Conference Paper

Control of Cabomba caroliniana with flumioxazin: control efficacy and the effect of environmental factors

Authors:
  • Department of Agriculture and Fisheries
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Abstract

Cabomba caroliniana A.Gray (Cabombaceae), native to South America, has become a highly invasive species of water bodies worldwide where it has been introduced. Cabomba’s tendency to displace native aquatic plants poses a threat to native biodiversity. Cabomba has now established in most states in Australia and with only few viable control options management efforts are directly hampered. Currently only one herbicide (carfentrazone) is registered in Australia for the control of cabomba in non-flowing water. Based on high treatment costs and the lack of options in flowing water makes the management of larger infestations impossible. The efficacy of the herbicide flumioxazin to control cabomba and the effects of environmental factors (pH and shading) on herbicide performance were tested through a series of experiments. Dose-response relationships (5 – 400 ppb active ingredient (a.i.)) demonstrated that cabomba is highly sensitive to Flumioxazin. Excellent control (96% of biomass) of cabomba was achieved at 5 ppb a.i. and complete kills were observed when flumioxazin was applied to the water column at rates ≥ 10 ppb. The native Vallisneria nana was not visually affected by flumioxazin at such low rates. The efficacy of flumioxazin is reportedly linked to the pH of the water (rapid breakdown occurs at high pH levels; ~15 min half-life at pH 9) and light penetration, but we found no evidence of an effect of pH or shading on efficacy to control cabomba. Later trials confirmed that cabomba is effectively controlled even if exposed to the herbicide for only 15 minutes. Flumioxazin promises to be an efficient and economically viable tool for the control of cabomba in Australia. The high susceptibility of cabomba means application rates can be reduced to a level that the herbicide becomes practically species specific. Future research will investigate improved delivery mechanisms and test a wider range of native species to get a better understanding of non-target damage.

