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Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions

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Abstract

The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions stems from a set of twin hypotheses. First, the broaden hypothesis proposes that positive emotions momentarily expand our perception of the world in ways that facilitate global visual processing, better attentional flexibility, and larger thought-action repertoires. The build hypothesis purports that, over time, these fleeting experiences of expanded awareness that accompany positive emotions such as joy and excitement accumulate over time to facilitate growth of a person's social, cognitive, emotional, and physical resources. Empirical evidence supporting these hypotheses is discussed, as well as the theory's implications for behavior, psychological resilience, social interaction, and health.

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... Fredrickson proposed that positive emotions can promote human blooming and well-being by increasing thought-action repertoire, which subsequently can be effective solutions to the constant effect of negative emotions (Fredrickson, 2000). People must cultivate these positive emotions to attain growth in terms of psychological and develop well-being from psychological and physical aspect (Fredrickson, 2004). Fredrickson (2004) proposed that positive emotions can lead to psychological resilience. ...
... People must cultivate these positive emotions to attain growth in terms of psychological and develop well-being from psychological and physical aspect (Fredrickson, 2004). Fredrickson (2004) proposed that positive emotions can lead to psychological resilience. ...
... Moreover, Fredrickson (2004) proposed that positive emotions like gratitude can expand one's temporary thought action repertoires and create lasting social resources. Grateful individuals will creatively and innovatively explore various activities to show their gratitude (Garg & Sarkar, 2020). ...
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The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted the well-being and mental health of people around the world. Positive emotions like resilience and gratitude have been proven to be able to improve one’s well-being. The theory of Broaden-and-build was used to explore resilience’s mediating role in the relationship between gratitude and well-being among Malaysian adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data of 530 participants aged 18 to 35 years was analyzed using SmartPLS. The results showed that grateful and more resilient participants showed a better well-being, and the effects were further moderated by financial income and marital status. The results also supported the hypothetical statistical mediation model in which resilience is the statistical mediator for the association between gratitude and well-being. The results highlighted the significant influence of gratitude and resilience on Malaysian adults’ well-being and explained the role of gratitude in boosting their well-being. It is suggested that policymakers and mental health professionals should consider promoting gratitude and resilience to increase positive emotions and well-being in young adults and help society to be prepared for challenging times of adversity in the future.
... connections with a developing child. Indeed, parents who capitalize on the positive feelings of connection to their young children may be more able to extract benefits from their relationships with their children, and weather the stresses of parenting with greater ease (Fredrickson, 2005). ...
... According to Broaden-and-Build theory, practices that promote immersion in positive emotions, including RS as a form of savoring, expand one's attentional field, undo the adverse effects of negative emotions, and assist people in building resources for the future (Fredrickson, 2005). By helping parents focus on times when they experienced a positive connection with their child, or a time when they effectively met their child's needs, RS aims to heighten experiences of positive emotion within the parent-child relationship. ...
... We argue that RS will increase RF because during the intervention, parents are repeatedly coached towards linking mental states (thoughts, feelings) with behavior, increasing their future capacity to mentalize (Borelli, Smiley et al., 2020). Further, mentalizing when immersed in the positive emotional state created by RS may facilitate learning (Fredrickson & Joiner, 2002) -positive emotions enable parents to broaden their attentional focus (Fredrickson, 2005) and reduce defensiveness, which will allow them to be better able to consider their child's thoughts and feelings, as well as their own thoughts and feelings in the parenting role, thereby increasing parental RF. Engaging in RS should also increase attention to and awareness of times when parents responded sensitively; that is, as part of the RS protocol, interveners assist the parent in perceiving their role in the parent-child relationship in new ways, by placing value on the parent's sensitive behavior and highlighting their child's perception of the parent as a stable, safe, reliable figure in their life. ...
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Parenting young children poses numerous emotion regulation challenges, and prevention programs that promote emotion regulation skills can help with this important task of parenthood. Relational savoring (RS), which entails savoring a positive experience of interpersonal connectedness, is a brief manualized intervention program, 4 weeks in length, grounded in positive psychology and attachment theory. In the current longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial, we examined the impacts of RS compared with an active control (personal savoring [PS], defined as savoring a positive individual experience) in a sample of N = 164 mothers of toddlers (Mage = 20.93 months) on outcomes that were assessed immediately postintervention (positive emotion, closeness to child) and at a 3-month follow-up visit (parenting sensitivity, reflective functioning [RF], savoring uptake, and parenting wellness). Compared with mothers assigned to the PS condition, mothers in the RS condition had greater immediate response to the intervention (greater increases in positive emotions [gratitude, pride], closeness to their child) as well as greater increase in sensitivity to toddlers' cues at the three-month follow-up. Neither RS nor PS increased overall parenting wellness at the three-month follow-up. Latina mothers (but not non-Latina mothers) in the RS condition had higher RF and greater savoring uptake than Latina mothers in the PS condition at follow-up. Findings provide preliminary evidence of the efficacy of RS in modifying therapeutic targets and suggest evidence of the cultural congruence of RS for Latina mothers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Negative mood inductions, relative to positive and neutral mood inductions, result in increased errors on sustained attention tasks and increased mind wandering (Smallwood et al., 2009). The broaden-and-build theory suggests that mood may also alter the scope of attention, such that negative moods narrow the focus of attention while positive moods broaden the focus of attention (Fredrickson, 2004). Braver et al. (2007) suggest that positive mood may increase the tendency to take a proactive orientation, while a negative mood may result in an increase in reactive orientation. ...
... Finally, we hypothesized that current mood would alter the impact of the affective interference such that higher levels of negative mood will increase the impact of the negative distractors on current trial performance and decreased benefit on subsequent trial performance following the negative distractors. However, based on the broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 2004), we hypothesized that higher levels of negative mood would predict better performance on current neutral or low-load trials. ...
... Specifically, higher levels of negative mood were related to better performance on low but not high mnemonic load trial. This is consistent the view that negative emotions narrow our attention (Fredrickson, 2004), and this should increase our ability to focus on and identify the to-be-remembered stimuli. However, this effect did not extend to the high-load trials, suggesting a limited effect. ...
Article
The amount of cognitive control required during a task may fluctuate over the course of performing a task. The dynamic upregulation of cognitive control has been proposed to occur in response to conflict or in response to the need for additional control during demanding cognitive tasks. Specifically, upregulation in cognitive control results in improved performance on trials that follow more demanding trials. Recent work has demonstrated that upregulation occurs during following trials with high (vs. low) mnemonic load and negative (vs. neutral) affective interference during working memory tasks. Although dynamic upregulation appears to be a robust phenomenon, less is known about individual difference factors that may alter the likelihood to engage in upregulation as a result of a signal to increase cognitive control. The current study attempted to replicate prior findings that suggest upregulation may occur following higher load trials or affective interference during a working memory task. Further, the study examined anxiety, depressive symptomatology, working memory capacity, mood, and dispositional mindfulness and possible moderators for upregulation of cognitive control. Participants (N = 150) completed a delayed recognition working memory task with mnemonic load (High vs. Low) and affective interference (Negative vs. Neutral) parametrically manipulated. Participants completed measures of the individual difference factors. The current findings replicate prior work demonstrating an upregulation of cognitive control following high load trials and negative affective interference. Individual difference factors did not moderate the upregulation findings, suggesting that upregulation is a robust phenomenon that can be triggered by both affective interference and mnemonic load.
... Second, this theory also posits that positive emotions can revoke the lingering effects of negative emotions (Fredrickson, 2004). The fundamental explanation is because positive emotion tends to broaden individual's thought-action repertoire, it may relax the tie that negative emotion has on an individual's thought and physical by promoting problem-solving orientation in people's minds (Fredrickson, 2001(Fredrickson, , 2004. ...
