluation have the highest weights. An effective cost analysis is required in the new product development process. The costs of the product development process can in some cases be much higher than anticipated. This situation eliminates the effectiveness of the newly developed product. In this context, companies need to make the necessary plans for the costs of these new products correctly. On the other hand, it is important to follow the costs in detail during the process. Otherwise, the product that does not provide a cost advantage will not be preferred by industrial companies. This will cause the actions to be taken to reduce carbon emissions to fail.
... Decision tree of decarbonization choices for the iron and steel industry. Source: Authors modification based on the framework in[130]. ...
Article
The iron and steel industry is the largest coal consumer and the most greenhouse gas intensive industry. It consumes about 7% of global energy supply, and conservative estimates report that it is responsible for 7–9% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Decarbonization of the iron and steel industry is thus vital to meet climate change mitigation targets and achieve a sustainable future for the industry. This paper presents a comprehensive and systematic review that considered more than 1.6 million pieces of literature and analyzes in depth a shortlist of 271 studies on the iron and steel industry's decarbonization. Applying a sociotechnical lens that investigates raw materials, iron and steel making processes, steel products making and usage, and waste and recycling, the review identifies the climate footprint of the iron and steel industry. The review also assesses current and emerging practices for decarbonization, identifying 86 potentially transformative technologies. The benefits of decarbonizing the iron and steel industry are considered through energy and carbon savings, financial savings, and other environmental and public health benefits. Barriers to decarbonization are considered across financial, organizational, and behavioral aspects. The review also discusses various financial tools and policy instruments that can help overcome the barriers. Lastly, research gaps are outlined.
... Industry is considered as a hard-to-abate sector [43,44] since many production processes currently depend on fossil fuels as raw material input for chemical reactions or as energy input to achieve high temperatures. Thus, we consider process-specific analyses and develop detailed decarbonization pathways for process heat for iron and steel as well as cement production-the two sectors with the largest energy demand for high temperatures [45,46]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fossil fuels cause the most CO2 emissions. For net-zero-2050, both the energy demand must be reduced - for example, by insulating buildings and switching to electromobility - and the remaining energy demand must be covered by renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass or geothermal energy - a complete transformation of the energy system. Scenarios can be used to describe how the future can be shaped under different framework assumptions. This energy scenario shows an exemplary path of conversion to new energy supply technologies to meet a CO2 budget of less than 7 gigatons remaining for Germany. To achieve this, CO2 emissions from the energy system must already be halved by 2030 compared to today. To achieve this, all consumption sectors (households, industry, commerce, transport) as well as the power plant and conversion sector must contribute. The following figures show what a possible transformation could look like for the various consumption sectors.
... The Paris Agreement is an international treaty on climate change, which aims to keep the global temperature rise below 2 • C, in comparison to the pre-industrial level. This aim requires a sharp reduction in GHG emissions in each sector [22,23]. The major source of GHGs, as well other pernicious emissions (e.g., nitrogen oxides (NO X ), sulfur oxides (SO X ), particulate matter (PM), etc.), is fossil fuel combustion [24,25]. ...
Article
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This paper deals with the modular concept in the design of small passenger vessels for the Mediterranean, where the ship is assembled from three virtual modules (hull, power system and superstructure), enabling different vessel characteristics (speed, capacity, environmental performance, habitability, etc.). A set of predefined modules is established based on the investigation of market needs, where the IHS Fairplay database is taken as a reference for ship particulars and power needs, while the set of environmental regulation scenarios and requirements on ship habitability are taken as relevant for the design of ship power systems and superstructure modules, respectively. For the selected hull, a series of computations have been conducted to obtain their resistance and power needs which are further satisfied in the above-described manner. Within the illustrative example, a small passenger vessel with a capacity of 250 passengers is considered, with a detailed description of relevant modules that fit future design requirement scenarios. This approach is aimed at small-scale shipyards with limited research capabilities, who can quickly obtain the preliminary design of the vessel which can be further optimized to the final solution.
... Steelmaking is responsible for around 7% of the global net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Bataille et al., 2018). Approximately 72% of the CO 2 emitted by the steel industry originates from the reduction of iron ore in blast furnaces (BFs), and, although steel is a highly recyclable material, it is expected that a substantial demand for iron ore-based steelmaking will persist up until and beyond 2050 (Philibert, 2017;Material Economics, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Steelmaking is responsible for 7% of the global net emissions of carbon dioxide and heavily reducing emissions from currently dominating steelmaking processes is difficult and costly. Recently, new steelmaking processes based on the reduction of iron ore with hydrogen (H2) produced via water electrolysis have been suggested. If the electricity input to such processes is fossil-free, near-zero carbon dioxide emissions steelmaking is achievable. However, the high electricity demand of electrolysis is a significant implementation barrier. A H2 storage may alleviate this via allowing a larger share of H2 to be produced at low electricity prices. However, accurately forecasting the dynamics of electricity markets is challenging. This increases the risk of investment in a H2 storage. Here we evaluate a novel methanol-based H2 storage concept for a H2-based steelmaking process that also allows for the co-production of methanol. During electricity price peaks, the methanol can be reformed to produce H2 for the steelmaking process. During prolonged periods of low electricity prices, excess methanol can be produced and sold off, thus improving the prospects of storage profitability. We use historical electricity prices and a process model to evaluate methanol-fossil-free steel co-production schemes. Methanol co-production has the potential to improve the economics of H2 supply to a fossil-free steelmaking process by up to an average of 0.40 €/kg H2 across considered scenarios, equivalent to a reduction in H2 production electricity costs of 25.0%.
