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Effect of Spinning Cycling Training on Body Composition in Women

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  • Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University

Abstract and Figures

In this study the effects of a 6 week spinning cycling training on the body composition of women were investigated. Twelve sedentary women (32-47 years old) voluntarily participated in this study. The 6-week training program consisted of exercise sessions on 3 days per week. The intensity of the training program that was kept low in the beginning was increased in the subsequent weeks. The training sessions including the warm-up and cool down lasted for 30-60 minutes. The analyses on the body compositions were measured regularly every week with bioelectrical impedance method. In data analysis descriptive statistics and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used. In the end of the 6-week spinning workouts positive changes were observed in many parameters related to body composition. Particularly after the 3rd week the significant changes recorded were noteworthy. At the end of the 6th week those who were overweight by World Health Organization (WHO) standards moved onto normal weight category and those who were obese became overweight. In conclusion it was seen that the spinning cycling workouts were seen as as effective method to lose weight and reduce the body fat ratio among women in this age group. This exercise method may be recommended for getting good results among obese and overweight women in a short period of time.
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Journal of Education and Training Studies
Vol. 6, No. 4; April 2018
ISSN 2324-805X E-ISSN 2324-8068
Published by Redfame Publishing
URL: http://jets.redfame.com
154
Effect of Spinning Cycling Training on Body Composition in Women
Fatih Kaya1, Dilek Nar2, Mustafa Said Erzeybek3
1Department of Physical Education and Sports, Erzincan University, Erzincan, Turkey
2The Vasil Levski National Sports Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria
3School of Physical Education and Sports, Dumlupınar University, Kütahya, Turkey
Correspondence: Fatih Kaya, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Education, Erzincan University,
Erzincan, 24100, Turkey.
Received: February 12, 2018 Accepted: March 12, 2018 Online Published: March 18, 2018
doi:10.11114/jets.v6i4.3028 URL: https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v6i4.3028
Abstract
In this study the effects of a 6 week spinning cycling training on the body composition of women were investigated.
Twelve sedentary women (32-47 years old) voluntarily participated in this study. The 6-week training program consisted
of exercise sessions on 3 days per week. The intensity of the training program that was kept low in the beginning was
increased in the subsequent weeks. The training sessions including the warm-up and cool down lasted for 30-60 minutes.
The analyses on the body compositions were measured regularly every week with bioelectrical impedance method. In
data analysis descriptive statistics and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used. In the end of the 6-week
spinning workouts positive changes were observed in many parameters related to body composition. Particularly after the
3rd week the significant changes recorded were noteworthy. At the end of the 6th week those who were overweight by
World Health Organization (WHO) standards moved onto normal weight category and those who were obese became
overweight. In conclusion it was seen that the spinning cycling workouts were seen as as effective method to lose weight
and reduce the body fat ratio among women in this age group. This exercise method may be recommended for getting
good results among obese and overweight women in a short period of time.
Keywords: indoor cycling, body composition, women
1. Introduction
Every day more and more people realize the benefits of aerobic exercise and incorporate them into their lifestyles.
Activities such as step aerobics, zumba dance workouts or indoor cycling are very popular today (Thompson 2017).
Particularly women prefer to participate in sports centers to benefit from such activities. Exercise proposals for women
include rhythmic and dynamic long-term aerobic activities, including large muscle groups such as walking, running,
swimming, cycling, shoveling, dancing, rope jumping (Galloway & Galloway 2011).
Among these exercises are indoor cycling (spinning), an indoor fitness activity that combines aerobic and anaerobic exercises
with participants' musical rhythms and pedal-on-the-go pedals on motivational words of an instructor (Caria et al. 2007,
Hazelhurst & Claassen 2006). During spinning, a very intense exercise program including a variety of cycling techniques such
as climbing (cycling while standing), jumping (alternately sitting and standing for a period of time) and free-wheeling (cycling
at a very fast pace) involving positions is applied (Hernandez 2001). Although it contains many high-intensity exercises, it can
be impressive to engage in exercising when accompanied by music or animation (Kang et al. 2005).
In the studies carried out in this field, it is argued that spinning cycling workouts as a continuous medium-to-high-density
exercise form lead to sufficient physiological responses (Kang et al. 2005), meet cardiorespiratory fitness and energy
consumption demands, and they are suitable for those who want to increase and keep their cardiorespiratory capacities
(Francis, Witucki & Buono 1999, Bianco et al. 2010). It has been shown that environmental conditions where there is no wind
flow, especially in a closed spinning studio, can lead to more sweating by raising the body temperature (Hazelhurst &
Claassen 2006, Brown & Banister 1985) and may be a better fat burning exercise than an outdoor cycling (Galloway &
Galloway 2011). Even it can increase some cardiac biomarkers such as troponin and myoglobin levels (Duttaroy et al. 2012).
However, to date there is little information about physical and physiological responses to spinning cycling exercise. The main purpose of
this study is to assess how well women participating in a typical spinning cycling class have earned achievement from this exercise. The
secondary purpose is to investigate the effectiveness of spinning cycling workouts on body composition of this population.
Journal of Education and Training Studies Vol. 6, No. 4; April 2018
155
2. Methods
2.1 Participants
We included twelve sedentary women, aged between 32-47, attending a fitness center in Istanbul, Turkey in the study.
