Many organisms stringently regulate the number, volume and enzymatic content of peroxisomes (and other organelles). Understanding this regulation requires knowledge of how organelles are assembled and selectively destroyed in response to metabolic cues. In the past decade, considerable progress has been achieved in the elucidation of the roles of genes involved in peroxisome biogenesis, half of ... [Show full abstract] which are affected in human peroxisomal disorders. The recent discovery of intermediates and genes in peroxisome turnover by selective autophagy-related processes (pexophagy) opens the door to understanding peroxisome turnover and homeostasis. In this article, we summarize advances in the characterization of genes that are necessary for the transport and delivery of selective and nonselective cargoes to the lysosome or vacuole by autophagy-related processes, with emphasis on peroxisome turnover by micropexophagy.