... The additive LMDI-I is performed for the total industry and six main industrial sub-sectors located in each country. The selected sub-sectors are Iron and Steel, Chemical and Petrochemical, Non-metallic Minerals, Machinery, Textiles and Leather and the Paper Pulp and Print sector per the IEA classification, due to involving energy-intensive processes for production(Bataille et al., 2018;Meng et al., 2018) as well as satisfactory data consistency to perform a complete decomposition. ...
Thesis
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The potential relocation of various industrial sectors from China to India and countries of the SE Asian region presents low cost opportunities for manufacturers, but also risks are rising for energy demand and CO2 emissions. A cross-country shift of industrial output presents challenges in accounting, controlling, and defining energy and emissions requirements. This is pronounced for the case of India and SE Asian countries as they experience high economic growth rates, by global standards, and strong coupling between economic growth and energy demand. This thesis locates the existing emissions accounting gaps of India, which acts as a potential host of the Chinese manufacturing activities. It concludes that significant differences are present in the majority of the industrial sectors studied. Indian emissions intensity is double that of China in the iron and steel and triple for the cement industry. The decomposition of selected CO2 drivers exemplifies the added significance of labour productivity and industrial scale in driving industrial emissions. Fuel mix concentration in industrial activities is found to be a requirement for every potential host country, highlighting an urgency for diversification if production is to be sustainable. The results demonstrated by this thesis, show that reporting authorities must reach a methodological consensus for increased efficiency in carbon emissions future policy. Carbon emissions are driven by higher carbon fuel mix intensity in the host countries and higher energy intensity in their industrial activities. This thesis effectively concludes that while industrial relocation could further benefit the host countries in financial terms, it would impose considerable threats to their energy supply security and compliance capacity, with the environmental commitments set by the Paris Agreement.
... Due to the increasingly serious depletion of fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, and global warming, the petrochemical energy crisis and environmental pollution have aroused the deep concern of governments around the world [1][2][3][4]. To overcome these problems, many national governments have formulated detailed policies for achieving carbon peak and carbon neutrality [5][6][7]. Electrified transportation is considered to be an important development direction to achieve carbon peak and carbon neutrality in the transportation section [8][9][10]. ...
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... First, the global accords and agreements that were launched in 2015 prompted new ways and approaches in areas of urban planning aimed at achieving different sets of objectives. For instance, in regard to addressing the challenge of climate change, which had attracted notable interests from different quarters, including calls from youth movements [105], C40 cities [106], Small Island Developing States (SIDS) [107], and others for decarbonisation, technology adoption in cities became inevitable [108,109]. Aspects of smart governance became clear, even in global summits, with participation of 'minority groups' such as youths, Small Island Developing States, and indigenous groups becoming apparent. The issues they raised coincided with what had already been anticipated and captured in documents such as the Paris Agreement [110]. ...
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... Industrial CCS CCS can be applied to a wide range of industrial processes to reduce emissions from both fuel combustion industrial processes such as clinker production. [86][87][88][89][90] TIAM-Grantham represents over 20 different industrial CCS technologies, including options in steel, cement, and chemicals production and onsite generation via gas CHP plants (Table S4). ...
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... Davis et al., 2018) and those that focus on the industrial sector. Several recent papers provide technical options for decarbonizing industry on a global level (Bataille et al., 2018;Rissman et al., 2020) or focused on the U.S. (Whitlock et al., 2020). Thiel and Stark (2021) highlight the importance of deep reductions of industrial emissions to achieve net zero-emissions. ...
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Deep decarbonisation of energy-intensive industries, such as steel production, will be required to achieve the European Union’s climate targets. Green hydrogen technology has the potential to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions from iron and steelmaking to nearly zero and mitigate climate change from the industrial sector. The paper is based on an ongoing case in Sweden, where the established firms SSAB, LKAB, and Vattenfall are operating the HYBRIT joint venture. This paper aims to explore the conditions for transferring this technology from Sweden to three primary steel producing countries in Europe: Germany, France and Italy. As a theoretical point of departure, we integrate some concepts from the multi-level perspective and technology transfer theories to better understand transition pathways for hydrogen-based steel production in Europe. We use a case study methodology, including the analysis of more than 20 qualitative interviews and secondary data. The findings of the study conclude that the Swedish iron and steel industry is unique in many ways, yet other European countries are rapidly catching up in hydrogen-based steel production, particularly Germany. Sweden however remains unique in its nearly zero carbon electricity generation and low-cost electricity prices, which can enable green hydrogen production throughout the country. In order to overcome the barriers and create an enabling environment for hydrogen-based steel production, it is key that energy and industry transitions are aligned, that a policy framework that supports these transitions is in place, and that key actors representing all aspects of these transitions cooperate, from industry and research, to academia, policymakers, and civil society.
