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ABSTRACT Tapioca is a food produced from the cassava roots and is commonly used in Brazil to prepare many products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tapioca on the metabolic profile of Wistar rats. Twenty female rats were divided in G1: control group (n=10) and G2: treated group (n=10). The treated group received tapioca flour mixed to the rat food for 45 days, and the control group received commercial rat food. Body weight was evaluatedthree times a week. Blood samples were collected to evaluate glycemia, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-c, HDL-c, and triglycerides (TG). Anthropometric parameters were also evaluatedas well as atherogenic indices. A significant reduction was observed in the levels of TC, LDL-c, and abdominal circumference in the treated group although the food intake was significantly higher in this group. The intake of tapioca positively interferes with the lipid levels.
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1Patrícia Cincotto dos Santos Bueno, 1,2,*Sandra Maria Barbalho, 1Isabela Ramos Araújo de
Medeiros, 1Isabella Vasconcelos Zattiti, 1Claudemir Gregório Mendes, 1ElenLandgraf Guiguer,
1Maricelma Silva Soares De Souza, 1Adriano Cressoni de Araújo and 1Raul J. S. Girio
1School of Medicine, University of Marília (UNIMAR), Av. Higino Muzzi Filho 1001, Marília,
15525-902, São Paulo, Brazil
2Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Food Technology of Marília (FATEC), São Paulo, Brazil
Tapioca is a food produced from the cassava roots and is commonly used in Brazil to prepare many products.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tapioca on the metabolic profile of Wistar rats. Twenty
female rats were divided in G1: control group (n=10) and G2: treated group (n=10). The treated group
received tapioca flour mixed to the rat food for 45 days, and the control group received commercial rat food.
Body weight was evaluatedthree times a week. Blood samples were collected to evaluate glycemia, total
cholesterol (TC), LDL-c, HDL-c, and triglycerides (TG). Anthropometric parameters were also evaluatedas
well as atherogenic indices. A significant reduction was observed in the levels of TC, LDL-c, and abdominal
circumference in the treated group although the food intake was significantly higher in this group. The intake
of tapioca positively interferes with the lipid levels.
Copyright © 2018, Patrícia Cincotto dos Santos Bueno et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The ingestion of many different kinds of foods has been
postulated to improve risk factors of chronic degenerative
diseases such as diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and
hypertension, which are related to cardiovascular diseases,
cancer, and death. Many of these foods have shown effects
against insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, overweight and
obesity (Telle-Hansen et al., 2017;Santos et al., 2017; Noumiet
al., 2017; Costa et al., 2017; Seo, Kim, 2017; Castellano-
Castillo et al., 2017). Tapioca has been considered in popular
medicine as also having effects under these conditions.
However, few studies are observed in the literature. Tapioca is
an edible starch, produced from the roots of cassava
(Manihotesculenta Crantz), which is used in the preparation of
sweet and savory dishes.
*Corresponding author: Sandra Maria Barbalho,
1School of Medicine, University of Marília (UNIMAR), Av. Higino
Muzzi Filho 1001, Marília, 15525-902, São Paulo, Brazil.
2Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Food
Technology of Marília (FATEC), São Paulo, Brazil.
It is a plant widely cultivated in several tropical countries and
often consumed as a staple food. The roots provide a cheap
source of carbohydrate and a low content of proteins
(Kanmaniet al., 2018; Silva et al., 2013; Wang et al., 2014;
Maier et al., 2017). The cassava belongs to the family
Euphorbiaceae and is produced in Brazil under the system of
subsistence agriculture. Nowadays tapioca can be considered
one of the most traditional symbols of the cuisine of the North
and Northeast of the country and is used in different dishes
appreciated by the populations of all the income ranges (Oso et
al., 2014; Queirozet al., 2009; Dias, Leonel, 2006). Tapioca is
a very common food for Brazilians, has low cost, and
popularly is associated with the reduction of some
cardiovascular risk factors. For these reasons,the aim of this
study was to evaluate its effects on the metabolic profile of
Wistar rats.
Ethical Principle and Group of Animals: This study had the
approval by the Animal Research Ethics Committee of the
ISSN: 2230-9926
International Journal of Development Research
Vol. 08, Issue, 02, pp.18969-18972, February,
Article History:
Received 14th November, 2017
Received in revised form
20th December, 2017
Accepted 23rd January, 2018
Published online 28th February, 2018
Available online at
Key Words:
Crantz, Cholesterol,
Glycaemia, Body Weight.
