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Study of building typology of school constructed during the Dutch Colonial Period in Indonesia. Case study of Hoogere Burgerschool (HBS) in Bandung

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Abstract

Bandung is one of the most important colonial cities in Indonesia. In the early 20th century the capital city of Dutch East-Indies Government planned to move in Bandung. Critical infrastructures were intensively built during that period, such as streets and railways, houses, governmental buildings, train stations, hospitals and educational facilities. Besides the famous campus of Technische Hoogeschool te Bandoeng (ITB), still in the same period, several schools were also constructed. One of the most important schools was Hoogere Burgerschool in Bandung (HBS Bandung), now SMUN 3 and 5, Bandung designed by Charles Prosper Wolff Schoemaker and constructed in 1915. HBS Bandung was the fourth HBS constructed by Dutch East Indies Government, therefore became important and put itself as a reference for the later school buildings in Bandung. This study is analyzing how the architects' frame of mind in producing this design works. Survey and direct data collecting were used to take the exact embodiment of building design. Usage and functional analysis were also used to match space and other standard used in a school building at that time. This study will give an understanding of building typology of school during the Dutch Colonial Period in Indonesia.
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Study of building typology of school constructed during the Dutch
Colonial Period in Indonesia. Case study of Hoogere Burgerschool
(HBS) in Bandung
To cite this article: Arif Sarwo Wibowo 2018 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 126 012077
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Study of building typology of school constructed during the
Dutch Colonial Period in Indonesia.
Case study of Hoogere Burgerschool (HBS) in Bandung
Arif Sarwo Wibowo
School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development, Institut Teknologi
Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia
E-mail: wibowo@ar.itb.ac.id
Abstract. Bandung is one of the most important colonial cities in Indonesia. In the early 20th
century the capital city of Dutch East-Indies Government planned to move in Bandung. Critical
infrastructures were intensively built during that period, such as streets and railways, houses,
governmental buildings, train stations, hospitals and educational facilities. Besides the famous
campus of Technische Hoogeschool te Bandoeng (ITB), still in the same period, several
schools were also constructed. One of the most important schools was Hoogere Burgerschool
in Bandung (HBS Bandung), now SMUN 3 and 5, Bandung designed by Charles Prosper
Wolff Schoemaker and constructed in 1915. HBS Bandung was the fourth HBS constructed by
Dutch East Indies Government, therefore became important and put itself as a reference for the
later school buildings in Bandung. This study is analyzing how the architects’ frame of mind in
producing this design works. Survey and direct data collecting were used to take the exact
embodiment of building design. Usage and functional analysis were also used to match space
and other standard used in a school building at that time. This study will give an understanding
of building typology of school during the Dutch Colonial Period in Indonesia.
1. Introduction
Hoogere Burgerschool in Bandung (HBS Bandung) was designed by Charles Prosper Wolff
Schoemaker, one of the most reputable architects at the moment, and inaugurated in July 1st, 1915.
Located in Billitonstraat, now Jalan Belitung, the HBS Bandung was the fourth HBS after the other
three in Batavia, Surabaya, and Semarang. HBS Bandung was a secondary school proposed for
European and very limited indigenous people. The school was designed for a five-year education
program. HBS Bandung constructed slightly earlier than Technische Hoogeschool te Bandoeng (ITB)
and Gouvernements Bedrijven (GB / Gedung Sate). Bandung was promoted as gementee (autonomous
city government) in 1906 by the colonial Dutch East-Indies Government.[1] And the construction of
the school most likely was a part of the infrastructure to support it. And HBS Bandung was one of the
European style learning system in Bandung that adopted by most of the Indonesian school later.
Therefore, it is important to understand how schools designed in the early period of Bandung. The
purpose of this study is to provide an idea of the possibility of method and background used in
manifesting the design of the school, not to give a final conclusion in this regard.
2. Method
This article will offer a brief study of building typology of the school constructed during the Dutch
colonial period in Indonesia, taking the case of HBS Bandung. The study will be limited only on
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conjecture of how the architect designed the building based on order and composition of rooms. The
discussion will be also limited to plan and facade of the building. The study was delivered in three
steps, starting from data collecting, data processing, and data analyzing. The main data used in this
study was collected through field survey, processed into the model and analyzed. This article is based
on a brief assessment on colonial schools within the spatial configuration.[2] Reference is only used as
a historical background of the building, while all data were taken directly from the object, and the
analysis flew by logical reasoning. This study is also a part of an assessment to provide several
possibilities of idea on the design process. Therefore not many references being used in this matter.
2.1. Field survey
Measurement of the building was taken directly from the building. The data from field survey is based
on the current condition, including changes made to the original design. The measurement was
recorded using digital measurement equipment that collects the data up to a millimeter in detail. Each
wall side of the room was measured to make sure the place and its composition to the building. The
measurement was categorized into 2 (two) groups: macro measurement and micro/detailed
measurement. Macro measurement refers to the measurement of the building in general, such as
columns intervals, the enclosure of the building and other large measurements. Micro/detailed
measurement referring to the detailed size of a part, including the plan of a room or wall and
door/window size.
2.2. Digital reconstruction
The data collected from the field survey was processed into 3-dimensional models. The model was
constructed based on the assumption that the building was designed in geometric order. Room
composition or plan and building facade or elevation presumably were designed based on right-angled
pale. Therefore the digital reconstruction was also developed based on this comprehension. Every
differentiation of measurement of the similar part should be evaluated and recalculated to meet
geometrical pattern of the building. Old photograph was also used as a reference to develop the 3D
model.
2.3. Design analysis
The data and 3D model being used in the study of the building typology of colonial school focused on
the plan and wall facade. The roof was excluded in the discussion due to limited access to the roof.
