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Molecular Cardioprotective Effects of Curcumin

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Abstract

djusts multiple cell signaling pathways as well. Many types of research and clinical trials have proven the pharmacokinetics and effects of curcumin against several chronic diseases in human. Turmeric is used because of its multifunctional properties. One of its roles is played in medicinal sciences as it is used to treat the bacterial infection, inflammation, any digestive disorders and burns and it has also been used in many traditional spices in several countries especially in Asia. In our study, we mainly focused on the effects of curcumin on the cardiovascular system and atherosclerosis as diet has many roles in modulating the risk of development of several diseases.
Mini Review
Volume 12 Issue 4 - March 2018
DOI: 10.19080/CTBEB.2018.12.555845
Curr Trends Biomedical Eng & Biosci
Copyright © All rights are reserved by Atif Amin Baig
Molecular Cardioprotective Effects of Curcumin
Maira Siddiqui1, Yumna Jawaid1, Al-Hatamleh MAI2, Tengku MA3, Alshajrawi OM2, Ilyas MN2, Rao SK3, Majid L4,
Zubaidi AB2, Nordin Bin Simbak2 and Atif AB2*
1Jinnah University for Women, Pakistan
2Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia
3Institute for Community (Health) Development, Universiti Sultan ZainalAbidin, Malaysia
4Department of Chemical Pathology, Pakistan
Submission: February 12, 2018; Published: March 14, 2018
*Corresponding author: Atif Amin Baig, 2Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia, Tel:
Email:
Introduction
Curcumin is recognized as a strong anti-microbial agent
which vigorously prevent from many chronic diseases like
cancer, cardiovascular, diabetes, obesity and neurological and
autoimmune diseases [1]. Turmeric (Curcuma Longta) is a well-
known herb which is cultivated in the southern and southwestern
tropical area region. Turmeric is categorized in the ginger family.
It is very popular in Iran, China, India, Malaysia, Polynesia and
Thailand. It is frequently used in curry and soups etc due to its
unique sensory properties [2]. Such comestible plants are of
   
are non-nutritive chemical present in plants which take their
active role to restrain macro chemical and anatomical process in
the body of living organisms [3].
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a major compound
present in Turmeric (Curcumin longa) which is an Indian spice.
Curcumin is known for its pharmacological activity [4]. The
active compound present in curcumin is curcuminoid which is
predominant phenol and provides identical bright yellow color
to turmeric. The total concentration of curcuminoid present
in curcumin is about 75% of total curcuminoids present in
turmeric. C21H20O6 is the chemical formula of curcumin it has
branched structure. Curcumin has tripartite functions, not only
it is used as spice it is also used for its pigments and its medical
purposes since a long period [5]. In research, it is mentioned that
   
  
functions at a time and it even doesn’t have any side effect. It can

Curcumin is a well-known polyphenol which has an anti-
  
antioxidant, wound healing, and anti-microbial characteristics
[8]. According to study which was carried since past quarter
century, the pharmacokinetics, effectiveness and protective
nature of curcumin’s capability of curing diseases was
determined [9].
Multifaceted Barrier against Heart Diseases
Curcumin is considered as a vital antioxidant that takes
part in improving heart health. It maintains endothelial
functions of the body with are directly related to cardiovascular
diseases [10]. The endothelium produces some vasodilator and
vasoconstrictor functions which help in maintaining the activity
     
function is directly linked to the long lasting effects of cardio
vascular diseases. Some compounds in food can disturb the
functioning of these vasco promoters such as Lipids usually low-
density lipoprotein and cholesterol may interfere the functioning
of vascopromoter by minimizing the bioavailability of nitric acid

as kappa [11].
Curr Trends Biomedical Eng & Biosci 12(4): CTBEB.MS.ID.555845 (2018) 001
Abstract
Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound of turmeric. It is considered best to use in our daily lives because of its therapeutic property and
it adjusts multiple cell signaling pathways as well. Many types of research and clinical trials have proven the pharmacokinetics and effects of
curcumin against several chronic diseases in human. Turmeric is used because of its multifunctional properties. One of its roles is played in

traditional spices in several countries especially in Asia. In our study, we mainly focused on the effects of curcumin on the cardiovascular system
and atherosclerosis as diet has many roles in modulating the risk of development of several diseases.
Current Trends in Biomedical Engineering & Biosciences
How to cite this article: Atif AB, Maira S, Yumna J, Al-Hatamleh MAI, Tengku MA et.al. Molecular Cardioprotective Effects of Curcumin. Curr Trends
Biomedical Eng & Biosci. 2018; 12(4): 555845. DOI: 10.19080/CTBEB.2018.12.555845.
002
Some recent studies show that curcumin may reduce the
risk of complicated heart attack and strokes by preventing the
development of atherosclerosis, or clogged arteries not only
         