... Second, this theory also posits that positive emotions can revoke the lingering effects of negative emotions (Fredrickson, 2004). The fundamental explanation is because positive emotion tends to broaden individual's thought-action repertoire, it may relax the tie that negative emotion has on an individual's thought and physical by promoting problem-solving orientation in people's minds (Fredrickson, 2001(Fredrickson, , 2004. For example, experiencing positive emotion could relax cardiovascular activity that has been increased due to prior negative emotions (Fredrickson & Levenson, 1998;Fredrickson et al., 2000). ...
... Last, the broadened momentary thought-action also brings a long term and indirect benefit to an individual as such building people's personal resources (Fredrickson, 2004). Specifically, when people have their momentary thought-action broadened, they are more likely to have their attention being expanded and their cognition being widened, consequently it increases creative and flexible thinking ability, as well as increase their personal-resources and endurance for coping with problems (Aspinwall, 1998;Fredrickson & Joiner, 2002). ...
Article
This research aims to examine whether social venture founder’s entrepreneurial passion can increase employee creativity via creative process engagement and the moderating role of employee mindfulness. A survey was conducted by asking employees of 109 social ventures in Vietnam to evaluate the founders’ entrepreneurial passion and the supervisors to evaluate employees’ creativity as well as employee creative process engagement. Drawing on the broaden-and-build theory, this study found that employee creativity increases when the employees perceive that the social venture founders have strong entrepreneurial passion as explain by higher creative process engagement. In addition, we revealed that the indirect influence of entrepreneurial passion on employee creativity remains significant regardless the employees’ mindfulness. Theoretical and practical contributions are further discussed.
... Physical exercise buffers against stress and stress-related disorder, which may be one potential explanation for the positive emotions evoked in the interview participants [49]. Interpreted in the light of The Broaden-and-Build Theory [50], the participants' positive attitudes to and experience of physical exercise led both to an increased capacity for physical work and, as a consequence, to a better chance of entering the work force and a broadened repertoire of psychological skills and resources for managing stressful situations. ...
... Therefore, it may be inferred that IRP activities increased flourishing through the positive experiences that in turn increased participants' ability to function. In this process, self-acceptance is important for the development of positive emotions and wellbeing [50,52]. Self-acceptance is the individual's acceptance of all his/her attributes, whether they be positive or negative [52]. ...
... They felt the backing of IRP professionals, who supported participants in their acceptance of past and present situations, which enabled them to view themselves more positively. Self-acceptance and increased flourishing were accomplished through recognition and acknowledgement of individual strengths by others, which in turn nourished positive emotions and motivation for rehabilitation and future employment [50,[52][53][54].. Participants found that IRP activities taught them to focus on the present moment (e.g. when relaxing or socializing with family) and their engagement in codecisions about IRP activities stimulated their feelings of curiosity and development of interest for work-related activities [50,54]. Interest has previously been suggested as an important driver for building personal skills and wellbeing [54]. ...
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Background Interdisciplinary rehabilitation programmes (IRP) are used in municipality settings to assist unemployed citizens with complex health and/or life issues. Individually tailored IRP activities help people develop their personal working life skills and increase their chances of re-entering the work force. The aims of this paper were to describe citizens’ wellbeing in terms of health aspects, explore the impact of stressful life events on wellbeing and obtain understanding of how IRP activities affect the participants’ development towards future employment. Methods A mixed methods exploratory approach has been used. For data collection a quantitative longitudinal survey (baseline and 1-year follow-up) and qualitative interviews were conducted. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis of survey data, while the data material from interviews was analysed using directed content analysis. Results were discussed with the theory of flourishing as a framework to develop understanding. Results At baseline, 146 respondents (71% females) filled in the survey and seven participants were interviewed. The analysis of survey data and interviews revealed five themes: (1) Stressful life events, (2) Positive emotions - how IRP-activities positively impacted wellbeing and physical capacity, (3) Appreciation of engagement, (4) Relationships, and (5) Meaning and optimal functioning. Results showed that IRP participants from the outset experienced high general pain intensity as well as distress, anxiety and depression. Life events relating both to physical health and work life were significant for their wellbeing. IRP activities supported participants’ positive development towards future employment in ways that were specific to each individual. Conclusions From this study it can be derived that participants’ development took place around self-acceptance, acceptance by others, physical capacity, psychological resources and capacity to balance engagement to cultivate the best version of themselves. In future programmes, it may be emphasized that participants’ interest may be an important driver for wellbeing and future employment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02641704, date of registration December 29, 2015.
... Positive psychology research presents well-founded evidence to support the tangible relationship between wellbeing and gratitude (Emmons et al., 2019). Using Fredrickson's (2004) broaden and build theory of positive emotions, researchers propose an upward spiral of gratitude and wellbeing where gratitude essentially creates an individual's psychological, social and spiritual resources (Emmons and McCullough, 2003;Fredrickson, 2012). As research in the domain of gratitude is advancing, several underlying mechanisms through which gratitude supports long-term subjective wellbeing are also explored (Watkins, 2004). ...
... The proposed study is theoretically premised on Fredrickson's (2004) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Positive emotions like gratitude "broaden people's momentary thoughtaction repertoires and build their enduring social resources" (Fredrickson, 2004, p. 147). ...
... Firstly, the study explores the utility of gratitude in the organizational context. Previous researchers, including Fredrickson (2004) and Watkins (2014), highlighted the scarcity of gratitude studies among working professionals. They encouraged future researchers to examine gratuitous work behavior to realize the true potential of gratitude practices and interventions. ...
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The study examines the necessity and sufficiency of gratitude for supporting workplace happiness among Indian university teachers. It also explores the mediating effect of psychological capital and social capital in the relationship between gratitude and workplace happiness. The moderating effect of spiritual climate is investigated. A survey of 726 university staff in India was undertaken to examine the relationship between gratitude and workplace happiness. A series of statistical tests involving correlation, multiple regression, and necessary condition analysis was undertaken from the data set. The mediation effect of psychological capital and social capital was investigated using bootstrapping estimates using PROCESS Macro in SPSS. Also, the moderation effect of spiritual climate was explored using PROCESS Macro in SPSS. The results reveal that gratitude is both a sufficient and necessary condition for workplace happiness. It also suggests a significant mediating effect of psychological capital and social capital. Also, a significant effect of spiritual climate amid the relationship between gratitude and workplace happiness is concluded. The study is one of the first studies that explore the relationship between gratitude and workplace happiness. It examines the mechanism through which gratitude influences happiness in the workplace.
... In the context of the pandemic in South Africa, insufficient exploration has been made into developing an understanding of how expressing gratitude manifests positive outcomes (Bono et al., 2020;Fishman, 2020;Shen and Sosa, 2020). Gratitude builds enduring resources (e.g., skills for showing appreciation, social bonds) that function as reserves that can be used in difficult times (Fredrickson, 2004). Research efforts within South Africa should therefore be geared toward exploring the beneficial effects of gratitude during the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
... Gratitude can also foster social bonds and prosocial behavior among colleagues (Cameron and Spreitzer, 2012;Lomas et al., 2014). It is associated with supervisor satisfaction (Hu and Kaplan, 2014) and, according to Fredrickson (2004), social bonds are strengthened through gratitude when individuals give for the sake of benefiting another, rather than expecting something in return. Once a benefit has been given, the giver is motivated to do more for the current and future beneficiary-an important consideration for OCB (Grant and Gino, 2010) and moreover, a culture of reciprocity, teamwork and recognizing the good that others do (Dik et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Gratitude or the appreciation of being given something of value, is an important element in positive emotions within positive psychology. Gratitude has been linked to wellbeing and gratitude in the workplace is positively associated with constructs such as performance and organizational citizenship behavior. The pandemic brought on many negative experiences but employees could still find things to be grateful for during this time. The purpose of the study was to understand what aspects of work and the organization employees were grateful for during the pandemic. A generic qualitative approach was used. Participants were sourced from various industries in South Africa using purposive sampling. Data were gathered through 21 semi-structured interviews of working people in South Africa. Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis revealed five themes, namely, (1) gratitude for no negative work-life changes; (2) gratitude for a caring workplace; (3) gratitude for a new way of working; (4) gratitude for the ability to put oneself first; and (5) gratitude for having resilience, optimism and spirituality as a psychological buffer. Managers should deliberately engage in behaviors that will bring about gratitude from their employees. Employees should reflect on the positive things at work that they are thankful for as a way of enhancing gratitude and thereby, wellness, performance, and commitment. The study combines existing knowledge on gratitude during the pandemic with gratitude in the workplace.
