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The development of a single item FoMO (Fear of Missing Out) scale

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The Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) is the sense that others are having a rewarding experience which one is absent from. Given that it is associated with the drive to remain socially connected, research has predominantly focused on the link between FoMO and social networking use. While a 10-item measure of FoMO is widely used (FoMOs), a shorter scale may be preferable in some circumstances and would allow FoMO to be measured in more diverse contexts. Therefore, we aimed to validate a FoMO shortform (consisting of a single item: "Do you experience FoMO?"). In Studies 1 to 3, we measured the concurrent validity of the FoMOsf with the 10-item FoMOs (Pearson’s R correlation between the FoMOs and FoMOsf: Study 1 r = .735, r = .654; Study 2 r = .638; Study 3 r = .807). In Study 2, we measured the test-retest reliability of the FoMOsf (r = .717). In Study 2 and 3, we measured the construct validity of the FoMOsf by linking the FoMOsf to social networking use. The FoMOsf showed good concurrent validity, construct validity, and test retest reliability and is adequate for use in research.
The development of a single item FoMO (Fear of Missing Out) scale
Benjamin C. Riordan
&Louise Cody
&Jayde A. M. Flett
&Tamlin S. Conner
&John Hunter
&Damian Scarf
#Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018
The Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) is the sense that others are having a rewarding experience which one is absent from. Given that
it is associated with the drive to remain socially connected, research has predominantly focused on the link between FoMO and
social networking use. While a 10-item measure of FoMO is widely used (FoMOs), a shorter scale may be preferable in some
circumstances and would allow FoMO to be measured in more diverse contexts. Therefore, we aimed to validate a FoMO short-
form (consisting of a single item: BDo you experience FoMO?^). In Studies 1 to 3, we measured the concurrent validity of the
FoMOsf with the 10-item FoMOs (Pearsons R correlation between the FoMOs and FoMOsf: Study 1 r=.735,r=.654;Study2
r= .638; Study 3 r= .807). In Study 2, we measured the test-retest reliability of the FoMOsf (r= .717). In Study 2 and 3, we
measured the construct validity of the FoMOsf by linking the FoMOsf to social networking use. The FoMOsf showed good
concurrent validity, construct validity, and test-retest reliability and is adequate for use in research.
Keywords Fear of missing out .FoMO .Single-item .Ecological momentary assessment .Measurement
apprehension that others might be having rewarding experiences
from which one is absent^and is characterized by the need to
Bstay continually connected with what others are doing^
(Przybylski et al. 2013, p. 1841). Although the feeling of miss-
ing out is not a new concept, with the advent of social network-
ing sites (e.g., Facebook, Snapchat, etc.), people can now be
chronically reminded of events they are missing out on. With
respect to its psychological underpinnings, Przybylski et al.
(2013) suggest that FoMO derives from a deficit in psycholog-
ical need satisfaction such as the need for social connection.
While one could argue that social networking sites provide an
avenue for meeting some of these needs (e.g., connection), so-
cial networking sites may also serve to exacerbate FoMO by
reminding individuals what experiences they are missing out
on in real time. Accordingly, research has typically focused on
correlates between FoMO and unhealthy relationships with me-
dia and technology. For example, FoMO has been associated
with social networking site addiction (Blackwell et al. 2017;
Kuss and Griffiths 2017), the amount of stress experienced
when using social networking sites (Beyens et al. 2016), use
of mobile phones while driving/learning (Przybylski et al.
2013), decreased self-esteem (Buglass et al. 2017), college mal-
adjustment (Alt 2016), poor sleep (Adams et al. 2016), and a
range of other negative outcomes (Baker et al. 2016; Elhai et al.
2016;Oberstetal.2017; Riordan et al. 2015). Adolescents and
young adults may be particularly sensitive to FoMO as they are
more sensitive to social information than adults (Lamblin et al.
To date, FoMO has been measured predominantly using
Przybylski et al.s(2013) 10-item FoMO scale (FoMOs; cf.
Abel et al. 2016). The FoMOs measures the extent to which
individuals fear missing out on events, experiences, or group
activities (e.g., BWhen I miss out on a planned get together it
bothers me^;BI fear others have more rewarding experiences
than me^). Participants rate each item on a five-point Likert
Louise Cody and Jayde A. M. Flett contributed equally to this work.
*Benjamin C. Riordan
*Damian Scarf
Louise Cody
Jayde A. M. Flett
Tamlin S. Conner
John Hunter
Department of Psychology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56,
Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Current Psychology
scale from 1 (not at all true of me) to 5 (extremely true of me).
Although the FoMOs has proven a valuable tool for standard
laboratory-based contexts and longer online surveys, a single-
item measure would provide greater flexibility of use.
