ArticlePDF Available

Interior Design of Workplace and Performance Relationship: Private sector corporations in Egypt

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

In today’s competitive business environment, corporations can no longer afford to waste the potential of their workforce. There are important factors in the employee’s workplace that influence significantly on their level of motivation and performance. The main objective of the study is to understand the relationship between the employees’ performance and their physical work environment. The private sector corporations of Egypt have been chosen as the population for the study. The results of the study show that office design has a substantial impact on the employees’ performance. Keywords: Interior Design; Workplace; Performance; Egypt. eISSN 2514-751X © 2018. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Interior Design of Workplace and Performance
Relationship: Private sector corporations in Egypt
Rasha Mahmoud Ali El-Zeiny
Faculty of Fine Arts,
Minia University, Minia, Egypt
rashaelzeney@yahoo.com
Abstract
In today’s competitive business environment, corporations can no longer afford to waste the potential
of their workforce. There are important factors in the employee’s workplace that influence significantly
on their level of motivation and performance. The main objective of the study is to understand the
relationship between the employees’ performance and their physical work environment. The private
sector corporations of Egypt have been chosen as the population for the study. The results of the
study show that office design has a substantial impact on the employees’ performance.
Keywords: Interior Design; Workplace; Performance; Egypt.
eISSN 2514-751X © 2018. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House,
Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
nc-nd/4.0/). Peerreview under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour
Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-
Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21834/aje-bs.v3i7.263
Mahmoud Ali El-Zeiny, R. / Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies (ajE-Bs), 3(7) Mar / Apr 2018 (p.109-118)
110
1.0 Introduction
In today’s competitive business environment, corporations can no longer afford to waste the
potential of their workforce. There are important factors in the employee’s workplace that
influence significantly on their level of motivation and performance. The literature reveals
that good office design has a positive effect on employees’ productivity; this hypothesis is
being tested in this study. In the context of Egypt, this is a relatively new topic, and there
are not any studies in the field of interior design, so the purpose of this paper is to analyze
the influence of the workplace interior design factors on employees’ performance in the
private sector corporations in Egypt. The study is limited to the interior design of the
facility and does not address other aspects of the work environment.
2.0 Literature Review
Defining Job Performance
Campbell, J. P. (1990) defines performance as behavior, It is something done by the employee.
This concept differentiates performance from outcomes. Outcomes are the result of a
person’s performance, but also, there are many factors that assess outcomes than just an
employee’s behaviors and actions. When Campbell (1990) defining performance as
behavior, he allows for exceptions. For instance, he states that performance does not have
to be directly observable actions of a person. It can consist of mental productions such as
answers or decisions.
The measures of this study are based on personnel’s subjective assessments. Wang
and Gianakis (1999) have defined subjective performance measure as an indicator
used to determine individuals’ aggregated perceptions, attitudes or assessments toward a
corporation product or service. Subjective performance data are usually collected using
survey questionnaires. Subjective data can also be descriptive or qualitative collected by
interviews (Amina Hameed, ShehlaAmjad, 2009).
Workplace Interior Design
Interior design defined by the National Council for Interior Design Qualification(NCIDQ), as
the art and science of understanding people’s behavior to create functional spaces within a
building through creative and technical solutions. Within a structure, these solutions are
applied to achieve a built interior environment, and they are functional, enhance the quality of
life and culture of the occupants and are aesthetically appealing. Workplace Interior design is
a key factor in job satisfaction. It affects the way in which employee’s work. Workplace
design may enhance organizational success by creating workplace that support work
quality, quantity and style, while improving turnover and absentee rates (Becker, 1981).
Increasingly, architects, interior designers and facilities managers are assuming the new
role strategic consultants familiar with human behavior and organization (Hamilton, Baker
&Vlasic, 1997). A growing number of companies are using the interior design of workplace as
a tool to help attract and keep employees; the latest American Society of Interior Designers
(ASID, 1999) research shows that the physical environment is one of the top three factors
Mahmoud Ali El-Zeiny, R. / Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies (ajE-Bs), 3(7) Mar / Apr 2018 (p.109-118)
111
that affect their decisions to accept or leave jobs, and it was tied for second with benefits
after compensation.