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A novel mathematical model to predict the evolution of the conversion, the specific surface area, and porosity during the carbonation and calcination of pure limestone was developed. It is based on the recently proposed Changing Grain Size Model (CGSM) and takes into account the grain size distribution, the sintering effect, and the grains overlapping phenomenon in the particle. The phenomenological model describes the diffusion, kinetics, and the change of microstructure over time. It considers the grain overlapping effect and uses population balance equations to evaluate the effect of the cycles on sintering, porosity, and surface area of the CO2 transport material. The main novelties of this study are the verification of the high dependence of overall conversion on the CO2 partial pressure, and the prediction of the effect the number of cycles has on both calcination and carbonation processes. Average conversion reductions of 1.35% and 5.83% per cycle were predicted for calcination and carbonation, respectively.
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As ideal cathode catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and durability of Pt‐based alloys can be improved further. This study presents the catalyst with Au doping on the surface of an ordered PtFe alloy (Au‐PtFe/C) utilizing a synergistic process of microwave reduction and chemical replacement, as well as the reorganization of a Pt‐rich surface using acid etching and high temperature annealing. Physical characterization indicated that the oxygen binding energy on the surface of Au‐PtFe/C was more effective at promoting the ORR reaction than commercial Pt/C, which contributes significantly to its enhanced activity. Further electrochemical tests revealed that the Au‐PtFe/C catalyst exposes abundant active sites for ORR, with mass and specific activity up to 12 and 8 times that of commercial Pt/C, respectively. Additionally, the catalyst demonstrated remarkable durability following 10,000 cycles of accelerated durability tests (ADT) in acidic circumstances. In PEMFC test, the single cell with an Au‐PtFe/C cathode also performed admirably when compared with commercial Pt/C. Owing to its facile synthesis, low cost, and exceptional performance, this bimetal‐doped ordered Pt‐based alloy has the capability to be a promising component in fuel cells commercialization. In this article, a synergistic process of microwave reduction and chemical replacement was used to prepare Au‐surface doped PtFe alloy catalyst (Au‐PtFe/C). When strain and ligand effects acted synergistically, Au‐PtFe/C achieved a more ideal oxygen binding energy. Electrochemical tests revealed that the mass and specific activity of Au‐PtFe/C were up to 12 and 8 times that of commercial Pt/C, respectively, indicating that alloy ordering with doping is an effective strategy for improving the performance of Pt‐based alloy catalysts.
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Carbon capture and storage will play a crucial role in industrial decarbonisation. However, the current literature presents a large variability in the techno-economic feasibility of CO 2 capture technologies. Consequently, reliable pathways for carbon capture deployment in energy-intensive industries are still missing. This work provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art CO 2 capture technologies for decarbonisation of the iron and steel, cement, petroleum refining, and pulp and paper industries. Amine scrubbing was shown to be the least feasible option, resulting in the average avoided CO 2 cost of between $$62.7\;\mathrm{C}\!\!\!\!{\scriptstyle{{}^=}\,} \cdot {\rm{t}}_{{\rm{C}}{{\rm{O}}_2}}^{\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; - 1}$$ for the pulp and paper and $$104.6\;\mathrm{C}\!\!\!\!{\scriptstyle{{}^=}\,} \cdot {\rm{t}}_{{\rm{C}}{{\rm{O}}_2}}^{\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; - 1}$$ for the iron and steel industry. Its average equivalent energy requirement varied between 2.7 (iron and steel) and $$5.1\;\;{\rm{M}}{{\rm{J}}_{{\rm{th}}}} \cdot {\rm{kg}}_{{\rm{C}}{{\rm{O}}_2}}^{\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; - 1}$$ (cement). Retrofits of emerging calcium looping were shown to improve the overall viability of CO 2 capture for industrial decarbonisation. Calcium looping was shown to result in the average avoided CO 2 cost of between 32.7 (iron and steel) and $$42.9\;\mathrm{C}\!\!\!\!{\scriptstyle{{}^=}\,} \cdot {\rm{t}}_{{\rm{C}}{{\rm{O}}_2}}^{\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; - 1}$$ (cement). Its average equivalent energy requirement varied between 2.0 (iron and steel) and $$3.7\;\;{\rm{M}}{{\rm{J}}_{{\rm{th}}}} \cdot {\rm{kg}}_{{\rm{C}}{{\rm{O}}_2}}^{\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; - 1}$$ (pulp and paper). Such performance demonstrated the superiority of calcium looping for industrial decarbonisation. Further work should focus on standardising the techno-economic assessment of technologies for industrial decarbonisation.