Although sometimes viewed as overly simplistic (e.g.,
Konrath et al. 2014), single-item measures are immensely
important in situations where there is limited time (e.g., during
in-situ/intercept interviews), when there are multiple measure-
ment points (e.g., a sample of students taking part in an online
adventure course), or when using text message or smartphone
measurement (e.g., when texting students about alcohol con-
sumption). In sum, FoMO research is still in its infancy, and a
single item measure would greatly expand the contexts in
which FoMO can be reliably measured.
The aim of the current paper was to validate a single-item
measure of FoMO theFearofMissingOutshortform
(FoMOsf). Study 1 focused on the concurrent validity of the
FoMOsf by testing the relationship between the FoMOsf and
FoMOs. Study 2 focused on the construct validity of the
FoMOsf by testing the relationship between the FoMOsf
and social networking use. Study 2 also included test-retest
reliability of the FoMOsf. Study 3 focused on the construct
validity of the FoMOsf by testing the link between the
FoMOsf and emotions experienced while using social net-
working sites.
Scale Creation
In order to develop the FoMOsf, we used other single item
measures and methodologies as a guideline (e.g., Konrath
et al. 2014; Nichols and Webster 2013). The FoMOsf wording
was: BDo you experience FoMO (the fear of missing out)?^
and participants were asked to rate the item on a scale from 1
(no, not true of me) to 5 (yes, extremely true of me). In Study
1, we assessed the concurrent validity of the FoMOsf in a
sample of university students recruited via psychology
courses and a more diverse sample recruited online.
Study 1
Psychology Recruitment Participants were a sample of 198
university students (80.8% women, 18.7% men, 0.5% other),
1750 years old (M=19.7,SD = 3.5), who were predominant-
ly in their first three years at a major New Zealand university
(first year = 24.7%; second year = 48.5%; third year = 23.7%;
fourth or above = 3.0%), where undergraduate degrees typi-
cally take three years. The participants were largely of New
Zealand European descent (67.2%; 15.6% Asian; 5.0% Māori
or Pacific Islander; 12.2% other). Participants who expressed
interest in taking part in the research via the Department of
Psychologys website were sent an online survey via email
where they provided informed consent. Of the 202 partici-
pants who signed up for the survey, 198 provided sufficient
information to be included in the analyses (i.e., provided com-
plete data for both FoMO measures).
Online Recruitment Participants (n= 139) were recruited
through social media (58.3% women, 37.4% men, 4.3% oth-
er), 1651 years old (M = 24.9, SD = 5.7), and 46.0% were
university students. The participants were largely Caucasian
(51.7%) and from New Zealand (33.8%), the US (30.9%), or
Canada (14.4%, 20.9% other). Participants who expressed
interest were redirected to an online survey where they pro-
vided informed consent. Of the 240 participants who signed
up for the survey, 139 were included in the analyses (101 did
not provide data for both the FoMOs and FoMOsf).
Participants completed the 10-item FoMOs (Chronbachs
α=.872 and α= .864 for the Psychology and online sample,
respectively) and the FoMOsf. FoMO questions were embed-
ded within a larger survey including several health measures
not relevant to the present report. Informed consent was ob-
tained from all individual participants included in the study.
There was a strong relationship between the FoMOs and
FoMOsf for both the sample recruited through the
Department of Psychology (r=.735,p< .001) and the sample
recruited online (r=.654, p<.001).
Study 2
In Study 2, we assessed the construct validity of the FoMOsf
by examining the link between the FoMOsf and Facebook
engagement, distracted learning, and distracted driving
(Przybylski et al. 2013). We used Fishersr-to-ztransforma-
tions to determine whether the relationship between each of
the FoMO scales and the outcome measures were significantly
Participants were a university sample of 330 university stu-
dents (73.9% women, 25.5% men, 0.6% other), 1740 years
old (M=19.6, SD = 2.2), who were predominantly in their
first three years at university (first year = 34.5%; second
year = 50.0%; third year = 12.7%; fourth or above = 2.4%).
As in Study 1, participants were largely of New Zealand
Curr Psychol
European descent (67.0%; 13.4% Asian; 4.8% Māori or
Pacific Islander; 14.8% other). Participants who expressed
interest in taking part in the research via the Department of
Psychologys website were sent an online survey via email
where they provided informed consent. Data were combined
from two surveys that used the same recruitment and reim-
bursement methods, with the surveys only differing in the
time of year they were completed. Forty-three participants
completed both surveys. Therefore, we included their first
survey response in the main analyses. For secondary analy-
ses, we assessed the test-retest validity of the two FoMO
scale using the 43 participants who took part in both sur-
veys. For completeness, we controlled for length of time
between surveys.
Participants completed a number of questions that included
the FoMOs (Cronbachsα= .848) and the FoMOsf.