Workplace Design and Employees’ Performance
Over the years, many corporations have been trying new designs and techniques in office
buildings, which can promote productivity, and attract more employees (Amina Hameed,
ShehlaAmjad, 2009). Many authors have noted that, the workplace design, along with
effective management processes, is playing an important role in increasing employees’
productivity and boosting organizational performance (Uzee, 1999; Leaman and Bordass, 1993;
Williams et al. 1985).
Research by the architects, Gensler (2005) of 200 UK business managers showed that
an improved workplace would boost employee productivity by 19 per cent and their own
productivity by 17 per cent. These improvements have great implications for the economy if
proven. Gensler (2006) followed up this research in a survey of 2,000 office employees in the
USA which showed that 90 per cent of the respondents believed that better interior design
and layout result in better general employee performance.
Interior Design Factors that Impact on Productivity and Performance
Brill et al. (1984) ranked factors, which impact on productivity according to their
significance. The factors are sequenced based on the importance: Furniture, Noise,
Flexibility, Comfort, Communication, Lighting, Temperature and the Air Quality. Springer Inc
(1986) stated that an insurance company in a study showed that the ergonomic furniture
increased performance by 10 to 15 percent. Today’s workforce believes a noisy work
environment inhibits effective work. Statistics from the Data Management Association show
that a lack of acoustical privacy in open-plan offices can reduce productivity by as much as 40
percent and increase errors by as much as 27 percent (McLaughlin, 2000). In recent studies,
Lighting was found to be the main factor, which impact on the daily and general
productivity of employees in workplaces. The Commission for Architecture & the Built
Environment and the British Council for Offices carried out a study revealed that even simple
things such as adequate lighting and having proper daylight can decrease absentee rate by
15 per cent. Also, they increase productivity by between 28 per cent and 20 per cent.
There is an important effect of temperature and humidity on how tired someone might
feel, currently there are no regulations governing high temperature levels in the
workplace and the responsibility of companies to their employees in this respect,
although the World Health Organization recommends a maximum working temperature of
24ºC (Kathy F. Montgomery, 2004).In a study, (ASID, 2002) employees were asked what
they want in their ideal workplace. Thirty percent of the employees mentioned access as
pivotal in the office environment. They relate access to the proximity of things they need,
including access to spaces that accommodate the tasks they need to accomplish, access to
office equipment and to people. In the same study, employees identified privacy as important
to their ability to work productively.
The opportunity to view natural settings through a window, to human productivity and
well-being is the subject of significant research, Roger Ulrich’s (2002), Texas A & M
Mahmoud Ali El-Zeiny, R. / Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies (ajE-Bs), 3(7) Mar / Apr 2018 (p.109-118)
112
University research team explored the links between flowers and plants and workplace
productivity. When plants and flowers were added to the work environment, subjects in the
study, both men and women demonstrated more innovative thinking and created
innovative solutions to office problems (Uhich, 2003). Colors also can have an important
effect on the space users.
3.0 Methodology
The research work is a descriptive research of both primary data and secondary data. The
paper presents the analysis of the workplace interior design at different private sector
corporations in Egypt; the research paper would seek to fulfil the following listed objectives:
1. To analyze the factors of workplace interior design affecting the employee’s
performance.
2. To assess whether workplace design is one of the factors in affecting employees’
performance.
3. To analyze the influence of office design if any on gender or age of employees.
The study has been carried out with 6private sector corporations with different work
areas as a sample. These corporations are Dar Al-Handasah Consultants, Egypt Kuwait
Holding, Gas Chil, Samcrate Contractors, ECG Engineering Consultants Group, KPMG
Hazem Hassan Public Accountants. A total of 129 employees from these 6 corporations
were taken as the sample size.
A questionnaire was used to collect primary data and observation was used to collect
information about the interior design. The study used a five point Likert Scale to measure
all the variables, but the questions in the questionnaire for the subjective performance
measurement were in percentages. The statistical techniques were used to analyze the
response.
4.0 Results and Discussions
The research focused on nine indicators of workplace interior design which considered for
study in the survey, and took note into account that these design elements should not be
considered the only factors that may have an impact on the performance of the employees
in an interior environment. These indicators are furniture, noise, temperature, lighting,
spatial arrangement, color, outside view and presence of plants and flowers, (See figure 1).