against many other risk factors, including reducing chronic
       

Key to a good heart health
Curcumin is an excellent compound that is suitable for
the patients who have gone through the heart attack or heart
surgeries because its impacts on the genes and help in quick
recovery they take part in cardiac repair and proper cardiac
functioning [14].
Reduction in plaque buildup
Turmeric is known for curing a wide range of heart-related
disorders that occur due to plaque buildup and clot formation
in the arteries of the heart because turmeric can avert clot
formation and prevent plaque buildup. Usually, heart diseases
occurred due to blood clots in the arteries while turmeric takes
part to prevent this blockage and ultimately it lowers the risk of
heart attacks [7,14].
Reduction in bad cholesterol
Curcumin can also help in reducing the bad cholesterol as it
prevents the clotting of blood platelets as it is the main culprit of
heart diseases. It sends signals to the livers which enhance the
production of messenger RNA [7,12]. The main goal of turmeric
is to increase HDL level and decrease LDL level. The increased
LDL level results in blockage of the arteries. Curcumin helps the
liver to remove bad cholesterol so that the risk of heart attack
can be minimized [7,12].
Preventing atrial/ventricular arrhythmias
The provocative effects of curcumin have the possibility
of preventing the atrial arrhythmias and it also plays a role to
correct the pathway of Ca (2+) homeostasis which can lead in
the prevention of some ventricular arrhythmias that prevent
chances of heart attack and stroke.
Studies on Curcumin Prole
         
curcumin shows an anti-cancer effect in living organisms mainly
in animals and humans. It has been reported that curcumin
suppresses the carcinogenic activity of abnormal cells that cause
cancer in colon, breast, oesophagus, duodenums, oral cavity and
liver as well as prostate.
Curcumin used in Asia for its many therapeutic effects on
human health. In one study, protective effects of curcumin on
cardio health were demonstrated. And it was suggested that it
has a wide range of molecular targets including various healing
       
carcinogenic [15].
Similarly, another study showed that 10mg of curcumin
  
levels and increased the serum HDL levels in patients with
atherosclerosis.
Curcumin & Diabetic Cardiovascular Complications
Diabetic cardiovascular or diabetic heart disease refers to a
heart disease in a person who has diabetes. And here we have
mentioned some complications of diabetic cardiovascular. In one
study it was found that increased oxidative stress is linked to
the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. In another
study, it was suggested that nitric oxide (NO) pathway plays role
in generating free radicals.
Curcumin because of its remarkable anti-oxidant property
has shown its effects on NO pathway oxidation in order to
control the generation of free radicals. It seizes the reaction by

development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes in a
study.
Curcumin & atherosclerosis
The medicinal property of curcumin in reducing the serum
cholesterol level may protect against the pathological changes
occurring with atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis arises from
various bodily processes that are characterized by either
      
       
Smooth Muscle Cells) are the important cellular components
of vascular media, and from a study, it came to know that its
migration and proliferation lead to the formation of neointima
(a thickened layer formed by migration of vascular cells) renders
vessels particularly sensitive to atherosclerosis [17,18]. That’s