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The urgent challenge of reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions has created a growing demand for a more comprehensive understanding of how various technology options can contribute to achieving carbon neutrality. Energy efficiency has long been regarded as a key pathway in this context, but the volume and diversity of efficiency options has resulted in an unclear understanding of their combined impacts. In this study, we present a novel technology-explicit method to estimate the overall abatement potential associated with a comprehensive suite of 115 energy efficiency technologies spanning all relevant sector processes and energy types. By applying our flexible analysis framework to a case study of the Canadian pulp and paper sector, we demonstrate that energy efficiency could be the single largest contributor to achieving a carbon-neutral target for the sector. We find that efficiency can reduce emissions by 4.92 MtCO2e/yr (66%) relative to business-as-usual by 2050 at a weighted average abatement cost of -$162/tCO2e when accounting for capital, operating, maintenance, and energy costs. Abatement at the energy system-wide level is even larger, reaching 6.67 MtCO2e in 2050 when accounting for upstream effects. Adoption of the full suite of efficiency measures could materially improve the competitiveness of the sector by reducing energy and carbon costs. On the whole, our results suggest that proven energy efficiency technologies could be the primary element of a credible low-cost pathway towards achieving a target of carbon neutrality for the pulp and paper sector. Article This integrated assessment modeling research analyzes what Korea's 2050 carbon neutrality would require for the national energy system and the role of the power sector concerning the availability of critical mitigation technologies. Our scenario-based assessment shows that Korea's current policy falls short of what the nation's carbon-neutrality ambition would require. Across all technology scenarios examined in this study, an extensive and rapid energy system transition is imperative, requiring the large-scale deployment of renewables and carbon capture & storage (CCS) early on and negative emission technologies (NETs) by the mid-century. Importantly, the rapid decarbonization of the power sector, along with the rapid electrification of end-uses, seems to be a robust national decarbonization strategy. Furthermore, we contextualize our net-zero scenario results using policy costs, requirements for natural resources, and the expansion rate of zero-carbon technologies. We find that the availability of nuclear power lowers the required expansion rate of renewables and CCS, alleviating any stress on terrestrial and geological systems. By contrast, the limited availability of CCS without nuclear power necessarily demands a very high penetration of renewables and significantly high policy compliance costs, which would decrease the feasibility of achieving the carbon neutrality target. Article Full-text available Considering increasingly ambitious pledges by countries and various forms of pressure from current international constellations, society, investors, and clients further up the supply chain, the question for companies is not so much whether to take decarbonisation action, but what action and by when. However, determining an ideal mix of measures to apply ‘decarbonisation efficiency’ requires more than knowledge of technically feasible measures and how to combine them to achieve the most economic outcome: In this paper, working in a ‘backcasting’ manner, the author describes seven aspects which heavily influence the composition of an ‘ideal mix’ that executive leadership needs to take a (strategic) position on. Contrary to previous studies, these aspects consider underlying motivations and span across (socio-)economic, technical, regulatory, strategic, corporate culture, and environmental factors and further underline the necessity of clarity of definitions. How these decisions influence the determination of the decarbonisation-efficient ideal mix of measures is further explored by providing concrete examples. Insights into the choices taken by German manufacturers regarding several of these aspects stem from about 850 responses to the ‘Energy Efficiency Index of German Industry’. Knowledge of the status quo, and clarity in definitions, objectives, time frames, and scope are key. Article Environmental regulations are gradually striving to decarbonize short-sea navigation fostering the replacement of the conventional power systems with alternative ones. The electrification of ships has been proposed in the literature as a pathway to zero-emission shipping. Among various alternatives, batteries could ensure full conformity with the tightening emission restrictions. However, appropriate batteries for short-sea navigation need to be investigated, since each battery technology has its own environmental impacts and characteristics such as energy density, number of battery cycles, cost, fast charging ability and safety. The aim of this research is to compare the conventional power system with a diesel engine and alternative power system with a selected battery to identify convenient technology for zero-emission shipping according to the environmental and economic criteria. The Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and the Life-Cycle Cost Assessment (LCCA) are performed to analyze environmental and economic performance of different powering options. The analysis included ro-ro passenger ships from the Croatian short-sea navigation, highlighting the electrification by a Lithium-ion battery as the most appropriate alternative according to environmental and economic indicators. Thesis Full-text available Access to energy is fundamental to economic and technological advancement. Hence, the more the world develops, the greater the demand for energy becomes. Evidently, the production and consumption of energy alone account for more than 80% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. There is broad scientific consensus that efficiency improvements in energy production and consumption must come first on the path to reducing global GHG emissions. As the largest producer and consumer of energy, the industrial sector faces tremendous challenges due to stringent environmental regulations, intense price-based global competition, rising operating costs and rapidly changing economic conditions. Therefore, increasing energy and resource efficiency while improving throughput and asset reliability is a matter of utmost importance. Satisfying such demanding objectives requires an optimal operation, control and monitoring of plant assets and processes. This is one of the main driving forces behind