Figure 1: Interior Design Factors Considered for Study in the Survey
Empoloyee's Performance
Furnitur
e
Noise
Tempretu
re
Spatial
Privacy
Aarrengm
Lighting
ent
Outside
view
Presenc
e of
pl nts
Mahmoud Ali El-Zeiny, R. / Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies (ajE-Bs), 3(7) Mar / Apr 2018 (p.109-118)
113
%
Influence of Workplace Design on Employees’ Performance
The data reveal that the vast majority of employees (96 %) believe that superior office design
leads to superior overall performance, also makes a company more competitive. According
to the results in figure 2a, 44 % of the respondents believe that their overall productivity will
increase more than 50% if the related office design problems are solved, and about 52 % of
the respondents believe that their performance will be increased from 30% to
10%.However, employees who believe that the workplace design has no effect on their
performance were 4%.which indicates that good workplace design can make a substantial
difference in staff performance, and consequently has a positive impact on the
corporations’ productivity.
(a) (b)
Figure 2: (a) Influence of Workplace Design on Performance;
(b) Mean Ratings of Factors Affecting Performance
In Figure 2b, data was analyzed to identify the factor that has a high effect on
decreasing employee’s performance. The average mean ranking indicates that the variable
‘furniture’ is the most contributing factor, which affect the performance of employees. This
means that Ergonomics of office furniture has great importance because an employee has to
work with them all the time that he is on office, and if they are neither comfortable nor user
friendly, their working style and efficiency will get hamper considerably. Next to furniture, it
is temperature, as it can have a significant effect on the performance of an employee. In hot
environments, it is common for employees to become irritable and less efficient. However,
light came in the third rank.
Contrary to expectations, the presence of plants and flowers has been given fourth rank,
followed by spatial arrangement. While privacy and noise have gotten less ranking, which
indicates that there is a link between flowers and plants, as well as other aspects of nature, and
employees’ performance. Outside view and color have been given the lowest significance.
Satisfaction Ratings of Different Aspects of the Workplace Environment
Mahmoud Ali El-Zeiny, R. / Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies (ajE-Bs), 3(7) Mar / Apr 2018 (p.109-118)
114
Figure 3: Mean Rating of Satisfaction with Aspects of the Physical Workplace
Employees were asked to rate their satisfaction with aspects of their physical
workplace. According to the results in figure 3, the most dissatisfying is the privacy; this is
key, given the fact that privacy has a vital influence on job satisfaction. The respondents
clarified privacy to mean a space away from distractions. This response would indicate that the
corporations may need for different types of work spaces, perhaps available by task, whether a
space for “heads down” concentration or a more social team project spaces. Furthermore,
the noise, the outside view, temperature, presence of plants, and furniture also contributes to
the dissatisfaction feedback. However, the three highest satisfaction ranking are lighting
followed by access to people and equipments and color. This is indicating that the 6
corporations have proper and adequate light, and highly cared about access to the proximity
of things employees need.
Overall Responses According to Gender
The data collected showed that 29 percent respondents were female, and 71 percent were
male.
The overall mean of all the factors in figure 4 indicates that female employees are more
affected by the physical workplace than the male employees, and they are less satisfied
with the interior work place environment.
The overall response according to the gender is detailed in a table for each gender.
There are some differences amongst the responses to different factors in the workplace.
The average mean ranking in tables 1 and 2, indicated that for male and female, furniture was
the most influential factor. Male respondents’ results showed that temperature has been
given the second rate followed by space; however, color has been given the lowest
significance. In the same way, an analysis of female employees’ results showed that light is
ranked second followed by temperature, while outside view has been given the last rank. The
comparison of male and female ratings also showed that female was more affected by privacy
than male. This may be due to the social traditions in Egypt, since privacy is an important
3.95
4
3.7
3.72
3.8
3.6
3.3
3.32
3.39
3.4
3.19
3.05
3.2
2.89 3
2.8
privacy
noise outside view presence
of plants
tempreture furniture
color
spatial
light
arrangemen
t
Mahmoud Ali El-Zeiny, R. / Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies (ajE-Bs), 3(7) Mar / Apr 2018 (p.109-118)
115
issue.
