The study assesses the effect of social and emotional learning (SEL) integrated in a literature class, named here “affective teaching,” as compared to conventional teaching. Dependent variables include relationships, behavior, motivation to learn, and content knowledge. Participants were 36 teacher trainees in one college in Israel and 1,137 fifth and sixth grade students from 36 classrooms in 12 ... [Show full abstract] schools. A hierarchical model of analyses (Mixed Models) was used to assess children’s gains in the two teaching conditions. Results indicated significantly more improvement on all measures for children in the affective teaching condition compared to control. Relationships and behavior were significantly associated with children’s gains in motivation and content knowledge. The discussion focuses on the importance of SEL for children’s development and the potential contribution of affective teaching as a modality of social and emotional learning.