The mean age of the participants was 38 ± 5 years, mean height 165 ± 5 cm, mean body weight 76.4 ±8.6 kg, and mean
body mass index 28.2 ± 4 kg/m2. All participants were novice at participating in spinning cycling classes. The random
group design applied for the effect of exercise on body compositions. However, there was no control group. The
participant’s health status was determined by means of a Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) (Thomas,
Reading & Shephard 1992). All participants were informed of the risks and benefits of the study and signed an informed
consent. All procedures were conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
2.2 Training Program
This exercise program was a routine program used for beginners in fitness centers. However, the program was adapted
according to the age and gender of the participants. An experienced instructor guided the spinning class through
variable intensity work bouts, based on the participant's perceived exertion (3 days per week for 6 weeks) (Table 1). The
intensity of the exercise training that was kept low in the beginning was increased in the following weeks (the principle
of increasing load and adaptation). Training sessions were 30-60 minutes long, including the warm-up and cool-down
periods. During the exercises, appropriate music was used in accordance with the varying intensity level. Spinning
cycling workouts were performed at a cadence of 70-140 rpm and the positions of the body were frequently changed
during the workouts (seated, standing, and climbing). Reebok Studio Exercise Cycles were used during spinning
workouts.
2.3 Data Collection
Height and body mass measurements were made without shoes and light clothing with the Tem-Eko brand meter and
body mass indexes were calculated (BMI = kg/m2).
For body composition analysis, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) method was used (Tanita Body Fat Analyzer,
model BC 418). The method is based on the difference between the lean tissue mass and the electrical permeability of
the fat. The data of Lean Body Mass (LBM), Soft Lean Mass (SLM), Total Body Water (TBW), Body Fat (BF), Basal
Metabolic Rate (BMR), Total Energy Expenditure (TEE), Impedance (IMP) and Percent of Body Fat (PBF) were
calculated through body composition analysis (Ellis et al. 1999, McArdle, Katch & Katch 1996). The measurements
were made on a regular basis every week. During measurements, the weight of the clothes was not included in the
measurements and the conductivity of the feet was increased by wiping with a damp cloth. BIA measurement
requirements were provided for all participants.
2.4 Statistical Analysis
In the analysis of the data, we used descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and repeated measures variance
analysis performed with checks for sphericity. Post-hoc comparisons were performed with a Bonferroni adjustment of
the alpha level (0.05). The level of significance was determined at p<0.05, and analyses were done by the program
SPSS 20.0 for Windows.
Table 1. 6-week spinning cycling training program
Week1
Week2
Week3
Week4
Week5
Week6
Day1
30min
20min spin, only lower
gears, base level effort
35min
25min spin, only
lower gears, base
level effort
40min
30min ride all at
base
30min
30min easy
spin all in
lower gears
40min
30min ride all at
base
40min
20min base, 5min
tempo, 5min
threshold
Day2
Rest
Rest
Rest
Rest
Rest
Rest
Day3
30min
20min spin, only lower
gears, base level effort
35min
25min spin, only
lower gears, base
level effort
40min
30min ride all at
base
30min
30min easy
spin all in
lower gears
50min
base 40min ride
1hr
base 50min ride
Day4
Rest
Rest
Rest
Rest
Rest
Rest
Day5
Rest
Rest
Rest
Rest
Rest
Rest
Day6
35min
10min lower gears
base effort, 15min at
tempo threshold
40min
10min lower gears
base, then 20min
tempo
50min
40min long ride,
use all gears and
just ride
40min
30min spin
1hr
10min base,
30min tempo,
10min base
1hr
10min base,
30min tempo,
10min base
Day7
Rest
Rest
Rest
Rest
Rest
Rest
Note: 5 min warm up and 5 min cool down with low gears in each exercise session
Journal of Education and Training Studies Vol. 6, No. 4; April 2018
156
3. Results
The statistical analysis has revealed that all parameters, except BMR and TEE variables have been significantly
changed (Table 2). Body weight (BW) has significantly and linearly decreased as from the start; F(5,55)=103.253,
p<0.01). LBM has significantly decreased starting from week 3; F(5,55)=24.353, p<0.01). SLM has significantly
decreased starting from week 3; F(5,55)=13.440, p<0.01). TBW has significantly decreased starting from week 4;
F(5,55)=8.159, p<0.01). Body fat has significantly decreased starting from week 2; F(5,55)=62.892, p<0.01). Although
certain fluctuations has been observed for BMR during the process, these were not significant; F(5,55)=1.489, p>0.05).
Although certain fluctuations has been observed for TEE during the process, these were not significant; F(5,55)=2.800,
p>0.05). IMP has significantly increased starting from week 4; F(5,55)=5.523, p<0.01). PBF has significantly decreased
starting from week 3; F(5,55)=22.988, p<0.01). BMI has significantly decreased as from the start; F(5,55)=89.182,
p<0.01).
Table 2. Changes in body composition throughout the process, Mean (SD)
Week1
Week2
Week3
Week4
Week5
Week6
p-value
Sig.
76.4(8.6)
75.8(8.5)
75.2(8.7)
74.3(8.8)
73.7(8.7)
72.9(8.7)
0.00
s
50.1(3.4)
49.8(3.4)
50.0(2.6)
48.9(3.4)
48.4(3.4)
47.5(3.6)
0.00
s
45.8(2.9)
45.6(3.1)
45.4(2.9)
44.7(3.0)
44.1(3.2)
42.5(4.8)
0.00
s
35.7(2.3)
35.9(2.6)
35.7(2.5)
35.3(2.7)
34.8(2.7)
34.2(2.8)
0.00
s
26.9(6.1)
26.2(5.9)
25.3(6.1)
24.9(6.3)
24.3(6.2)
23.5(6.0)
0.00
s
1259.6(45.1)
1260.3(42.7)
1258.9(41.6)
1265.5(53.1)
1252.8(48.6)
1248.6(48.4)
0.25
ns
1420.5(87.7)
1375.0(65.5)
1389.3(43.1)
1387.0(36.7)
1380.3(44.4)
1367.6(43.6)
0.08
ns
428.2(47.6)
429.8(51.5)
422.9(42.4)
434.7(48.7)
438.0(48.4)
441.2(50.5)
0.00
s
35.6(5.1)
34.9(5.4)
34.6(5.3)
33.5(4.6)
32.7(4.7)
32.0(4.7)
0.00
s
28.2(3.7)
28.0(3.6)
27.7(3.7)
27.4(3.7)
27.2(3.6)
26.9(3.6)
0.00
s
s= significant at 0.05 level of confidence. ns= no significant at 0.05 level of confidence
Table 3 shows the changes in BMI at the end of a training period of six weeks for the participants. At the beginning,
three participants were in the normal BMI category. The remaining nine participants were in the pre-obesity and obesity
class-I BMI categories. At the end of the training period, the individuals in the normal BMI category have remained in
their category, whereas six of the nine participants belonging to the pre-obesity and obesity class-I BMI categories have
moved into the lower category.