Figure 4: Overall mean According to Gender
Table 1: Male Response
Factor
Furniture
Temperature
Spatial
Arrangement
light
Presence of
Plants
privacy
Noise
Outside
View
Color
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Mean
4.48
4.31
4.26
4.17
4.05
4.01
3.98
3.76
3.61
Table 2: Female Response
Factor
Furniture
Light
Temperature
Privacy
Presence of
Plants
Noise
Spatial
Arrangement
Color
Outside
View
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Mean
4.45
4.44
4.41
4.29
4.26
4.12
4.03
3.96
3.72
Overall Responses According to Age
According to the data, 55 percent respondents were generation Yers(under30), 35 percent
were generation Xers employees (ages 30- 460) and10 percent respondents were baby
boomers (ages 47- 66).
The respondents were asked if they can complete their daily tasks easily due to the
overall office environment. The results in figure 5 showed that baby boomers had the highest
mean, followed by Xers, then Yers. That is due to the corporations, which usually provide
more care for the top positions in terms of furniture, space, privacy, and the other aspects of
physical workplace and facilities, and most of the baby boom respondents occupy the top
positions, follow them Xers.
The results in figure 5 also showed that the baby boom and Yers employees are more
concerned about their workplace surroundings than Xers.
Mahmoud Ali El-Zeiny, R. / Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies (ajE-Bs), 3(7) Mar / Apr 2018 (p.109-118)
116
Figure 5: Overall mean According to Gender
Table 3: Differences between the Generations
Factor
Furniture
Temperatur
e
Spatial
Arrangement
Presence
of Plants
Privacy
Noise
Light
Outside
View
Color
Yers
4.42
4.36
4.16
4.34
4.06
4.03
4.36
4.01
3.85
Xers
4.53
4.27
4.25
3.96
4.16
4.01
4.12
3.63
3.67
Baby
boomers
4.24
4.45
3.93
3.52
4.05
4.24
4.25
3.02
3.52
In table 3, results revealed that there are differences between the three generations.
Temperature, light, noise and furniture stand out as the most important factors that affect
the performance of the baby boom employees. For Xers, furniture is the leading factor to affect
the performance, temperature is regarded second, followed by spatial arrangements. These
results agree to a large extent with the Yers’ results; since furniture has the highest mean,
followed by temperature and light, then the presence of flowers and plants which
considered, a high mean as compared with Xers and baby boomers. Most respondents of
Yers believe that spaces, which contain plants and flowers, is supporting them to focus on
the task which requires concentration, while some of Yers believe that the light music has
an effect on their performance. The data also reveals that outside view ranked as the least
factor in both baby boomers and Xers; however, it had a high mean in Yers, comparing with its
means in the Xers and baby boomers.
5.0 Conclusion
Analysis of the collected data revealed that the interior design of the workplace had a
substantial influence on the employees’ performance. The overall impact of different
elements showed that furniture affects the productivity of most employees; therefore, it is
recommended that we have to consider ergonomic furniture while buying office furniture. The
data also revealed that the majority of respondents lent weight to the presence of plants and
flowers. The overall mean of all the factors showed that female employees are more
concerned about their workplace interior design. Also male respondents’ results showed
Mahmoud Ali El-Zeiny, R. / Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies (ajE-Bs), 3(7) Mar / Apr 2018 (p.109-118)
117
that they were more affected by the temperature; however, female more affected by privacy.
The response, according to age showed differences, the baby boom employees are more
satisfied with their workplace environment; however, generation Yers are more concerned
with the presence of plants and outside view than the other generations.
In conclusion, the majority of respondents believe that good workplace interior
design can make a difference in their performance, and consequently have a positive impact
on the corporations’ productivity. So design professionals must expand their knowledge
beyond real estate issues (efficiency) to understand what makes people perform and happy
at work (effectiveness and desirability).
Acknowledgment
I would like to thank the human resource executive and employees of the corporations who
participated in the survey.
References
American Society of Interior Designers (1999), Recruiting and Retaining Qualißed Employees by Design. White
Paper.
AminaHameed, ShehlaAmjad (2009). Impact of Ofßce Design on Employees ‘Productivity: a Case Study of Banking
Organizations of Abbottabad, Pakistan(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.scientificjournals.org/
journals2009/articles/1460.pdf
Brill, M., Margulis, S., Konar E., BOSTI. (1984). Using Ofßce Design to Increase Productivity. Vol. 1, 1984: Vol.