developing digital solutions, methods, and frameworks that can be integrated with old and new industrial automation platforms. The main focus of this dissertation is to investigate frameworks, process models, soft sensors, control optimization, and diagnostic techniques to improve the operation, control, and monitoring of industrial plants and processes. In this thesis, a generic architecture for control optimization, diagnostics, and decision support system, referred to here as a learning system, is proposed. The research is centred around an investigation of different components of the proposed learning system. Two very different case studies, one representing large-scale assets and another representing a fleet of small-scale assets, are considered to demonstrate the genericness of the proposed system architecture. In this thesis, a very energy-intensive chemical pulping process represents the case study of large-scale assets, and a micro gas turbine (MGT) fleet for distributed heat and power generation represent the case study of a fleet of small-scale assets. One of the main challenges in this research arises from the marked differences between the case studies in terms of size, functions, quantity, and structure of the existing automation systems. Typically, only a few pulp digesters are found in a Kraft pulping mill, but there may be hundreds of units in a MGT fleet. The main argument behind the selection of these two case studies is that, if the proposed learning system architecture can be adapted for these significantly different cases, then it can be adapted for many other industrial applications as well. Within the scope of this thesis, mathematical modelling, model adaptation, model predictive control, and diagnostics methods are studied for continuous pulp digesters, whereas mathematical modelling, model adaptation, and diagnostics techniques are explored for the MGT fleet. Due to the naturally varying wood quality, significant residence time, insufficient measurements, and complexity of pulping reactions, modelling and controlling a continuous pulp digester is a challenging task. Moreover, process abnormalities due to non-ideal flow in the digester often occur that considerably affect the pulp quality. Within this dissertation, variation of wood-chip quality is identified as one of the main process disturbances. Thereafter, a feedforward model predictive control (MPC) approach is explored by feedforwarding the lignin content of the wood chips to the controller. The result shows that the disturbance rejection and tracking performance of the feedforward MPC are superior to other alternatives, like Proportional–integral–derivative (PID), MPC, and current industrial control. When it comes to diagnostics, a literature gap is identified in the area of modelling digester faults. Hence, the well-known Purdue model, a widely used dynamic model of the digester, is extended to simulate process faults like screen-clogging, hangups, and channelling. The findings suggest that both hangups and channelling considerably affect the pulp quality at the blowline. The impact of channelling is prominent on reaction temperature compared to hangups, while hangups change the residence time of the wood chips significantly. Subsequently, a hybrid diagnostics scheme for pulp digester, combining a physical model and a Bayesian network (BN), is demonstrated. Overall, the results show that fault type and severity can be estimated with acceptable accuracy even in presence of noise. Enabling remote fleet diagnostics is expected to foster the commercialization of distributed micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) generators, i.e., MGTs. Even though the modelling and diagnostics of large-scale gas turbines are well researched, studies targeting MGT are limited. In this thesis, a physical model of a commercial MGT system is developed. Subsequently, a hybrid scheme by combining a physics-based gas path analysis with a data-driven approach is used to enable MGT diagnostics. The proposed scheme was tested by simulating case studies corresponding to single and multiple faults. Furthermore, sensitivity studies are performed for different measurement uncertainties (i.e., sensor noise and bias) to evaluate the robustness of the scheme against measurement uncertainties. The findings show that the proposed diagnostics approach performs satisfactorily even under measurement uncertainties. To sum up, the increased availability of data and higher computing power is fostering the development of accurate process models and algorithms necessary for optimal operation, control, and monitoring of industrial processes. With the emergence of new measurement techniques, it is possible to leverage productivity and quality with tighter control of key process parameters. Additionally, studying the underlying mechanism of process degradation and developing diagnostics methods by incorporating these can lead to significant economic benefits. Having said that, to tap the full potential of these digital solutions, an integrated framework like that presented in this thesis, i.e., a learning system is essential. <*Note: If you want a hard copy of the thesis, please reach out> Article The production and use of cement, the binding agent in concrete, emits seven percent of global greenhouse gas emissions annually. Achieving climate change mitigation targets, such as those proposed in the Paris Agreement, requires emission reductions from this sector. The body of research on technical solutions to cement and concrete decarbonization is wide, but technical measures must be coupled with effective policy to achieve decarbonization. This study undertakes a review of previous research on cement and concrete decarbonization and analyzes the most common proposed measures along their level of action, involved stakeholders, barriers to implementation, and coordinated policy actions. The review yielded 37 studies from peer-reviewed articles and technical reports. Analysis showed consensus on the primary technical measures to decarbonize. For cement production, measures include (I) improved energy efficiency, (II) fuel switching, (III) carbon capture utilization and storage, and (IV) reduction of the clinker-to-cement ratio. For concrete production and its end-uses common proposed measures include (V) alternative binders, (VI) material and construction efficiency and (VII) CO2 uptake by concrete. While the literature shows an emerging consensus around technical solutions for decarbonization, there was less clarity about preferred policy solutions and key barriers. The reviewed studies consistently focused on technical solutions and roadmaps to achieve decarbonization, but often omitted discussion of barriers to implementation or specific policy actions to overcome them. Further research is