Table 3. BMI changes in participants according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification
ID
Week1
Week2
Week3
Week4
Week5
Week6
1
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Normal weight
Normal weight
Normal weight
2
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Normal weight
3
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
4
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
5
Normal weight
Normal weight
Normal weight
Normal weight
Normal weight
Normal weight
6
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Normal weight
Normal weight
7
Normal weight
Normal weight
Normal weight
Normal weight
Normal weight
Normal weight
8
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
9
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
10
Normal weight
Normal weight
Normal weight
Normal weight
Normal weight
Normal weight
11
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Normal weight
12
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Obesity class I
Pre-obesity
Pre-obesity
Adapted from WHO for adults over 20 years old.
(http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/a-healthy-lifestyle/body-mass-index-bmi)
4. Discussion and Conclusion
The six weeks spinning cycling workout has resulted in various parameter changes regarding the body compositions.
Particularly, the significant changes observed as from the third week were remarkable.
Studying the findings related with BW has demonstrated that body weights of the participants have been significantly
decreased (approximately 4.7%). This decrease has continued until the end of the training program. However, the total body
weight is highly individual depending on the body type, ethnicity and training program. Thus considering the change in the
body weight as the sole parameter for the evaluation of the progress can mislead and is not recommended. The decrease in the
body weight is one of the primary expectations for the participants and is the first consideration for those participating to an
exercise program, although it does not provide detailed and consistent data for the evaluation of the progress. Therefore,
processing the body weight together with other body composition parameters would be much more beneficial.
Journal of Education and Training Studies Vol. 6, No. 4; April 2018
157
LBM comprises the weight of the bones, organs, tissues and muscles, exclusive of the body fat. Because the weight of
your bones, organs and body tissues do not significantly change, LBM can be a direct measurement of muscle mass
(Courseault 2018). Theoretically, as the LBM increases RMR also increases (Willis et al. 2012). A higher LBM enables
lesser energy expenditure and the use of fat by increasing the metabolic rate. Our results show that LBM has
significantly decreased starting from week 3 (total decrease 5%). This finding suggests a decrease in the muscle tissue.
Lean body mass was a function of body fat (Forbes 2000). Thus, the loss of fat free mass per unit of weight loss will be
related to loss of body fat content. Additionally, lean body mass values reported for obese individuals of the same age
and sex can be higher than those of normal weight individuals. This increased muscle mass is considered to be an
adaptation to carry the extra body weight of obese subject. This extra protein is thought to be catabolized during weight
reduction (Pavlou et al. 1985). Although spinning cycling workouts look like to the exercises with variable intense (e.g.,
interval training) physiologically, it has been reported that it is rather in the fartlek form (both aerobic and anaerobic
capacities improve) (Francis, Witucki & Buono 1999). Accordingly, the spinning exercises would provide rather
metabolic and cardiovascular responses. Likewise, the resistance training increases muscle mass, and thus, increases
LBM and total weight (Courseault 2018, Garrow & Summerbell 1995, Willis et al. 2012). However, with regard to the
weight loss workouts, it has been reported that a decrease in the non-fat tissue is also frequently observed together with
the decrease in body weight (Stiegler & Cunliffe 2006). Upon the meta analysis conducted, the researchers Garrow and
Summerbell (1995) have reported that aerobic workout may cause loss in LBM (Garrow & Summerbell 1995). Also,
authors have indicated that weight loss only with aerobic exercises, without dieting is moderate and has very low effect
on LBM. The meta analysis have revealed that for a weight loss of 10 kg by only dieting, the expected LBM loss is 2.9
kg for men and 2.2 kg for women. On the other hand, it has been observed that the loss in fat free mass by both dieting
and exercising decreases to 1.7 kg. Exercising together with diet enables to protect some of fat free mass by maintaining
glycogen and water partly. It should be emphasized that the participants were not subjected to any diet and their diets
were not monitored during our process.
In parallel with the decrease in LBM, also SLM has been significantly decreased starting from week 3 (total decrease
7.2%). SLM is related with the skeleton muscle mass and internal organs. Accordingly, this decrease is not surprising.
As a part of SLM, also TBW has significantly decreased starting from week 4. This result is consistent with the decreasing
LBM and SLM. It has been reported that indoor conditions increase the perspiration rate by 36-38 % (Hazelhurst &
Claassen 2006, Brown & Banister 1985). Although no measurements have been performed at the end of each exercise
session in this study, it has been shown that this decrease in the liquid loss continues during the whole process.
Based on the decreasing LBM and TBW, the impedance values of the participants has increased. This increase has
become significant starting from week 3. The change in the impedance values is an indicator of the change in the body
tissues. The composition of the adipose tissue comprises 20% water on average. Accordingly, it does not transmit
electrical current (the impedance of the adipose tissue is high). The impedance value of the muscle tissue is low since it
comprises 75% water on average. Since most of the applied current passes through the muscle tissue, the impedance
value of the muscle tissue is lower than fat (Buchholz, Bartok & Schoeller 2004).