Citation: Patrícia Cincotto dos Santos Bueno, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Isabela Ramos Araújo de Medeiros, Isabella Vasconcelos Zattiti, Claudemir
Gregório Mendes, ElenLandgraf Guiguer, Maricelma Silva Soares De Souza, Adriano Cressoni de Araújo and Raul J. S. Girio, 2018. “Brazilian
typical food with potential to improve lipid profile”, International Journal of Development Research, 8, (02), 18969-18972.
Medical School of Marilia (UNIMAR) Marilia – São Paulo,
Brazil. Twenty female Wistar rats (Rattusnorvegicus),
weighing 180g to 200g, were obtained from the Animal
Experimentation Center - University of Marilia (UNIMAR),
Marilia São Paulo, Brazil. Seven days before the beginning
of the experimental protocol the female were separated into 2
groups andwas acclimated to the laboratory conditions and
housed in plastic boxes at controlled room temperature (20°C
to 25°C) and light/dark cycle of 12 hours. After acclimation,
female rats were divided in G1: control group (n=10) and G2:
treated group (n=10). The treated group received tapioca flour
during 45 days, and the control group received commercial rat
food. Both groups received water and food ad libitum.
The treated group received the commercial rat food mixed
with the tapioca flour in a ratio of 80:20 (commercial rat
food:tapioca). This mixture was moistened, and the pellets
were reconstituted and dried for later use. Body weight was
evaluatedthree times a week. At the end of the experimental
protocol,the rats were anesthetized with thiopental
(200mg/kg). After death, blood samples were collected to
evaluate the biochemical profile: glycemia, total cholesterol
(TC), HDL-c, and triglycerides (TG). Anthropometric
parameters were also evaluated (Lee Index, body weight,
thoracic circumference; abdominal circumference and visceral
fat weight).
Atherogenic Index (AI), Atherogenic Coefficient (AC), and
Cardiac Risk Ratio 1 (CRR1) were evaluated after Ahmadvand
et al., 2016; Munshi, Joshi and Rane, 2015); Ikewuchi, 2012):
non-HDL-c = Total cholesterol HDL-c; AI = log (TG/HDL-
c); AC = (TC – HDL-c)/HDL-c; CCR1 = TC/HDL-c, and
CCR2 = LDL-c/HDL-c.
Statistical analysis
All data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The
analysis was performed initially by the unpaired T-test for the
variables with distribution or the Man-Whitney test when they
did not present normality. The results were analyzed using the
software BioEstat5.3, and the level of significance was 5%.
In Table 1 it is observed that the animals of the two groups
started the experiment with similar mean body weight. At the
end of the study, no significant difference was observed in the
mean weight gain, Lee index, Body Mass Index, thoracic
circumference, and visceral fat. A significantincrease in food
intake was observed in the treated group but no modifications
were observed in body weight and a reduction was seen in the
abdominal circumference.
Table 1. Food and water intake, nthropometric and biochemical parameters for G1 and G2
Parameters (mg/dL) G1 G2 p-value*
137.8±20.68 148.5±30.52 p = 0.185
224.5±16.54 233.4±15.83 p =0.117
Food intake (g) 82.06±20.15 105.24±17.05 p < 0.000‡
Water intake (mL) 140.17±29.03 133.15±28.56 p = 0.148
Lee Index 296.67±7.52 294.98±8.46 p =0.321
Body mass index 0.54±0.035 0.52±0.038 p =0.492
Weight gain (%) 67.40±35.84 62.38±31.144 p =0.452
T. Circumference 9.25±1.11 8.75±0.35 p = 0.153
A. Circumference 10.6±0.61 10.2±0.35 p = 0.045‡
Visceral fat 1.318±0.42 1.236±0.36 p = 0.323
1Weight at the beginning of the experimental protocol; 2Weight at the end of the experimental
protocol;T. Circumference: Thoracic circumference; A. Circumference: Abdominal circumference;
‡ significant difference.