needed to consider the feasibility and costs of implementation; identify potential points of entry for policy actions at different jurisdictional scales; and identify enforcement needs. Article The oil refining industry, which was established in the mid-19th century, has become a foundation of modern society. While the refining of crude oil to produce transportation fuels, petrochemical feedstocks and a variety of other products has brought manifold benefits, it has also led to the global proliferation of greenhouse gas emissions as well as local air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels. The industry is therefore confronted with a growing need to decarbonize its operations, as well as to support decarbonization of the end use sectors that it directly enables. This paper provides a systematic and critical literature review to uncover the means by which the oil refining industry can decarbonize and evolve as part of an increasingly carbon constrained future. A sociotechnical perspective is used to understand the full range of industrial and economic activities where a decarbonized oil refining industry is expected to remain important and to provide the framework to assess key technical, economic, social and political factors that will likely impact the evolution of the oil refining industry. We highlight key opportunities for this industry to decarbonize while also exposing gaps in the existing literature concerning its decarbonization. The insights provided are expected to support policy makers, researchers and practitioners with the tools needed advance a low-carbon transition of the oil refining industry. Article The relationship of particle size, reaction and sticking behavior of iron ore fines toward efficient fluidized bed hydrogen reduction were systematically investigated at 600-800 oC in a laboratory fluidized bed. First, the reduction kinetics were studied, and the results showed that hydrogen reduction of granulated iron ore was controlled by reduction reaction, and the activation energy was approximately 88.4 kJ/mol. The reduction rate of granulated iron ore with a diameter of 200 μm could be increased by 10 times as the reduction temperature rose from 600 to 800 oC. Then, a modified force balance model was established to distinguish the critical sticking point of granulated iron ore during high temperature fluidized bed hydrogen reduction, and it indicated that the defluidization temperature could be raised from 630 to 790 oC as the particle size was enlarged from 100 to 200 μm with a fluidization number of 10. Eventually, coupling the kinetic model and modified force balance model, the maximum gas utilization rate of fluidized bed hydrogen reduction was estimated, and it indicated that at reduction temperatures of 650-750 oC with particle sizes of 200-300 μm, the optimal gas utilization rate could be achieved, which was consistent with the experimental results. Contradictory to traditional understandings of chemical reaction engineering, due to the interaction of reduction performance and sticking behavior, too high of a reduction temperature or too small of a particle size might not be preferable for fluidized bed hydrogen reduction, and this study provided valuable references for industrial operation. Preprint Considering increasingly ambitious pledges by countries, pressure from society, investors, and clients further up the supply chain, the question for companies is not so much whether to take decarbonisation action, but what action and by when. However, determining an ideal mix of measures to apply ‘decarbonisation efficiency’ requires more than knowledge of technically feasible measures and how to combine them to achieve the most economic outcome: In this paper, the author describes seven aspects which heavily influence the composition of an ‘ideal mix’ that executive leadership needs to take a (strategic) position on. These aspects consider underlying motivations and span across (socio-)economic, technical, regulatory, strategic, corporate culture and environmental factors and further underline the necessity of clarity of definitions. How these decisions influence the determination of the decarbonisation-efficient ideal mix of measures, both in principle but also in terms of specific impact is further explored by providing examples. What choices are taken by German manufacturers in several of the aspects is disclosed by insights from about 850 responses to the ‘Energy Efficiency Index of German Industry’. Knowledge of the status quo, and clarity in definitions, objectives, time frames and scope are key. Conference Paper The paper deals with the rational behind the requisite refractory characteristics for different Direct Iron Reduction processes Article Hydrogen metallurgy is an effective way for the high‐carbon‐emission steel industry to achieve low‐carbon green transformation and upgrading. According to energy conservation law, the paper establishes gas utilization rate and thermal balance calculation models, discusses the influence of key factors such as reducing gas composition, reducing temperature and metallization rate on the gas utilization rate and energy consumption, and theoretically calculates the change of energy consumption in the process of steel industry production caused by using hydrogen. The optimal reduction temperature range is 1250∽1350 K, which has theoretical minimum energy consumption, about 3.14 GJ, and maximum gas utilization rate, about 45%. The results show that when using 100% hydrogen reduction, increasing the reduction temperature properly can achieve lower theoretical energy consumption and raise gas utilization rate and further achieve the goal of energy saving and consumption reduction, which is expected to provide beneficial help for hydrogen metallurgy developing in the steel industry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Article Full-text available The aim of this study was to analyse the bibliographic characteristics and content of articles on energy economics and policy published in journals indexed by Scopus written by researchers from throughout the world from 2010 to 2021. We conducted a bibliometric and content analysis of publication in the Scopus database. We only retrieved articles written in English. We conducted content analysis using the VOSviewer software and visualized the co-occurrence of keywords and bibliographic coupling of sources and countries. Following the study protocol, we found 838 articles on energy economics and policy over the past 11 years. The most productive journal that published these articles was Journal of Cleaner Production (n = 100). The post productive country was the United Kingdom (n = 353). Based on cititations, the most influential authors were O. Ozel (n = 878). The keywords of research on energy economics and