Participants also answered questions on typical social net-
working use, Facebook engagement, distracted learning, and
distracted driving. FoMO questions were embedded within a
larger survey including several health measuresnot relevant to
the present report. Informed consent was obtained from all
individual participants included in the study.
Facebook Engagement Facebook engagement was assessed
using the five-item Social Media Engagement questionnaire
(α= .803; Przybylski et al. 2013). Participants were asked to
indicate how often they had used Facebook in a number of
situations in the past week (e.g., BWithin 15 minutes of wak-
ing up^). Responses were scored on 5-point Likert scales (1 =
not one day last week to 5 = every day last week).
Distracted Learning Distracted learning was assessed using
the single item employed by Przybylski et al. (2013).
Participants were asked to report the number of lectures they
had used Facebook in during the last week. Responses were
scored on a 5-point scale (1 = zero lectures, 2 = 12 lectures,
3=34 lectures, 4 = 56 lectures, and 5 = 7 or more lectures).
Distracted Driving Distracted driving was assessed using
Przybylski et al.'s (2013) distracted driving question (α= .960).
Participants were asked to indicate how often they had experi-
enced a number of situations as a driver in the past 3 months
(e.g., text/emailed while driving). Responses were scored on a 5-
point scale (1 = Not applicable, 2 = No, 3 = Yes, once or
twice, 4 = Yes, occasionally, 5 = Yes, often). The five items
were averaged to create a Distracted Driving score.
Results and Discussion
As in Study 1, there was a significant relationship between the
FoMOsf and FoMOs (r= .638, p< .001). With respect to
Facebook engagement, both the FoMOs (r=.283, p<.001)
and the FoMOsf (r=.206, p< .001) were related to overall
Facebook engagement. These correlations were not significant-
ly different from each other (z=1.05, p= 0.294). Moreover,
both scales were related to each of the individual items on the
Facebook engagement scale and r-to-z transformations showed
that there was no significant difference between the relation-
ships: Bused Facebook within 15 minutes of waking up^
(FoMOs: r=.169, p=.002; FoMOsf: r=.159, p=.004; z=
0.13, p= 0.897), Bwhile eating breakfast^(FoMOs: r= .211,
p< .001; FoMOsf: r= .179, p= .001; z=0.43, p= 0.667),
Bwhile eating lunch^(FoMOs: r= .208, p< .001; FoMOsf:
r=.116, p= .036; z=1.21, p= 0.226), Bwhile eating dinner^
(FoMOs: r=.235, p<.001; FoMOsf: r=.143, p=.010; z=
1.22, p= 0.223), Bwithin 15 minutes of going to sleep^
(FoMOs: r=.242, p<.001; FoMOsf: r=.
174, p=.002; z=
0.91, p=0.363).
Only 261 participants answered the distracted learning
question. Both the FoMOs (r= .268, p< .001) and the
FoMOsf (r=.244, p< .001) were significantly related to dis-
tracted learning. These correlations were not significantly dif-
ferent from each other (z=0.29, p= 0.772). In contrast, nei-
ther the FoMOs (r=.011, p= .841) nor the FoMOsf
(r= .056, p= .308) were related to distracted driving (z=
0.86, p= 0.390). When removing those who reported no
driving (i.e., Not applicable; n= 114), there was still no rela-
tionship between the FoMOs (r= .096, p= .162) or the
FoMOsf (r=.108, p= .113) and distracted driving (z=0.13,
p= 0.897). There was, however, a relationship between the
FoMOs and FoMOsf on the item asking about Bglancing at
phone while driving^(FoMOs: r=.141, p= .038; FoMOsf:
r=.137, p=.044; z= 0.04, p= 0.968). Thus, both FoMO
scales showed similar patterns with respect to distracted driv-
ing. The lack of linkbetween both FoMO scales and distracted
driving likely reflected the fact that the participants were at-
tending a university located in a small city (i.e., driving is not
the dominant mode of transport).
Study 2b Test-Retest Reliability
The 43 participants who completed both surveys were pre-
dominantly women (79.1% women, 20.9% men), 1822 years
old (M=19.5,SD = 1.0), in their first three years at university
(first year = 11.5%; second year = 67.4%; third year = 20.9%),
and were largely of New Zealand European descent (76.7%;
16.3% Asian; 4.7% Indian; 2.3% other). On average, they
completed the two surveys 53.7 days apart (SD = 10.7;
range = 2975).
Curr Psychol
There was a strong correlation between the FoMOs at Time
1andtheFoMOsatTime2(r=.716,p< .001) and FoMOsf at
Time 1 and the FoMOsf at Time 2 (r=.717,p< .001). These
correlations were not significantly different from each other
(z=0.01,p= 0.992). When running a partial correlation, con-
trolling for days since the last survey, there was still a strong
link between the FoMOsf scores (r=.727, p< .001) and
FoMOs scores (r= .720, p< .001; z=0.07, p=0.944).
