ArticlePublisher preview available

Impact of 5G Technologies on Industry 4.0

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract and Figures

Manufacturing has evolved over the course of centuries from the days of handmade goods to the adoption of water- and steam-powered machines, the invention of mass production, the introduction of electronic automation, and now beyond. Today, the benchmark for companies to keep up with, is Industry 4.0. Here, Manufacturing systems go beyond simple connection, to also communicate, analyse and use collected information to drive further intelligent actions. It represents an integration of IoT, analytics, additive manufacturing, robotics, artificial intelligence, advanced materials, and augmented reality. The paper looks at the evolution of the Industrial revolution and the technologies that have impacted their growth. The proposed features of 5G technologies are listed and described how these features impact the Industries of the future, leading to Industries 4.0. 5G promises to be a key enabler for Factories of the Future, providing unified communication platform needed to disrupt with new business models and to overcome the shortcomings of current communication technologies.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Impact of 5G Technologies on Industry 4.0
Sriganesh K. Rao
1
Ramjee Prasad
2
Published online: 13 March 2018
Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018
Abstract Manufacturing has evolved over the course of centuries from the days of
handmade goods to the adoption of water- and steam-powered machines, the invention of
mass production, the introduction of electronic automation, and now beyond. Today, the
benchmark for companies to keep up with, is Industry 4.0. Here, Manufacturing systems go
beyond simple connection, to also communicate, analyse and use collected information to
drive further intelligent actions. It represents an integration of IoT, analytics, additive
manufacturing, robotics, artificial intelligence, advanced materials, and augmented reality.
The paper looks at the evolution of the Industrial revolution and the technologies that have
impacted their growth. The proposed features of 5G technologies are listed and described
how these features impact the Industries of the future, leading to Industries 4.0. 5G pro-
mises to be a key enabler for Factories of the Future, providing unified communication
platform needed to disrupt with new business models and to overcome the shortcomings of
current communication technologies.
Keywords Industries 4.0 5G technologies Internet of Things (IoT) Machine
2 machine (M2M) Information and communication technologies (ICT) Artificial
intelligence (AI) Machine learning Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) Cyber-physical
systems (CPS)
&Sriganesh K. Rao
Sriganesh_rao@hotmail.com
Ramjee Prasad
ramjee@btech.au.dk
1
Tata Consultancy Services Ltd, SJM Towers, Sheshadri Road, Gandhinagar, Bangalore 560009,
India
2
Department of Business Development and Technology, Aarhus University, Herning 7400,
Denmark
123
Wireless Pers Commun (2018) 100:145–159
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-018-5615-7
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... The existing studies on the use of communication technology mainly focused on the convergence and obedience of people to norms of social public behavior (e.g., Lu et al., 2008;Kuo and Yen, 2009) and perceptions of risk in the Internet age (e.g., Yang et al., 2012;Yan and Yang, 2015;Xiang, 2017). Research on 5G network has primarily focused on improving on 5G technology, ranging from the challenges in creating the technology itself (Jaber et al., 2016;Ge et al., 2017) and impacts of using 5G technology in various industries (Betzalel et al., 2018;Rao and Prasad, 2018) to technical security and privacy protection (Fang et al., 2018). Related research fields include U-learning (Park, 2014), smart city implementation (Rao and Prasad, 2018), persuasive business models (Lindgren, 2016), big data application (Hossain et al., 2016), and health (Di Ciaula, 2018 The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, proposed by Venkatesh et al. (2003) as a consolidated update on prior models of explaining new technology acceptance, is one of the most popular models when exploring users' behavioral intention in accepting information and technology. ...
... Research on 5G network has primarily focused on improving on 5G technology, ranging from the challenges in creating the technology itself (Jaber et al., 2016;Ge et al., 2017) and impacts of using 5G technology in various industries (Betzalel et al., 2018;Rao and Prasad, 2018) to technical security and privacy protection (Fang et al., 2018). Related research fields include U-learning (Park, 2014), smart city implementation (Rao and Prasad, 2018), persuasive business models (Lindgren, 2016), big data application (Hossain et al., 2016), and health (Di Ciaula, 2018 The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, proposed by Venkatesh et al. (2003) as a consolidated update on prior models of explaining new technology acceptance, is one of the most popular models when exploring users' behavioral intention in accepting information and technology. Venkatesh's UTAUT explained 69% of use intention in technology, which is higher than all previous individual models (Venkatesh et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
China leads the world in the development and rollout of 5G network, yet less research has been done on the drivers of Chinese people’s adoption of 5G network, especially the specific role of national sentiments, such as the influence of patriotism on their attitude toward 5G network. The study obtained 804 effective online questionnaires from the respondents of various ages, genders, areas, and educational levels. The results based on the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis showed that patriotism was an antecedent to Chinese users’ cognition of the conditions provided by the government and telecom operators and the extent that users were influenced by media and surrounding people, which in turn increased users’ expectations of the performance of 5G network and their confidence in adapting to 5G network, and resulted in an increased willingness to use 5G network. This research helps to understand the role of patriotism, which is an emotional factor, in stimulating Chinese users’ attitudes toward 5G network at the time when 5G network is putting into large-scale commercial use in China.