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... Specific reports have been made in this regard about aquatic systems in Australia, Belgium, China, Japan and the United States of America in response to the invasion of C. caroliniana (Bultemeier et al., 2009;Edmunds and Burrows, 2019;Scheers et al., 2019;Zhang et al., 2003). To date, research on the management of C. caroliniana has largely focussed on biological control (Cabrera-Walsh et al., 2011;Schooler et al., 2006), drawdown methods (Dugdale et al., 2013), herbicide application (Bickel et al., 2018;Bultemeier et al., 2009;Hofstra et al., 2021;Hunt et al., 2015), shading (Nguyen et al., 2021;Schooler, 2008) and the use of concentrated solutions of urea (Huang et al., 2017). Notwithstanding the considerable level of global research conducted on C. caroliniana and the concomitant array of control techniques, it has been observed that many are actually inadequate, and infested areas thus require ongoing management attempts which can be both time consuming and expensive (Bickel, 2012). ...
... The use of herbicide application to control C. caroliniana has shown varying success around the world and has been often described as 'ineffective' in the long term (Bickel et al., 2018;Bultemeier et al., 2009;Hofstra et al., 2021;Hunt et al., 2015) (Table 3). From examples of several herbicides mentioned in the literature, the most effective systems which have been reported to reduce C. caroliniana include Diquat, Diquat and Copper, Endothall (as the amine and dipotassium salt) and Flumioxazin (Bickel et al., 2018;Bultemeier et al., 2009;Hunt et al., 2015). ...
... The use of herbicide application to control C. caroliniana has shown varying success around the world and has been often described as 'ineffective' in the long term (Bickel et al., 2018;Bultemeier et al., 2009;Hofstra et al., 2021;Hunt et al., 2015) (Table 3). From examples of several herbicides mentioned in the literature, the most effective systems which have been reported to reduce C. caroliniana include Diquat, Diquat and Copper, Endothall (as the amine and dipotassium salt) and Flumioxazin (Bickel et al., 2018;Bultemeier et al., 2009;Hunt et al., 2015). Although these herbicides are generally described as effective, there is some contradictory evidence that suggests that they may not be effective for all global populations. ...
Article
Cabomba caroliniana [A. Gray] (Cabombaceae), also known as Carolina fanwort, is a native of South America which has now become a serious invasive threat to aquatic systems across the world. Its capacity to inundate a water column with active fragments and seeds makes the containment and management of C. caroliniana a challenging task and an ecological and economic necessity. Previous and current management efforts have been largely focussed on biological control, drawdown methods, herbicide application, manual removal, shading and the use of a concentrated urea solution. Although these methods have shown some success in reducing large infestations, they are generally considered to be unreliable when used alone since they are unable to contain or reduce the species in the long term with a single-use treatment protocol. It is feared that, without effective, improved and integrated management strategies, C. caroliniana will continue to invade aquatic ecosystems beyond its already wide current distribution, thus causing increased global economic and environmental damage. This review will therefore explore the biology and distribution of C. caroliniana and examine the current and previous attempts for its global management. It will also evaluate the most successful current treatments and clarify where research efforts are urgently needed for the improved long-term extirpation of this aquatic invader.
... A similar situation has been reported for fanwort, where no evidence of an effect of pH or shading was found, and fanwort was highly sensitive to flumioxazin (. 96% control with . 5 lg ai L À1 ) (Bickel et al. 2018). ...
... Magnus), and American eelgrass (Glomski and Netherland 2013). In further studies, flumioxazin (50 lg ai L À1 ) did not reduce shoot biomass of American pondweed or Illinois pondweed 8 WAT (Mudge 2013) and Vallisneria nana R. Br. was not visually affected at low rates (, 10 lg ai L À1 ) (Bickel et al. 2018). ...
... Based on the flumioxazin concentrations that were determined up to 6 HAT during Experiment 2, and the similar pH range in tanks on the day of treatment (below 8.5) across the three experiments, it was expected that flumioxazin exposure time would have been sufficient to enable uptake by susceptible species. Although there is limited information published on plant uptake rates for flumioxazin, time frames of minutes rather than hours have been suggested for susceptible species (Bickel et al 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Several invasive submersed aquatic plant species have established in many waterways within New Zealand, causing substantial economic, recreational, and ecological impacts. The herbicides currently registered for use for the management of submersed aquatic plants do not control all aquatic weed species under field conditions, and additional control methods are sought. This study evaluates the effectiveness of flumioxazin against four target submersed species (Ceratophyllum demersum, Egeria densa, Lagarosiphon major, and Elodea canadensis) and three nontarget native species (Myriophyllum triphyllum, Potamogeton ochreatus, and Nitella sp. aff. cristata). Single applications of flumioxazin required high concentrations (400 ug ai L-1) to reduce C. demersum and L. major biomass by at least 50% at pH 8.4, E. densa was not controlled effectively at any rate (> pH 8.4). However, low-rate applications (25, 50, 75, 100 ug ai L-1) followed by high-rate applications (100, 200, 300, 400 ug ai L-1, respectively) provided additional control of all species exposed to flumioxazin. M. triphyllum and P. ochreatus biomass was reduced with increasing concentration, N. sp. aff. cristata showed no symptoms from the application of flumioxazin. The potential use of flumioxazin in New Zealand is restricted, because susceptible aquatic weeds are required to be growing in low pH (less than 8.5) waters to achieve effective control. To overcome this potential restriction a second application of flumioxazin within a short period (ca. 1 mo) following initial application to less dense vegetation could substantially improve efficacy under these conditions.
... The efficacy of flumioxazin has reportedly been linked to the pH of the water (rapid breakdown occurs at high pH levels, ca. 15-min half-life at pH 9) and light penetration, although no evidence of an effect was reported by Bickel et al. (2018). Trials in Australia showed that fanwort was effectively controlled even if exposed to the herbicide for only 15 min (Bickel et al. 2018). ...
... 15-min half-life at pH 9) and light penetration, although no evidence of an effect was reported by Bickel et al. (2018). Trials in Australia showed that fanwort was effectively controlled even if exposed to the herbicide for only 15 min (Bickel et al. 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fanwort (Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray, also known as cabomba) is an obligate submersed macrophyte native to the southern United States and Central and South America that has naturalized in the eastern United States, Canada, and various countries in Europe, Asia, and Oceania. It has been cultivated in New Zealand as an aquarium plant for at least 30 yr, but until recently (2009) had not naturalized. Fanwort is now declared an Unwanted Organism in New Zealand and as part of incursion response planning, effective management responses are required to achieve eradication. In this study we conducted herbicide trials on fanwort in containment using the herbicides carfentrazone, endothall, flumioxazin, and triclopyr. All four herbicides reduced fanwort biomass; however, with all herbicides viable plant material remained, indicating the potential for rapid regrowth after treatment, and a high degree of uncertainty of outcome where the herbicides are to be used for the management of field populations. None of the herbicides are recommended for use in eradication programs on fanwort without a clear understanding that multiple applications will likely be required, and there is a degree of uncertainty regarding the level of efficacy that can be achieved.
... Several herbicides have been evaluated for fanwort control, including carfentrazone, diquat, endothall (amine salt and dipotassium), florpyrauxifen-benzyl, flumioxazin, fluridone, and tricolpyr (Nelson et al. 2001, Bultemeier et al. 2009, Hunt et al. 2015, Richardson et al. 2016, Hofstra et al. 2021a). Endothall amine salt and flumioxazin have been effective against invasive fanwort in North America (Bultemeier 2008, Bultemeier et al. 2009) and Australia (Dugdale et al. 2012, Hunt et al. 2015, Bickel et al. 2018. The efficacy of endothall amine salt or flumioxazin for control of fanwort has not been evaluated in field conditions. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Carolina fanwort (Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray, fanwort) is a submerged macrophyte invasive in Asia, Australia, Europe, and parts of North America that degrades the structure, function, and use of aquatic ecosystems. Several herbicides have been evaluated for fanwort control in laboratory and mesocosm studies, but few have been assessed in a field setting. We evaluated the efficacy of flumioxazin applied at 200 parts per billion for fanwort control in Barton Lake, Kalamazoo County, Michigan, United States. We sampled 2 treatment plots and 3 reference plots 5 times in the 2016 growing season; fanwort biomass was measured on the first and final visits and fanwort percent cover was measured on all visits. We used mixed models to examine differences in fanwort biomass and percent cover between and within treatment and reference plots before and after treatment. Fanwort biomass and percent cover in treatment and reference plots were similar before the flumioxazin application but were significantly different after the flumioxazin application. Fanwort biomass in treatment plots was ≤2.2 g/0.1 m 2 before and after the flumioxazin application; fanwort biomass in reference plots increased from 2.3 g/0.1 m 2 to 15.9 g/0.1 m 2. The presence of living fanwort in treatment plots posttreatment suggests that follow up applications of flumioxazin would be required to maintain control in subsequent years. Results from our case study demonstrate that flumioxazin can be an effective technique for single season control of invasive fanwort in North America. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of flumioxazin for fanwort control over multiple growing seasons.
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