Suggesting both measures have good test-retest reliability.
Overall, the results of Study 2a and 2b indicate the
FoMOsf has good construct validity, displaying similar
(if slightly weaker) relations with measures of Facebook
engagement, distracted learning, and distracted driving,
as the FoMOs. Further, much like the FoMOs, the
FoMOsf displays good test-retest reliability.
Study 3
In Study 3, we aimed to replicate and extend the con-
struct validity of the FoMOsf by examining the relation-
ship between the FOMOs, the FoMOsf, and the same
measures tested in Study 2 (Facebook engagement, dis-
tracted learning, distracted driving), and further, to ex-
amine their relationships with emotions experienced
when using Facebook as found in Przybylski et al.s
(2013) study. As in Study 2, we used Fishersr-to-z
transformations to determine whether the relationship
between each FoMO scales and outcome measure were
significantly different.
Participants were 90 third year undergraduate students taking
part in a psychology course (84.4% women, 14.4% men, 1.1%
other). Participants were predominantly NZ European (74.7%,
3.3% Māori, 13.2% Asian, 8.8% Other) and were 1826 years
old (M= 20.9, SD = 1.4). Slightly fewer individuals identified as
Māori and Asian than the wider university population and there
were no participants who identifed as Pacific Islander.
Procedure, Materials, and Measures
A classroom performance system programme (CPS; Banxia
Software Ltd. UK, 2012) was used for data collection.
Specifically, participants were provided with classroom
clickers and answered questionnaire items by pressing the letter
or number on the clicker that corresponded to their preferred
response. In addition to the questionnaires, basic demographic
information such as gender, age group, and ethnicity was also
collected. Participants completed a number of questions and
completed the FoMOsf before the FoMOs (Chronbachs
α= .841). As per Study 2, participants also answered questions
on Facebook engagement (α= .824), distracted learning, and
distracted driving (α= .962). Finally, we also assessed ambiv-
alent emotional experiences when using Facebook with the 20-
item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS;
α= .862; Watson et al. 1988) The scale is composed of 10
items measuring activated positive affect (e.g., excited, in-
spired) and 10 items measuring activated negative affect (e.g.,
distressed, irritable). Responses were scored on a 5-point scale
(1 = Very slightly or not at all to 5 = Extremely). Informed con-
sent was obtained from all individual participants included in
the study.
Results and Discussion
As in Study 1, there was a strong relationship between
the FoMOsf and FoMOs (r=.807, p< .001) and, as in Study
2, the FoMOs (r=.307,p< .001) and the FoMOsf (r=.290,
p< .001) were related to overall Facebook engagement. These
correlations were not significantly different from each other
(z=0.12, p= 0.905). Surprisingly, for the 87 participants that
completed the distracted learning question, neither the FoMOs
(r=.181, p= .088) nor the FoMOsf (r=.166, p= .119) were
related to distracted learning (z=0.10, p=0.920). Apotential
explanation for this finding is that Study 3 was conducted
toward the end of the semester, when exams were imminent,
leading students to be more focused during lectures. Similar to
Study 2, neither the FoMOs (r=.187, p= .078) nor the
FoMOsf (r=.116, p=.116) were related to distracted driv-
ing (z=0.48,p= 0.631). As in Study 2, this likely reflects the
campus location in relation to student housing. Finally, both
the FoMOs (r= .534, p< .001) and the FoMOsf (r= .470,
p< .001) were related to negative emotions when using
Facebook (z= 0.56, p= 0.576). Similarly, both the FoMOs
(r=.356, p< .001) and the FoMOsf (r=.274, p< .001) were
related to positive emotions when using Facebook (z= 0.6,
p= 0.549). These patterns suggest that those higher in
FoMO were more likely to experience greater emotional highs
and lows when using Facebook. Finally, in Study 3 the
FoMOsf was presented before the FoMOs and the findings
were comparable to those of Study 1 and 2 in which the
FoMOs was presented first.
General Discussion
With the advent of social networking sites, people are more
chronically aware of what they are missing out on than ever
before and there is a growing body of work demonstrating that
this feeling (i.e., FoMO) is related to a number of negative
behaviours (Przybylski et al. 2013) and health outcomes
(Baker et al. 2016;Beyensetal.2016; Riordan et al. 2015).
The aim of the current series of studies was to develop and test
a single-item FoMO scale (FoMOsf) in order to extend the
Curr Psychol
contexts in which FoMO can be measured. Supporting the
validity of the FoMOsf, Study 1 demonstrated it has good
concurrent validity, correlatingwellwiththeFoMOs.