At the end of the process, Body Fat has significantly decreased starting from week 2 and PBF has significantly
decreased starting from week 3. The total decrease in Body Fat is 12.5%. For optimum health, the PBF range is 18-28%
for women (Lee & Nieman 1995). Whereas in this study, the PBF value of the participants was 35.64% (SD 5.13) at the
beginning and this was very high. However, at the end of the process, approximately 10.3% decrease has been observed.
These results are highly important. Considering the change in the total body weight, it is possible to say that the weight
loss is rather due to the fat. Several studies have demonstrated the effect of the regular aerobic workouts in terms of
reducing the body fat. Thus, in the physical activity suggestions, it has been reported that either 30 minutes medium
level exercise for 5 days a week or 20 minutes high level exercise for 3 days a week would be beneficial (Pescatello
2014, Haskell, Blair & Hill 2009). Also, our previous study (Nar, Daglioglu & Kaya 2013) has revealed similar results.
The general body fat percentage is highly specific and varies from person to person. Therefore, it would be wrong to
compare body fat percentages of the individuals. The decrease in Body Fat and PBF is an indicator of the achievements
of the women who have participated to a spinning cycling training program of 6 weeks.
Although certain fluctuations have been observed for BMR and TEE during the process, no significant change has been
determined. BMR is the most significant indicator of the metabolic rate. Whereas TEE is the sum of the calories
required for the daily activities and BMR. Exercise training is associated with an increase in energy expenditure.
However, while BMR constitutes 70 percentage of the daily energy expenditure, the physical activity’s share is 20
percent, a limited part of it (Stiegler & Cunliffe 2006, Preedy, Watson & Martin 2011, Singh et al. 2010). The most
widely used measure is resting metabolic rate (RMR). With regard to the long-term efficiency of the weight loss
programs, the desired result is to maintain fat free mass and RMR while reducing the fat mass (Stiegler & Cunliffe
2006). It has been reported that in general RMR is decreased during weight loss due to the decrease in non-fat tissue;
Journal of Education and Training Studies Vol. 6, No. 4; April 2018
158
and this decrease can be more important than those which are expected with the loss of non-fat tissue (adaptive
thermogenesis) (Preedy, Watson & Martin 2011).
It has been demonstrated that spinning workouts led to high calorie expenditure (Falsetti et al. 2010). It has been
reported that compared to the constant load workouts, if the total intensity is kept same, it does not influence the
metabolic and perceptual responses during exercising; however the spinning cycling workouts have the potential to
increase the post-exercising energy expenditure (Kang et al. 2005). A study has revealed that after a spinning workout
session of 45 minutes, the metabolic rate of the participants has increased for 14 hours on average and they have burned
extra 190 calories over the resting metabolic rate (Knab et al. 2011). Also, it has been demonstrated that the calorie
expenditure in a typical spinning cycling session is 300 to 600 kcal (Francis, Witucki & Buono 1999). This value
conforms with the suggestion of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) about the minimum calorie that
should be spent during each exercise. This suggestion involves various physical activities resulting in 700 to 2000 kcal
expenditure for obtaining benefits (Pollock et al. 1998). Also, other suggestions for weight loss advise reducing the
current energy intake by 500-1000 kcal and increasing gradually the physical activity of medium intensity that is
performed at least 150 minutes per week to optimize health (ACSM 2013). Although no significant changes have been
observed for BMR and TEE at the end of the process, this data indicate that the metabolic rate of our participants has
increased after each cycling workout session and they have spent high amounts of calories. Consequently, the body fat
and PBF values has decreased significantly.
BMI is a simple way to evaluate the obesity level independently from the body compositions. BMI is a good general
indicator for population studies, however the general body composition is not considered. Thus, it imposes serious
restraints when used for the analysis of the individuals.
It has been observed that at the end of the 6 weeks, 4 participants who were in the ―pre-obesity‖ class at the beginning
have passed into the ―normal weight‖ class; and 2 participants who were in the ―obesity class I‖ have passed into the
―pre-obesity‖ class (half of the participants). This fact may be considered as one of the positive results of regular
exercising. However, it should be kept in mind that unless the individual changes his/her diet, it is possible s/he loses
much more less weight only by exercising. The research conducted to date show that when diet restraints are added to
the exercise programs, this can cause more positive changes in the body composition compared to sole diet or physical
activity (Stiegler & Cunliffe 2006). As indicated before, the extra calories spent by exercising is only a small part of the
total energy expenditure (less than 10 to 30 percent). In other words, if the individual does not restrict the calorie intake
and maintain the daily intake same, the weight loss would be highly difficult. Particularly, over weighted or obese
individuals should be careful about that. On the other hand, Slentz et al. (2004) has reported that even though the
current diet is not changed, overweight and mild obese people would lose a small amount of weight by middle level
exercising during 30 minutes each day. A constraint of this study is that the diets of the participants have not been
monitored during the exercise period. Even though the participants have pursued exercising in this process, it is possible
that they have in taken more calories. The studies show that people increases food consumption after exercising (either
they think they have spent a lot of calories or they are hungry) (Preedy, Watson & Martin 2011, Thomas et al. 2012).
As a result, this study shows that attending a spinning cycling class for optimum health, significant benefits may be
obtained. Also, this study reveals that the spinning cycling exercises have positive effect on the body compositions of
women in this age group.
We suggest more studies should be conducted about the effects of the diet restrictions and spinning exercising on the
body composition and energy expenditure and evaluated in terms of acute and chronic aspects.
Acknowledgements
This study was presented as a paper at the 55th ICHPER•SD Anniversary World Congress & Exposition, December
19-21, 2013.
The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this study.
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... Together with improved physical fitness, the optimization of anthropometric indices was one of the goals of cycling training, since abdominal obesity, measured based on waist circumference (WC) in combination with BMI, reliably predicts possible health risks. It is known that cycling training is an effective tool for optimizing body composition and reducing BMI [23,24]. Our results show that cycling training carried out according to the proposed program, without any restrictions in the diet, is effective for weight loss and stimulates decreases in WC in young women (of 6.05% on average). ...