development of atherosclerosis. Curcumin has such potential to
be effective in this case [19].
Curcumin & the cardiovascular system
Curcumin decreases the severity of pathological changes
and thus protects from damage caused by myocardial infarction.
Curcumin improves Ca2+ -transport and its slippage from the
cardiac muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, thereby raising the
possibility of pharmacological interventions to correct the
defective Ca2+ homeostasis in the cardiac muscle.
Curcumin & its consequence on lipid metabolism
Curcumin increases the alpha-tocopherol level and lowers
the low-density lipoproteins and in vivo interaction between
curcumin and tocopherol augments the bioavailability of vitamin
E and reduces cholesterol levels. Curcumin binds with egg and
soy-phosphatidylcholine, which in turn make a contractual with
divalent metal ions to offer antioxidant activity.
Conclusion
The pharmacological properties and application of curcumin
are now making progress very rapidly. According to one clinical
Current Trends in Biomedical Engineering & Biosciences
How to cite this article: Atif AB, Maira S, Yumna J, Al-Hatamleh MAI, Tengku MA et.al. Molecular Cardioprotective Effects of Curcumin. Curr Trends
Biomedical Eng & Biosci. 2018; 12(4): 555845. DOI: 10.19080/CTBEB.2018.12.555845.
003
study curcumin show its remarkable effects in almost all of
the major organ systems of the human body. It also acts as an
antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and giving a healthy life.
By the addition of curcumin to our daily life, we can get rid of
several health disorders mainly heart which plays a vital role to
maintain the body functions by supplying blood.
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Turmeric (Curcuma Longa) is a type of herb belonging to ginger family, which is widely grown in southern and south western tropical Asia region. Turmeric, which has an importance place in the cuisines of Iran, Malesia, India, China, Polynesia and Thailand, is often used as spice and has an effect on the nature, color and taste of foods. Turmeric is also known to have been used for centuries in India and China for the medical treatments of such illnesses as dermatologic diseases, infection, stress and depression. Turmeric's effects on health generally are centered upon an orange-yellow colored, lipophilic polyphenol substance called 'curcumin', which is acquired from the rhizomes of the herb. Curcumin is known recently to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer effects and, thanks to these effects, to have an important role in prevention and treatment of various illnesses ranging notably from cancer to autoimmune, neurological, cardiovascular diseases and diabetic. Furthermore, it is aimed to increase the biological activity and physiological effects of the curcumin on the body by synthesizing curcumin analogues. This paper reviews the history, chemical and physical features, analogues, metabolites, mechanisms of its physiological activities and effects on health of curcumin.
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Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol responsible for the yellow color of the curry spice turmeric. It has been used in a variety of diseases in traditional medicine. Modern scientific research has demonstrated its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-thrombotic, and cardiovascular protective effects. In this review, we focused mainly on the effects of curcumin on the cardiovascular system. The antioxidant effects of curcumin have been shown to attenuate adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity and may prevent diabetic cardiovascular complications. The anti-thrombotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin and the effect of curcumin in decreasing the serum cholesterol level may protect against the pathological changes occurring with atherosclerosis. The p300-HAT inhibitory effects of curcumin have been demonstrated to ameliorate the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in animal models. The inflammatory effects of curcumin may have the possibility of preventing atrial arrhythmias and the possible effect of curcumin for correcting the Ca(2+) homeostasis may play a role in the prevention of some ventricular arrhythmias. The preclinical studies from animal to clinical data in human are discussed.
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Despite the many studies of murine atherosclerosis, we do not yet know the relevance of the natural history of this model to the final events precipitated by plaque disruption of human atherosclerotic lesions. The literature has become particularly confused because of the common use of terms such as "instability", "vulnerable", "rupture", or even "thrombosis" for features of plaques in murine model systems not yet shown to rupture spontaneously and in an animal surprisingly resistant to formation of thrombi at sites of atherosclerosis. We suggest that use of conclusory terms like "vulnerable" and "stable" should be discouraged. Similarly, terms such as "buried fibrous caps" that imply preceding events that are unproven tend to create confusion. We will argue that such terminology may mislead readers by implying knowledge that does not yet exist. We suggest, instead, a focus on specific processes that various forms of data have implicated in plaque progression. For example, formation of the fibrous cap, protease activation, and cell death in the necrotic core can be well described and have all been modeled in well-defined experiments. The relevance of such well-defined, objective, descriptive observations in the mouse can be tested for relevance against data from human pathology.
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Although turmeric (Curcuma longa; an Indian spice) has been described in Ayurveda, as a treatment for inflammatory diseases and is referred by different names in different cultures, the active principle called curcumin or diferuloylmethane, a yellow pigment present in turmeric (curry powder) has been shown to exhibit numerous activities. Extensive research over the last half century has revealed several important functions of curcumin. It binds to a variety of proteins and inhibits the activity of various kinases. By modulating the activation of various transcription factors, curcumin regulates the expression of inflammatory enzymes, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and cell survival proteins. Curcumin also downregulates cyclin D1, cyclin E and MDM2; and upregulates p21, p27, and p53. Various preclinical cell culture and animal studies suggest that curcumin has potential as an antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antiangiogenic agent; as a mediator of chemoresistance and radioresistance; as a chemopreventive agent; and as a therapeutic agent in wound healing, diabetes, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and arthritis. Pilot phase I clinical trials have shown curcumin to be safe even when consumed at a daily dose of 12g for 3 months. Other clinical trials suggest a potential therapeutic role for curcumin in diseases such as familial adenomatous polyposis, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, hypercholesteremia, atherosclerosis, pancreatitis, psoriasis, chronic anterior uveitis and arthritis. Thus, curcumin, a spice once relegated to the kitchen shelf, has moved into the clinic and may prove to be "Curecumin".
Therapeutic potential of curcumin, in medicinal chemistry
  • S Padhye
  • D Chavan
  • S Pandey
  • J Deshpande
  • K V Swamy
Padhye S, Chavan D, Pandey S, Deshpande J, Swamy KV (2013) Therapeutic potential of curcumin, in medicinal chemistry. Acta Chimica Slovaca 6(1): 89-99.