Studies 2a and 3 demonstrated it has high construct validity,
displaying a similar relationship as the FoMOs with measures
of Facebook engagement, distracted learning, distracted driv-
ing, and measures of positive and negative activated affect
experienced while using Facebook. Further, Study 2b demon-
strated that the FoMOsf displays acceptable test-retest reliabil-
ity. Although there are no firm guidelines regarding the level
of reliability short-form measures should meet, according to
Widaman et al. (2011) the FoMOsf could be classified as
Badequate for research purposes^(pp. 46).
Three studies demonstrate the validity and reliability of the
FoMOsf as a measure of the Fear of Missing Out. The
FoMOsf now joins a number of other short-form measures
that have been developed to overcome some of the limitations
associated with longer measures (Nichols and Webster 2013;
Nichols and Webster 2014; Robins et al. 2001; Woods and
Hampson 2005). It is important to note, however, that the
FoMOsf is not a replacement for the FoMOs. When the time
is available and the context is appropriate, the FoMOs should
be employed. However, when time is short and non-traditional
assessment approaches are employed (e.g., in-situ/intercept
interviews), the FoMOsf provides a valid and reliable method
of measuring FoMO. Future research should test the psycho-
metric properties of the FoMOsf for wider population-based
surveys and smartphone-based experience sampling studies
where survey space is limited.
Acknowledgements This research was funded by the Health Research
Council of New Zealand (Grant Number: 17/568) and University of
Otago Research Grant, both awarded to Damian Scarf. Benjamin Riordan
was sponsored by a Fulbright New Zealand General Graduate Award.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author
states that there is no conflict of interest.
Ethical Approval All procedures performed in studies involving human
participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institu-
tional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki
declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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... Deze nood of drang om ergens toe te behoren is een algemene menselijke drijfveer voor interpersoonlijk gedrag Roberts & David, 2020), maar bij jongeren is deze behoefte nog sterker aanwezig. Adolescenten en jongvolwassenen blijken immers gevoeliger voor sociale informatie dan volwassenen (Lamblin, Murawski, Whittle, & Fornito, 2017;Riordan et al., 2018) en sociale verbondenheid met vrienden en de aanvaarding door peers is ontzettend belangrijk tijdens de adolescentie (Brown & Larson, 2009;Rubin, Bukowski, & Laursen, 2011). Jongeren zijn daarom bijzonder vatbaar voor FoMO. ...
... Przybylki et al. (2013) ontwikkelden een schaal, bestaande uit tien stellingen, om FoMO te meten. Riordan et al. (2018) onderzochten ook of een enkel item, waarbij letterlijk aan respondenten wordt gevraagd of men angst heeft om bepaalde zaken te missen, een alternatief kon bieden voor de schaal van Przybylki et al. (2013). Hieruit bleek een sterke relatie tussen de originele schaal en het enkele item. ...
... Uit deze studies blijkt dat de negatieve invloed van socialemediagebruik op mentale gezondheid vertrekt vanuit de angst om ervaringen te missen (Baker et al., 2016;Beyens, Frison, & Eggermont, 2016). Zo toont onderzoek dat FoMO gerelateerd is aan het welbevinden van jongeren (Baker et al., 2016;Riordan et al., 2018). In meerdere onderzoeken bleek de sterke relatie tussen FoMO en de intensiteit van socialemediagebruik (bv. ...
... A substantial number of scholars tested the relationship between FOMOs and SME-Q [16], and all confirmed a positive association between the two variables with an effect size around 0.3-0.4 [46,48,[52][53][54][59][60][61][62]. ...
... Hypothesis 4. It expected social media engagement to entertain a positive correlation with fear of missing out (FOMO) [46,48,[52][53][54][59][60][61][62]. ...
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The use of social media has frequently been misunderstood. Scholars worldwide have attempted to investigate patterns in social media use, with several attempts to frame it as a problematic behavior linked to negative consequences. However, among the different attempts, SME-Q has focused on the use per se during critical moments of the day, i.e., around bedtime and during meals. While the use of social media is a behavior adopted by a huge percentage of the population, several differences among countries can be detected that may lead to a different scale dimensionality. As such, in this paper, we translate and validate the Italian version of the SME-Q in order to provide a tool to explore social media use among the Italian population. The study involved 520 people through the compilation of an online survey aimed at investigating psychological and behavioral variables related to social media use which also included three attention checks to control for response biases due to inattention. The study outline, data collection, and analysis plans were preregistered and deposited on the project’s website on the Open Science Framework. The results indicated a novel two-factor structure of the four-item scale with adequate values, revolving around a sleep time factor and a meal factor. The hypothesized relationships with the external validation variables have been confirmed. The successfully validated Italian SME-Q thus allows the exploration of social media engagement with the Italian-speaking population.
... In addition to these potential advantages, single-item scales are psychometrically sound, given that analysis of data from Likert-type format of responses at the item level is statistically solid [44]. Examples of constructs that have previously been reliably and validly assessed using single-items scales include narcissism [45], risk-taking [46], Fear of Missing Out [47], job satisfaction [48], and social identification [49]. For self-esteem, however, the single-item measure received scant research interest. ...