policy 8 clusters (e.g policy, energy policy, energy, china, analysis, impact, renewable energy policy and development). From a global perspective, energy economics and policy research in the past one decades has increased significantly. There were United Kingdom published journals ominated publications. Thus, Asian country need to conduct more active research on this topic.Keywords: Bibliometric; Energy; Economics; PolicyJEL Classifications: B10, H00, H11, N10, O10DOI: https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11848 Article Full-text available IMeg Argyriou, Chris Bataille, Michel Colombier, Patrick Criqu, Amandine Denis, Sandrine, David Sawyer, Henri Waisman The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) is a collab- orative global research initiative seeking to understand how individual countries can transition to a low-carbon economy con- sistent with ambitious climate targets. In its first phase (2014-2015), the DDPP covered 16 countries and developed there a policy-relevant research basis to support the adoption of ambitious domestic climate actions, consistent with national circumstances and the global 2C limit. The DDPP adopts shared methodological principles (transparency and granularity of assumptions and results, long-term vision, multiple pathways to capture uncertainties), and gives a central role to the Country Research Teams, working independently of their governments and responsible for the design of their national low-carbon transformations to 2050. The country teams are indeed responsible for taking into account all specificities of the domestic context in their analysis (be they technical potentials, socio-economic conditions or policy aspects) and for undertaking engagement with domestic decisionmakers based on their conclusions. This brief focuses on the engagement strategy developed by the DDPP teams to have an impact on the domestic processes. It takes the examples of three countries (Australia, Canada and France), reflecting a diversity of institutional circumstances, for which we present the context of domestic climate discussions and how the DDPP studies have been useful to affect policy debates. • In Australia, the DDPP has provided a clear and practical framework to enable the translation of the compelling evidence base for mitigation provided by the DDPP’s agenda-setting research into tangible outcomes by government and business, by pro- viding a transparent, structured and solutions-focused identification of actions towards low-carbon transformation. • In Canada, the DDPP report brought the concept of near full decarbonization from hazy science-fiction to a public space where the technical, economic and policy means could be fairly debated. It was the first study developed by domestic experts that brought concrete insights able to inform the design of domestic policy packages com- patible with ambitious climate goals like the one introduced by the Paris Agreement. It directly influenced an economy wide policy package undertaken by the province of Alberta, and elements of the DDPP policy package are emerging at the federal level (e.g. federal floor carbon price schedule, net zero emissions regulations for buildings). • In France, the DDPP team developed a preliminary version of the dashboard and build on the DDPP study to bring to light the major uncertainties and trade-offs to be dealt- with in the decarbonization process. In particular, the critical dimensions of dynamic management of the transition appear in the accompanying documents to French leg- islative processes on the energy transition. Article Full-text available The 2015 Paris Agreement calls for countries to pursue efforts to limit global-mean temperature rise to 1.5 °C. The transition pathways that can meet such a target have not, however, been extensively explored. Here we describe scenarios that limit end-of-century radiative forcing to 1.9 W/ m2, and consequently restrict median warming in the year 2100 to below 1.5 °C. We use six integrated assessment models and a simple climate model, under different socio-economic, technological and resource assumptions from five Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). Some, but not all, SSPs are amenable to pathways to 1.5 °C. Successful 1.9 W /m2 scenarios are characterized by a rapid shift away from traditional fossil-fuel use towards large-scale low-carbon energy supplies, reduced energy use, and carbon-dioxide removal. However, 1.9 W /m2 scenarios could not be achieved in several models under SSPs with strong inequalities, high baseline fossil-fuel use, or scattered short-term climate policy. Further research can help policy-makers to understand the real-world implications of these scenarios. Technical Report Full-text available The well below 2 degree Celsius target sets a clear limit to future greenhouse gas emissions and thus strict boundaries for the development of future industrial pro-cesses and sourcing of feedstock. This includes the primary production of steel, cement, plastics and other basic materials that currently account for more than 20 % of global carbon dioxide emissions. It requires decarbonised energy systems and more resource efficient and circular economies in material as well as molecular terms. For example, carbon used in plastics and chemicals can no longer be derived from fossil feedstock but should be sourced from biomass, carbonaceous waste streams, or the atmosphere. A new industrial policy is needed, one that respects the necessity of zero emissions and integrates this with the traditional goals of competitiveness, jobs, economic growth and industrial development. We argue that the recent turn in industrial policy towards green growth and resource efficiency does not fully recognise this ne-cessity nor the policy implications of zero emissions in the basic materials industry. An industrial policy for well below 2 degrees Celsius requires an additional turn – a turn towards long-term target-oriented strategies with a focus on zero emissions in basic materials production. Article Full-text available This paper finds that it is optimal to start a long-term emission-reduction strategy with significant short-term abatement investment, even if the optimal carbon price starts low and grows progressively over time. Moreover, optimal marginal abatement investment costs differ across sectors of the economy. It may be preferable to spend$25 to avoid the marginal ton of carbon in a sector where abatement capital is expensive, such as public transportation, or in a sector with large abatement potential, such as the power sector, than $15 for the marginal ton in a sector with lower cost or lower abatement potential. The reason, distinct from learning spillovers, is that reducing greenhouse gas emissions requires investment in long-lived abatement