Table 2. Biochemical parameters of G1 and G2 after the treatment with tapioca
Parameters (mg/dL) G1 G2 p-value*
Glycaemia 155.7±22.52 165.8±20.88 p= 0.156
Triglycerides 129.3±19.00 118.75±24.42 p= 0.158
Cholesterol 164.75±5.59 158.7±5.23 p= 0.0151‡
HDL-c 52.0±5.361 50.4±5.361 p=0.495
LDL-c 98.1±24.735 82.4±4.850 p=0.032‡
‡Significant difference; HDL-c: High-Density Lipoprotein; LDL-c: Low-Density Lipoprotein
Table 3. Atherogenic indices in the experimental protocol for G1 and G2
Parameters (mg/dL) G1 G2 p-value*
Non-HDL-c 119.0±23,317 108.3±5.510 p=0.081
AC 1.23±0.630 1.57±0.413 p=0.095
AI 2.233±0.633 2.579±0.413 p=0.919
CCR1 3.17±0.439 3.170±0.230 p=0.490
CCR2 1.389±0.896 1.652±0.203 p=0.336
AC: Atherogenic Coefficient; AI: Atherogenic Index; CRR1: Cardiac Risk Ratio 1;
CRR2: Cardiac Risk Ratio 2.
18970 Patrícia Cincotto dos Santos Bueno et al. Brazilian typical food with potential to improve lipid profile
Tapioca is the starch product extracted from the cassava roots
that are peeled, crushed, disintegrated, concentrated,
dehydrated and dried. It is a natural polysaccharide, consisting
of linear chains (amylose) and branched chains (amylopectin)
and obtained through roots of manioc roots. The result is a
product with a high carbohydrate content, low in protein,
lipids, and minerals. The tapioca flour presents 6.14% of
resistant starch, which does not undergo enzymatic digestionin
humans (Queirozet al., 2009). In Brazil, thepopulationhas been
using tapioca as an alternative to reduce weight. Also, our
results show areduction in the abdominal circumference and in
the food intake, although we did not observe significant
differences in the body weight of the animals. Ble-Castilloet
al. (2017) evaluated the effects of banana starch on the
appetite and found no associated effect on the subjective
appetite ratings or gut hormones but helped to reduce meal
size. Resistant starch supplementation is also related to the
reduction of body weight by some authors (Si et al., 2017;
Barczynska et al., 2016). Diet may interfere in the composition
of the human microbiome that displays several systemic
actions. Resistant starch may exhibit a plethora of health
benefits, including the increase in the ratio of Firmicutes:
Bacteroidetes (Maier et al., 2017). Furthermore, the
fermentation of resistant starch in the colon leads to the
production of acids and derivatives of organic acids with short
chain as acetate, butyrate, and propionate.
These compounds act in the reduction of
hypercholesterolemia. Our results also showed areductionon
the cholesterol and LDL-c levels. By reducing serum
cholesterol levels, resistant starch acts in the prevention of
diseases such as constipation, type 2 diabetes, andcoronary
heart disease. Some studies report a decrease in postprandial
blood glucose or insulin levels associated with ingestion of
resistant starch compared to the consumption of digestible
starch. Similarly to our results, other researchers found no
modification in the glycaemia (Reshmi, Sudha and
Shashirekha, 2017; Koh and Rowling, 2017; Matsuda et al.,
Liu et al. (2006) studied the effects of retrograded tapioca
starch on the ovarian hormone deficiency-induced
hypercholesterolemia in rats and showed that tapioca leads to a
hypocholesterolemic effect in ovariectomized rats but not in
sham-operated animals. Okafor et al. (2016) studied the effects
of four different blends of cassava-wheat bread samples with
0, 10, 15, and 20% of cassava flour. These samples were
included individually to groups of healthy human volunteers
that were studied in the morning after a 10-12-hr overnight
fast. Glycaemia was evaluated after 30 minutesand after 2
hours and observed that the increase in cassava incorporation
resulted insignificantly less glycemic index. We did not find
studies that showed the effects of tapioca on the abdominal
circumference. Our animals showed areduction of this
parameter, but the visceral fat weight did not show asignificant
reduction. The flour of other plants may reduce visceral
weight, such as Morindaoleifera flour (Guigueret al., 2016)
and Pereskia aculeate flour (Barbalho et al.., 2016).Visceral
fat is known as an endocrine organ associated with the
maintenance of homeostasis. On the other hand, it plays an
important role in the development of several comorbidities
such as insulin resistance, diabetes, inflammation and
cardiovascular diseases.
This association is due to the release of pro-inflammatory
cytokines such as resistin, leptin, Tumor Necrosis Factor,
Interleukin 6, and many othersbiomarkers (Edrisi et al.., 2017;
Shirkawa et al., 2017). The evaluation of the atherogenic
indices is capable of indicating the increase of the risks for
development of cardiovascular diseases and may be considered
in the clinical practice as a potential way of stratification of
these diseases(Choi et al., 2017; Mopuriet al., 2017;Ikewuchi,
2012). The intake of tapioca did not interfere in these indices.