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Background: Meta-analytic findings documented a substantial impact of self-esteem on a broad range of psychological and behavioral indicators, thus highlighting its high clinical relevance. Proving a simple and cost-effective measure of global self-esteem to the Arabic-speaking community, who mostly live in low- and middle-income countries, and where research may be challenging, would be highly valuable. In this context, we sought to investigate the psychometric characteristics of an Arabic translation of the Single-Item Self-Esteem Scale (A-SISE) in terms of factor structure, reliability, and construct validity. Methods: A total of 451 participants were enrolled between October and December 2022. An anonymous self-administered Google Forms link was shared on WhatsApp. To examine the factor structure of the A-SISE, we used the FACTOR software. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA), using a principal component analysis on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) items first, then after adding the A-SISE. Results: The results of the EFA of the RSES revealed two factors (F1=negatively-worded items; F2= positively-worded items), which explained 60.63% of the common variance. When adding the A-SISE, the two-factor solution obtained explained 58.74% of the variance, with the A-SISE loading on the second factor. Both RSES and A-SISE correlated significantly and positively with each other, as well as with extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, open mindedness and satisfaction with life. Moreover, they correlated significantly and negatively with negative emotionality and depression. Conclusion: These results suggest that the A-SISE is a simple-to-use, cost-effective, valid and reliable measure of self-esteem. We thus recommend its use in future research among Arabic-speaking people in Arab clinical and research settings, particularly when researchers are limited by time or resources constraints.
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Movements like "Fridays for Future" have heightened attention to the need for sustainability , particularly among Generations X, Y, and Z. However, the consumption of fast fashion and so-called ultra-fashion products-an ecologically harmful business model-continues to gain momentum, especially among young consumers, not least due to fear of missing out (FOMO). FOMO is well-known among marketing professionals as a strong trigger for frequently recurring buying behavior. Over the past 5 years, scholars have become increasingly interested in how FOMO triggers buying behavior and have begun to incorporate FOMO in their cognitive models. However, the influence of FOMO on individual fashion purchases and the relationship between brand credibility and sustainable fashion production is not yet well understood. Utilizing cross-sectional data from three distinct samples in Switzerland and the United States, our study, which included over 650 participants, reveals that brand credibility and FOMO exert direct influences on consumers' purchase intentions for fast fashion products. We identify that FOMO has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between brand credibility and fast fashion purchase intentions. Suggesting that consumers with strong FOMO are less interested in brand credibility when making a purchase decision than those without FOMO. Additionally, we demonstrate that our findings apply to both fast and slow fashion, the latter encompassing sustainably produced fashion. Ultimately, we provide novel empirical evidence of FOMO's influence on buying behavior and shed light on the complex interplay between brand credibility, sustainability, and consumer behavior in the fashion industry. K E Y W O R D S fashion, fear of missing out, non-sustainable buying behavior, purchase intention Abbreviations: CSR, corporate social responsibility; FOMO, fear of missing our; NGOs, non-governmental organisations; SDGs, sustainable development goals.
Social networks are part of daily life, and their use has been growing exponentially. Despite its potential, research has shown that social networks can be enhancers of addition. Psychological well-being can be called into question by the restlessness of the subject caused by the dependence on wanting to be online, particularly in social networks that gives rise to the term FoMO (fear of missing out), explaining the desire to remain online continuously. This chapter characterizes addiction to social networks and its relationship with FoMO. The concept of FoMO is discussed and explanatory theories. Some measures will be presented. Individual, intrafamilial, and extrafamilial characteristics associated with fear of missing out will be analyzed. The consequences of FoMO in different areas of the individual's life are presented. Some strategies for managing digital technologies to minimize this symptomatology will be discussed.
During the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments issued public health safety measures (e.g., “stay-at-home” ordinances), leaving many people “missing out” on integral social aspects of their own lives. The fear of missing out, popularly shortened as, “FoMO,” is a felt sense of unease one experiences when they perceive they may be missing out on rewarding and/or enjoyable experiences. Among 76 participants (ages M = 69.36, SD = 5.34), who were at risk for hospitalization or death if infected with COVID-19, we found that FoMO was associated with depressive symptoms at Time 1, even when controlling for perceived stress, loneliness, and fear of COVID-19. However, FoMO did not predict future depressive symptoms, about 1 week later, when controlling for Time 1 depressive symptoms. These findings provide further evidence that FoMO is associated with depressive symptoms in a short period of time even when accounting for other powerful social factors such as loneliness. Future research should explore the potential causal relationships between FoMO and depression, especially those that may establish temporal precedence. © 2023 The Authors. Social and Personality Psychology Compass published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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The present study examines the relationships between depression, self-esteem, fear of missing out, online fear of missing out, and social media addiction in a sample of 311 Italian young adults (66.2% women and 33.8% men), ages 18-35 yrs. (M = 23.5; SD = 3.5). The following hypotheses were tested: that depression is positively correlated with fear of missing out, online fear of missing out, and social media addiction, while being significantly negatively correlated with self-esteem; that depression, self-esteem, fear of missing out, and online fear of missing out explain social media addiction scores; that self-esteem mediates the relationship between depression and social media addiction; and that, among Italian participants between the ages of 18 and 35, younger women report higher scores on fear of missing out, online fear of missing out, and social media addiction. Results strongly supported the hypotheses. Taken together, our findings not only contribute to the growing body of research on online addictive behaviors and individuals' well-being, but also provide support for prevention programs in the field.