capital such as clean power plants or public transport infrastructure. The value of abatement investment comes from avoided emissions, but also from the value of abatement capital in the future. The optimal levelized cost of conserved carbon can thus be higher than the optimal carbon price. It is higher in sectors with higher investment needs: those where abatement capital is more expensive or sectors with larger abatement potential. We compare our approach to the traditional abatement-cost-curve model and discuss implications for policy design. Article Full-text available Countries in the G20 have committed to phase out ‘inefficient’ fossil fuel subsidies. However, there remains a limited understanding of how subsidy removal would affect fossil fuel investment returns and production, particularly for subsidies to producers. Here, we assess the impact of major federal and state subsidies on US crude oil producers. We find that, at recent oil prices of US$50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new, yet-to-be-developed oil investments into profitability, potentially increasing US oil production by 17 billion barrels over the next few decades. This oil, equivalent to 6 billion tonnes of CO2, could make up as much as 20% of US oil production through 2050 under a carbon budget aimed at limiting warming to 2 °C. Our findings show that removal of tax incentives and other fossil fuel support policies could both fulfil G20 commitments and yield climate benefits. Governments give a variety of subsidies to fossil fuel companies, but G20 nations have committed to phasing these out. Erickson et al. analyse subsidies provided to new crude oil fields in the US and find that, at current oil prices, nearly half of them depend on these subsidies to proceed.
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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is broadly viewed as the world’s most legitimate scientific assessment body that periodically assesses the economics of climate change (among many other topics) for policy audiences. However, growing procedural inefficiencies and limitations to substantive coverage have made the IPCC an increasingly unattractive forum for the most qualified climate economists. Drawing on our observations and personal experience working on the most recent IPCC report, published last year, we propose four reforms to the IPCC’s process that we believe will lower the cost for volunteering as an IPCC author: improving interactions between governments and academics, making IPCC operations more efficient, clarifying and strengthening conflict of interest rules, and expanding outreach. We also propose three reforms to the IPCC’s substantive coverage to clarify the IPCC’s role and to make participation as an author more intellectually rewarding: complementing the IPCC with other initiatives, improving the integration of economics with other disciplines, and providing complete data for policymakers to make decisions. Despite the distinct characteristics of the IPCC that create challenges for authors unlike those in any other review body, we continue to believe in the importance of the IPCC for providing the most visible line of public communication between the scholarly community and policymakers.
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The German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is home to one of the most important industrial regions in Europe, and is the first German state to have adopted its own Climate Protection Law (CPL). This paper describes the long-term (up to 2050) mitigation scenarios for NRW's main energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors which served to support the implementation of the CPL. It also describes the process of scenario development, as these scenarios were developed through stakeholder participation. The scenarios considered three different pathways (best-available technologies, break-through technologies, and CO2 capture and storage). All pathways had optimistic assumptions on the rate of industrial growth and availability of low-carbon electricity. We find that a policy of "re-industrialisation" for NRW based on the current industrial structures (assumed here to represent an average growth of NRWs industrial gross value added (GVA) of 1.6% per year until 2030 and 0.6% per year from 2030 to 2050), would pose a significant challenge for the achievement of overall energy demand and German greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets, in particular as remaining efficiency potentials in NRW are limited. In the best-available technology (BAT) scenario CO2 emission reductions of only 16% are achieved, whereas the low carbon (LC) and the carbon capture and storage (CCS) scenario achieve 50% and 79% reduction respectively. Our results indicate the importance of successful development and implementation of a decarbonised electricity supply and breakthrough technologies in industry-such as electrification, hydrogen-based processes for steel, alternative cements or CCS-if significant growth is to be achieved in combination with climate mitigation. They, however, also show that technological solutions alone, together with unmitigated growth in consumption of material goods, could be insufficient to meet GHG reduction targets in industry.
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Iron and steel industry is the largest energy consuming manufacturing sector in the world. It is responsible for emitting 4–5% of the total anthropogenic CO2. Due to consistently increasing demand of iron and steel products for human needs, fossil-fuel energy use and CO2 emission will continue to grow in this industry. So there is a strong motivation to develop and implement energy-efficient and low-carbon technologies as well as carbon reduction programs for this industry. Enhancing the development and deployment of high-temperature waste heat energy recovering technologies along a desired combination of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies will be the effective solution to reducing CO2 emissions from iron and steel production. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the worldwide carbon reduction programs and new CO2 breakthrough technologies for energy saving and carbon capture and storage in iron and steel making processes by collating updated information from a wide range of sources. Also, a discussion on the selection of the appropriate technology and their barriers and stages of development and deployment is presented. It is found that lots of factors that limit the role of using biomass in CO2 abatement, so implementation of CCS technology in coal-based integrated steel plant would be an efficient means for sustainable green iron and steel manufacturing.
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