... Several studies have highlighted the role of positive emotions, which are signs of wellbeing as well as an integral part of its construction (Fredrickson, 2004), in several facets of entrepreneurial life (Baron, 2008) such as in the creativity and innovation processes (Baron andTang, 2011, Perry-Smith andCoff, 2011), the evaluation of opportunities (Grichnick et al., 2010;Foo, 2011;Foo et al., 2015), entrepreneurial motivations (Jia and Zhang, 2018), or even the perception of risk (Sjöberg, 2007). However, while positive emotions are often linked to an increase in the creativity or productivity of individuals (Diener et al., 2020), negative emotions can also be influential. ...
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Coulombe, S., Dejardin, M., Luc, S. (2022). Covid or not Covid? Psychological Distress and Entrepreneurial Intentions among Canadian Workers during the Pandemic. Accepted for publication in the International Review of Entrepreneurship, Vol 20: Issue 1. Abstract: Triggering events can be associated with entrepreneurial intentions. Using data from a survey on the mental health of Canadian workers carried out in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, we specifically test the association between entrepreneurial intentions and psychological distress, along with other individual demographic and personal-level measurements such as risk-aversion, and financial concern. Our results substantiate a positive relationship between entrepreneurial intention and individual psychological distress, as well as financial deterioration measured at the household level. Taken as a whole, our contribution helps to feed a discussion on the links between mental health and entrepreneurship in a process of personal resilience and, more generally, on well-being as a motivational factor in the entrepreneurial process.
... Acting in a context that allows children to be imbued with positive emotions triggers them to recall past activities and use these memories during their exploratory manipulations with objects and words. Furthermore, in light of the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions (Fredrickson, 2004), it has been experimentally proven that such emotions-including joy, interest, and contentment-"broaden the scopes of attention, cognition, and action, widening the array of percepts, thoughts, and actions presently in mind" (Fredrickson & Branigan, 2005, p. 315). Therefore, they not only facilitate access to some previous experiences but also expand one's awareness in general. ...
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In this paper, we deal with the issue of how it is possible for pretending children to engage in exploratory performances and entertain alternative states of affairs. We question the approach according to which pretenders must be capable of counterfactual reasoning. Instead, we follow an alternative action-based framework on cognition and thus pretense, which argues for a much more profound role of the context of play than the questioned Counterfactual Thinking Approach to Pretense (CTAP). First, we motivate this shift in theoretical perspective by critiquing CTAP and providing arguments in favor of the action-based alternative we endorse. Then, we demonstrate that the action-based framework allows for a fruitful analysis of pretense in terms of its context rather than (solely) mind-internal processes. This paper proposes that (1) thematic play-frames enable unusual manipulations with objects and words, and invite dynamic interactions between players who can discover new possibilities for action and communication, as well as that (2) pretense contexts understood generally as opposed to non-pretense contexts have selected features—specifically the adults’ approval of playing with cultural norms, the looseness of constraints, and the lack of particular goals leading to children’s positive feelings—that are genuinely conducive to play explorations. Finally, we discuss other contexts of possibilities, as well as the educational prospects of particular context-to-context transmissions.
... Several studies have highlighted the role of positive emotions, which are signs of well-being as well as an integral part of its construction (Fredrickson, 2004), in several facets of entrepreneurial life (Baron, 2008) such as in the creativity and innovation processes (Baron andTang, 2011, Perry-Smith andCoff, 2011), the evaluation of opportunities (Grichnick et al., 2010;Foo, 2011;Foo et al., 2015), entrepreneurial motivations (Jia and Zhang, 2018), or even the perception of risk (Sjöberg, 2007). However, while positive emotions are often linked to an increase in the creativity or productivity of individuals (Diener et al., 2020), negative emotions can also be influential. ...
Article
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International Review of Entrepreneurship, 20(1), 2022. Triggering events can be associated with entrepreneurial intentions. Using data from a survey on the mental health of Canadian workers carried out in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, we specifically test the association between entrepreneurial intentions and psychological distress, along with other individual demographic and personal-level measurements such as risk-aversion, and financial concern. Our results substantiate a positive relationship between entrepreneurial intention and individual psychological distress, as well as financial deterioration measured at the household level. Taken as a whole, our contribution helps to feed a discussion on the links between mental health and entrepreneurship as part of a process of personal resilience and, more generally, on well-being as a motivational factor in the entrepreneurial process.
... Caring environment is one that cares for its employees. Flourishing positive emotions of employees impacts levels of trust [48], influences how information is processed [49], builds enduring personal resources [50], and mediates the expression of values in behaviors [51,52]. Showing concern and respect for subordinates has a strong direct relationship with the degree to which employees are satisfied with their leaders [7] and their engagement at work [53]. ...
Article
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Multiple studies highlight the link between engagement at work and performance, influencing organizations to put more effort into improving employee engagement levels. In this study, we begin to examine the influence of multiple psychological parameters on employees’ work engagement (WE) within the public sector. The idea is to break the concept of WE down into eight individually measurable parameters that will allow for a better understanding and development of stronger interventions. Based on this analysis, we reproduce the outcome that strategic clarity is the most connected property to WE. More importantly, we introduce a new concept, honest mistakes, and show that having a safe space for making mistakes and learning from it is the second most important property of WE. This result is of interest, as allowing mistakes, even if they were made innocently, is considered taboo in the public sector. These outcomes are based on the reports of n=7682 public sector employees from Brazil. In particular, the analysis shows that these outcomes hold for both professional and management positions across the health, administrative, justice, police, social work, and education offices.
... Critically, emotion induction appears to operate on the sensitivity of another's pain in an opposite fashion than to one's own ( [49]). This has been interpreted in light of broaden-and-build account ( [19]; [49]), according to which negative emotional states narrow one's mindset, inhibiting resources, and promoting self-referential thought at the expense of one's social proficiency. ...
