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Abstract

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the initial results of the Camp Performance Indicator (CPI) system to illustrate the importance of self-reliance of refugee camp dwellers with regard to infrastructure and service investments. Design/methodology/approach Data, derived from a field trip to Zaatari in autumn 2016 and thorough literature research, were taken to develop a new CPI system. The findings from the literature research were merged with available camp data to validate each other. Findings Self-reliance is a fundamental human right and anchored in the UN sustainable development goals. Yet, presented findings reveal that even in one of the most modern refugee camps in the world – Zaatari – the level of self-reliance is rather low. However, organisations and humanitarian logisticians can influence self-reliance by identifying clearly where challenges are. Research limitations/implications Data from a diverse range of reports were extracted. As most of these reports lack reliable and comparative quantitative data, the limitation of the study must be taken into account. So far data were only validated on one case study. To develop the tool further, more data need to be taken into account. Originality/value To this point, there is no performance measurement tool available focusing on self-reliance of encamped refugees. In addition, no academic research has measured the interrelation between the level of investments in infrastructure and services and the improvement of the lives of camp residents, especially regarding the level of self-reliance.
Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management
Developing a camp performance indicator system and its application to Zaatari,
Jordan
Anna-Mara Schön, Shahad Al-Saadi, Jakob Grubmueller, Dorit Schumann-Bölsche,
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Anna-Mara Schön, Shahad Al-Saadi, Jakob Grubmueller, Dorit Schumann-Bölsche, (2018)
"Developing a camp performance indicator system and its application to Zaatari, Jordan",
Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, https://doi.org/10.1108/
JHLSCM-10-2017-0047
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Developing a camp performance
indicator system and its
application to Zaatari, Jordan
Anna-Mara Schön
Fulda University at House of Logistics and Mobility (HOLM),
Frankfurt, Germany
Shahad Al-Saadi
Regional Research Unit, Ipsos, Amman, Jordan
Jakob Grubmueller
Department of Business,
Fulda University at House of Logistics and Mobility (HOLM),
Frankfurt, Germany, and
Dorit Schumann-Bölsche
School of Management and Logistics Sciences,
German-Jordanian University, Amman, Jordan
Abstract
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the initial results of the Camp Performance Indicator (CPI)
system to illustrate the importance of self-reliance of refugee camp dwellers with regard to infrastructure and
service investments.
Design/methodology/approach Data, derived from a field trip to Zaatari in autumn 2016 and thorough
literature research, were taken to develop a new CPI system. The findings from the literature research were
merged with available camp data to validate each other.
Findings Self-reliance is a fundamental human right and anchored in the UN sustainable development
goals. Yet, presented findings reveal that even in one of the most modern refugee camps in the world Zaatari
the level of self-reliance is rather low. However, organisations and humanitarian logisticians can influence
self-reliance by identifying clearly where challenges are.
Research limitations/implications Data from a diverse range of reports were extracted. As most of these
reports lack reliable and comparative quantitative data, the limitation of the study must be taken into account. So
far data were only validated on one case study. To develop the tool further, more data need to be taken into account.
Originality/value To this point, there is no performance measurement tool available focusing on
self-reliance of encamped refugees. In addition, no academic research has measured the interrelation between
the level of investments in infrastructure and services and the improvement of the lives of camp residents,
especially regarding the level of self-reliance.
Keywords Humanitarian supply chain, Performance measurement tool, Refugee camps,
Self-reliance, Zaatari camp
Paper type Research paper
1. Introduction
In the wake of the Asian tsunami in 2004 and the ensuing humanitarian crisis, scholars all over
the world started to look more intensively into the performance of humanitarian logistics and
supply chain management ( Jahre and Heigh, 2008; Kovács and Spens, 2011; Leiras et al., 2014;
Natarajarathinam et al., 2009; Thomas and Kopczak, 2005). To date, many scholars in the field of
disaster relief economics and logistics have had a rather narrow focus on short-term emergencies
(Bealt et al.,2016;Honget al., 2015; Krejci 2015; Tatham and Houghton, 2011). A smaller group of
academics has analysed relief chains of longer-term disasters, such as food crises (Haile, 2005;
Wood et al., 1995) or protracted refugee camps (Kovács et al., 2010; Olivius, 2014). Taking into
account that an estimated 14.2 million people reside in refugee camps for an average of 17 years
Journal of Humanitarian Logistics
and Supply Chain Management
© Emerald Publishing Limited
2042-6747
DOI 10.1108/JHLSCM-10-2017-0047
Received 9 October 2017
Revised 15 December 2017
Accepted 16 December 2017
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
www.emeraldinsight.com/2042-6747.htm
Developing a
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and its
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(UNHCR, 2004, 2016a), researchers might be interested in taking a closer look at the situation of
refugee camps, their dwellers and their structures (Betts et al., 2017).
Governments and host communities often consider refugees a burden to the economy,
environment, infrastructure, and security system (Betts et al., 2017; Hartmann, 2013; Jacobsen,
2005; WANA and FES Jordan and Iraq, 2017). They claim that refugees increase the pressure
on resources like land and water, especially since human crises intensify and refugee influxes
increase. As a consequence and sometimes only to silence political opponents host
governments frequently impose restrictions on the treatment of refugees by limiting their
rights, including freedom of movement or access to the local labour market (Betts et al., 2017;
Kibreab, 2003; UNHCR, 2016c), leaving encamped refugees feeling warehoused(Betts et al.,
2017). Nevertheless, donors, as well as organisations like the Office of the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), aim to improve lives of encamped refugees as well as
host communities, and thus invest in infrastructure and services (KfW Development Bank,
2017; JRP, 2017). The aims of such investments are according to international donors to
save costs in the long run, to reinforce local capacities and sustainability, to prevent conflicts,
and also to increase refugeesself-reliance and resilience ( JRP, 2017). Different entities, like
Joint IDP Profiling Service, Solutions Alliance or Global Knowledge Partnership on Migration
and Development (KNOMAD), engage in data and performance management regarding
displaced persons. However, there has been no academic research which measures the
interrelation between the level of investments in infrastructure and services and the
improvement of the lives of camp residents regarding the level of self-reliance. To analyse this
interrelation, a view only on logistics and supply chain management would not give satisfying
results. Research in this field must also include views from fields like economics and
management as well as politics and social sciences.
In the following sections, the development of the so-called Camp Performance Indicator
(CPI) system is described based on a visit to Zaatari camp in Jordan in autumn 2016.
In Section 2, after a short description on self-reliance in refugee camps, an overview of
performance measurement in humanitarian aid is given. The research method behind the
CPI is introduced in Section 3, followed by the key findings of six rounds of data acquisition
(Section 4). A case study of Zaatari Camp is presented in Section 5. Section 6 offers a
discussion on this topic, relating human rights and the sustainable development goals
(SDGs) to present research. Conclusions are drawn in Section 7.
2. State of the art: self-reliance and performance measurement
The state of the art of performance measurement is taken to develop a CPI system regarding
self-reliance. Thus, both topics are introduced in this section.
2.1 Self-reliance in refugee camps
Policies of keeping refugees in designated areas, typically camps, can be found in most
refugee-hosting countries in the south (Betts et al., 2017; Kibreab, 2003). A refugee camp is
defined as a place where refugees reside and, generally, host governments and/or
humanitarian actors provide assistance and services in a centralised manner. They often
include reception centres, public housing and tents or containers (UNHCR, 2014). Even if
most refugee camps are managed by the UN organisation UNHCR, camps vary heavily in
size, quality, type of equipment, location, etc., as the setup usually depends on the funding
the camp receives and on the hosting countrys policies. Just as there is a wide variety of
policies regarding refugees and camps, there are also great differences in the level of
self-reliance in camps. Hereinafter, we use three categories of camps, related to different
levels of self-reliance: the traditional camp, the urban camp, and the city-like camp:
Traditional camps have a minimum level of self-reliance. These camps only provide
the basic needs at a minimum standard, so people can survive but do not have the
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opportunity to choose which commodities and/or service they need. Market activities
exist, but are limited through the unavailability of opportunities and resources.