... Our results show that cycling training carried out according to the proposed program, without any restrictions in the diet, is effective for weight loss and stimulates decreases in WC in young women (of 6.05% on average). This corresponds with the results obtained by other researchers [18,24]; for example, Kaya et al. [24] recorded a significant decrease in BMI after 3 weeks of cycling training. This is probably due to the fact that exercise in the aerobic and anaerobic regimes has a positive effect on muscle mass and improves basic metabolism. ...
... Our results show that cycling training carried out according to the proposed program, without any restrictions in the diet, is effective for weight loss and stimulates decreases in WC in young women (of 6.05% on average). This corresponds with the results obtained by other researchers [18,24]; for example, Kaya et al. [24] recorded a significant decrease in BMI after 3 weeks of cycling training. This is probably due to the fact that exercise in the aerobic and anaerobic regimes has a positive effect on muscle mass and improves basic metabolism. ...
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Introduction. Indoor cycling training programs at fitness clubs offer the possibility of optimizing the structure and amount of physical activity, which reduces the risk of disrupting the adaptive abilities of women’s bodies. The main purpose of this study was to identify the effect of an indoor cycling program on the body composition and physical fitness of young women. Material and methods. Twenty-nine women (age = 29.31 ± 3.40 years, body weight = 70.71 ± 6.15 kg, and height = 169.83 ± 3.17 cm) took part in the study, participating in three classes per week for 16 weeks. Each class included three periods: the preparatory, main, and supporting periods. Body composition (waist circumference and body mass index), cardiorespiratory fitness (VО2max), motor fitness (balance), and musculoskeletal fitness (upper and lower body muscle strength and muscular endurance) were compared before the beginning of the study and after 10 and 16 weeks of training. Changes recorded in each variable over time were analyzed statistically using repeated measures methods. Results. Significant improvements in physical fitness were identified in the values of the body mass index (7.81%; ES: 0.95, p = 0.0001) and VО2max (12.51%; ES: 1.02, p = 0.0001). Moderate improvements were found in lower body muscle strength (11.13%; ES: 0.66, p = 0.0001) and waist circumference (6.05%, ES: 0.65, p = 0.0001). There was an increase in the strength of the muscles of the upper body (5.27%; ES: 0.41, p = 0.0001), muscular endurance (8.20%; ES: 0.32, p = 0.0001), and balance (10.68%; ES: 0.29, p = 0.003). Conclusion. Indoor cycling in a fitness club is an effective form of exercise for young women; it has targeted training effects on the body’s functional systems, adaptive abilities, and physical fitness.
... However, no research has been focused on the effects of spinning cycling and green tea on inflammatory markers. Systemic inflammation is associated with obesity, and spinning workout has a significant effect on body composition improvement (14) with a possible higher effectiveness within a shorter period. Therefore, the question of whether spinning workout and green tea supplementation have a significant effect on cardiovascular risk factors will be addressed in this paper. ...
... Other studies have reported the significant reduction of the BMI and BF% due to higher energy expenditure after spinning workout (14,19,21,26). However, Moradi et al. (2016) observed a significant reduction in the BF% only in the group with green tea supplement and resistance training (27), which could be due to the fact that resistance training with green tea consumption improves body composition. ...
... However, no research has been focused on the effects of spinning cycling and green tea on inflammatory markers. Systemic inflammation is associated with obesity, and spinning workout has a significant effect on body composition improvement (14) with a possible higher effectiveness within a shorter period. Therefore, the question of whether spinning workout and green tea supplementation have a significant effect on cardiovascular risk factors will be addressed in this paper. ...
... Other studies have reported the significant reduction of the BMI and BF% due to higher energy expenditure after spinning workout (14,19,21,26). However, Moradi et al. (2016) observed a significant reduction in the BF% only in the group with green tea supplement and resistance training (27), which could be due to the fact that resistance training with green tea consumption improves body composition. ...
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Background: Systematic inflammations are associated with cardiovascular diseases. The production of inflammatory mediators increases in a sedentary lifestyle and reduces with regular exercise. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of eight weeks of spinning workout and green tea supplementation on the anti-inflammatory and inflammatory markers and body composition of overweight women. Methods: This study was conducted on 32 overweight women who voluntarily participated in the research and were randomly assigned to the groups of spinning-green tea (SP-GT; n = 11), spinning-placebo (SP-PL; n = 11), and control (no exercise/placebo; n = 10). The experimental groups carried out eight weeks of spinning workout three days a week non-consecutively with the intensity of 11 - 17 rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured before the intervention and 48 hours after the last training session. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured. Results: After eight weeks of the intervention, BMI, BF%, and TNF-α significantly reduced in the SP-GT and SP-PL groups (P ≤ 0.05). Although the change in IL-6 was not significant in the intervention groups (P > 0.05), it significantly increased in the control group (P = 0.011). Moreover, a significant increase was observed in IL-10 in the SP-GT and SP-PL groups (P = 0.001). Conclusions: According to the results, spinning workout improved the inflammatory markers and body composition independent of supplementation, while green tea had a greater effect on IL-10. Therefore, spinning workout could be used for the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors through the improvement of systematic inflammation.
... However, no research has been focused on the effects of spinning cycling and green tea on inflammatory markers. Systemic inflammation is associated with obesity, and spinning workout has a significant effect on body composition improvement (14) with a possible higher effectiveness within a shorter period. Therefore, the question of whether spinning workout and green tea supplementation have a significant effect on cardiovascular risk factors will be addressed in this paper. ...
... Other studies have reported the significant reduction of the BMI and BF% due to higher energy expenditure after spinning workout (14,19,21,26). However, Moradi et al. (2016) observed a significant reduction in the BF% only in the group with green tea supplement and resistance training (27), which could be due to the fact that resistance training with green tea consumption improves body composition. ...