2, 1984. Buffalo, N.Y.: Workplace Design and Productivity Buildings/IAQ, pp.495 500.
Gensler Design + Performance Index, the U.S. Workplace Survey. (2006). www.gensler.com
Kathy F. Montgomery. (2004). Understanding the Relationship between the Design of the Workplace
Environment and Wellness. Texas Tech University.
McLaughlm, C. (2000). Sound Solutions. ASID ICON June.
Milton, D.K., Glencross, P.M., Wafrers, M.D. (2000). Risk of Sick Leaves Associated with Outdoor Afr Supply Rate,
Humidification, and Occupant Complaints. Informedesign www.informedesign.umn.edu. Accessed 01-07-04.
Steelcase, Inc. (2002). Workplace Acoustics: Sound, Noise and Effective Work, www.navbus.com. Accessed 7-
29-04.
Ulrich, R. Ph.D., (2003). The Impact of Flowers and Plants on Workplace Productivity. Texas A & M University.
US Army Corps of Engineers, (USAGE). (1997). Design Guide for Interiors.
Light and Color, Chapter 3, pg. 3.1-3.2.
Uzee, J. (1999). The Inclusive Approach: Creating a Place where People want to Work. Facility Management
Journal of the International Facility Management Association, 26-30.
Mahmoud Ali El-Zeiny, R. / Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies (ajE-Bs), 3(7) Mar / Apr 2018 (p.109-118)
118
Wargocki, P., Wyon, D.P., Sundell, J., Clausen, G. and Fanger, P.O. (2000). The Effects of Outdoor afr Supply Rate in
an Ofßce on Perceived are Quality, Sick Building Syndrome(SBS) Symptoms and Productivity.
Informedesignwww.informedesign.umn.edu.Accessed 12-08-03.
... Workplace environment is an important factor that determines employees' productivity (Chandrasekar, 2011;Leblebici, 2012). The quality of the employees' workplace environment impacted on employees' job performance (Heath, 2006;El-Zeiny, 2013). When people are working in situations that suit their physical and mental abilities, the correct fit between the person and work task is accomplished (Leblebici, 2012;Garg & Talwar, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the influence of job satisfaction on employees’ performance of hotel industry in Lagos State. The study adopted a structured questionnaires to collect data from 330 employees of 63 hotels in the 20 LGAs of Lagos State. Data analysis was performed using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling. It arisen from the study that the relationship between job stress, promotion opportunity and supervisory support, and employees’ performance are statistically significant. In addition, the relationship between payment system and workplace environment, and employees’ performance are not significant. The discoveries offer noteworthy inferences for managers of hotels in Lagos State to give more attention to staff promotion matters for enhanced job performance. The findings further provides significant implication for hotel operators in Lagos State to take staff support initiatives seriously. To the best of our knowledge, the study presents the first major study that proposed and validated job satisfaction and employees’ performance (JOPEF) model for hotels in Lagos State. The new model provide hotel business operators, the government and academics with new insight into the association between job satisfaction and employees’ performance of hotels in an emerging economy.