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Background: Estimating others' pain is a challenging inferential process, associated with a high degree of uncertainty. While much is known about uncertainty's effect on self-regarding actions, its impact on other-regarding decisions for pain have yet to be characterized. Aim: The present study exploited models of probabilistic decision-making to investigate how uncertainty influences the valuation and assessment of another's pain. Materials & methods: We engaged 63 dyads (43 strangers and 20 romantic couples) in a task where individual choices affected the pain delivered to either oneself (the agent) or the other member of the dyad. At each trial, agents were presented with cues predicting a given pain intensity with an associated probability of occurrence. Agents either chose a sure (mild decrease of pain) or risky (50% chance of avoiding pain altogether) management option, before bidding on their choice. A heat stimulation was then issued to the target (self or other). Decision-makers were then asked to rate the pain administered to the target. Results: We found that the higher the expected pain, the more risk-averse agents became, in line with findings in value-based decision-making. Furthermore, agents gambled less on another individual's pain (especially strangers) and placed higher bids on pain relief than they did for themselves. Most critically, the uncertainty associated with expected pain dampened ratings made for strangers' pain. This contrasted with the effect on an agent's own pain, for which risk had a marginal hyperalgesic effect. Discussion & conclusion: Overall, our results suggested that risk selectively affects decision-making on a stranger's suffering, both at the level of assessment and treatment selection, by (1) leading to underestimation, (2) privileging sure options and (3) altruistically allocating more money to insure the treatment's success. Significance: Uncertainty biases decision-making but it is unclear if it affects choice behavior on pain for others. In examining this question, we found individuals were generally risk-seeking when faced with looming pain, but more so for self; and assigned higher monetary values and subjective ratings on another's pain. However, uncertainty dampened agents' assessment of a stranger's pain, suggesting latent variables may contradict overt altruism. This bias may underlie pain underestimation in clinical settings.
... Szabo et al. (56) also found that psychosocial stress was associated with higher salivary IL-1b and increased negative emotions caused an increased IL-1b (57). Furthermore, maintaining positive emotions can alleviate the negative effects of stress by reducing the inflammatory response (58). Therefore, it was assumed that the increase in IL-1b in this study might have been caused by psychosocial stress and increased negative emotions (23), and was not a manifestation of the increased oral inflammation of the crewmembers. ...
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Long-term exposure to space environments may influence the human microbiome, the human immune system, and the intricate balance between the two, causing impaired immunity and increased disease susceptibility. It was previously believed that the main potential factors of long-term spaceflight on human health were microgravity and radiation.
... Interest shifted away from foreign language classroom fear and toward a broader range of feelings such as pleasure, love, pride, hope, humiliation, remorse, and boredom . Broaden-and-build theory emphasizes the positive predictive effect of positive emotions on academic performance (Fredrickson, 2004). Students will evaluate their own behaviors, causing positive or negative emotional reactions according to the social cognitive theory of self-regulation (Bandura, 1991). ...
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The current study aimed to investigate the impact of foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) on academic success through mediating role of emotional intelligence communication (EIC) and moderating role of class room environment. Due to the disruptive impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, teaching and learning were moved online nation-wide. The convenient sampling technique was used, for data collection from Chinese university students. There was a total of 615 students that participated in the survey and data gathered in 5 months from November 2021 till March 2022. Covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM) in SPSS V.25 and AMOS V.22 was used to assess model fitness and hypotheses, as well as construct reliability and validity of the measurement model. The results revealed that FLCA is negatively and significantly influence students’ academic success. Furthermore, EIC as a mediator significantly and positively mediates the relationship between FLCA and academic success. The current study shows that emotional intelligence has the ability to reduce students’ foreign language anxiety and so improve their language skills. Lastly, classroom environment positively and significantly moderates the relationship between FLCA and emotional intelligence communication.
... Kendileri ile iş ve örgüt arasında güçlü bir uyum algılayan bireylerin, uyumsuzluk algılayanlara göre, seçtikleri kariyere kendilerini adamaları ve engellere rağmen bu kariyerde kalma olasılıklarının daha yüksek olduğu ileri sürülmektedir. Kariyer bağlılığı ile ilişkilendirilen bir diğer teori olan "genişlet ve inşa et teorisi"nde (Fredrickson, 2004) vurgulandığı üzere, olumlu duygular yalnızca şimdiki zamanda değil, aynı zamanda uzun vadede bir gelişme sağlar. Çalışanların işlerine duydukları sevgi, yalnızca mevcut işverenlerine olan duygusal bağlılıklarını etkilemekle kalmaz, bununla birlikte uzun vadede kariyerlerini geliştirmeleri üzerinde de etkilidir (Zhu vd., 2021). ...
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In this study, considering all these conditions, interviews were realized with 13 academicians working at different state universities in Turkey, who have 15-30 years of experience in their profession. Interviews were conducted with them that were not structured on their daily work routines, the time they devoted to administrative and academic affairs, and their teaching methods. As a result, I completed the study by presenting various suggestions and ideas about the research. I hope that the research will contribute to both the academic world and professional business life.
... Kashdan and Rottenberg, as early as 2010, propose that the notion of psychological flexibility may have been studied under multiple names: from ego resiliency (Block, 1961) to the notion of self-regulation or executive control (Posner & Rothbart, 1998) or even in the "The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions" broadening an individual's momentary thought and action repertoire (= improves psychological flexibility) (Fredrickson, 2004). The current literature mainly aims to underline that it seems relevant to continue working to understand whether the concept of "cognitive" flexibility and the concept of psychological flexibility represent two different constructs or may correspond to common elements (Whiting et al., 2015a(Whiting et al., , 2015b. ...
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Psychological flexibility is a key process in mental health, both in a psychopathological approach and from a quality of life and well-being perspective. The notion seems to suffer from a conceptual vagueness with multiple definitions, stemming from different conceptual propositions, with a frequent opposition between a “neuropsychological” approach or assessment and a “clinical and therapeutical” approach. The objective of this article is to propose a theoretical review of the literature, aiming at understanding the notion of psychological flexibility according to the different approaches. To do so, we propose a presentation of the notions, as well as perspectives to improve actual assessment, especially in its ecological aspects. Finally, we wish to underline the relevance of a convergence of measures by reflecting on the limits of current tools and proposing mixed ecological protocols between “objective” and “subjective” measures in a perspective of mutual enrichment, both theoretical and clinical.
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Background: Early recovery from alcohol use disorder (AUD) is commonly associated with high levels of negative affect, stress, and emotional vulnerability, which confer significant relapse risk. Emotion differentiation-the ability to distinguish between discrete emotions-has been shown to predict relapse after treatment for a drug use disorder, but this relationship has not been explored in individuals recovering from AUD. Methods: The current study used thrice daily random and up to thrice daily self-initiated ecological momentary assessment surveys (N = 42, observations = 915) to examine whether 1) moments of high affective arousal are characterized by momentary differences in emotion differentiation among individuals in the first year of a current AUD recovery attempt, and 2) individuals' average emotion differentiation would predict subsequent alcohol use measured by the timeline follow-back over a 3-month follow-up period. Results: Multilevel models showed that moments (Level 1) of higher-than-average negative affect (p < 0.001) and/or stress (p = 0.033) were characterized by less negative emotion differentiation, while moments of higher-than-average positive affect were characterized by greater positive emotion differentiation (p < 0.001). At the between-person level (Level 2), participants with higher stress overall had lower negative emotion differentiation (p = 0.009). Linear regression showed that average negative, but not positive, emotion differentiation was inversely associated with percent drinking days over the subsequent 3-month follow-up period (p = 0.042). Neither form of average emotion differentiation was associated with drinking quantity. Conclusions: We found that for individuals in early AUD recovery, affective states are associated with acute shifts in the capacity for emotion differentiation. Further, we found that average negative emotion differentiation prospectively predicts subsequent alcohol use.
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Nurses who regularly engage in self-compassion training may be more resilient to stressors and burnout, and thus able to provide more compassionate care to patients. The article explores the benefits and strategies of practicing mindful self-compassion (MSC) for nurses, reviews the effectiveness of an MSC curriculum, and discusses practical techniques for nurses to put MSC theory into practice.