Across the multitude of Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) research, the common notion is that FoMO is a dispositional trait which is generally stable over time. However, provided FoMO is conceptualized as a form of an anxiety regarding the concern one is absent from a rewarding experience, and how anxiety is quantified as both a state and trait, FoMO could also be studied as a behavioral state. Moreover, research has proposed situational factors, such as the level of entertainment one is currently experiencing, could influence the extent someone experiences FoMO at that moment. This in turn, suggests temporary fluctuations in FoMO severity occur and viewing FoMO merely as a trait is not adequate. To measure state FoMO, the State Fear of Missing Out Inventory (SFoMOI) was developed. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted and derived a one-factor unidimensional scale of 8 items. Support for convergent, discriminate, and criterion validity was found, and the SFoMOI was sensitive to detect differences in participants primed for the experience of FoMO and those who were not. Lastly, the measure had excellent internal reliability. Suggestions for future use and limitations of the SFoMOI are outlined.
Bu çalışmanın amacı Yalnızlık Damgası Ölçeği’nin (YDÖ) Türkçe’ye uyarlama ve geçerlik güvenirlik çalışmasının yapılmasıdır. Çalışma örnekleminin yaş aralığı 18 ile 57 (21.79±3.60) olan 285 (%59) kadın, 196 (%40.6) erkek ve 2 (%0.4) diğer olmak üzere toplam 483 üniversite öğrencisinden oluşmuştur. Psikoloji bölümü öğrencisi olan 33 kişilik bir katılımcı grubuna 3 hafta arayla test-tekrar test uygulaması yapılmıştır. Ölçüt geçerliliği kapsamında 239 katılımcıya YDÖ ile birlikte UCLA Yalnızlık Ölçeği, Depresyon-Anksiyete-Stres Ölçeği (DASS-21), Kısa Psikolojik Sağlamlık Ölçeği (KPSÖ) uygulanmıştır. Ölçeğin faktör yapısını belirlemek amacıyla açımlayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizleri (AFA ve DFA) yapılmış, varimax döndürme yönteminin kullanıldığı AFA’da orijinal çalışmada olduğu gibi özdeğeri 1’in üzerinde olan iki boyutlu bir yapının oluştuğu saptanmıştır. DFA sonucunda ise iki faktörlü yapının herhangi bir modifikasyon yapılmadan doğrulandığı ve uyum indekslerinin kabul edilebilir bir düzeyde olduğu görülmüştür. Ölçek güvenirliği kapsamında YDÖ’nün Cronbach alfa iç tutarlılık katsayısı hesaplanmış, toplam ölçek için Cronbach alfa katsayısı .91, alt boyutlar için ise Cronbach alfa iç tutarlılık katsayıları .80 ve .91 olarak tespit edilmiştir. Ölçeğin testtekrar test korelasyon katsayısı toplam ölçek için r=.47, öz-damgalama için r=.58 ve sosyal damgalama için r=.45 olarak bulunmuştur. YDÖ’nün ölçüt geçerliği için yapılan korelasyon analizleri sonucunda anlamlı ilişkiler saptanmıştır. Sonuçlar ölçeğin Türkçe versiyonunun geçerli ve güvenilir olduğunu göstermiştir.
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Online social networking sites (SNSs) have gained increasing popularity in the last decade, with individuals engaging in SNSs to connect with others who share similar interests. The perceived need to be online may result in compulsive use of SNSs, which in extreme cases may result in symptoms and consequences traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. In order to present new insights into online social networking and addiction, in this paper, 10 lessons learned concerning online social networking sites and addiction based on the insights derived from recent empirical research will be presented. These are: (i) social networking and social media use are not the same; (ii) social networking is eclectic; (iii) social networking is a way of being; (iv) individuals can become addicted to using social networking sites; (v) Facebook addiction is only one example of SNS addiction; (vi) fear of missing out (FOMO) may be part of SNS addiction; (vii) smartphone addiction may be part of SNS addiction; (viii) nomophobia may be part of SNS addiction; (ix) there are sociodemographic differences in SNS addiction; and (x) there are methodological problems with research to date. These are discussed in turn. Recommendations for research and clinical applications are provided.