... Thus, the culture of an organization acquaints employees with the organization's history as well as current methods of operation that guide employees on expected and acceptable future organizational behaviours and norms. Ferris et al (1998) [20] assert that effective human resource system is based on supporting values that create a positive impact on employees 'attitudes and behaviours which in turn influence their performance but from numerous-surveys on culture‖, it has been claimed that employee performance can be improved by developing and creating certain kinds of organizational cultures (Sackman and Bertelsman, 2006) [42] . ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the influence of work environment on employee's performance and organizational productivity in manufacturing firms in Port Harcourt. The research design was descriptive survey to investigation and observed the influence of organizational environment on employee's performance and organizational productivity. It is of paramount important for manufacturing firms within this region to provide conducive work environment and put up policies that promote healthy work environment. Findings from the research shows that when the environment of organization is conducive for job task to be carried out, it does not only increases the performance of the employees but also increases the organizational productivity hence, allowing the management to achieve its objectives. Sequel to the above, it is very important for this firms to take the environmental factors that influences performance seriously since it has a negative effect on both the employees and the organization. it was concluded that environment of organizations has a great impact on both the workers performance and organizational productivity since the organization depends on its environment for its survival. Some recommendations were put forward to resolve some of the issues of the research. Introduction One of the most important goals in every organization is to improve the level of productivity, Given that manpower plays an essential role in creation of productivity, requests in the organization are of great importance. The work environment which encompasses several factors impacts on the way the employees perform their work. A comfortable and conducive workplace environment will boost the employees' performance hence boosting the organizational performance. The success of any organization is closely tied to the job performance of its employees. The quality of the employees' workplace environment impacts on their motivation level and hence performance (Heath, 2006) [12]. According to Tripathi (2014) [27] work environment can be defined as the environment in which people work that include physical setting, job profile, culture and market condition. Each aspect is inter linked and impacts on employees overall performance and productivity. It is the quality of the employees' workplace environment that most impacts on their level of motivation subsequently performance. Work environment can be seen as the environment in which people work (Briner, 2000) [6] as such; it is a very broad category that encompasses the physical setting (e.g. heat, equipment), characteristics of the job itself (e.g. workload, task complexity). According to Farh (2012) [9] , employees will always be contended when they feel that their immediate environment states are in tandem with their obligations. Chandrasekar (2011) [8] stated that the type of workplace environment in which employees operate determines whether or not organizations will prosper. The workplace environment is made up of physical factors which include the office layout and design among other factors; while the psychosocial factors include working conditions, role congruity and social support. Other aspects of the workplace environment are the policies which include employment conditions. A better physical workplace environment boosts employees' performance. Armstrong (2005) [6] sees performance as the development of quantified objectives. Performance is not only a matter of what people achieve but how they achieve.
... According to Oyetunji, (2014), the physical workplace environment is the workspace or work stations where employees carry out their duties or roles. Workplace environment plays an essential role towards workers' performance and productivity in any organization El-Zeiny (2013). Various studies have been carried out on physical workplace environment as a factor that determines employee performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Job performance, being one of the most significant indicators in maximizing organizational performance, has led to growing emphasis on employees’ job performance as a means to promote responsiveness and enhance overall organizational effectiveness. This study examined the influence of work environment and job characteristics on the job performance of non-teaching staff of The Polytechnic, Ibadan. Two hypotheses were tested. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study, while 120 non-teaching personnel were selected for the study. Three instruments were developed, adopted and adapted for the study: Job Characteristics Scale which is an adopted 5-dimension 15 items scale was used to measure job characteristics with Cronbach’s alpha values within the ranges of 0.606 and 0.840 for all 5 subscales; Work Environment Scale, also an adopted scale with reliability ranging from 0.51 to 0.78 and Job Performance Scale which was 20-item instrument with Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.84. The data collected were analysed using multiple regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Based on the result from the analysis, inference could be made that in any organization, working condition of staff and the nature of the job (job characteristics) could go a long way in explaining employees’ performance. It was recommended therefore that the Institution’s management should make work environment conducive to the non-teaching staff as well as improve task significance so that they can perform optimally.
... One of the most fundamental effects of the changes emanating from the work environment is particularly evident on the functions and performance of human resources. In other words, the work environment possesses essential indicators that can engender either positive or negative consequences for the functionality of the human resources (El-Zeiny, 2013). The conceptual understanding of the environment conveyed an explicit interpretation of man's abrupt surrounding which he tends to employ for his advantage (Ajala, 2012). ...
Article
Human resources remain the most important and valuable assets of every organisation. In effect, the strategic monitoring and management of related environmental factors and employees’ affective well-being for continued presence at work are becoming increasingly fundamental. The mining industry is characterised with different environmental factors and affective well-being puzzle that may likely affect employees’ turnaround time at work. While available studies have largely investigated how environmental factors predict employee’s well-being, what is unclear is how environmental factors and affective well-being determines employee’s absenteeism from work. Using a quantitative study, this study examines how environmental factors and affective well-being influence workers absenteeism in South African mine industry. A total of 280 mineworkers were randomly selected using a descriptive survey of the probability sampling technique. The retrieved data were analysed using both the simple and multivariate regression analysis. The findings revealed that both environmental factors and affective well-being do not predict mine workers absenteeism, although environmental factors show more variation in employee’s absenteeism than affective well-being. Similarly, the different environmental factors including exposure to noise, dust, vibration, temperature and heavy lifting do not show any evidence to have predicted mine workers turnaround time at work, except hazardous materials. The study concludes that mitigating the consequence provoked by hazardous materials on mine workers will significantly increase employees’ presence at work. Thus, the study makes a case for the revitalisation of the South African mining industry, especially in the area of setting out modalities for the control of strenuous environmental factors, particularly hazardous materials in the workplace.