Urban camps have a medium level of self-reliance as shown in Section 5. Urban
camps provide fixed infrastructure and services, like pre-fabricated houses (instead
of tents), schools, hospitals, and a working security system. The camps also offer
water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), sewage, garbage, and electricity systems as
well as a market, where people can buy the goods they need and prefer. Market
opportunities in urban camps are more abundant, but still too many refugees
depend on external aid.
City-like camps do not yet exist, but would have a maximum level of self-reliance.
They have all benefits urban camps offer along with better education systems,
well-paid job opportunities and decent working conditions for refugees and
host community members seeking work. In this utopian settlement, residents are
able to care for themselves and have the financial means to pay for the services
they use.
Denying refugees to work affects their dignity and their well-being. If refugees remain
unemployed in the long-term, dependent on external aid, or are generally unable to participate
in social structures, they tend to develop associated problems. Those problems include
psychological and health problems, down-skilling (meaning the loss of obtained qualifications),
and socio-cultural as well as social isolation including stigmatisation, familial tensions and
conflicts, feeling of guilt, aggressiveness and poverty (Oschmiansky, 2010; Rawlence, 2016;
UNHCR, 2016c; Kibreab, 2003). Thus, increasing the level of employment should be a priority to
camp managers, host governments, and the international community.
2.2 Performance measurement
Performance measurement can be defined as the process of quantifying the efficiency
and effectiveness of action(Neely et al., 1995). In the commercial field, including logistics
and supply chain management, such actions are usually supposed to help either to reduce
cost or to increase services in order to meet customer requirements (Pfohl, 2010; Schulte,
2013; Bölsche, 2009). Translated into humanitarian terms, this would mean to help either
more beneficiaries or to be able to help them faster (Bölsche, 2009). These goals to be
efficient and effective in order to increase aid for beneficiaries are not only important for
humanitarian organisations, but in addition they also are often requirements set by
donors (Kovács and Spens, 2007; Haavisto and Goentzel, 2015). Only few organisations
have set up a consistent and thorough performance measurement system (Davidson, 2006;
Blecken, 2010). Especially smaller organisations, which often work project based, do not
evaluate their actions after finishing their work. In discussions with the authors, project
operators of non-governmental organisations have often cited tight budgets as a reason,
stating that there is no money available to go back to the projects location to see the long-
term outcomes for the beneficiaries. Beside financial restrictions, the factor of urgency
also plays an important role: while gathering accurate data, lifesaving actions stand still
(Haavisto and Goentzel, 2015). Conversely, academics emphasise in various publications
how important it is to measure the performance regarding costs, flexibility and efficiency,
and other factors (Abidi et al., 2013; Blecken, 2010; Davidson, 2006; Haavisto and Goentzel,
2015; Lu et al., 2016).
Further, Haavisto and Goentzel (2015) pointed out the benefits of measuring indicators
for humanitarian assistance: connecting the performance with the objectives of both the
organisation and the individual operation could shed light to the actual impact of the
latter, including its quality.
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3. Research method
In order to achieve the level city-like camp, it is important to identify which investments
in infrastructure and services help refugees to become more self-reliant. Such
measurement and systems are lacking in both literature and research. Thus, three
different assessments (Figure 1), including six reviews on literature and online data
(cf. findings 1-6), were executed to evolve a first version of a performance measurement
system, denoted as CPI system.
The research started in autumn 2016 and will continue for about two more years. Each
assessment was and is resumed repeatedly to widen the findings.
As can be seen in Figure 1, the authors conducted two literature reviews to approach the
topic: a literature review on academic papers (findings 1) and one on reports and studies from
organisations and institutes (findings 2). The findings are explained in the next section. After
the first assessment, no indicator systems measuring self-reliance in camps were found
(only the well-being index of the Womens Refugee Commission for refugees in general, which
is not yet fully elaborated and has different objectives as the CPI). The idea was to create a
measurement tool to support camp managers in assessing the level of self-reliance of
encamped refugees. The next necessary assessment (2) was related to the creation of the tool.
Again, as non-descriptive research for refugee camps is lacking (most research emphasises on
examining processes of organisations), the authors reviewed existing indices regarding
development, poverty, well-being, etc. ( findings 3), and handbooks/guidelines to the matter to
adapt dimensions from other authors and learn how existing performance measurement tools
were built (findings 4). As the tool is supposed to help camp managers, it needs to include
mainly performance indicators which can be improved by the international community and
their executers the international organisations (e.g. UNHCR, cf. Figure 2). Thus, the
researchers tried to figure out existing interrelations between humanitarian logistics and
self-reliance of refugees in order to decide on which aspects to focus on. Findings 5 show that
the indicators usually used by humanitarian logisticians are not useful for present research.
The first CPI draft was established.
In order to prove the validation of the first CPI draft, Zaatari camp was chosen as a case
study. As mentioned in Section 1, data were acquired online and on the field trip to compare the
performance of the camp from 2013 to 2016 as well as statistics from Jordan. The main purpose
at this step was to analyse the impact of investments made in infrastructure and services on
the camp dwellerslives using the timeline of the camp. A setback for the research team was the
revelation that most organisations only conduct assessments once and do not regularly follow
up. Many reports tend to quote each other, which makes it difficult to understand how the
stated data were assessed. Thus, the authors could not gather all required data for the first
draft of the CPI (e.g. information about micro loans) and had to adjust it, as indicator fields
should not be left blank (second draft of CPI). Further, the researchers found data which were
not included in the first place. After evaluating a relation to self-reliance (e.g. women-led
households) new indicators were inserted. Adjusting the CPI again (third and here published
draft), the authors have gathered 27 indicators for six dimensions. Data for Jordan could not be
collected for all indicators. Thus, the tool and its application are not completely elaborated and
a comparison of different data cannot be provided yet. But still this paper gives an overview on
the CPI and the application to a first case from Jordan. The next section reveals the main
findings and sheds light to some major decisions the authors have made regarding the CPI.
4. Findings development of research tool
As mentioned in Section 3, the most relevant findings of the six reviews/data acquisitions
are described hereafter. Each finding is accompanied by a table with the most important
papers, reports, or studies, used for analyses. The numbering is according to the encircled
figures in Figure 1.
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Reviewing
literature
(academic papers
on subject)
Reviewing
literature (reports
and studies)
Research gap
identified:
Indicators
measuring
self-reliance in
camps
Identifying
dimensions to
measure self-
reliance
Reviewing
literature:
Development of
Performance
Measurement
Tool
Reviewing
literature:
Interrelation of
Humanitarian
Logistics and
self-reliance of
refugees
Reviewing reports and
indices on poverty,
well-being,
development, labour,
etc.
Field visit to Zaatari
Camp in September
2016, incl. discussions
with experts
1st draft:
CPI
Acquiring online
camp data
(reports,
homepages)
Inserting data in
CPI system
Inserting
relevant data
from field visit
and expert
discussions
Is data
relevant
for self-
reliance?
Yes
Is missing
data
available
for Zaatari
camp?
No
Research about
self-reliance
in refugee camps
Data discarded
Adjusting 1st
CPI draft
Yes
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
Excluding
data
for 3rd draft
2nd draft:
CPI
Inserting
data in CPI
system
Adjusting
2nd CPI
draft
Constructing
composite
indicators
(indeces) for
self-reliance for
refugee camps Self-reliance
index
created
2016
2017
2018
First assessment:
What is the level of self-reliance in refugee camps?
Who has looked into this field? Second assessment:
How can self-reliance be measured? Third assessment:
Zaatari Camp data in relation to self-reliance
Index development
3rd draft: CPI-
used for
publication
Figure 1.
Overview of
research method
Developing a
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and its
application
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4.1 Findings 1 self-reliance not yet in focus of academic research (Table I)
Mainly scholars from research areas like anthropology (Agier et al., 2002; Harrell-Bond,
1986), politics/social sciences (Bowles, 1998; Achilli, 2015), and urban planning/
architecture (Misselwitz, 2009) have addressed refugee camp residents. Apart from a few
exceptions (Werker, 2007; Jacobsen, 2005), economists have only recently started to take
a closer look at the situation of refugee camps, their dwellers and their structures
(Betts et al., 2017). To date, scholars have only dealt with similar topics, like economics of
refugees (Betts et al., 2017; Werker, 2007), economics of host country members
(Whitaker, 2002; Zetter et al., 2012; Zetter and Ruaudel, 2014), or innovations in
the humanitarian sector (Betts et al., 2015; Ramalingam et al., 2015). Concerning the
methods used, the majority of research regarding refugees is based on interviewing the
beneficiaries (Betts et al., 2015; Werker, 2002; Abdi and Awa, 2008; Achilli, 2016;
Holzer, 2012).