The discussion will elaborate on how the building probably designed and what order was used by the
architect in designing the building. Since this is a very brief study regarding on this building, the
analysis will only focus on the classroom and omit other rooms, such as the main entrance hall and
second-floor hall. This study is most likely use a simple logic and paying attention to several
possibilities that might be taken by the architect during his design process. The result of the study will
only provide a conjecture and possibility of design method chosen by the architect, which still leaves
many other possibilities.
3. Result and Discussions
The most significant result of this study is the digital reconstruction of the building, besides the study
on the typology itself. The reconstruction needs an analytical process to make sure the measurement
taken from field survey can be realized and meet the logic in every aspect. Through this process, it can
be said for sure that HBS Bandung was designed in symmetrical shape. The building composed of two
wings: west and east wings. Both wings are identical in shape, measurement, and design. At the
moment, the West wing is used as SMUN 3 Bandung and the East wing is SMUN 5 Bandung. A part
of the roof is noticeably changed, as seen in figure 1 and 2. The minaret shape in the top roof is no
longer available, which proofed that the roof had been modified. There is no authentic document that
mentions about when and why the roof had been modified.
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IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 126 (2018) 012077 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/126/1/012077
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Figure 1. HBS Bandung in 1920’s. (source: www.pinterest.se)
Figure 2. 3D model of HBS Bandung.
The first floor is composed of five rectangular classrooms in each wing of the building, sized 8.5-
meter x 9.4-meter, measured from the axis of the wall, with about 400-centimeter wall thickness,
providing approximately 8.1-meter x 9.0-meter room space inside. The back corridor is approximately
3.0-meter wide. Currently, the corridor on the first floor is covered by a wall of the additional room at
the south side. The additional room can only be accessed from the outer side, made the corridor
exclusively become the main circulation to and from classrooms. Omitting this condition, and
referring back to the original design, every classroom has at least two sets of windows, each at the
different side. Classrooms only can be accessed from the corridor, making it safe and easy to be
controlled.
Still similar to the first floor, classrooms on the second-floor got some size adjustment. The first
three classrooms in each wing of the building got an extension up to the front main pillar, rendering
the interior into a square plan of approximately 9.0-meter x 9.0-meter with the height of 5.4-meter.
While the other two classrooms at the end of the wing still perform exactly the same size to those on
the first floor, sized 8.1-meter x 9.0-meter x 5.4-meter. From the exterior point of view, the ceiling
elevation of the roof is approximately +11.0-meter high, taking the elevation of the first-floor as +0.0
benchmark, while the soil/ground level is approximate -1.00-meter.
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IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 126 (2018) 012077 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/126/1/012077
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Figure 3. Elevation, Second Floor Plan and First Floor Plan (East Wing).
If we look carefully to the interior size of the classrooms, measuring approximately 8.1-meter x 9.0-
meter x 5.4-meter, then it is easy to say that the room was possibly design based on metric
Elevation (East Wing)
Second Floor (East Wing)
First Floor (East Wing)
5m
10m
15m
classroom
classroom
classroom
classroom
classroom
classroom
classroom
classroom
classroom
classroom
corridor
corridor
Main Entrance
Hall
Second Floor
Hall
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IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 126 (2018) 012077 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/126/1/012077
4
measurement of 90-centimeter module unit, with 9:10:6 ratio. While the class in the second floor sized
approximately 9.0-meter x 9.0-meter x 5.4-meter, which has 10:10:6 ratio. This aspect ratio probably
means nothing in term of building massing and composition, but this will lead us to the next research
on room scale, visual and thermal comfort study.
Figure 4. Blocks model and ratio.
4. Conclusions
HBS Bandung was designed based on classrooms space ratio of 9:10:6, and 10:10:6 for the case of the
second-floor, with interior size of approximately 8.1-meter x 9.0-meter x 5.4-meter and 9.0-meter x
9.0-meter x 5.4-meter. The building was probably designed using the 90-centimeter module. Every
classroom has a single access to the corridor. Typical single loaded composition probably is being
used to maximize the use of daylight as the main illumination inside rooms, and the two sets of
windows were expected to give cross ventilation, as well enough light to the classroom.
References
[1] Kunto H 1986 Semerbak Bunga di Bandung Raya (Bandung: PT. Granesia Bandung)
[2] Wibowo A S 2015 Understanding the Colonial Churches’ Design Approach: The Study of De
Nieuwe Kerk (GPIB Bethel) and De Oosterkerk (GPIB Maranatha) in Bandung Procedia -
Social and Behavioral Sciences 184 (2015) 380-87
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IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 126 (2018) 012077 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/126/1/012077
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Article
Full-text available
In the 1920‘s Bandung was a new emerging city with widely open opportunities for architects to experiment and express their creativity in designing new buildings. In accordance with the significant European population growth, many Catholic and Protestant churches were constructed in the 1920‘s to 1940‘s period. De Oosterkerk, now GPIB Maranatha, designed by F. W. Brinkman in 1926 was one of the early colonial Protestant churches in Bandung. The construction itself finished in the following year, following De Nieuwe Kerk's construction, which is now GPIB Bethel at Jalan Wastukencana. De NieuweKerk that was designed by C. P. Wolff Schoemaker had a different architectural style compared to de Oosterkerk. Schoemaker had come forth with more elaborate details in his church. While Brinkman created a more conservative style. This article reveals some of the architectural design approaches of both churches and shows each style and its uniqueness.
Understanding the Colonial Churches’ Design Approach: The Study of De Nieuwe Kerk (GPIB Bethel) and De Oosterkerk (GPIB Maranatha
  • A Wibowo