... Spinning is one of the most popular ways to exercise in the fitness industry (i.e., Caria et al., 2007;Kaya et al., 2018) and is also especially to be particularly suitable for women (Kaya et al., 2018). To enable customers to achieve fitness and toning effects, hotels can provide customers with professional gym-grade spinning equipment and fitness instructors to guide customers in a safe step-bystep routine so as to train different muscle groups of the body, thereby achieving full body exercise. ...
... Spinning is one of the most popular ways to exercise in the fitness industry (i.e., Caria et al., 2007;Kaya et al., 2018) and is also especially to be particularly suitable for women (Kaya et al., 2018). To enable customers to achieve fitness and toning effects, hotels can provide customers with professional gym-grade spinning equipment and fitness instructors to guide customers in a safe step-bystep routine so as to train different muscle groups of the body, thereby achieving full body exercise. ...
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Developing an image that promotes sustainable consumption is an effective way to support sustainability. Although sustainable tourism is gradually being emphasized, there are still few studies focusing on how to design effective marketing communication strategies that stimulate sustainable consumption behavior on the part of travelers. To fill this research gap, based on a triple bottom line perspective, experience marketing perspective, and cognitive-experiential self-theory, this study is aimed toward an examination of the impact of the types of wellness tourism and related visual cues (including cognitive and affective attributes) on the visual attention and preferences of consumers. This research uses consumers who prefer wellness tourism as the research sample. To achieve better experimental control, 133 participants were recruited to complete the research in a laboratory. The empirical results show that wellness service marketing pictures with a spa in the tourist hotel capture more visual attention and are preferred more by consumers than those with yoga, water aerobics, and spinning. This result means that to attract consumers pursuing wellness, hotels should utilize the visual characteristics of spa images more effectively. Tourist hotels can communicate images of healthy bodies and youthfulness to customers through images of wellness activities such as the use of a spa, stimulating them to check into the hotels and engage in wellness exercise, thereby improving their willingness to pursue wellness in hotels during their journeys.
... Spinning çalışmalarının yaşlı ve sedanter bireylerin kalbi zorladığına yönelik çıkarımlar olmasına karşın, genç ve orta yaşlı bireylerde kardiyovasküler sağlık ve vücut kompozisyonu üzerine olumlu etkileri olduğunu bildiren çalışmalar bulunmaktadır. [10][11][12] Verrusio ve ark. nın yaptığı çalışmada 50-69 yaş arası bireylerde diyetle birlikte uygulanan spinning çalışmalarının, terapi ve diyet, standart fiziksel aktivite ve diyet gruplarına göre bel çevresi, beden kitle indeksi, kalp atım hızı (KAH) ve kan yağlarında azalmalar, glikoz metabolizmasında da olumlu gelişmeler sağladığı bildirilmiştir. ...
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6/1±1/72)‬ ‫توده‬ ‫شاخص‬ ‫اساس‬ ‫بر‬ ‫وزن‬ ‫اضافه‬ ‫دارای‬ ‫زن‬ 32 ‫کل‬ ‫در‬ ‫بررسی:‬ ‫روش‬ ‫کنترل(دارونما‬ ‫و‬ ‫اسپنینگ+دارونما(11=‪)n‬‬ ‫سبز(11=‪)n‬‬ ‫اسپنینگ+چای‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫سه‬ ‫به‬ ‫تصادفی‬ ‫طور‬ ‫به‬ ‫سال)‬ 24/9±3/6 ‫سنی‬ ‫میزان‬ 11-17 ‫شدت‬ ‫با‬ ‫را‬ ‫اسپنینگ‬ ‫تمرینات‬ ‫هفته‬ ‫هشت‬ ‫مدت‬ ‫به‬ ‫تمرینی،‬ ‫های‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫شدند.‬ ‫تقسیم‬ ‫تمرین)(01=‪)n‬‬ ‫بدون‬ ‫آخرین‬ ‫از‬ ‫پس‬ ‫ساعت‬ 48 ‫سپس‬ ‫و‬ ‫مداخالت‬ ‫شروع‬ ‫از‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫ساعت‬ 48 ‫خونی‬ ‫گیری‬ ‫نمونه‬ ‫دادند.‬ ‫انجام‬ ‫فشار‬ ‫درک‬ ‫فیبرینوژن‬ ‫خونی‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫و‬)high sensitive C-reactive protein(hs-CRP ‫سرمی‬ ‫غلظت‬ ‫شد.‬ ‫انجام‬ ‫تمرینی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫جلسه‬ ‫انجام‬ ‫ایمپدانس‬ ‫بیوالکتریکال‬ ‫تحلیل‬ ‫و‬ ‫تجزیه‬ ‫روش‬ ‫به‬ ‫بدن‬ ‫چربی‬ ‫درصد‬ ‫و‬ ‫بدنی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫توده‬ ‫شاخص‬ ‫عالوه‬ ‫به‬ ‫شد.‬ ‫گیری‬ ‫اندازه‬ ‫شد.‬ ‫داشت(500/0=‪.)P‬‬ ‫معنادار‬ ‫کاهش‬ ‫سبز‬ ‫اسپنینگ+چای‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫در‬ ‫فقط‬ hs-CRP ‫مداخالت،‬ ‫هفته‬ ‫هشت‬ ‫از‬ ‫پس‬ ‫ها:‬ ‫یافته‬ ‫تمرینی‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫دو‬ ‫هر‬ ‫در‬ ‫بدن(100/0=‪)P‬‬ ‫ی‬ ‫توده‬ ‫شاخص‬ ‫و‬ ‫بدن(100/0=‪)P‬‬ ‫چربی‬ ‫درصد‬ ‫فیبرینوژن(100/0=‪،)P‬‬ ‫عالوه‬ ‫به‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫بین‬ ‫اما‬ ‫داشت(820/0=‪)P‬‬ ‫وجود‬ ‫تمرینی‬ ‫های‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫بین‬ hs-CRP ‫معنادار‬ ‫تفاوت‬ ‫همچنین‬ ‫داشتند.