... One important component of interior design is to understand how those who inhabit a space perceive it based on a wide range of factors. Interior designers use tools and resources to help create a space that appears the way it is intended to be seen by the designer and the user, regardless of the constraints of the space or the way it appears before to the work of the designer [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effect of work environment on job performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. Specifically, the study ascertains the effect of psychosocial environment and work life balance on job performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. This study adopted survey research design. The sample of the study consists of all the 16 branches of five (5) commercial banks in Nigeria. The researcher used primary data. Data were collected form questionnaires distributed to the respondents. The data collected was analyzed in a tabular form and regression analysis was used with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0. The study revealed that psychosocial environment and work life Balance has a positive significant effect on job performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended among others that bank should provide enabling work environment in terms of physical facilities for their employees because this substantially increases employees’ productivity.
Article
Full-text available
Office ergonomics is treated as one of the two most important factors along with work environment. Although there are several studies on both factors but most of the studies are found to be focusing on elements from both factors simultaneously. Therefore, there is a requirement of research work which might focus on these two elements separately. Hence this is the study which is intensively focusing on impact of office design elements on employee performance with reference to NADRA, Karachi. The reason behind selection of NADRA as the point of reference for data collection is the study of as study of Jaffri (2015), indicated the severe lacking office design elements in NADRA, Pakistan. Although prior study was not done on extensively upon managerial level employees, neither it has detailed inventory of variables. Therefore, legitimate to declare the current study is one of the pervasive one and use of SMART PLS is also making the study unique in comparison to any other done in this domain. Results of the study are significantly different from the study conducted in 2015 and thus it is legitimate to induce post-positivism as the philosophical stance with this study.
Article
Full-text available
Article
This study sought to identify the effect of workplace physical environment on the productivity of employees. A case study approach was employed in this study and the Central Bank of Nigeria, Jalingo Branch served as the study area. The population of this study comprised of all the permanent staff of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Jalingo Branch which is made up of 70 employees; (executive’s staff cadre 10, senior staff 35 and Junior staff 25. The probability sampling technique was adopted to select elements from each cadre to give a sample frame of 60. Questionnaire that was validated and tested for reliability served as data collection instrument. Collected data were presented in frequency and percentage tables, and this formed the basis for data analysis. The null hypotheses were tested using Chi-Square statistical tool aided by SPSS version 23. Findings indicate that: Spacious physical work environment increases the productivity of employees. The productivity of employees increases in a work environment with availability of suitable equipment. Lastly, findings show that workplace environment with open communication increases employee productivity. Following the findings of this study, it is proposed that: organizations should provide spacious workplace physical environment for their employees because this substantially increases employees’ productivity. For the fact that the productivity of employees increases in a work environment with availability of suitable equipment, it means that organizations should act in accordance with this finding if they are to achieve employee productivity. Following the findings that work place environment with open communication increases productivity, it behooves on organizations to create work place environment charged with open communication and supportive to team spirit.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Workplace design is one of the factors that can influence comfort, performance, productivity and the health status of employees. The effects of this factor on human’s productivity and performance are studied in the domain of ergonomics. The impact of workplace design on workers’ productivity and performance can be determined by investigation of the quality of the design. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of workplace design on productivity of the bank clerks. Material and Method: Samples in this cross-sectional study were comprised of 150 employees of 22 different branches of a bank in Tehran city. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire related to the effects of workplace design on employees’ productivity, developed by Hameed and colleagues. Correlation and regression statistical tests were used in order to analyze data. Result: According to the results, the mean (±SD) for age and job tenure of participants were 37.2(±6) and 13(±7) years, respectively. Of the surveyed demographic features, a significant relationship was observed between age and scores belonging to the temperature and furniture (P-value<0.05). In addition, there was a significant association between employees’ productivity and the noise (P-value=0.044) and spatial arrangement of environment (P-value=0.048). Conclusion: Overall, appropriate and high quality design of work environment can improve productivity of bank clerks. In other words, employees’ productivity can be enhanced by comfortable and ergonomic design of working environment and also by considering their needs. Keywords: Bank Employees, Environmental Ergonomics, Productivity, Workplace Design
Article
Perceived air quality, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms and productivity were studied in a normally furnished office space (108 m3) ventilated with an outdoor airflow of 3, 10 or 30 L/s per person, corresponding to an air change rate of 0.6, 2 or 6 h-1. The temperature of 22 degrees C, the relative humidity of 40% and all other environmental parameters remained unchanged. Five groups of six female subjects were each exposed to the three ventilation rates, one group and one ventilation rate at a time. Each exposure lasted 4.6 h and took place in the afternoon. Subjects were unaware of the intervention and remained thermally neutral by adjusting their clothing. They assessed perceived air quality and SBS symptoms at intervals, and performed simulated normal office work. Increasing ventilation decreased the percentage of subjects dissatisfied with the air quality (P < 0.002) and the intensity of odour (P < 0.02), and increased the perceived freshness of air (P < 0.05). It also decreased the sensation of dryness of mouth and throat (P < 0.0006), eased difficulty in thinking clearly (P < 0.001) and made subjects feel generally better (P < 0.0001). The performance of four simulated office tasks improved monotonically with increasing ventilation rates, and the effect reached formal significance in the case of text-typing (P < 0.03). For each two-fold increase in ventilation rate, performance improved on average by 1.7%. This study shows the benefits for health, comfort and productivity of ventilation at rates well above the minimum levels prescribed in existing standards and guidelines. It confirms the results of a previous study in the same office when the indoor air quality was improved by decreasing the pollution load while the ventilation remained unchanged.
Recruiting and Retaining Qualißed Employees by Design
American Society of Interior Designers (1999), Recruiting and Retaining Qualißed Employees by Design. White Paper.
Sound Solutions. ASID ICON
  • C Mclaughlm
McLaughlm, C. (2000). Sound Solutions. ASID ICON June.
Risk of Sick Leaves Associated with Outdoor Afr Supply Rate, Humidification, and Occupant Complaints
  • D K Milton
  • P M Glencross
  • M D Wafrers
Milton, D.K., Glencross, P.M., Wafrers, M.D. (2000). Risk of Sick Leaves Associated with Outdoor Afr Supply Rate, Humidification, and Occupant Complaints. Informedesign www.informedesign.umn.edu. Accessed 01-07-04.
Workplace Acoustics: Sound, Noise and Effective Work, www.navbus
  • Inc Steelcase
Steelcase, Inc. (2002). Workplace Acoustics: Sound, Noise and Effective Work, www.navbus.com. Accessed 7-29-04.
The Inclusive Approach: Creating a Place where People want to Work
  • J Uzee
Uzee, J. (1999). The Inclusive Approach: Creating a Place where People want to Work. Facility Management Journal of the International Facility Management Association, 26-30.
The Negotiable Environment: People, White-Collar Work, and the Office
  • C Williams
  • D Armstrong
  • C Malcom
Williams, C., Armstrong, D., Malcom, C. (1985). The Negotiable Environment: People, White-Collar Work, and the Office. Ann Arbor, MI.
Impact of Ofßce Design on Employees 'Productivity: a Case Study of Banking Organizations of Abbottabad
  • Shehlaamjad Aminahameed
AminaHameed, ShehlaAmjad (2009). Impact of Ofßce Design on Employees 'Productivity: a Case Study of Banking Organizations of Abbottabad, Pakistan(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.scientificjournals.org/ journals2009/articles/1460.pdf
Using Ofßce Design to Increase Productivity
  • M Brill
  • S Margulis
  • E Konar
  • Bosti
Brill, M., Margulis, S., Konar E., BOSTI. (1984). Using Ofßce Design to Increase Productivity. Vol. 1, 1984: Vol. 2, 1984. Buffalo, N.Y.: Workplace Design and Productivity Buildings/IAQ, pp.495 500.