4.2 Findings 2 self-reliance not new to humanitarian organisations (Table II)
The term self-reliancecan be read in a vast range of organisational and institutional
documents and reports. The most important ones of the findings are mentioned henceforth.
UNHCR developed a Handbook for Self-Reliancein 2006, which was based on the
Main paper Summary
Jacobsen (2005) In-depth, qualitative and descriptive analysis of economics of refugees (camps and urban)
Werker (2007) Description of economy of encamped refugees presented using a case study of Kyangwali
Refugee Settlement in Uganda
Betts et al. (2015) Case study-based analysis of innovative efforts in refugee environments
Betts et al. (2017) Systematical exploration of urban and encamped refugeeseconomic lives. Comparatively
analysed and state of the art
Table I.
Findings 1 academic
papers concerning
self-reliance in refugee
camps
No
44%
Partly
15%
Yes
41%
No
67%
Notes: (a) – Share of indicators, which is related to humanitarian logistics (yes: 6, 10, 16, 17, 22,
28; no: 1-5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 15, 18, 21-27; partly: 7, 13, 14, 19, 20) in comparison to ; (b) – share of
indicators, which can be influenced by organisations/donors (yes: 10, 13-21, 27; no: 1-5, 8, 12,
22-26; partly: 6, 7, 9, 11
Partly
18%
Yes
15%
(a) (b)
Figure 2.
Share of indicators
related to
humanitarian
logistics (a)
and to organisations/
donors (b)
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millennium development goals (MDGs). The MDGs were created in 2000 and are succeeded
by the SDGs. UNHCR defines self-reliance as following:
Self-reliance is the social and economic ability of an individual, a household or a community to meet
essential needs (including protection, food, water, shelter, personal safety, health and education) in
a sustainable manner and with dignity. Self-reliance, as a programme approach, refers to
developing and strengthening livelihoods of persons of concern, and reducing their vulnerability
and long-term reliance on humanitarian/external assistance (UNHCR, 2006).
But even before developing the Handbook on Self-Reliance, UNHCR mentioned self-reliance in
different reports, e.g. Jamal (2000) and Kelley et al. (2004). Kelley et al. (2004) emphasised the
international collaboration on the topic with partners like IMF and the World Bank. In addition,
other organisations mention the term (or synonyms), like the Norwegian Refugee Council in its
Norwegian Refugee Council (2008) as well as Crisis Report Plans regarding the Syrian situation
(Government of Lebanon and United Nations, 2017; International Crisis Group, 2016; JRP, 2017).
Not only UNHCR bases its goals on the MDGs or SDGs, but this paper also uses the
SDGsKnowledge Platform, as it summarises the understanding of all United Nations
members to improve lives of all human beings. The SDGs were adopted on 25 September
2015 and although they were not explicitly created for refugees, they aim to end poverty,
protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all.
4.3 Findings 3 dimensions for CPI identified on base of literature review (Table III)
Before choosing or creating indicators, the researchers had to agree on categories
(dimensions) in order to provide a framework for the measured data. First, the authors
Main report/Study Summary
Sustainable Development
Goals (2017)
SDGs aim to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all.
All goals are supposed to be achieved in the next 15 years
UNHCR (2008) A tool for UNHCR staff and partners to implement self-reliance strategies.
Integrated employment-oriented strategies were developed with the support of
the International Labour Organisation (ILO)
Norwegian Refugee Council
(2008)
A document created to share key guidelines, standards and best practices in
order to alleviate the suffering of beneficiaries, but aimed to build self-reliance
in protracted situations
Womens Refugee
Commission (2017)
An easy-to-use tool to assess refugeeslevel of self-reliance through interviews.
The objective is to come up with common indicators for global use in order to
facilitate services to refugees to become self-reliant. The tool is currently
elaborated and not (or only partly) related to refugee camps
Table II.
Findings 2 reports
and studies with
respect to self-reliance
in refugee camps
Main report/Study Summary
Sustainable Development
Goals (2017)
17 different goals to improve life for all, identified as relevant for CPI: SDGs 1,
3, 4, 6, 8, 11, 13, 16
Human Development Index
(2016)
Index which concentrates on country data regarding development, gender
equality and poverty
Expert Group on Measuring
Quality of Employment (2015)
Indicators and guidelines for compiling quality of employment statistics with
strong regard to well-being
Eurostat (2017) EU survey regarding labour market, including general employment indicators
Stiglitz et al. (2009) Elaborated work about measuring peoples well-being
Worldbank database (2017) A database which has gathered thousands of indicators from different
sources, regarding development, poverty, education, gender, etc.
Table III.
Findings 3 reports
and indices about
poverty, well-being,
development,
labour, etc.
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focused on the more obvious categories, which humanitarians define as basic needs and
which are mentioned in the definition of self-reliance: protection, food, water, shelter,
personal safety, health, and education. Not only health, education, and security, but also
food and water were included in a closer selection, as the authors have come
across these categories in all reports regarding development and poverty alleviation.
These are categories which are also mentioned by a diverse range of reports, like the
HumanDevelopmentIndexbytheUnitedNations Development Programme 2016 and
indicators gathered in the World Bank (2017) database. Further, the authors had a close
look on the aforementioned SDGs. SDGs 1 (No Poverty), 3 (Good Health and Well-being),
4 (Quality Education), 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), 8 (Decent Work and Economic
Growth), 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities), and 16 (Peace, Justice and Strong
Institutions) were especially considered. As self-reliance is strongly related to employment
or paid work in general, the authors further looked into existing indicators regarding
labour (Eurostat, 2017) as well as quality of employment (Expert Group on Measuring
Quality of Employment, 2015). The objective is not only to increase the employment rate of
encamped refugees, but employment should also be good”– free of exploitation and
serving oneswell-being.
The decision about the dimensions was made when the authors came across the Stiglitz
et al.s (2009) report and their categorisations regarding well-being: material living
standards, health, education, personal activities including work, political voice and
governance, social connections and relationships, environment (present and future
conditions), insecurity, of an economic as well as a physical nature. For the third draft of the
CPI, these dimensions were reduced to material living standards, health, education, personal
activities including work, and insecurity, because no relevant figures could be found for
Zaatari camp related to the other dimensions. The dimensions were expanded to
demographics, as this category is necessary to (later) compare different camps and to
calculate ratios and percentages. However, the excluded dimensions will not be discarded,
as they will be useful for further research. The authors are aware that some indicators could
be categorised in different dimensions (e.g. access to electricity is not only part of material
living standards, but could also be part of education or well-being cf. column Objective
and examples for relation to self-reliance and/or other dimensionsin Table VII).
4.4 Findings 4 main challenge: balancing degree of complexity of CPI (Table IV )
The ambition to measure performances is not new to the humanitarian organisations, as
displayed by the Logistics Operational Guide by LOG Cluster (2015). But, instead of
measuring processes and operational flows on the part of the humanitarian organisations,
the CPI is created to assess the status quo of a camp, mainly but not only, regarding the
camps infrastructure in relation to the level of self-resilience of the encamped refugees.
The difficulty here is to find the balance between creating an easy-to-use tool, and one that
assesses the camp deeply enough for valuable results. As the CPI is divided into different
dimensions, each one has to be developed by itself, again without producing too much
complexity (OECD/OCDE, 2008). Bandura (2011) provided a good overview for different
Main report/Study Relation to development of performance measurement tool
OECD/OCDE (2008) In-depth guideline for creating composite indicators/indices.
Useful when data available on country level
Statistical Commission and UN Economic
Commission for Europe (2005)
Useful guideline regarding developing indicators regarding
employment/paid work as well as general information
Bandura (2011) Detailed and updated overview of existing country indices
Table IV.