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Time spent on being with others (social interactions) and being alone (solitude) in day to day life might reflect older adults' agentic regulatory strategies to balance the needs to belong and to conserve energy. Motivated from a joint lifespan psychological and social relationship theoretical perspective, this study examined how time spent on social interactions and solitude alternatively unfolds within individuals in daily life, relating to individual differences in trait‐level well‐being and fatigue. Over 21 days, a total of 11,172 valid records of social interactions were collected from 118 older adults (aged 65–94 years) in a smartphone‐based event‐contingent ambulatory assessment study in Switzerland. On average, a social interaction episode lasted 39 min and a solitude episode lasted 5.03 hr. Multilevel models showed that, at the within‐person level, a longer‐than‐usual social interaction preceded and was followed by a longer‐than‐usual solitude episode. Moderator analyses showed that older adults with higher trait life satisfaction and lower trait fatigue spent even more time in social interactions after longer solitude episodes, amplifying the solitude‐then‐interaction association. Our findings suggest that whereas social interaction is a means to improve well‐being, solitude is also an integral part in older adults' daily life supporting energy recovery.
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Studies of the influence of emotions on driving behaviour have produced contradictory conclusions. This confusion is related to two factors: emotional arousal and driving tasks. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of anger and happiness on the driving behaviour of drivers who encounter a pedestrian-crossing event on an unmarked road, which requires strategic and behavioural choices. Thirty-nine drivers completed a simulated driving task to avoid pedestrians under the influence of state emotion. The results showed that anger increased the average driving speed, the minimum speed when encountering a pedestrian, the probability of passing in front of a pedestrian, and the lateral distance to the pedestrian from the right. However, there was no difference between the impacts of happy and neutral moods on driving behaviour. These results suggest that general risky driving behaviour (e.g., speeding) is mainly affected by anger state. Meanwhile avoidance behaviour patterns in pedestrian-crossing tasks, as a driving behaviour related to prosocial attitudes, are also affected by emotional valence. Recommendations and implications for further research on driving anger are discussed.
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Based on theory and research in positive organizational development and positive psychology, this chapter proposes a framework for positive capacity building. Positive capacity building is a strengths‐based approach to organizational development that social impact organizations can use to improve their effectiveness and sustainability and build the social and psychological resources of their people in order to maximize social impact. Positive capacity building is a comprehensive framework designed to be easy to follow and adapt to an organization’s specific context and capacity building needs, which can range from a focus on the entire organization to a specific aspect of the organization. Based on the appreciative inquiry and action research models for organizational development, positive capacity building consists of eight phases that build on the “4‐D” appreciative inquiry model and are tailored to focus on capacity building for social impact organizations: Develop, Desire, Discover, Dream, Design, Deliver, Determine, and Decide.
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Promotions, as a part of organizational incentive and reward systems, can motivate employees to perform well and to increase commitment to their firms. But very little is known about why and when promotion failure influences employees' subsequent responses. Integrating social‐cognitive theory and the cognitive appraisal theory of emotion in justice literature, we investigated the effect of promotion failure on employees' work engagement through cognitive and emotional processes and the moderating effects of perceived promotion fairness. Employing two survey studies (Study 1 and Study 2) and an experimental study (Study 3), we found that: (1) promotion failure was negatively related to self‐efficacy and positively associated with anger; (2) promotion failure was negatively related to work engagement through reduced self‐efficacy and elevated anger; (3) promotion perceived to be fair amplified the negative effect of promotion failure on employee self‐efficacy but mitigated its influence on anger; (4) promotion fairness perception strengthened the indirect negative relationship between promotion failure and work engagement through self‐efficacy but weakened this indirect relationship via anger. Our work contributes to promotion and justice literature and enlightens practitioners about how to manage promotion practice.
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A convergent parallel mixed-methods approach was used to explore teacher care, teacher-student rapport, and engagement in pursuing academic goals in a foreign language (L2) context, as perceived by 223 Iranian and 208 Polish L2 students. Quantitative data were obtained through three scales, the cross-cultural validity and factor structure of which were ensured through testing measurement invariance and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively. The structural equation modeling results obtained through running Mplus approved that care and rapport predicted Iranian and Polish students' engagement in pursuing academic goals in an L2 context. For checking the equality of the structural path coefficients, the Omnibus Wald test was employed. Group differences in factor means were tested, showing that Iranian and Polish students differed significantly regarding their levels of engagement. Qualitative data, obtained through running interviews with 30 Iranian and 24 Polish students, selected from the initial sample, approved the predictive links of care and rapport with Iranian and Polish students' engagement in pursuing academic goals in an L2 context. However, the students' qualitative reports revealed how their perceived country's cultural and instructional contexts influenced their engagement, empirically supporting the supposition that engagement is the by-product of the dynamic interaction between the individual factors and the instructional context, necessitating the examination of the role of sociocultural values and home culture in accomplishing this educational objective.
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Research indicates that relationship‐oriented HR practices can increase organizational knowledge, yet we know little about the effects of relationship‐oriented HR practices on employee knowledge management behaviors. Drawing from affective events theory, we examine the indirect effect of participation in one type of relationship‐oriented HR practice (i.e., organizational social activities) on three knowledge management behaviors (i.e., knowledge sharing, knowledge hiding, and knowledge manipulating) via positive affect, as well as the conditional indirect effect of intrinsic motivation for organizational social activities on these relationships. Utilizing a time‐separated field study (n = 163), our analysis reveals positive affect fully mediates the relationship between participation in organizational social activities and (a) knowledge sharing and (b) knowledge hiding, and partially mediates the relationship between participation in organizational social activities, and (c) knowledge manipulating. Most interestingly, we unexpectedly found a positive direct effect of participation in organizational social activities on knowledge manipulation, even though the indirect effect via positive affect was negative. The results also indicate that, for individuals with high intrinsic motivation for social activities, there is a significant indirect effect of participation in organizational social activities on all three knowledge management behaviors.
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School has been demonstrated to be important for children’s wellbeing and useful for the reintegration of armed conflict-affected children. However, little is known about the factors that can help stimulate the wellbeing of conflict-affected children in school. This study qualitatively explores the factors that contribute to the school-related subjective wellbeing of armed conflict-affected and displaced children in Nigeria. In this qualitative study, participants (adults and children) were randomly selected from six rural armed conflict-affected communities of northeast Nigeria. Group discussions were undertaken with seventy-armed conflict-affected children (38 girls and 32 boys), using the H-diagram tool to describe factors that contribute positively and negatively to their wellbeing in school. Eleven key informants (five females and six males), including school administrators, teachers, and parents, were also interviewed. Thematic analysis of the children group discussions and interviews with adult informants within the community revealed the importance of (1) warm teacher-student relationships, (2) supportive home environments, (3) adequate school facilities, (4) good teacher welfare packages and (5) a sense of safety for school related subjective wellbeing of children living in conflict-affected locations. Humanitarian assistance in the form of food and education support were appreciated by the children as it catalyzed the home and school factors that impacts on the school wellbeing of children.
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Background Performance management systems have been introduced in health and social services institutions to improve organizational performance, supporting the emergence of new management behaviors that are more rooted in collaborative management practices. This study aims to understand how different leadership styles emerge through the implementation of a performance management system and its related tools, and how these can foster distributed leadership. Methods Over two years, the implementation of an integrated performance management system supporting the integration of social services for children, youth, and families was studied at a recently merged Canadian healthcare organization. Qualitative analysis of data collected from 15 interviews, 3 focus groups, and over 350 h of non-participant observation was conducted. Results The results show that leadership evolved to adapt to the context of organizational integration and was no longer confined to a single manager. Transformational leadership was needed to encourage the emergence of a new integrated performance management system and new behaviors among middle managers and team members. Transactional leadership was legitimized through the use of a status sheet when the integration project did not deliver the expected results. Both transformational and transactional leadership paved the way to distributed leadership, which in turn promoted collaborative practices associated with activities in control rooms and dialogue stemming from the status sheets. Distributed leadership among team members made a difference in the outcome of the integration project, which became a driver of collaboration. Conclusions The integrated performance management system and the use of its tools can help renew leadership in health and social service organizations. The results lend credence to the importance of distributed leadership in promoting collaborative practices to improve services for children, youth, and families. The results also highlight how various leadership styles can contribute to the emergence of distributed leadership over time.