Tapioca may bring positive effects on the metabolic profile of
Wistarrats. Nevertheless, we suggest more studies using this
product to establish the amounts that should be usedin order to
improve cardiovascular risks.
Conflict of interests
Authors declare no conflict of interests.
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18972 Patrícia Cincotto dos Santos Bueno et al. Brazilian typical food with potential to improve lipid profile
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Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children is increasing and identifying the risk factors for MetS during childhood is an important first step to prevent chronic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and cardiometabolic risk factor (CMRF) clustering among Korean children and adolescents and to validate the associated anthropometric and laboratory surrogate markers. We used data from the 2011–2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In total, data for 2,935 subjects (1539 boys, 52.6%) aged 10–19 years were assessed. MetS was defined by central obesity plus any two or more of CMRFs such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) using the International Diabetes Federation criteria for children and adolescents. The presence of two or more CMRFs was classified as CMRF clustering. The prevalence of MetS and CMRF clustering in this group was found to be 1.8% and 8.9%, respectively. The receiver operating characteristic analysis of MetS and CMRF clustering, and the area under the curve (95% confidence interval) of surrogate markers revealed that the waist circumference to height ratio [0.960 (95% CI 0.959–0.960), cut-off 0.491] showed the highest predictability for MetS whereas triglyceride to HDL-C ratio [0.891 (95% CI 0.891–0.892), cut-off 2.63] showed the highest predictability for CMRF clustering. Long-term follow-up is needed for further validation.
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Background: DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. DNA methylation may be modified by environmental and nutritional factors. Thus, epigenetics could potentially provide a mechanism to explain the etiology of metabolic disorders, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to analyze the level of DNA methylation of several lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-promoter-CpG dinucleotides in a CpG island region and relate this to the gene and protein expression levels in human visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from individuals with and without MetS. Methods: VAT samples were collected from laparoscopic surgical patients without and with MetS, and levels of LPL mRNA, LPL protein, and LPL DNA methylation were measured by qPCR, western blot, and pyrosequencing. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were analyzed. Individuals included in a subset underwent a dietary fat challenge test, and levels of postprandial triglycerides were determined. Results: We found higher levels of DNA methylation in MetS patients but lower gene expression and protein levels. There was a negative association between LPL methylation and LPL gene expression. We found a positive association between LPL methylation status and abnormalities of the metabolic profile and basal and postprandial triglycerides, whereas LPL gene expression was negatively associated with these abnormalities. Conclusions: We demonstrate that LPL methylation may be influenced by the degree of metabolic disturbances and could be involved in triglyceride metabolism, promoting hypertriglyceridemia and subsequent associated disorders, such as MetS.
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Diet can influence the composition of the human microbiome, and yet relatively few dietary ingredients have been systematically investigated with respect to their impact on the functional potential of the microbiome. Dietary resistant starch (RS) has been shown to have health benefits, but we lack a mechanistic understanding of the metabolic processes that occur in the gut during digestion of RS. Here, we collected samples during a dietary crossover study with diets containing large or small amounts of RS. We determined the impact of RS on the gut microbiome and metabolic pathways in the gut, using a combination of “omics” approaches, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metaproteomics, and metabolomics. This multiomics approach captured changes in the abundance of specific bacterial species, proteins, and metabolites after a diet high in resistant starch (HRS), providing key insights into the influence of dietary interventions on the gut microbiome. The combined data showed that a high-RS diet caused an increase in the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, including increases in relative abundances of some specific members of the Firmicutes and concurrent increases in enzymatic pathways and metabolites involved in lipid metabolism in the gut.
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Background Obesity, a major cause of death and disability, is increasing worldwide. Obesity is characterized by a chronic, low-grade inflammatory state which is suggested to play a critical role in the development of obesity-related diseases like cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In fact, in the hours following consumption of a meal, a transient increase in inflammatory markers occurs, a response that is exaggerated in obese subjects. Dietary composition, including content of dietary fatty acids, may affect this inflammatory response both acutely and chronically, and thereby be predictive of progression of disease. The aim of the review was to summarize the literature from 2010 to 2016 regarding the effects of dietary fat intake on levels of inflammatory markers in overweight and obesity in human randomized controlled trials. Methods and results We performed a literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed databases. The literature search included human randomized controlled trials, both postprandial and long-term interventions, from January 2010 to September 2016. In total, 37 articles were included. Interventions with dairy products, vegetable oils, or nuts showed minor effects on inflammatory markers. The most consistent inflammatory-mediating effects were found in intervention with whole diets, which suggests that many components of the diet reduce inflammation synergistically. Furthermore, interventions with weight reduction and different fatty acids did not clearly show beneficial effects on inflammatory markers. Conclusion Most interventions showed either no or minor effects of dietary fat intake on inflammatory markers in overweight and obese subjects. To progress our understanding on how diet and dietary components affect our health, mechanistic studies are required. Hence, future studies should include whole diets and characterization of obese phenotypes at a molecular level, including omics data and gut microbiota.