Findings 4 reports
and studies
concerning developing
measurement tools
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indices, which are used as inspiration on how to build a performance measurement tool
for a refugee camp.
Examples from humanitarian logistics do not meet these research objectives, as they
mainly focus on the part of measuring processes of organisations (Widera and Hellingrath,
2016; Abidi et al., 2014). Further, researchers used and adapted existing methods, like SCOR
(Lu et al., 2016) or the balanced scorecard (Davidson, 2006; McLachlin et al., 2009; Lin Moe
et al., 2007). These methods are not appropriate for present research due to the different
dimensions ( findings 3). Thus, the authors used the Handbook on Constructing Composite
Indicators (OECD/OCDE, 2008), which was inspired creating the framework in Table VII.
Studying the working paper of Statistical Commission and UN Economic Commission for
Europe (2005) showcased the complexity of developing a useful tool. Which factors should
be inserted? Which data can camp managers realistically assess? Which indicators do
increase the quality of the CPI, which overcomplicate the tool? Which information gives
answers to the question of self-reliance and which are interesting, but irrelevant for the
scope? As these questions are not easy to answer, the authors started simultaneously to
the choice of alleged fitting indicators an online search for data of Zaatari camp in order to
validate the findings of the tool. This approach allowed us to create a first validated CPI
version (Table VII). Initial results of identified constraints regarding the indicators are
presented in column Constraintsin Table VII.
4.5 Findings 5 increasing self-reliance is also task of humanitarian logisticians (Table V)
Humanitarian logisticians have understood the importance of measuring the performance
of their processes; however, existing tools majorly are neither yet applied nor applied
properly (Widera and Hellingrath, 2016; Abidi et al., 2014). Reasons therefore are the
challenges illustrated by Abidi et al. (2014), among others: the achievement of results-
based management, especially in terms of input and short-, mid- and long-term outputs,
and the disappointment standard indicators evoke as they often cannot meet special
cultural nuances which influence humanitarian activities. These challenges can be
adapted to the CPI. First, for instance, by measuring a low school-children ratio the answer
to the camp manager could be to build more schools, without investing in the
improvement of the schoolsquality. Further, it is difficult to assess if the number of
schools for the children of today really improve the self-reliance of the adults of tomorrow
or if other measures would have improved their situation to a higher degree. Second, as the
CPI system is supposed to be able to assess different camps worldwide, more general
indicators need to be used ignoring cultural differences. Moreover, to validate the system,
it is created on basis of existing indicators, even if adapted for the purpose of assessing
self-reliance.
The authors support the call made by Aubone and Hernandez (2013) for a refugee camp
database in order to cross-analyse camps. This would not only facilitate analyses as
conducted for this research, but also improve transparency and visibility regarding
information, assets, infrastructure, and overall performances. These visibility gaps were
Main report/Study Summary
Widera and Hellingrath
(2016)
Assessing that existing performance measurement approaches do not fit nor
function properly yet regarding logisticians in humanitarian organisations
Abidi et al. (2014) Performances of humanitarian supply chains are not yet managed and measured
as common practice
Maghsoudi and
Pazirandeh (2016)
Visibility of resources in supply chains is important to humanitarian
organisations
Table V.
Findings 5
interrelation of
humanitarian logistics
and self-reliance of
refugees
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also uncovered by Maghsoudi and Pazirandeh (2016) for humanitarian supply chains.
Again, the researchers draw parallels between humanitarian logistics and its need for
performance measurement and the CPI, also because 33 per cent (yes +partly) of the
indicators are related to logistics (Figure 2).
4.6 Findings 6 state of available camp data is lacking (Table VI)
Many reports about the situation in Zaatari camp are descriptive, neither present figures in
tables, nor reveal sources of data, which make it hard to reproduce. If sources of data are
demonstrated, many figures derive from interviews with a non-representative number or
were taken from a previous report. Most of the organisations elaborating reports do work on
their own each concentrating on different challenges (e.g. education, health, labour). Even
if regular meetings take place in a camp, the reports reveal that there is room for
improvement regarding exchange of data and reporting. The data material is lacking, which
decreased the number of indicators to be included in the CPI and makes it impossible to
come up with answering the question of which investments in infrastructure and services
improve the self-reliance of refugees at this stage. The reports which the authors could use
best were Kattaa (2015), Stave and Hillesund (2015), and REACH (2014) for data regarding
employment and work in the camp; Human Rights Watch (2016) and UNICEF, Save the
Children (2014) for data about childrens condition (education, child labour); and Castro
Serrato (2014) for shedding light on security and safety. The UNHCR (2016a, b) factsheet
gave a short, but detailed overview of demographic data and current infrastructure.
5. Case study: Zaatari camp
The purpose of this case study was to validate the 27 indicators presented in Table VII and
to give background information for a deeper understanding about Zaatari camp.
Each dimension (demographics, material living standards, personal activities including
work, health, well-being, education, and insecurity) are shortly described after giving an
overview of Jordans legal treatment of refugees and general camp information.
5.1 Current context
Jordan is not part of the 1951 Convention on Refugees or its 1967 Protocol (Saliba, 2016).
Thus, it treats its refugees as visitorsor guests, not having a legal meaning under
domestic law. Nevertheless, UNHCR and Jordan signed a memorandum of understanding in
1998 in order to provide international protection to persons being defined as refugees
according to UNHCR. Jordan also provides land for the two Syrian refugee camps Zaatari
and Azraq. In the beginning, the Jordanian Government was quite restrictive with handing
out working permissions, but the pressure of donors as well as the increasing problem of
Main report/Study Summary
UNICEF, Save the Children (2014) Assesses problems regarding child labour in the camp, including
effects on education
Human Rights Watch (2016) Shows effects on education of Syrian refugee children
Kattaa (2015) Presents findings on employment in Zaatari camp
Stave and Hillesund (2015) Presents in-depth findings on Syrian refugeeslabour situation
REACH (2014) Presents in-depth findings on encamped refugeeslabour situation
UNHCR (2016b) Gives short but precise overview of Zaatari camp in November 2016
Castro Serrato (2014); UNICEF, Save the
Children (2014)
Presents figures regarding safety/security
Table VI.
Findings 6 camp
data acquisition
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Table VII.
CPI system
Dimension No. Indicator
Variable/
Illustration
Objective and examples for relation
to self-reliance and/or other
dimensions Constraints Related to SDG Zaatari Jordan
Demographics 1 Camp
inhabitants
all
Number of
inhabitants (in
total numbers)
To compare differently sized
camps; to calculate ratios
/ 80,000
a
2 Camp
inhabitants
women
Percentage of
women (in %)
To compare differently sized
camps
/ 50%
b
3 Camp
inhabitants
men
Percentage of
men (in %)
To compare differently sized
camps
/ 50%
b
4 Camp
inhabitants
0-14 years
Percentage of
minors age 0-14
(in %)
Demographics: To compare
differently sized camps
Education: to assess the no. of
inhabitants in need of an education
Well-being: to assess no. of
vulnerable inhabitants
/ 49%
c
30%
c
5 Camp
inhabitants
in working-
age (15-64
years)
Percentage of
inhabitants aged
15-64 (in %)
To compare differently sized
camps
Setting the age between 15 and 64
years implies that adolescents
should work and not pursue
secondary/tertiary education
/ 48%
d
58%
e
Material
living
standards
6 Access to
next market
Time to get to
next market (in
hours)
To assess external business
opportunities refugees have
Time to get to closest city and thus
market is only one indicator for
external business opportunities, as,
e.g., refugees working as taxi
drivers do not have to go to market
8 decent work
and economic
growth
30 min
f
7 Inhabitants-
shop-ratio
No of shops in
relation to
inhabitants (as a
ratio)
To assess the level of material
living standards through the
availability of different
commodities
Material living standards: high no
of commodities
This indicator does not indicate the
quality of shops or type of
commodities available. It can just
be assumed that a high number of
shops offer a high variety of
commodities. It also does not
8 decent work
and economic
growth
27
inhabitants
per shop
g
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Table VII.