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Primate ecotourism is a fast-growing tourism sector that may have a negative effect on wildlife. In riparian areas, tourists can conveniently reach primates via motor boats, but no study has directly examined whether such boats cause stress in primates. Our goal was to test whether the approach of a motor boat induces stress-related and other behaviors in proboscis monkeys ( Nasalis larvatus ), an Endangered species. We studied six one-male, multifemale groups living in a remote riparian area in Sabah, Malaysia, and conducted an experiment by approaching the monkeys in a motor boat by using three conditions with different speeds and travel distances (fast-close, slow-close, and slow-far conditions; 7-8 subjects per condition). For each condition, we compared stress-related behaviors before the boat approach with after the boat started approaching. Feeding, allogrooming and aggression were similarly examined, respectively. We also observed the monkeys’ behaviors at other times to examine age-sex classes differences in vigilance, social proximity, allogrooming, aggression and play (87 subjects). In the experiment, subjects displayed stress-related behaviors for longer in the fast-close and slow-close conditions once the boat started approaching than before the boat approach. The subjects also reduced feeding in the fast-close condition after the boat started approaching. In our observational study, males were more vigilant than females—a behavior that is likely to relate to male-male competition and group protection. This study provides evidence that even a single motor boat moving slowly, with humans behaving calmly, may negatively affect primate behavior and induce stress—an impact that is likely to be larger with tourist boats. Our study also shows that using conditions comparable to the slow-far condition (speed of 3.6 km/hr; no closer than 60 m), where no impact was observed, may help with to develop guidelines for primate tourism in riparian areas. Future research that examines the impact of boats on other primates is needed.
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Background Nursing and medical students are suffering from high rates of depressive symptoms. Mental health benefits students’ learning, growth and professional development. Exploring psychological resources to prevent depression is emphasized recently, and self-compassion is shown to be inversely associated with depressive symptoms. However, the mechanism through which self-compassion contributes to decreased depressive symptoms is limited. Therefore, this study aimed to explore and examine a model detailing the potential paths between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted and convenient sampling was used. Among the 1800 nursing and medical students targeted from two universities in East and North China, 1341 completed the questionnaires, and 1127 valid questionnaires were analyzed comprising 566 and 561 from medical and nursing students, respectively. Data in May 2020 and July 2020 were collected through Patient Health Questionnaire, self-compassion scale, resilience scale, Life Orientation Test and Perceived Stress Scale. Then, path model analysis was conducted to analyze the data. Results Finally, this study included 1125 valid questionnaires after excluding two extremes of study variables. Participants consisted of 50.2% medical students and 49.8% nursing students. The model showed an acceptable fit to the data. After controlling for the demographics, self-compassion was directly and indirectly associated with decreased depressive symptoms by increasing resilience and optimism and reducing perceived stress among nursing and medical students. Resilience and optimism were directly and indirectly associated with decreased depressive symptoms by reducing perceived stress among nursing students and indirectly associated with decreased depressive symptoms among medical students. Conclusions The study provides evidence that self-compassion significantly influences the decrease in depressive symptoms by increasing resilience and optimism and reducing perceived stress. These findings suggested that programs enhancing students’ self-compassion, resilience, and optimism simultaneously can help decrease depressive symptoms and improve mental health in education and healthcare institutes. These findings may facilitate the designing of educational programs for preventing depressive symptoms and promoting mental health among nursing and medical students.
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This short article is the last in a series of six papers exploring positive psychology coaching techniques. The previous papers have explored the concept of positive coaching psychology and how it may be applied. The focus of this paper is a technique that encourages the mind to pay more attention to good things and develop a mind more observant of the positive in life. Original publication details: Passmore, J., & Oades, L. G. (2016, December). Positive psychology techniques – Three good things. The Coaching Psychologist, 12(2), 77–78. Reproduced with permission of The British Psychological Society.
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Teaching is one of the professions that creates opportunities for individuals to experience flow, a state of complete absorption in an activity. However, very few studies have examined ESL/EFL teachers’ flow states inside or outside the classroom. As such, this study aimed to explore the quality of experience of 75 EFL teachers in flow and also examine the relationships between their emotional intelligence, the Big Five personality traits and the flow state. To this end, the teachers filled out recurrent flow surveys for a week, and also completed emotional intelligence and the Big Five personality questionnaires. It was found that reading was the major flow trigger outside the classroom and teaching and delivering lessons was the most significant flow-inducing activity for the teachers inside the classroom. Furthermore, correlations and independent samples t-tests indicated that all emotional intelligence and personality traits had significant relationships with flow except agreeableness. Finally, multiple regression analysis showed that two personality traits, conscientiousness and openness to experience were the strongest predictors of the flow state. The implications for future flow-related research in the field of applied linguistics are discussed.
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Background and aims The individual difference predictors of positive work attitudes and behaviors have been widely investigated in the field of positive organizational scholarship. However, to date, integrating studies linking positive psychological resources, such as Psychological Capital and influence regulation, with positive organizational outcomes are still scarce. Thus, the main aim of the present study was to examine the relationships of Psychological Capital and influence regulation with job satisfaction and job performance both at the individual and team levels. Methods Within the cross-sectional multi-source research involving both team leaders and team members from 34 different teams, we examined the relationships of Psychological Capital and influence regulation with job satisfaction and job performance. The relationships of the study variables were based on the positive organizational behavior and the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, which suggest the positive relationships of distinct positive psychological resources with positive work outcomes. Accordingly, in addition to the widely accepted concept of Psychological Capital (PsyCap), we employed and analyzed the complimentary construct of influence regulation (i.e., the ability to intentionally share social influence with others in the workplace) both at the individual and group levels. Results The results of hierarchical linear modeling with 304 individuals from 34 teams from a diverse sample of Polish employees indicated that team members’ PsyCap was positively linked to individual-level job satisfaction and two facets of job performance, i.e. creative performance and in-role performance. In contrast, no relationship was found between influence regulation and job satisfaction or job performance at both levels of analysis. Conclusion With regard to positive interpersonal resources, the findings highlight the role of PsyCap in predicting job satisfaction and job performance and broaden the understanding of positivity in the workplace by introducing the construct of influence regulation. Also, based on the study results, managerial implications are discussed.
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Positive emotions are regarded as vital issues in English as a foreign language (EFL) instruction. This study attempted to consider the relationships between Chinese EFL teachers’ psychological well-being, loving Pedagogy, and work engagement as the constructs of positive psychology in academic contexts. It also tried to examine the contribution of psychological well-being and loving pedagogy in work engagement. To this end, 414 Chinese EFL teachers including participated in this study. The three questionnaires called Dispositions toward Loving Pedagogy Scale, Index of Psychological Well-Being at Work, and Self-report Engagement Questionnaire were distributed among learners. The findings showed significant relationships between well-being, loving pedagogy, and work engagement. Moreover, the results indicated that teachers’ psychological well-being significantly predicted their work engagement. This study provided some implications for teachers, teacher educators, and educational policy-makers to raise their awareness of adopting loving pedagogy and boosting teacher well-being for the enhancement of teacher involvement in academic contexts.
