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Time Management - A Case Study

Time Management – A Case Study
Dr. Radhika Kapur
Time management is considered to be a skill that should be mastered by all the
individuals at all levels and in all walks of life. Some people keep extremely busy schedules that
arise out of their educational requirements, office work, job duties or household chores. In order
to avoid feeling stressed or pressurized due to work, it is required to effectively implement time
management. In this case study manuscript, the researcher has highlighted the significance of
time management, time management methods, how to effectively implement time management,
management of intrusions, management of procrastination and a case study of valuable time
management. Time management is also considered to be the management of ones life in an
appropriate manner. Good time management means deciding what an individual wants to achieve
in life and how he should establish ways to attain his desires and objectives. Appropriate time
management involves less stress and pressure, increased recreation, more contentment and
greater completion and success.
Keywords: Time Management, Methods, Effective, Intrusions, Procrastination, Tasks
An individual is involved in multiple tasks in his daily life such as activities of daily
living, performing ones work duties, recreational activities such as watching television, listening
to music, going out with friends and so forth. When an individual is involved into multitasking,
especially working individuals, for example, a person who is at the position of a director in a
reputed organization has multiple tasks to carry out, or a student who studies in the tenth grade,
he has to take out time for all the subjects, as well as extracurricular activities, hence for all the
individuals it is essential to implement effective time management. There have been certain
characteristics of time; it is measured in units, every individual gets the same amount each day,
the time is neither less nor more for any individual, timings are relevant for every individual in
order to efficiently carry out his work duties and responsibilities. There have been myriad of
activities and tasks that are implemented in accordance with the time such as meetings in the
office, classroom periods in school, lunch breaks, tea breaks, working hours and so forth. Hence,
it is necessary to manage time in all kinds of tasks, functions and duties for all the individuals no
matter what kinds of work duties they are involved into.
Significance of Time Management
Time management is a concept that deals with the effective management of time. An
individual should organize all his tasks and duties in accordance with the timings; when an
individual, no matter what age group he is, no matter what job he is engaged into implement all
his functions in accordance with the time that makes him more disciplined, well organized and
efficient. Time management provides every individual an opportunity to decide how to make use
of this important source; it allows people to make the most of the least and it enhances ones
knowledge about how to spend the time in a constructive manner. Individuals become aware of
how to systematize and manage their lifestyles and not feel pressurized or over burdened due to
any work (Time Management, n.d.). Time management is a skill and individuals should learn
effective time management irrespective of their age, work, jobs, caste, class, creed or religion. It
is done in a successful manner by giving priorities; things that are more important should be put
into practice first and other things that are lesser important can be procrastinated. Practicing time
management always prevents an individual from keeping behind in his work and studies.
Time Management Methods
There have been various time management methods that have been taken under
consideration: (Time Management, n.d.).
1. PlanAn individual should plan his goals, objectives and functions that he has to put
into service in a particular time limit. There are certain things that are more important
then the others for example, if an individual has to work on a project he has to focus upon
that and going out with friends for a movie can be procrastinated, hence planning of tasks
and objectives is important. One should be prepared to encounter impediments that arise
and deal with them in a peaceful manner.
2. Organize – Every individual wants to achieve his goals and objectives, for this purpose,
he has to organize all the activities and work duties such as making use of technology,
preparing ones mindset and organizing ones working environment.
3. Staff – Effective communication and seeking support, help or assistance from the
superiors, subordinates or colleagues also certainly helps in implementation of functions
and responsibilities. Team work, working together in groups, seeking opinions,
suggestions, recommendations from others is highly productive.
4. Direct – One should always be positive towards one self, such as rewarding one self by
getting indulged in some kind of pleasurable activities; one should always work hard and
be motivated towards one self.
5. Evaluate – An individual should evaluate himself; his performance, attitude and behavior;
in this way, he comes to know his weaknesses and can adopt measures to improve them.
Identification of flaws and inconsistencies is a must and that comes through the process
of evaluation.
How to Effectively Implement Time Management?
Effective implementation of time management involves courses of actions: (UK Time
Management, 2008).
1. Evaluate Yourself – When an individual evaluates himself, he can identify all the
problems, barriers and inconsistencies that are arising in the course of his
performance. He learns to figure out the relevant measures and techniques that needs
to be effectively implemented in order to enhance his performance and abilities.