Dimension No. Indicator
Variable/
Illustration
Objective and examples for relation
to self-reliance and/or other
dimensions Constraints Related to SDG Zaatari Jordan
Personal activities: no. of available
jobs
Well-being: no. of shopping
opportunities and thus choices to
make which increases dignity, time
needed to run errands
indicate the time inhabitants need
to run their errands; it can just be
assumed that if number of shops is
high, shops are located more
decentralized
8 No of shops
owned by
refugees
Percentage of
shop owners in
camp (in %)
To assess level of self-reliance. Does not indicate the number of
people working in a shop or their
salaries
8 decent work
and economic
growth
2%
h
9 Refugees
with
sufficient
income to
meet basic
needs
Percentage of
refugees who can
meet basic needs
(in %)
To assess the income refugees have
(incl. remittances and aid) to meet
basic needs.
Including remittances and aid does
not objectively display level of self-
reliance
1 no poverty 60%
i
10 Access to
electricity
Hours per day a
household has
electricity
To assess market and job
opportunities
Material living standards: the
longer people have electricity
the more market opportunities
they have as they can set up a
higher variability of businesses
than without
Education: children can also learn
when dark, schools with electricity
are of higher quality
Well-being: domestic work is
facilitated (by, e.g., usage of
white goods)
Indicator does not imply that all
households have this amount of
electricity per day, how it is
generated (e.g., environmental
friendly SDG 7) or who pays for it
(refugees or organizations);
facilitated domestic work only if
further appliances are available
(white goods, etc.)
4 quality
education; 8
decent work and
economic
growth
8
j
(continued )
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Table VII.
Dimension No. Indicator
Variable/
Illustration
Objective and examples for relation
to self-reliance and/or other
dimensions Constraints Related to SDG Zaatari Jordan
Personal
activities
including
work
11 Camp
inhabitants
with income
Percentage of
working-age
refugees earning
any kind of
income
To assess income generating
inhabitants, incl. self-employed,
formally and informally employed
as well as employed by
organizations (cash for work)
People engaged in work earn at
least some kind of income, even if
not able to live self-reliantly
This indicator does not indicate the
type or quality of work, if
employees are exploited, the
amount of income is sufficient, nor
if the source of income is related to
the employee's level of education
8 decent work
and economic
growth
60%
k
84%
k
12 Camp
inhabitants
with job
permit
Percentage of
working-age
refugees with job
permission (in %)
The more people are engaged in
legal work, the higher the level of
self-reliance in the camp
People with legal work permit can
more easily find a job suitable to
their education; this has an impact
on their well-being; do not have to
use negative copying mechanisms
(e.g. child labour for their children)
The indicator does not state if
refugees with work permission also
have found an appropriate job
8 decent work
and economic
growth
10% 100%
Health 13 Hospital-
inhabitants
ratio
No. of
inhabitants per
hospital (as ratio)
To assess quantity of health facilities
Physical health is important to be
able to engage in work
Indicator does not provide
information about quality of
hospitals
3 good health
and well-being
40,000
inhabitants
per
hospital
l
14 Health care
centre-
inhabitants
ratio
No. of
inhabitants per
health care
centre (as ratio)
To assess quantity of health
facilities
Physical health is important to be
able to engage in work
3 good health
and well-being
8,888
inhabitants
per health
care centre
l
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Table VII.
Dimension No. Indicator
Variable/
Illustration
Objective and examples for relation
to self-reliance and/or other
dimensions Constraints Related to SDG Zaatari Jordan
15 Neonatal
mortality
rate
No. of death that
occurs in the first
28 days of life per
1,000 lives (as
ratio)
To assess the level of health
within the camp
The overall level of health can be
assessed by the number of babies
born healthily the healthier a
camp, the more working-age people
can engage in work
A vast variety of indicators could
help to assess the level of health in
a camp, e.g. the no of malnourished
or undernourished children,
maternal mortality rate, etc.
3 good health
and well-being
26.6
m
14.7
m
16 Waste water
removal and
treatment
Percentage of
waste water
collected (in %)
To assess the situation of waste
water, as uncollected and untreated
waste water increases water-borne
diseases, which affects people
engaging in work
Also not collected waste can
increase water-borne diseases as
can the quantity and quality of
sanitation facilities
11 sustainable
cities and
communities
80%
n
Well-being 17 Available
drinking
water
Litres of drinking
water per person
(in l)
To assess the amount of drinking
water available per person; to assess
time needed for domestic work
Health: a certain amount of drinking
water per day is necessary for a
persons state of health; an
abundance of water facilitates
domestic work, like washing clothes
and dishes (if white goods available)
Education: availability of drinking
water improves quality of schooling
Assessment of time for domestic
work difficult to assess, as also
influenced by other factors (e.g.,
washing machine available, time
necessary to fetch water)
3 good health
and well-being; 4
quality
education; 6
clean water and
sanitation
35+
o
(continued )
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Table VII.
Dimension No. Indicator
Variable/
Illustration
Objective and examples for relation
to self-reliance and/or other
dimensions Constraints Related to SDG Zaatari Jordan
18 Child labour Percentage of
children aged 5-
14 engaged in
work (in %)
To assess level of negative copying
mechanism within the camp; to
assess children who do not attend
school; to assess level of
vulnerability of households
Education: children who work, do
not attend school or only
occasionally
Well-being: households sending
children to work do this usually to
cope with poverty
Does not include children (usually
girls) engaged in domestic work
(SDG 5 indicators)
8 decent work
and economic
growth
13%
p
2%
p
19 Community
centre-
inhabitants
ratio
No. of
inhabitants per
community
centre (as ratio)
To assess opportunities for
psychosocial support and
recreational activities
Psychological health (well-being) is
important to be able to engage in
work
Indicator does not provide
information about quality of centre
or about quantity of offers
Indicator does not assess no. of
traumatized or vulnerable people
not everybody traumatized or
vulnerable goes to centre
2,962
inhabitants
per centre
q
Education 20 Children-
school ratio
No. of children
per school (as
ratio)
To assess quality of schools
Education can raise aspirations, set
values, and enrich lives
Indicator does not provide
information about quality of school,
e.g. Zaatari: only 9 schools are
formal schools
4 quality
education
865
children per
school
r
21 Children-
teacher ratio
No. of children
per teacher (as
ratio)
To assess quality of schools
Education can raise aspirations, set
values, and enrich lives
In order to really assess quality of
school, more information would be
necessary, like training of teachers,
hours of schooling, abilities of
children per class etc., which are
partly difficult to assess
4 quality
education
50 children
per teacher
s
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Table VII.
Dimension No. Indicator
Variable/
Illustration
Objective and examples for relation
to self-reliance and/or other
dimensions Constraints Related to SDG Zaatari Jordan
Education
(adults)
22 Camp
inhabitants
without
education
Percentage of
inhabitants who
never attended
school (in %)
To assess level of education of
inhabitants to create suitable jobs
Education: to assess the level of
additional training needed
Well-being: the closer a job is to the
skills one has, the higher the degree
of feeling self-worthy
Does not indicate which non-
educational skills a person has
achieved before
4 quality
education
10%
t
7%
t
23 Camp
inhabitants
completed
only
elementary
school
Percentage of
inhabitants who
completed only
elementary
school (in %)
To assess level of education of
inhabitants to create suitable jobs
Education: to assess the level of
additional training needed
Well-being: the closer a job is to the
skills one has, the higher the degree
of feeling self-worthy
Does not indicate which non-
educational skills a person has
achieved before
4 quality
education
51%
t
19%
t
24 Camp
inhabitants
completed
basic or
intermediate
school
Percentage of
inhabitants who
completed basic
or intermediate
school (in %)
To assess level of education of
inhabitants to create suitable jobs
Education: to assess the level of
additional training needed
Well-being: the closer a job is to the
skills one has, the higher the degree
of feeling self-worthy
Does not indicate which non-
educational skills a person has
achieved before
4 quality
education
25%
t
33%
t
25 Camp
inhabitants
completed
secondary or
vocational
training
Percentage of
inhabitants who
completed
secondary or
vocational
training (in %)
To assess level of education of
inhabitants to create suitable jobs
Education: to assess the level of
additional training needed
Well-being: the closer a job is to the
skills one has, the higher the degree
of feeling self-worthy
Does not indicate which non-
educational skills a person has
achieved before
4 quality
education
10%
t
20%
t
(continued )
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Table VII.