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Background For survival, it is crucial to continuously evaluate the presence or absence of risk in the environment. Previously, a safety cue for the observation of aversive pictures attenuated their aversiveness in healthy participants. Here, we investigated whether patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) would fail to engage in safety cues using brain reactivity to aversive pictures as a proxy. Methods Patients with PTSD (n=20) and control participants (n=23) were exposed to neutral and mutilation pictures. Before the presentation of pictures, a text informed that those were fictitious (“safe context”) or real-life scenes (“real context”); appropriate images were also shown to increase the credibility of the text. A voxel-wise approach identified valence-responsive regions for further testing of an interaction pattern. Results A GROUPxCONTEXTxVALENCE interaction was found in the right supramarginal gyrus spreading anteriorly to the postcentral gyrus - a region involved in the processing of peripersonal space and defensive reactions. Control participants showed, in the real context, increased BOLD response in the right supramarginal gyrus for mutilation pictures compared to neutral ones and, in the safe context, no significant difference between those pictures, indicating an attenuation of brain reactivity. Patients with PTSD presented high brain reactivity in both real and safe contexts. Limitations Patients with PTSD were under pharmacological treatment, and the time posttrauma and comorbidities were not assessed. Conclusions Differently from controls, Patients with PTSD did not show attenuation of brain reactivity, reflected by supramarginal response in the safe context. This suggests an inappropriate engagement in safety cues.
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Hope is a ubiquitous experience in daily life and acts as a force to help individuals attain desired future outcomes. In the current paper, we review existing research on hope and its benefits. Building on this work, we propose a new model of hope in romantic relationships. Our model seeks to expand the study of hope, addressing limitations of past research by bringing hope into the interpersonal domain and adding a future‐oriented perspective. More specifically, we argue that relational hope encompasses three facets, including relational agency, relational pathways, and relational aspirations, or what we call the wills, ways, and wishes people have in their relationship. We outline specific ways that these three facets may promote well‐being in romantic relationships. First, we propose that relational agency—the motivation to achieve relational goals—fuels approach‐motivated goals, which in turn promotes higher quality relationships. Additionally, we posit that relational pathways—the perception of sufficient strategies to pursue relational goals—enhance self‐regulation to support effective communication and conflict management with a romantic partner. Finally, we propose that relational aspirations—the positive emotions felt in anticipation of future relationship outcomes—foster growth beliefs which in turn promote relationship maintenance and commitment over time. While our model posits that relational hope has many potential benefits for relationships, we also discuss key contexts in which hope may undermine relationships and well‐being. Overall, our proposed model of relational hope offers a new area of insight into how hope may shape well‐being in romantic relationships.
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Failure is inevitable in the process of enterprise development. Previous studies have found that the negative emotions (such as anger) of employees after failure may have an important impact on their subsequent learning behaviour. However, no concrete conclusions have been drawn from related studies. Using 764 data samples from high-tech industries in mainland China, this study investigated the impact of employee anger on learning from failure and explored the moderating roles of resilience and project commitment in this process. The results showed that (1) anger has a negative effect on learning from failure; (2) resilience alleviates the negative effect caused by anger; and (3) project commitment alleviates the negative effect caused by anger. Our study has enriched the theoretical research in relevant fields and provided suggestions for Chinese companies on how to motivate employees to overcome the negative effects of failure and learn from failure.
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Background: The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed multiple challenges to healthcare systems. Evidence suggests that mental well-being is badly affected due to compliance with preventative measures in containing the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to explore the role of positive mental health (subjective sense of wellbeing) to cope with fears related to COVID-19 and general anxiety disorder in the Pashtun community in Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 501 respondents from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa participating in an online-based study. We performed correlational analysis, hierarchical linear regression and structural equational modeling (SEM) to analyze the role of mental health in reducing fears and general anxiety disorder. Results: The results of the SEM show that positive mental health has direct effects in reducing the fear related to COVID-19 (β = − 0.244, p < 0.001) and general anxiety (β = − 0.210, p < 0.001). Fears of COVID-19 has a direct effect on increasing general anxiety (β = 0.480). In addition, positive mental health also has an indirect effect (β = − 0.117, p < 0.001) on general anxiety (R 2 = 0.32, p < 0.001) through reducing fear of coronavirus. Conclusion: Based on these findings, there is a need to develop community health policies emphasizing on promotive and preventive mental health strategies for people practicing social/physical distancing.
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Teachers have been viewed for many years as one of the most effective factors with an important role in academic and learning settings. Numerous studies have been carried out on teachers and their performances in the classroom. Feelings are one of the pillars of all humans which can have a crucial function in offering academia that can impact all domains of learning. Creativity is one of the subcategories of feelings that is worthy to people and the community. Nonetheless, as a significant mental attribute, it has not been attended to enough by experts in language teaching until now. Some factors that seem concerning creativity are grit and resilience, the grit has a basic function in the educational and teaching cycle because gritty educators are more inspired to handle difficulties in hard situations. Moreover, to beware of these difficulties as a response to unprecedented situations, a similar intellectual concept rises in positive psychology known as resilience, which explains the persistence and highlights individuals’ skills. Therefore, the present study delineates the relationship of these notions with language teachers’ creativity. To this end, through convenient sampling 264 male and female Chinese EFL teachers took part in the present study, and their creativity, grit, and resilience were scrutinized by filling out the related questionnaires. The results through correlation coefficients indicated that creativity was negatively but significantly related to grit, but it was positively and significantly related to resilience. The results of the multiple regression showed that both grit and resilience could significantly predict creativity although grit is a better predictor of creativity. Some educational implications of the research about the outcomes of the research under academic circumstances are suggested.
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Purpose The objectives of the study are to assess the application of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in three hotel companies of similar standing by interviewing the unit general managers and to analyse the well-being of the three general managers and explore if their CSR initiatives align with the dimensions of quality of life and well-being. The article concludes with a review of the likely impact of employee well-being on the concept of the circular economy and overall sustainability. Design/methodology/approach Explores the potential relationship between the well-being of hotel general managers and its impact on the CSR initiatives of their hotels, three luxury hotels located in Dubai, Portugal and India provide case study examples. The hotels are similar in size and scale of operations and are positioned as leisure hotels. All three hotels have a workforce of 300–400 employees on permanent contracts with an additional 150–200 on temporary contracts. This is indicative of the significant responsibilities of general managers in fostering well-being in the workplace. Findings Findings suggest that a hotel general manager’s own well-being does not necessarily translate into high levels of CSR activity at the unit level. However, case study analysis of the three hotels seems to indicate a correlation between enhanced sustainable initiatives and competitive advantage that is advantageous for the businesses. Originality/value Using a combination of the positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, achievement (PERMA) well-being profiler and three in-depth interviews, this study examines the relationship between well-being, as measured by PERMA, CSR practices, and awareness of CSR implementation. In addition, the potential role of the circular economy is considered in fostering hospitality for employee well-being.
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This study examines the role of companionship in shaping memorable tourism experiences, traveller well‐being and behavioural intentions by drawing upon a conceptual framework of well‐being. Based on data collected from 430 respondents in Australia who had recent travel experience, the results from structural equation modelling (SEM) confirmed that companionship impacted on and had a significant influence on revisitation intentions and recommendations, as well as the enhancement of traveller well‐being. Differences in attitudes were evident between those accompanied by family and friends and those travelling solo. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are highlighted for researchers and practitioners.
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Research demonstrates that high Employee Engagement (EE) sustains job satisfaction and performance among staff. This literature review analyses the evolution of EE, highlighting the theoretical frameworks used to explain the concept, the measurement scales adopted by researchers and the principal antecedents and outcomes relating to EE that have been progressively considered along the way. Three main findings emerge from the analysis. First, we highlight the social and relational nature of EE, providing a more sociological interpretation of this phenomenon. Second, we underscore the fact that EE is dynamic, and when combined with modern digital technologies, it can be studied through innovative approaches. Third, we discuss how EE could be a fundamental ingredient in shifting towards a human centred approach through which balancing individuals’ wellbeing and performance. We discuss the implications of these findings, highlighting the necessity to rethink EE in relation to the new normal ushered in by Covid‐19, and the increasing role of hybrid working.