‬ ‫معنادار‬ ‫کاهش‬ ‫بین‬ ‫بدن‬ ‫چربی‬ ‫درصد‬ ‫و‬ ‫فیبرینوژن‬ ‫غیرمعنادار‬ ‫تفاوت‬ ‫چند‬ ‫هر‬ ‫شد(100/0=‪.)P‬‬ ‫معنادار‬ ‫تفاوت‬ ‫کنترل‬ ‫با‬ ‫اسپنینگ+مکمل‬ ‫تفاوت‬ ‫کنترل‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫با‬ ‫اسپنینگ+دارونما‬ ‫و‬ ‫اسپنینگ+مکمل‬ ‫های‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫در‬ ‫فیبرینوژن‬ ‫مورد‬ ‫در‬ ‫نشد.‬ ‫دیده‬ ‫تمرینی‬ ‫های‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫کنترل‬ ‫و‬ ‫اسپنینگ+مکمل‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫بین‬ ‫تنها‬ BMI ‫و‬ ‫بدن‬ ‫چربی‬ ‫درصد‬ ‫داشت.‬)P=0/014(‫و‬ ‫ترتیب(400/0=‪)P‬‬ ‫به‬ ‫که‬ ‫معنادار‬ .)P=0/007(‫و‬)P=0/006(‫ترتیب‬ ‫به‬ ‫که‬ ‫بود‬ ‫معنادار‬ ‫است.‬ ‫شده‬ ‫بدنی‬ ‫ترکیب‬ ‫و‬ ‫قلبی-عروقی‬ ‫خطرزای‬ ‫عوامل‬ ‫بهبود‬ ‫موجب‬ ‫اسپنینگ‬ ‫تمرینات‬ ‫که‬ ‫رسد‬ ‫می‬ ‫نظر‬ ‫به‬ ‫گیری:‬ ‫نتیجه‬ ‫است.‬ ‫داده‬ ‫افزایش‬ ‫را‬ ‫اسپنینگ‬ ‫تمرینات‬ ‫اثربخشی‬ ‫سبز‬ ‫چای‬ ‫دهی‬ ‫مکمل‬ ‫واقع‬ ‫در‬ ‫فیبرینوژن‬ ‫سبز،‬ ‫چای‬ ‫اسپنینگ،‬ ‫تمرینات‬ ‫بدنی،‬ ‫ترکیب‬ ‫باال،‬ ‫حساسیت‬ ‫با‬ ‫سی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫دهنده‬ ‫واکنش‬ ‫پروتئین‬ ‫کلیدی:‬ ‫های‬ ‫واژه
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Background: With increase in awareness about the importance of physical fitness, there has been considerable increase in proportion of population indulging in various new emerging forms of exercises such as Zumba and Spinning. Purpose of study: To assess and compare Physical Fitness Index (PFI) between females practicing two newer forms of aerobic exercises Zumba (group 1) and Spinning (group 2) and to understand whether one aerobic activity has better PFI values over other and whether they can be used interchangeably. It will also create awareness regarding both the newer forms of aerobic exercise forms Zumba and Spinning and its effect. Method: Healthy females practicing either Zumba and spinning for one year regularly were chosen. Step board of height 33 cm, metronome, stopwatch used. Modified Harvard Step test was explained and then subjects were asked to do it. Results were calculated and scoring was done. Results and Main findings: The study showed that in (Group 1) Zumba practitioners 92.86% population had excellent PFI, 7.14% population had fair PFI. In (Group 2) Spinning practitioners, 100% subjects showed excellent PFI, Group 2 had evidently greater mean PFI than group 1 but not statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference in PFI values between the subjects of two groups spinning and Zumba. Conclusion: Majority of the population of both the groups showed Excellent PFI. Both the newer types of aerobic exercise forms can be used interchangeably depending on the age of population. KEY WORDS: Zumba, Spinning, Modified Harvard’s Step test, Physical Fitness Index, Females.
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In this study, the effects of 3-month fitness activities on body composition of sedentaries were investigated. 3-month cardio exercises (45/60 min: 10 min warm-up + stretching, 25 min treadmill, 15 min cycling, 10 min cross, 7 min cooling + stretching) were applied to 299 sedentary individuals (206 men, 93 women) ongoing to Life Gym Fitness and Lifestyle Centre operating in Istanbul in the line of the purpose of the study. Analysis related to body composition was done with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method for 3 times in a time interval of 3-month. Lean Body Mass (LBM) kg, Soft Lean Mass (SLM) kg, Total Body Water (TBW) kg and Percent of Body Fat (PBF) % were detected with the body composition analysis done using BIA method. The status of participants' medical histories and the levels of participation in and readiness to physical activity were observed during the process. The assessments were made by age groups for both sexes. Descriptive statistics techniques in data analysis and variance analysis for repeated measures were used. As a result of the study, it was observed that 3-month fitness activities made positive impacts on body composition parameters of sedentaries. It was seen that changes in men were more dramatic, at the same time, the maximum change was in the age group of 25-44 and the minimum change was in the age group of 45-64 in both sexes. As a result, it was again recorded in this study that continuation to regular physical activity had positive results in terms of both genders and all age groups.