2. Assess Your Behavior – It is vital to keep ones behavior, conduct and demeanor
positive. One should possess effective communication skills, be polite in speaking
and have a good pleasing nature and attitude. These positive traits are going to prove
to be extremely helpful in making a person successful.
3. Setting up Short and Long term Goals – There are certain goals and objectives that a
person has to achieve; some are short term while others are long term which may
even take two years or more. Goals should be SMART, specific, measurable,
achievable, realistic and time bound. Setting of goals is fundamental for effective
time management and life management.
4. One needs to Visualize Goals, Objectives, Tasks and Functions – It is essential to
think about ones goals and objectives as well as tasks and functions; an individual
should be aware of where he is and where he wants to go. One should try to get
involved into relaxation techniques, meditation and yoga so that one can effectively
think about these and even formulate effective modes and procedures to put them into
5. Be Efficient and Work Hard – One should be efficient, productive, conscientious and
meticulous in the performance of his functions and duties. Some people are not
perfectionists but they should aim at completion and render their best performance in
all the activities.
6. Support and Assistance – Establishing effective communications, avoidance of
disputes and conflicts, seeking help and support from other individuals around is
crucial for any person to understand time management. For example, if a person is
handling a big job, working on a major project then there can be some things that he
cannot accomplish by himself and needs help from others; therefore, effective time
management in the case of any job involves support and assistance.
7. Setting Up Schedules– For students or office employees or working professionals, it
is essential to set up a schedule or a chart with important classes, or test dates, or
dates of submission of assignments, or meetings or making presentations and so forth
listed or marked on them. A schedule plan will enable a person to set priorities and
work hard towards the most important area or the area that is first in accordance with
the schedule (Making More of Your Time, n.d.).
Management of Intrusions
Interruptions, disturbances, barriers and obstacles are common in conducting all
kinds of tasks and activities. They normally take a major form or a minor form; for example, if
an individual is working on his computer or on an important assignment, the door bell rings and
a friend comes, he has to take out time for his friend and postpone his assignment for the time
being, this is a case of a minor disturbance. On the other hand, going to school in the morning
and a vehicular accident takes place and lands a person in the hospital is an example of a major
impediment that has occurred during the course of his studies. An individual needs to effectively
manage interruptions that occur; he needs to discipline himself and others around him eliminate
the causes of those interruptions.
There have been ways of managing interruptions, before implementing any task, one
should find out if it is extremely necessary such as calling a meeting, or whether one can
communicate via email or telephone. One should plan working on any projects or assignments or
tasks in accordance with the time, that way one is able to take out time for other things as well.
Friends, colleagues and other relatives should be asked to give you a call before coming, if they
call up, that makes you aware that they will be visiting you hence you can plan your tasks
accordingly. One should keep one self stress free, calm and focused on ones job performances,
because in this manner one will be able to do his best and effectively manage intrusions and
disturbances (Successful Time Management, 2010).
Management of Procrastination
The term procrastination means delaying, postponing or putting off work. Sometimes
individuals do have a valid reason for avoiding a task and at times they do not have a valid
reason and just avoid doing work out of leisure or pleasurable activities. When a person is
focusing upon something other than what he should be focusing on in accordance with his own
priorities or the priorities of the organization, he is procrastinating. When an individual puts off a
task that is not important in favor of a task that is more important, that is not called
procrastination, in fact that is good quality time management and prioritization (Successful Time
Management, 2010).
There have been reasons for procrastinating and in accordance with those reasons
individuals find strategies to manage procrastination. Firstly, the individuals may find their job
unpleasant; in this case, they should consider the pay and the rewards that they will achieve after
accomplishment of this unpleasant job. Secondly, when an individual is disorganized, in this
case, he should learn to properly organize his files and other documents, check his email and
respond and plan all the work duties that he has to implement in a timely manner. Thirdly, when
any assignment or project is overwhelming, in this case he should try to carry out the tasks in
pieces, whether it may take a little longer, doing a small part of it each day will help in
accomplishing it in a fulfilled manner. Fourthly, when a person is a perfectionist he develops that
fear that what would be the outcome if anything goes wrong, when one is unsure about anything,
he should always seek support and assistance from bosses, colleagues, superiors or subordinates;
a second opinion always helps rather than just carrying out the task solely. Finally, when an
individual is facing difficulties in decision making, then it is vital to consult experienced and
proficient people around, one should not become an introvert and share ones problems and
difficulties in order to find their remedies and solutions (Successful Time Management, 2010).