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Previous studies have shown the benefits of native banana starch (NBS) supplementation in improving glucose metabolism and reducing body weight (BW) in humans. However, the effect of this starch on appetite regulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of NBS rich resistant starch on subjective measurements of appetite, energy intake, and appetite hormones in healthy subjects. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were also assessed. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy young subjects consumed a beverage containing either 40 g of NBS or 40 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were estimated using visual analogue scales (VAS) and satiety hormone responses. At the end of the intervention, participants were provided with a pre-weighed ad libitum homogeneous test meal. After a washout period of 1 week, subjects received the alternative treatment. NBS supplementation induced a reduction in food intake, glucose area under the curve (AUC)-180 min, and insulin AUC-180 min. However, there was no associated effect on the subjective appetite ratings or gut hormones. NBS supplementation may help to reduce meal size and control BW.
Objective: Resistin is secreted from monocytes/macrophages and is associated with insulin resistance, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases. In the Japanese cohort, serum resistin is tightly associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at -420 (rs1862513) in the promoter region of the human resistin gene. However, interactions between SNP-420 and environmental factors remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum resistin levels and nutrient intake, and the effect of SNP-420 on this association. Design, participants, and measurements: The Toon Genome Study is a cohort study of Japanese community-dwelling subjects. A total of 1981 participants were cross-sectionally analyzed. Each nutrient intake was assessed using the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and categorized into the quartiles (Q1-Q4). Serum resistin was measured by ELISA. Results: Serum resistin tended to be inversely associated with fish intake and positively associated with meat intake after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and energy intake. Serum resistin was inversely associated with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and energy intake (Q1 12.5, Q2 12.5, Q3 12.2, Q4 11.5 ng/ml; P for trend=0.007). This inverse association was strongest in the G/G genotype of SNP-420, followed by C/G and C/C (G/G, Q1 18.9, Q2 19.5, Q3 18.4, Q4 14.5 ng/ml, P=0.001; C/G, 14.4, 13.3, 13.1, 12.9, P=0.015; C/C, 9.5, 9.5, 9.2, 8.8, P=0.020; P for interaction=0.004). Conclusions: The inverse association between serum resistin and n-3 PUFA intake was strongest in SNP-420 G/G genotype in the Japanese cohort. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants. They comprise several antioxidant compounds and they are generally considered to be involved in the defense against human chronic diseases. During the last years, there has been growing scientific interest in their potential health benefits. In this comprehensive review, we focus on the current evidence defining the position of their dietary intake in the prevention/treatment of human chronic diseases, including prostate cancer and other types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease; we also discuss their ability to modulate multiple signalling transduction pathways involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Despite the fact that data regarding the biological functions of polyphenols can be considered exhaustive, evidence is still inadequate to support clear beneficial effects on human chronic diseases. Currently, most data suggest that a combination of phytochemicals rather than any single polyphenol is responsible for health benefit. More studies investigating the role of polyphenols in the prevention of chronic human diseases are needed, especially for evaluating factors such as gender, age, genotype, metabolism and bioavailability.
A 9-week study was conducted to compare dietary corn starch (CS) or tapioca starch (TS), with or without being pre-gelatinized (PG), on the growth, feeding efficiencies, plasma and muscle biochemistry, intestinal short chain fatty acids (SCFA), and liver glycogen of triplicate groups of 20 red hybrid tilapia (Orecohromis sp.). Various pellet characteristics were evaluated, along with their surface and cross sectional microstructure. The PG diets had significantly higher water stability, bulk density, and protein solubility, along with a smoother surface. Tilapia fed the TS diet had lower growth than had all other tilapia, but were significantly improved when diet was pre-gelatinized. In the PG treatments, intestinal SCFA significantly decreased while plasma glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver glycogen, significantly increased. Fish fed the CS diet had significantly more long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid than had those fed by other treatments. Pre-gelatinization may improve fish productivity and offer greater flexibility during aquafeed production.