... This creates a unified approach for data processing across all domains, where each layer can provide feedback and interact with its counterparts, ensuring aggregated provision of the manufacturing process. The proposed system is based on the International Data Spaces (IDS) [28,29] primitives for identity providers and connectors, which are used to create trust chains that support creation, evaluation, and acceptance of software artefacts by creating individual signatures after each step (i.e., publication and evaluation stages). This ensures that the data that have been agreed on to be used will be deleted immediately after they have been used (Clearing House), thus ensuring trust among parties. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to develop an open Asset Administration Shell (AAS) solution for 5G Non-Public Network (NPN) management, focusing on manufacturing digitization and complete Information and Operational Technology (IT/OT) convergence. The proposed 5G NPN framework is evaluated in a factory-like simulation scenario considering network slicing for I4.0, and demonstrates the outlook of 5G communication in the industrial domain, achieving an upload data rate of up to 86 Mbps, and a Round-Trip Time (RTT) for end-to-end communication as low as 11 ms. The proposed framework integrates OPC UA as an enabler and middleware across different protocols, equipment, and the manufacturing shop floor, with the target of aggregating different industrial data and creating insights on production optimization in a unified manner. The framework combines 5G NPNs with I4.0 environments, in the form of a complete FNMS and its corresponding AAS. In parallel, a set of I4.0 enablers are investigated within the framework of the project, covering a Time-Sensitive Network (TSN) on the shop floor. The main objective of this paper is to propose a method for the unified integration of various enablers in the I4.0 domain and their combination with 5G technology, and to evaluate the feasibility of hosting industrial applications and services over 5G channels through the implementation of different slicing schemas. The paper presents detailed experimental data regarding 5G downlink/uplink data rates and RTT delays.
... More specifically, this fifth generation of mobile, cellular technologies, networks, and solutions has the potential to deliver 10 Gbps data rates with less than 1 ms latency, increased network capacity for a great number of devices, high reliability and security, and significant energy savings. Furthermore, network slicing is used to make these networks more flexible and cost-effective (Rao & Prasad, 2018). As such, 5G has a lot of potential to promote the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and CPMS as an advanced wireless transmission technology underpinning future manufacturing. ...
Chapter
Manufacturing systems have undergone many changes with regard to their structure, organization, and operation. This chapter charts the technical developments in manufacturing systems over the last 70 years. The basic building blocks of Computer-Aided Manufacturing and their evolution to Computer-Integrated Manufacturing systems are discussed. We describe today’s Smart Manufacturing paradigm, which is central to Industry 4.0. We identify the key components of the Smart Factory and highlight its technical challenges through the presentation and discussion of frameworks and architectures. In order to create smart factories capable of autonomous optimization of interconnected processes, disparate computer and communication systems have to operate with many machines, devices, and manufacturing infrastructure, requiring the development of advanced protocols and standards. Interoperability is a major challenge that needs continued research to achieve the integration of many devices in industrial environments and to develop global standards. The harnessing and use of data to create Digital Twins of manufacturing systems shows great promise in diverse applications, including for predictive maintenance. The whole of the product lifecycle from design through to manufacture and use can now be captured digitally in Product Lifecycle Management systems. The vision of interoperable, smart manufacturing ecosystems is slowly becoming a reality.
Chapter
Advances in technology, rapid globalization, trade liberalization, and increased regulation have shaped supply chains in the last four decades. We examine the impact of digitalization on contemporary and future supply chains. Digitalization potentially enables a strong digital thread connecting and mirroring an entire physical supply chain. We provide an overview of the principal technologies and systems enabling the Digital Supply Chain, including Smart Factories, Smart Warehouses, Smart Logistics, Cloud-based systems, and digital platforms. We discuss the computational engines enabled by Analytics, Data Science, and Artificial Intelligence and the emerging technologies likely to influence future supply chains—Blockchain, Digital Twins, Internet of Things, 5G, Edge, and Fog computing. The technologies offering the most promise in linking the virtual and physical worlds to improve supply chain performance are noted. We describe an evolving spectrum from digitally immature to digitally enabled and digitally transformed supply chains. We provide both narrow and broad definitions for future Digital Supply Chains. The transformative effects of the digitalization of supply chains will affect supply systems in diverse ways. Data-rich supply chain ecosystems will provide many new opportunities but will also give rise to many challenges that require continued analysis and evaluation by researchers and practitioners.