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Social networking sites (SNS) are especially attractive for adolescents, but it has also been shown that these users can suffer from negative psychological consequences when using these sites excessively. We analyze the role of fear of missing out (FOMO) and intensity of SNS use for explaining the link between psychopathological symptoms and negative consequences of SNS use via mobile devices. In an online survey, 1468 Spanish-speaking Latin-American social media users between 16 and 18 years old completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Social Networking Intensity scale (SNI), the FOMO scale (FOMOs), and a questionnaire on negative consequences of using SNS via mobile device (CERM). Using structural equation modeling, it was found that both FOMO and SNI mediate the link between psychopathology and CERM, but by different mechanisms. Additionally, for girls, feeling depressed seems to trigger higher SNS involvement. For boys, anxiety triggers higher SNS involvement.
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Concerns have been raised regarding the extensive use of social media sites by young adults and adolescents and the effects this use may have on their mental health and general functioning. However, definitions of health are expansive and diverse. In the present article we assess 3 broad areas of mental and physical health: depressive symptoms, mindful attention, and physical symptoms. Additionally, the fear of missing out (FoMO), which relates to social media use both in its experience and origins, has received a great deal of popular attention recently with relatively less attention from researchers. In order to test the associations between social media use, FoMO, and a range of mental and physical health outcomes, an online study was conducted with 386 undergraduates from a large, ethnically diverse university. Results of this study demonstrated that FoMO was positively associated with time spent on social media. Furthermore, experiencing higher levels of FoMO was associated with more depressive symptoms, less mindful attention, and more physical symptoms. Moreover, time spent on social media was no longer related to depressive symptoms and mindful attention when FoMO was included in the model. Findings from this study suggest that FoMO may be a more revelatory measure than simple assessments of social media use, and is associated with negative health outcomes.
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This study was aimed at assessing the assumption that maladjustment to college could lead some toward excessive social media engagement for leisure during class. Moreover, the mediating role of a new phenomenon termed fear of missing out (FoMO) linking maladjustment to college life to social media engagement was examined for the first time. Data were gathered from 290 undergraduate students. Path analysis results showed that the maladjustment to college variable is linked to social media use only insofar as it is linked to FoMO. This study lends credence to previous work by showing the robust mediating role of FoMO in explaining social media use during lectures.
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This survey study among adolescents (N = 402) investigates an integrative model that examines (1) the mediating role of adolescents’ fear of missing out (FoMO) in the relationships of adolescents’ need to belong and need for popularity with adolescents’ Facebook use and (2) the relationships of adolescents’ FoMO with adolescents’ perceived stress related to the use of Facebook. Structural equation modeling results indicated that an increased need to belong and an increased need for popularity were associated with an increased use of Facebook. These relationships were mediated by FoMO. Increased FoMO was associated with increased stress related to Facebook use. These results emphasize the important role that FoMO plays in adolescents’ media use and well-being.
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College students are a sleep-deprived population, with first-year students facing a number of specific challenges to sleep. As students transition into and through the first year of college, sleep may be sacrificed for a variety of reasons. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen first-year students, exploring factors that impacted sleep during the first semester of college. Study participants identified three unique but related themes that impacted their sleep: socializing trumps sleep; fear of missing out; and social/technological distractions. Implications are provided for balancing social, academic and biological demands in emerging adulthood.
Social media use is prevalent in today's society and has contributed to problems with social media addiction. The goal of the study was to investigate whether extraversion, neuroticism, attachment style, and fear of missing out (FOMO) were predictors of social media use and addiction. Participants in the study (N = 207) volunteered to complete a brief survey measuring levels of extraversion, neuroticism, attachment styles, and FOMO. In the final model of a hierarchical regression, younger age, neuroticism, and fear of missing out predicted social media use. Only fear of missing out predicted social media addiction. Attachment anxiety and avoidance predicted social media addiction, but this relationship was no longer significant after the addition of FOMO.
Continued and frequent use of social network sites (SNS) has been linked to a fear of missing out (FOMO) and online self-promotion in the form of friending and information disclosure. The present paper reports findings from 506 UK based Facebook users (53% male) who responded to an extensive online survey about their SNS behaviours and online vulnerability. Structural equation modelling (SEM) suggests that FOMO mediates the relationship between increased SNS use and decreased self-esteem. Self-promoting SNS behaviours provide more complex mediated associations. Longitudinal support (N ¼ 175) is provided for the notion that decreased self-esteem might motivate a potentially detrimental cycle of FOMOinspired online SNS use. The research considers the implications of social networking on an individual's online vulnerability.