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ACSM Position Stand on The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 975-991, 1998. The combination of frequency, intensity, and duration of chronic exercise has been found to be effective for producing a training effect. The interaction of these factors provide the overload stimulus. In general, the lower the stimulus the lower the training effect, and the greater the stimulus the greater the effect. As a result of specificity of training and the need for maintaining muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility of the major muscle groups, a well-rounded training program including aerobic and resistance training, and flexibility exercises is recommended. Although age in itself is not a limiting factor to exercise training, a more gradual approach in applying the prescription at older ages seems prudent. It has also been shown that aerobic endurance training of fewer than 2 d·wk-1, at less than 40-50% of V˙O2R, and for less than 10 min-1 is generally not a sufficient stimulus for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. Even so, many health benefits from physical activity can be achieved at lower intensities of exercise if frequency and duration of training are increased appropriately. In this regard, physical activity can be accumulated through the day in shorter bouts of 10-min durations. In the interpretation of this position stand, it must be recognized that the recommendations should be used in the context of participant's needs, goals, and initial abilities. In this regard, a sliding scale as to the amount of time allotted and intensity of effort should be carefully gauged for the cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility components of the program. An appropriate warm-up and cool-down period, which would include flexibility exercises, is also recommended. The important factor is to design a program for the individual to provide the proper amount of physical activity to attain maximal benefit at the lowest risk. Emphasis should be placed on factors that result in permanent lifestyle change and encourage a lifetime of physical activity.
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Handbook of Behavior, Food and Nutrition Victor R. Preedy Ronald Ross Watson Colin R. Martin, editors Few phenomena—if any—are as universal and fulfilling as eating. And few bonds are as intricate and personal as our relationship with food: our choices and preferences, our phobias and aversions, the sensory and emotional experience of eating. This relationship is reciprocal as well; as the components of food affect eaters’ behavior, so too do these responses impact what they eat, how much, and why. The Handbook of Behavior, Food and Nutrition explores both sides of this story, with over 200 chapters covering topics at the cellular, systemic, individual, and population levels (and ranging from prenatal feeding to nutritional decline in the elderly), geared to professionals across the behavioral, nutrition, food, and health fields. National and international experts offer the latest data and new ideas on perennial issues (e.g., obesity, anorexia), specialized topics (e.g., emotional effects of chocolate, night eating syndrome), and emerging trends in these areas of eating and behavior: • General and normative aspects. • Pathological and abnormal aspects. • Specific conditions and diseases affecting diet. • Interventions to change eating behavior and attitudes in children, adolescents, and adults. • Behavioral assessment methods. • Plus helpful “Key Facts,” “Summary Points,” and “Applications to Other Area” features, and dozens of tables and figures. Theoretically rich and real-world practical, the Handbook of Behavior, Food and Nutrition addresses the interests of a wide audience, including psychologists, nutritionists, dieticians, public health professionals, pharmacologists, food scientists, and physicians. Additionally, pathologists, food marketing professionals, and policymakers will find it an invaluable source of objective information on increasingly salient issues.
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Lack of activity destroys the good condition of every human being, while moment and methodical physical exercise save it and preserve it. Psychic tensions, anxieties, obesity, BP, etc, in sedentary people have now swelled (grew larger) to enormous proportions. Exercise or physical activities help in handling all this by increasing basal metabolic rate (BMR). The research findings could remove several misconceptions about exercise and remove the mystical sheath over it. Many people do not perform any exercise and are unaware of this fact. Proper exercise profoundly improves our BMR. The exercise is intimately connected with our State of Health and improper BMR will often reflect various disturbances of body and mind. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of aerobic and anaerobic exercise on BMR. For this study, 40 male and 20 female students from BPE group were randomly selected as subjects from LNUPE, Gwalior. The subjects were divided into two groups, that is, one experimental group and one control group. Experimental group was administered with aerobic and anaerobic exercise and second group was control group that did not participate in training programme. The quantitative measurement of each subject was taken with the help of standard equipment, before and after the treatment period of 2 h. The selected physiological variables were resting BMR administered in the Laboratory of Health Science and Yoga, LNUPE, Gwalior. The random group design applied for the effect of exercise on BMR. The analysis of resting BMR changes on the practice was positive of aerobic and anaerobic exercise subjects.
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Recent guidelines on exercise for weight loss and weight maintenance include resistance training as part of the exercise prescription. Yet, few studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of aerobic and resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight adults. STRRIDE AT/RT, a randomized trial, compared aerobic training, resistance training and a combination of the two to determine the optimal mode of exercise for obesity reduction. Participants were 119 sedentary, overweight or obese adults who were randomized to one of three 8-month exercise protocols: 1) RT: resistance training; 2) AT: aerobic training; and 3) AT/RT: aerobic and resistance training (combination of AT and RT). Primary outcomes included total body mass, fat mass and lean body mass. The AT and AT/RT groups reduced total body mass and fat mass more than RT (p<0.05), but they were not different from each other. RT and AT/RT increased lean body mass more than AT (p<0.05). While requiring double the time commitment, a program of combined AT and RT did not result in significantly more fat mass or body mass reductions over AT alone. Balancing time commitments against health benefits, it appears that AT is the optimal mode of exercise for reducing fat mass and body mass while a program including RT is needed for increasing lean mass in middle-aged, overweight/obese individuals.
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Weight loss resulting from an exercise intervention tends to be lower than predicted. Modest weight loss can arise from an increase in energy intake, physiological reductions in resting energy expenditure, an increase in lean tissue or a decrease in non-exercise activity. Lower than expected, weight loss could also arise from weak and invalidated assumptions within predictive models. To investigate these causes, we systematically reviewed studies that monitored compliance to exercise prescriptions and measured exercise-induced change in body composition. Changed body energy stores were calculated to determine the deficit between total daily energy intake and energy expenditures. This information combined with available measurements was used to critically evaluate explanations for low exercise-induced weight loss. We conclude that the small magnitude of weight loss observed from the majority of evaluated exercise interventions is primarily due to low doses of prescribed exercise energy expenditures compounded by a concomitant increase in caloric intake.