Dimension No. Indicator
Variable/
Illustration
Objective and examples for relation
to self-reliance and/or other
dimensions Constraints Related to SDG Zaatari Jordan
26 Camp
inhabitants
completed
college or
university
Percentage of
inhabitants who
completed
college or
university (in %)
To assess level of education of
inhabitants to create suitable jobs
Education: to assess the level of
additional training needed
Well-being: the closer a job is to the
skills one has, the higher the degree
of feeling self-worthy
Does not indicate which non-
educational skills a person has
achieved before
4 quality
education
5%
t
22%
t
Insecurity 27 Safety
(perceived or
real)
Percentage of
inhabitants
feeling safe (in
%)
To assess if inhabitants feel safe in
the camp
People not feeling safe, try to stay
at home and are more cautious in
terms of engaging in work and
setting up businesses
People not feeling safe, try to stay
at home and are more cautious in
terms of engaging in work and
setting up businesses
Indicator has to be assessed by
interviews and do not
automatically display reality, only
perceived safety
16 peace, justice
and strong
institutions
80%
u
Notes:
a
UNHCR (2016c);
b
UNHCR (2016b);
c
UNHCR (2016b);
d
UNHCR (2016c);
e
Department of Statistics, Jordan (2016);
f
Field visit (2016);
g
Field visit (2016);
h
Kattaa (2015);
i
Obeidat (2014), WFP, Unicef, UNHCR (2014), Womens Refugee Commission (2017),
j
Field visit (2016);
k
UNHCR (2015b), UNHCR (2016b),
l
UNHCR (2016b),
m
UNHCR (2013), Department of Statistics, Jordan (2015),
n
UNHCR (2016b), Field Visit (2016);
o
Lahn et al. (2016), SDG Report (2017),
p
UNICEF and Save the
Children (2014), Save the Children (2014), Kattaa (2015);
q
UNHCR (2016b);
r
Human Rights Watch (2016), LIVED (2017), The Jordan Times (2016), The World Bank (2017);
s
Human Rights Watch (2016),
t
Stave and Hillesund (2015), REACH (2014),
u
Castro Serrato (2014), UNHCR (2015a)
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illegal work and thus precarious working conditions, supported the decision of the
Jordanian Government to open their labour market to Syrians (ILO, 2017).
Zaatari camp opened on 29 July 2012 and covers some 5.3 square kilometres (km²). The
camp is located 10 km from the Syrian border and is near the city of Mafraq. Currently, it
hosts about 80,000 refugees, but more than 460,000 people have cumulatively passed
through the camp (UNHCR, 2016a). Thus, Zaatari camp is one of the biggest refugee camps
in the world. Over the years, it has faced various challenges, ranging from violent riots to the
development of unique infrastructural improvements, like a water and recycling system as
well as the implementation of an iris-scan payment system and innovative projects like a
Fab Lab(IPA |switxboard (2017); Kleinschmidt, 2015). Its shelter conditions have
improved significantly since its beginning. Every household has received a pre-fabricated
caravan/container and tents are only used as canopies or to provide shade (Field Visit, 2016).
Additionally, the average number of people housed has decreased from 8.2 to
3.31 per household per caravan (UNICEF, Save the Children, 2014; UNHCR, 2016b, 2017).
5.2 CPI and its application to the case Zaatari camp
Demographics. Camp inhabitants (pp. 1-5, cf. column Indicator, Table VII): in comparison
to Jordan, the number of children is significantly higher in Zaatari camp, decreasing the
percentage of working-age inhabitants. About 57 per cent of the refugee population are
adolescents and almost 20 per cent are under the age of 5. Women head approximately
20 per cent of all households, and each week about 80 children are born (UNHCR, 2016b).
Material living standards. Access to next market (6): the camp is well connected with
other cities, like Amman (time to commute: approx. 75 min.) and Mafraq (time to commute:
approx. 30 min.) through a new, tarred road (Field Visit, 2016).
Inhabitants-shop-ratio (7): over the last years, Zaataris inhabitants set up about 3,000
(illegal, but tolerated) shops using the provided containers (Field Visit, 2016). These shops are
supplied by Jordanian mass traders, which are allowed to center the camp to supply the shops
with a vast variety of goods. Even if the shop owners do not pay taxes to the Jordan
Government, their businesses are tolerated, as it helps to create some income and keeps the
flexibility of the Syrian population. In addition to the 3,000 shops and a daily bread
distribution, two supermarkets of different brands are based on the camp ground (Tazweed
Commercial Solutionsand Jordanian Investment and Supply LLC). The supermarkets are
allowed to sell 300 different necessary food items, like chicken, vegetable, oil, rice, etc. including
variations, e.g. different tastes of sauces, the total number of different sold items is 500. One
supermarket has 45 employees; around 30 per cent are Syrians from the camp, earning around
JD200 per month. The other 70 per cent are Jordanians, earning around JD300 per month. Its
turnover is approx. JD80,000 per month. The prices of the supermarketsgoods are comparable
to the ones outside. Every registered Syrian refugee in Jordan receives JD20 (approx. USD28)
per person per month instead of receiving food rations. Since October 2016, this money can be
spent via iris scanning in the supermarket as well as in 200 shops outside the camp. Within
seconds, the system confirms the identity of the refugee, checks the bank account with Jordan
Ahli Bank and the Middle East Payment Services, confirms the purchase and prints out the
receipt (WFP, 2016). By getting the choice what to consume, there is no urgency in
selling unwanted food. The greater choice given to refugees increases their dignity and
reduces misuse.
No. of shops owned by refugees (8): only 1.5-3 per cent of the 3,000 shops within Zaatari
camp are owned by refugees (Kattaa, 2015).
Refugees with sufficient income to meet basic needs (9): despite receiving JD20 per
person per month, over 40 per cent of Zaatari camp dwellers have a monthly deficit of some
JD84 (WFP, Unicef, UNHCR, 2014).
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Access to electricity (10): a solar power plant is planned for construction in 2017, funded by
KfW Development Bank (Lahn et al., 2016). At the time of the Field Visit (2016), UNHCR
provided eight hours of constant electricity in the afternoon/evening to all camp residents, at a
cost of USD500,000 per month. Apparently, the solar power plant will be the largest electricity
grid ever built in a refugee camp. Benefits are to reduce the pressure on the existing grid, to
save costs long term and to provide constant electricity to the camp residents.
Personal activities including work. Income generating inhabitants (11-12): of the
60 per cent engaged in work, 6,500 refugees have found some kind of labour opportunity
(like cash-for-work (CfW) activities). About 8 per cent participate in CfW activities (UNHCR,
2015b). In total, 74 per cent of those working under these activities are carrying out semi-
skilled labour, like committee volunteering, cleaning, or guarding; they earn 1.0 Jordanian
Dinar ( JD) per hour as an incentive rate. A far smaller proportion (26 per cent) of those
working in CfW earn JD1.5 per hour since they work at skilled levels, e.g. as tailors,
hairdressers, or teachers. CfW jobs, with the exception of guards and cleaners, rotate
regularly on a weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly basis. The rest of the 60 per cent of the
working-age refugee population either have legal work permits (this amounts to an
estimated 10 per cent of Syrian refugees across Jordan) or work illegally outside of the camp
(Stave and Hillesund, 2015) (Table VIII).
When considering the indicators 25-28 with the employment situation (Table VIII) the
encamped refugees had in Syria, the figures are put into perspective since only a small
proportion of these jobs requires better education. It reaffirms the reason why 23 per cent
earned their living in agricultural production, 12 per cent in agricultural waged labour,
23 per cent in skilled daily labour, and 11 per cent unskilled non-agricultural daily labour.
Only 11 per cent worked in teaching and public service. Most people in Zaatari camp come
from the Daraa region, which is considered Syriasbreadbasket. Back in Syria, the rather
low level of education did not seem to have been a problem in comparison to their current
living situation living in a camp, situated in a desert (Stave and Hillesund, 2015; REACH,
2014). Now, their job situation changed dramatically. For instance, of the 23 per cent who
formerly were farmers, only 1 per cent currently works in agricultural production. This
small percentage working in the agricultural sector (1 per cent instead of 35 per cent) is due
to the lack of farms within the camp as well as to the lack of land possession in and outside
of Zaatari (REACH, 2014; Human Rights Watch, 2016).