Case Study: Valuable Time Management
Valuable time management is life management; when an individual learns to manage his
time effectively, he certainly learns to manage his life effectively. This is the case of a student,
named Aditi, she is a final year student in Delhi University, pursuing Bachelor of Commerce,
honors course; in college she is taking five classes which are extremely demanding, therefore,
she even has to take private tuitions at the coaching center, in addition to her college studies she
is undergoing training for an MBA entrance exam as she plans to pursue an MBA degree after
she graduates and she is pursuing a program in electronic business technologies from National
Institute of Information Technology (NIIT), she goes for these classes thrice a week. In the
mornings she has her college and in the evenings she has her MBA entrance coaching and NIIT
classes, on weekends she goes for her college tuitions. Besides education, she gets her physical
exercises in the mornings. This information shows how hard she works and stays extremely busy.
Extensive work can make a person feel stressed out, pressurized and depressed; therefore,
a person needs to develop effective time management skills. Aditi has organized her proper time
schedule during the day that she regularly follows. In the morning she wakes up around 6: 00 am
and gets her physical exercises, at 8:00 am she reaches college and attends her classes, socializes
with friends and returns home around 1 or 2 pm, after taking lunch and a rest break for an hour
she goes to study. At 6:00 pm twice a week she goes for MBA entrance coaching and thrice a
week she goes to NIIT, these classes are for two hours, hence she reaches home around 8:30 pm,
have dinner, watches a little bit of television, then she studies for a while and goes to bed around
11:30 pm.
Watching television and socializing with friends in college can be given least priorities,
important tasks are attending classes, completion of homework assignments or any projects and
keeping a schedule of tests, exams or submission of assignments. This college student has
developed effective time management skills and is able to cope up with all kinds of demands and
educational requirements. On the other hand, if an individual does not manage ones time
effectively he will certainly experience difficulties in implementation of tasks. Spending hours
with friends, going for a movie is fine once in a while but when one has to study and attend
classes that should be given a major priority. Time management has been extremely valuable to
this final year college student.
Every individual engages himself into some or the other kinds of work or performance of
functions and duties. The work can be housework, job duties, studies, preparing meals, artwork,
sports, or any other kind of extracurricular activities. Besides work duties and functions, there
are also other routine works such as activities of daily living that comprise of eating, bathing,
dressing and transferring, physical exercises or even resting or sleeping. People implement all
these tasks and functions in accordance with the time such as they have to reach school or office
on a particular time, they have to eat their lunch on a particular time, they have regular sleeping
hours such as waking up on a particular time and going to bed on a specific time and so forth.
Effective implementation of all these tasks and functions require every person to develop their
time management skills and acquire knowledge about how to make the most of the time in an
appropriate manner.
There have been certain methods that are required for effective time management such as
planning, organizing, staffing, directing and evaluating. There are been ways about how to
effectively implement time management, these are evaluating yourself, assessing your behavior,
setting up goals that can be short term as well as long term, one should visualize the goals,
objectives, tasks and functions, one has to be efficient and work hard, believe in seeking support
and assistance from others in handling major tasks and setting up schedules. In the process of
time management, disturbances and intrusions do take place but the individuals should not get
upset or displease their mindset, one should try to search for solutions for any kinds of problems
that might arise during the course of their performance and work. Another relevant area is
management of procrastination, it is important to set priorities and tasks that are more important,
these should be carried out before the others that are less important. Time management is a
valuable area, this has been highlighted with the help of a case study of a college student who is
undergoing four classes; college graduate course, MBA entrance coaching, NIIT course and
college tuitions, in addition she does physical exercises, watches television and socializes with
friends; she has effectively grasped the skill of time management and implements all her
functions and duties effectively.
Making More of Your Time. (n.d.). Time Management and Study Skills for College
Success. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from
Successful Time Management. (2010). Retrieved April 22, 2015 from
The Successful Person’s Guide to Time Management. (2008). University of Kentucky –
College of Agriculture. Retrieved April 21, 2015 from
Time Management. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2015 from
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.