Article
Smart manufacturing systems (SMS) are one of the most important applications in the Industry 4.0 era, offering numerous advantages over traditional production systems and rapidly being used as a performance-enhancing strategy of manufacturing enterprises. A few of the technologies that must be connected to construct an SMS are the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), Big Data, Robotics, Blockchain, 5G Communication, Artificial Intelligence (AI), and many more. SMS is an innovative and popular manufacturing setup that produces increasingly intelligent production systems; yet, designers must adapt to business tastes and requirements. This study employs an analytical and descriptive research technique to identify and assess functional and non-functional, technological, economic, social, and performance evaluation components that are essential to SMS evaluation. A predictive analytics framework, which is a key component of many decision support systems, is used to assess corporate needs as well as proposed and prioritize SMS services.
Article
As a traditional fusion welding method, arc welding occupies most of the total welding production. However, the current industrial welding robots with the “teaching and playback” mode cannot satisfy the requirements of modern welding manufacturing. To overcome this major challenge, advanced sensing technology can be used to efficiently imitate and reproduce the welder's senses and brain. Many recent studies on application of sensing technology have promoted the development of robotic arc welding toward intelligent welding. In this paper, from the perspective of intelligent welding systems (IWS), the application of advanced sensing technology in the pre-process, in-process, and post-process stages of intelligent robotic arc welding is summarized and discussed. First, the development and application of various sensing technologies and multisensor fusion technologies for intelligent arc welding are reviewed and discussed. Subsequently, according to the different objectives of each welding stage, the advanced sensing technologies, including those for weld path recognition, weld seam tracking, weld pool monitoring, weld quality diagnosis, and weld bead inspection, are summarized and compared. Finally, a summary is provided and future prospects are put forward. This paper reviews the research progress of sensing technology for different monitoring objectives of intelligent robotic arc welding, and to provide a basis for future work.
Article
The Industry 4.0 paradigm aims to bring real-time production data analytics, cloud computing, and cyber–physical inter-connectivity to today’s industries. This evolution fosters network-based use cases, such as remote-controlled mobile robots with stringent network latency requirements. 5G networks have become a promising technology for such use cases. However, 5G wireless communication is affected by time-varying random delays, which impact the use-case’s reliability, stability, and performance. Thus, there is an urgent need to design mechanisms to compensate for these time-varying delays at the remote end. The delay estimation can be achieved by leveraging the MEC framework on top of 5G (MEC-based 5G). Thus, this work presents a novel architecture to exploit the radio network information provided by the MEC framework to improve the performance of remote-controlled mobile robots leveraging 5G. This radio network information is used to estimate the current network delays. Accordingly, these estimated delays together with the delayed information sent by the robot are availed to the robot controller at the remote end for compensation. Besides, the message-sequence flow between the different architecture components is analyzed in detail, and the modeling equations are described. Extensive simulations prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Our approach is compared with the network delay estimation based on the Kalman filter. An improvement of at least 55% and 33% in the tracking error and control effort, respectively, are observed for delay values ≥150 ms.
Article
Industrial automation requires communication with low latencies and high reliability between controllers, sensors and actuators. State of the art is usually a wired connection via Ethernet in combination with specialized industrial protocols. Wired connections are difficult to realize in certain applications. New wireless technologies such as WiFi 6 and 5G promise to achieve reliability and low latencies as currently only possible via wired connections. It is necessary to consider during the engineering phase whether the requirements of an industrial application are met by a selected communication technology. This paper presents an approach to evaluate communication technologies for industrial control systems during the system engineering phase, considering future application conditions. The focus of the approach is on the evaluation of communication latency. It is necessary to examine different technological variants or parameters in order to determine their respective influence on communication and the overall system. The approach makes it possible to identify relevant parameters affecting performance of the communication. Thus, predictions about the expected performance of the application with regard to communication can be made during engineering. The approach was implemented and tested with a private 5G standalone network and a WiFi 6 network, using Ethernet as reference.
Jobs lost, jobs gained: Workers transformation in a time of automation
  • Mgi Report