Health. Availability of health facilities (13-15): patients find health support in two
hospitals with 55 beds and nine health care centres as well as one delivery unit. In total, 120
community health volunteers support these facilities. The neonatal mortality rate is slightly
higher than in Jordan (26.6 vs 14.7).
Waste water (16): on a daily basis, sewage trucks collect some 2,100 cubic metres (m³)of
sludge and approximately 80 per cent of this wastewater is treated in a treatment plant.
Employment situation in 2014 of Zaatari inhabitants (Stave and Hillesund, 2015; REACH, 2014)
In Syria (%) In Zaatari (%)
Agricultural production 23 1
Agricultural waged labour 12 0
Teacher or public servant 11 2
Skilled daily labour 23 2
Unskilled non-agricultural daily labour 11 2
Begging (incl. Relying on friends and family) 0 23
Dependent on cash from charities 1 32
Shop owner 7 3
Table VIII.
Employment situation
of camp dwellers
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Well-being. Available drinking water (17): every camp dweller receives 35 litres of water per
day. The infrastructure of the camp counts three internal boreholes, providing an estimated
3.2 million litres of drinking water daily, which are distributed by 82 trucks (UNHCR, 2016b;
Field Visit, 2016).
Child labour (18): about 13.3 per cent of all Syrian refugee children work (whereas the
number of working Jordanian children (aged 9-15) is 1.6 per cent). Usually, child labour is
part of householdscoping mechanisms when money is scarce. Of the percentage of working
Syrian refugee children, 94 per cent are boys and only 6 per cent are girls. Nevertheless, girls
frequently work up to 17 hours on household chores or get married off at a very young age
(UNICEF, Save the Children, 2014; Save the Children, 2014; Kattaa, 2015).
Community centre-inhabitants ratio (19): 27 community centres provide psychosocial
support and recreational activities.
Education. Quality of school (20-21): in terms of education for youth, the number of
available schools has greatly improved in the last three years. In Zaatari camp alone, the
number of schools has increased over the last three years from 3 to 24 schools. Nine of them
are formal schools (Human Rights Watch, 2016; LIVED, 2017; The Jordan Times, 2016). Still,
this does not seem to be enough with each teacher taking care of an average of 50 students
and schools working double shifts to cover all children. This has also led to a lower quality
of education, as children have less school hours (Human Rights Watch, 2016). Schools in the
camp cover primary and secondary education, but tertiary education is unavailable in the
camp (UNHCR, 2016b).
Educational level of adults (22-26): see details above in Income generating
inhabitants (11-12).
Insecurity. Safety (27): the camp has a police station (Field Visit, 2016). In addition, the
number of security staff increased from 37.7 stationed per area in 2013 to 42.8 in 2016, which
influenced the perceived security in percentage terms from 64 per cent in 2013 to 80 per cent
in 2016. The intimidation of humanitarian staff has decreased by 83 per cent between 2013
and 2014, according to UNHCR (Castro Serrato, 2014; UNHCR, 2015a).
6. Discussion
Humanitarian logisticsand humanitarian supply chain managements main objectives are
to provide goods in a flexible, efficient, and effective manner to the customer
(here beneficiary/refugee) (Scholten et al., 2018). The meaning of self-reliance, though, insists
on not serving the beneficiary at least not by delivering daily/basic goods. Does this make
humanitarian logisticians dispensable? Is humanitarian supply chain management useless
for protected refugee situations? The authors negate this; however, services provided by
humanitarians must change if the long demanded request for more self-reliance is to be
taken seriously. Three main areas are proposed hereafter: first, the more protracted crises
become, the more humanitarian organisations need to shift from being providers of basic
needsto service-oriented partners, accompanying processes towards more self-reliance.
Second, in order to create self-reliance, hence jobs, camp managers could become urban
developersand business personsthrough advocating the establishment of necessary
infrastructure and the attraction of suitable, non-exploiting businesses and corporations.
Third, organisations should become (more than ever) the voiceof the camp dwellers
regarding the compliance of human rights.
The first and second proposals are related with each other. As Jacobsen (2005)
suggested, education, health, and financial services should remain in the hands of
organisations, including special attention to the most vulnerable regarding nutrition and
psychological services to treat mal-/undernourishment and traumas, etc. The main tasks
of the organisation would not be to execute all these tasks, but to seek best fitting staff for
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the different purposes mainly from camp dwellers and the surrounding community.
If suitable staff cannot be found, the organisations could facilitate trainings and thus
create jobs, raising the level of self-reliance. Hence, managing organisations would
function rather as employers. The CPI tool could support these tasks by detecting gaps
regarding self-reliance and thus reveal which fields to tackle first. As Figure 2( b) shows,
56 per cent (yes +partly) of the CPI indicators can be at least partly influenced by
organisations or donors. In order to create jobs, the right infrastructure must be available.
Building infrastructure demands logistical activities, such as resource and process
management, coordination and information management, prevention and management of
backlogs and delays, streamlining procedures and processes (Scholten et al.,2018).These
rather coordinating and managing than operational tasks are not new to humanitarians,
especially not to logisticians. As presented in Figure 2(a), 33 per cent of the current CPI
indicators are related to logistics. Camp managers, as already happening in Zaatari camp,
become mayorsof the camp, deciding on which infrastructure needs to be built and
which businesses are allowed or even attracted to the camp environment. For a camp like
Zaatari, these tasks are easier to fulfil than for camps situated in remote areas, like many
African camps. It is difficult to attract businesses if neither enough water nor electricity is
available. The same applies if the state of the roads connecting the camp with the next
bigger markets does not allow a predictable flow of goods. This makes the third proposal
even more important. Too often refugees are refused to enjoy the basic human rights,
especially the rights to work and the rights to move freely. Without these rights, it can be
argued that none of the efforts made by humanitarian organisations to accomplish a
higher level of self-reliance will ever bear fruits. This might also be the reason why the
level of self-reliance is also, in a state of the art camp like Zaatari, rather low.
Thus, organisations could negotiate more firmly with the host countries to grant refugees
their rights.
In 1948, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations
(United Nations, 1948). As these rights include all members of the human family,they
also include refugees. The SDGs were built upon these rights and were used as main
material to establish the CPI. For example, SDG 4 encourages efforts to achieve universal
education goals, e.g., including more children in higher education. SDG 8 promotes the
rights of working people to be able to live decently from their salaries, too. It requests that
societies create conditions for people to have quality jobs, so the economy can be
stimulated without harming the environment. People including refugees should obtain
job opportunities along with decent working conditions. To gain development, a country
needs industrialisation. To gain industrialisation, technology and innovation are
necessary according to SDG 9. Innovation does not only apply to organisational
response (Noori und Weber, 2016; Ramalingam et al., 2015; Betts et al., 2017), but can and
should also be applied by refugees themselves (Kleinschmidt, 2015; Miller and
Kleinschmidt, 2016; Betts et al., 2015). For refugee camps, this could mean on the one
hand to increase the opportunities of vocational trainings. On the other hand, the
implementation of innovative ideas through handing out micro credits and necessary
resources and infrastructure to start a business, like electricity, transportation,
telecommunications, and the internet (Betts et al., 2017) could be facilitated to
approximate the definition of a city-like camp.
7. Conclusion
Refugee camps are not yet places where ambitions, aspirations and other intangible
aspects of life are realized(UNHABITAT, 2012), a city-like camp as defined in Section
1is a rather utopian concept. It is a place for refugees where they can obtain the level of
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education and employment they seek, provide for themselves and their families, pay for the
services they use, and lead fulfilled lives. In these camps, aid organisations and commercial
stakeholders create quality jobs and build infrastructure, like roads, hospitals, enough
schools for all educational levels, and provide electricity for all so people have the
opportunity to take care of themselves (Aleinikoff, 2015). To facilitate the decision of which
of these tasks challenge first, the authors develop the so-called CPI system.