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External input is any kind of physical stimulation created by an individual's surroundings that can be detected by the senses. The present research established a novel conceptualization of this construct by investigating it in relation to the needs for material, social and sensation seeking input, and by testing whether these needs predict psychological functioning during long- and short-term input deprivation. It was established that the three needs constitute different dimensions of an overarching construct (i.e. need for external input). The research also suggested that the needs for social and sensation seeking input are negatively linked to people's experiences of long-term input deprivation (i.e. COVID-19 restrictions), and that the need for material input may negatively predict the experiences of short-term input deprivation (i.e. sitting in a chair without doing anything else but thinking). Overall, this research indicates that the needs for social, material and sensation seeking input may have fundamental implications for experiences and actions in a range of different contexts.
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The COVID‐19 pandemic has affected nearly every aspect of our lives and has caused a considerable rise in psychological complaints such as anxieties and depression. The majority of studies so far has focused on outcomes of the COVID‐19 pandemic. To augment current knowledge, we focus on the antecedents of COVID‐19 rumination. Specially, we examine how negative and positive work events prior to the outbreak influence individuals' coping capacity with regard to COVID‐19 (i.e., the extent to which individuals have recurrent negative thoughts about COVID‐19). Drawing on Conservation of Resources Theory (COR), we maintain that positive and negative work events prior to the pandemic can affect one's self‐efficacy experiences and in turn can impact recurrent negative thoughts about COVID‐19. Alongside exploring the proposed theoretical mediation model, we test one of the key assumptions of the COR theory: the notion of primacy of negative over positive affect that results from negative (vs. positive) work events. Three‐waved data was collected among Dutch employees (T1 = 302; T2 = 199; T3 = 171); two prior to the pandemic and one at the onset of the outbreak. Results showed that positive work events increased self‐efficacy, which in turn reduced COVID‐19 rumination. Contrary to the expectation of primacy of the effects of negative work events, we found no significant impact of negative work events on individuals' COVID‐19 rumination.
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This is the first in a series of papers to look at Positive Psychology Coaching (PPC) as an approach suitable for use with coaching clients. This paper presents a brief overview of PPC for readers who are less familiar with the approach and highlights other sources for a fuller account of PPC. The paper sets the scene for a subsequent series of papers. Each of these subsequent techniques papers presents a short description of a technique grounded in PPC and which are suitable for use with coachees.
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The role of emotion in coaching has attracted significant recent debate and this article summarises three potential perspectives that coaches may be using in respect of emotion. It then goes on to highlight a number of potential issues that need further exploration. Firstly, defining emotion remains a complex area of debate and without a shared understanding with clients of what is meant by ‘emotion’, coaches may find it hard to work with effectively. Secondly, dealing with emotion in the coaching interaction often relies on the recounting and recalling of a previous event and is therefore subject to memory. The coach is working with the account of the event from memory, rather than the event itself. This has implications for the role of the coach in dealing with the subsequent client meaning making of emotional events. Lastly, the limitations of language may influence the coaching interaction when discussing emotions, leading to unhelpful consequences. Some suggestions are made to help inform coaching practice when working with emotion.
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We experimentally investigate how and when the public responds to government actions during times of crisis. Public reactions are shown to follow different processes, depending on whether government performs in exemplary or unsatisfactory ways to the COVID‐19 pandemic. The ‘how’ question is addressed by proposing that negative moral emotions mediate public reactions to bad government actions, and positive moral emotions mediate reactions to good government actions. Tests of mediation are conducted while taking into account attitudes and trust in the government as rival hypotheses. The ‘when’ question is studied by examining self‐regulatory moderators governing the experience of moral emotions and their effects. These include conspiracy beliefs, political ideology, attachment coping styles and collective values. A total of 357 citizens of a representative sample of adult Norwegians were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and a control group, where complaining, putting pressure on the government and compliance to Covid‐19 policies were dependent variables. The findings show that negative moral emotions mediate the effects of government doing badly on complaining and pressuring the government, with conspiracy beliefs moderating the experience of negative moral emotions and attachment coping moderating the effects of negative moral emotions. The results also show that positive moral emotions mediate the effects of government doing well on compliance with COVID‐19 regulations, with political ideology moderating the experience of positive moral emotions and collective values moderating the effects of positive moral emotions.
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Objectives: The protective role of self-compassion in emerging adult depression has garnered empirical support. It makes more sense to understand the psychological processes underlying this relationship. Based on the stress appraisal patterns, the present study examined the mediating roles of emotion regulation (ER) and resilience in the link between self-compassion and depression among college students with left-behind experience (LBE). Methods: A total of 391 LBE college students (Mage = 18.43 years; SD = 0.79 years) in Chongqing reported their demographic information and self-compassion (the Self-Compassion Scale) level at baseline (T1) and reported their levels of ER (the Emotion Regulation Scale), resilience (the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), and depression (the Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale) 3 months later (T2). Results: The results revealed that (a) both ER (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and resilience separately mediated the association between self-compassion and depression; (b) cognitive reappraisal and resilience sequentially mediated this association. Conclusions: These findings reveal the underlying mechanisms of the associations between self-compassion and depression among LBE college students and have implications for interventions aimed at mitigating their depression.
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This study examined neurocognitive mechanisms of prosocial and antisocial congruency in English sentences by conducting an electroencephalography experiment. Participants performed a judgment task whether prosocial and unsocial/antisocial nominal words were congruent or incongruent with the upcoming prosocial and antisocial verbal category of words in sentences (e.g., he established a friendship with others because he wanted to terrorize people). We found that the antisocial sentences were processed in the early P1, whereas prosocial sentences were processed in late P3. The negative deflection of N400 was higher for incongruent than congruent trials in the temporal regions of the brain. Further, the early suppression of antisocial sentences increased the brain oscillation of delta, theta, and beta-band activities in the temporal and frontal regions of the brain. The power spectrum density (PSD) of theta-band frequency was higher for incongruent than congruent trials in the parietal regions of the brain. These results suggest that the antisocial content of language is recognized very rapidly, and the time-course of processing underlies the congruent and incongruent sentences between prosocial and unsocial words in sentences. The current investigation contributes to the recognition of neural signatures of prosocial language that plays a significant role in developing the survival strategies, interpersonal communications, and wellbeing of humans.
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The stress-reductive effect of mindfulness practice is well-established, yet less is known about the cognitive mechanisms underlying this salutary outcome. We conducted a prospective observational study of 339 participants (mean age 45.7 ± 13.4) undergoing an 8-week mindfulness-based stress and pain management course and found support for our hypotheses that a) pre-post intervention increases in dispositional mindfulness are reciprocally linked with increases in positive reappraisal coping and b) the stress-reductive effects of increases in dispositional mindfulness are mediated by increases in positive reappraisal independent of changes in catastrophizing. Positive reappraisal and mindfulness appear to serially and mutually enhance one another, creating the dynamics of an upward spiral. Through mindfulness practice, individuals may engender a broadened state of awareness that facilitates empowering interpretations of stressful life events, leading to substantially reduced distress. Study findings have implications for cognitive therapy that couples mindfulness practices with restructuring techniques oriented toward benefit finding and positive reappraisal. KeywordsMindfulness–Reappraisal–Stress–Catastrophizing–Positive emotion–Upward spiral