Given the burden organisations face by collecting and measuring data (Dunlop, 2011) as
well as the growing number of measurement tools (Kelley et al., 2004), the question
concerning the development of yet another measurement tool is justified. The purpose of the
CPI is not to make life more difficult for camp managers, but to create an efficient and
effective tool, which is quickly filled out (in case all required data for other tools were
assessed at that point). The inserted data are then supposed to tell the camp manager the
camps level of self-reliance including its major gaps. Thus, the following steps of this
research project are to construct composite indicators based on the aforementioned
dimensions and to test it on two case studies. Expert interviews will be used to validate the
choice of indicators, which must be based on existing indicators with available data sets
(e.g. country data). In addition, this approach is supposed to decrease the current constraints
of the indicators (Table VII). Data sets from the World Bank database and the SDG
indicators might make computing indices, using methods like the principal component
analysis, possible. This work would be simplified if performance measurement based on
implemented projects was already state of the art for every organisation, making data
accessible and comparable for scholars and other organisations. This would avoid the
duplication of projects, help to make better decisions on investments and support research
projects like the development of the CPI.
Acknowledgements
The authors are grateful for comments on the paper received from Ekram el-Huni, member
of the World Food Programme. The authors would like to thank Martin Ohlsen, former
WFP member for his comments and support during the entire research phase. To add, the
authors thank a WFP staff member, who wishes to remain anonymous, for giving us an
insight in his work (Rome/Italy, 7 July 2016). The authors express thanks to UNHCR,
UNICEF, and International Relief & Development staff as well as to youth committee
members who the authors talked to on 18 September 2016 in Zaatari Camp. The authors
special thanks go to World Food Programme members in Jordan who received the authors
in their headquarter in Amman as well as in the Al-Mafraq office.
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Corresponding author
Anna-Mara Schön can be contacted at: anna-mara.schoen@w.hs-fulda.de
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... Four articles were identified for this theme which subsumes refugee-related services provided by the host governments and/or humanitarian actors in refugee camps. These include services, such as reception centres, housing, schools, hospitals, security, welfare and integration (Oloruntoba and Banomyong, 2018;Schön et al., 2018). Camps are usually attributed to the transition phase only . ...
... For example, the level of selfreliance is rather low in the Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan despite it being one of the world's most modern refugee camps. Out of the 3,000 shops operated there only around three percent are owned by refugees (Schön et al., 2018). ...
... SRIs: For such context Schön et al. (2018) and Oloruntoba and Banomyong (2018) both investigated the logistics and infrastructure needed for refugee camp service provision. ...
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... Sixteen studies were included in this review. Three studies (18.75%) addressed education in general, including all stages: preschool, primary, secondary, and tertiary education [32][33][34]. Two studies (12.5%) [35,36] discussed early childhood education. ...
... Although the study of Schön et al. [33] focuses on self-reliance in the camp environment, it confirms the importance of education to help refugees be self-reliant, and connects SDG4 with SDG8. Moreover, it mentioned that in a city-like camp, which has not yet existed, refugees should have all benefits that urban camps offer, along with better education systems. ...
... The study of Schön et al. [33] focused on self-reliance in the camp environment. It confirmed the importance of education to help refugees be self-reliant and connected SDG4 to SDG8. ...
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... Izadikhah et al. [64] developed a performance measurement model focusing on suppliers in humanitarian relief. Schön et al. [65] developed a PMS focusing on the self-reliance of refugees living in camps. Cardoso et al. [5] developed a structured classification of performance measures based on the beneficiaries' perspective, intended to assist HOs measurement programs. ...
... A multisectoral and system-wide PMS would enable analyzing and identifying bottlenecks and delays in a collaborative relief supply network and facilitate overall performance improvement. Despite an increasing trend toward collaborative and clustered relief response approaches in the humanitarian sector, existing performance measurement approaches invariably are focused on the performance measurement of a specific humanitarian project within a single HO [63,65]. The literature relating to performance measurement at an aggregated level and for collaborative humanitarian projects is very scarce. ...
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... The recommendations also highlight work that can be done by data managers, communities, donors, and humanitarian actors in creating an enabling environment for quality SRMNCAH data and evidence-based decision making. In Fig. 2. we outline factors that are supported by the literature that need to be implemented and addressed at the global, national, programmatic and facility levels to increase the feasibility of current indicator reporting practices and the quality of SRMNCAH data reporting [27][28][29][30][31][32]. ...
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... The recommendations also highlight work that can be done by data managers, communities, donors, and humanitarian actors in creating an enabling environment for quality SRMNCAH data and evidence-based decision making. In Figure 2. we outline factors that are supported by the literature that need to be implemented and addressed at the global, national, programmatic and facility levels to increase the feasibility of current indicator reporting practices and the quality of SRMNCAH data reporting (27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32). ...
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... Procedural frameworks determine how the process of performance measurement should be carried out. Among the researchers who have investigated procedural frameworks are Davidson [12] and Schön et al [22]. Meanwhile, structural frameworks lack procedural elements, but focus on performance indicators where the majority of previous studies are in this category. ...
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Most studies examining rape in war contexts focus on the characteristics of the perpetrators of collective rape. Where previous scholars focus on victims or civilians, it is often at the general level, where they emphasise sociocultural and political factors pertaining to patriarchal society, gender roles, and more direct measures of gender empowerment. In this study, we focus on civilians but examine a lower level of analysis, narrowing the focus to refugee camps and assessing how camp characteristics contribute to or mitigate the proclivity of sexual violence experienced by camp inhabitants. Focusing on the Dadaab, Kenya complex in particular, we identify various measures implemented to mitigate the occurrence of sexual violence in the Dadaab camps, and assess their effects on the incidence of sexual violence. Our preliminary analysis reveals that these measures have been only partially effective, but we conclude that a more comprehensive, cross-camp analysis is warranted. We thus call for the development of a refugee camp database to be utilized by scholars, policymakers, and humanitarian agencies to conduct cross-camp analysis, allowing for more comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of various measures intended to enhance the security of refugee camp inhabitants.
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Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to deepen the understanding of supply chain performance objectives in the humanitarian context by striving to understand the underlying goals and conceptual variables behind the measurement of performance, such as efficiency. Design/methodology/approach – The research is an in-depth case study with one humanitarian organization. The data are gathered with mixed methods over a two-year period. Interviews were conducted in August 2010 and April 2012, and a survey conducted in October 2012. Findings – Misalignments are detected among different groups in humanitarian operations and between their goals and processes. These misalignments could possibly be corrected through long-term thinking in short-term operations by considering sustainability aspects throughout humanitarian assistance, for example. In addition, efficiency was a commonly identified objective in the case organization, although the definition varied widely and extended beyond the traditional definition of productivity to include planning, accountability and quality. Practical implications – Better communication and definition of terms is necessary to align goals and the power hierarchy in humanitarian supply chains, where operations seem to be structured more according to donor requirements then beneficiary needs. Originality/value – This is an in-depth case study, applying goal-setting theory to study supply chain performance. The study further responds to the public “aid efficiency” discussion by striving to recognize how efficiency is understood and how it can be measured in a humanitarian supply chain.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for a hybrid simulation model that can be used to study the decision making and behaviors of humanitarian logistics actors to determine how/whether certain coordination mechanisms enable better relief chain efficiency and effectiveness over time. Design/methodology/approach – The agent-based portion of the model is used to represent human decision making and interactions in a more realistic way than has been done previously, and the discrete-event simulation (DES) portion of the model allows the movement of vehicles, materials, and information throughout a supply network to be represented in a way that allows for dynamic and stochastic behavior. Findings – Coordinated efforts by actors in humanitarian logistics operations involve complex interactions and adaptations over time, which can be capture and explored via hybrid agent-based model (ABM)-DES modeling. Research limitations/implications – This paper describes a framework for a hybrid ABM-DES model. The actual development and implementation of the model, including input data collection and analysis, model development, experimentation, and output data collection and analysis, will be the subject of future work. Practical implications – The hybrid model framework provides other researchers with a starting point for model development. Social implications – This paper provides a basis for future modeling and assessment of coordination in humanitarian logistics, an area that is in need of research. Originality/value – The hybrid simulation modeling framework presented in this paper is a novel application of a new modeling methodology to the problem of coordination in humanitarian logistics.