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Emotional support and its relationship to Emotional intelligence

Authors:

Abstract

This study aimed to reveal emotional support from family, teacher, friends, and social medial network among a sample of (732) ninth graders Jordanian students, and to investigate the relationship between emotional support and emotional intelligence. The results of the study showed a high level of emotional support, and revealed that there were significant positive relationships between emotional support (family, teacher, friends, and network) and emotional intelligence. In addition, family and friend emotional support contributed significantly in the variation of emotional intelligence. Keywords: Emotional Support, Emotional Intelligence.
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Atoum,' A.' Y.,' &' Al-Shoboul,' R.' A.' (2018).'Emotional' support' and' its' relationship' to' Emotional' intelligence.' !"#$%&'() *%) +,&*$-)
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Yarmouk!University!
Dept.!Of!Educational!and!Counselling!Psychology.!Irbid,!Jordan!
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Yarmouk!University!
Dept.!Of!Educational!and!Counselling!Psychology.!Irbid,!Jordan!
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Emotional!growth!is!one!of!the!manifestations!of!human!growth!and!some!consider!it!as!the!
most! important! aspect! in! the! development! of! the! individual’s! behavior,! personality,! dreams,!
and! ambitions.! Psychologists! considered! Adolescence! as! a! stormy,! turbulent,! and! a!
revolutionary! stage! that! is! characterized! by! intense! emotions! due! to! a! combination! of!
unbalanced!physiological!and!psychological!factors.!
!
The! focus! on! emotion! and! coping! with! life! successfully! among! individuals! in! general! and!
adolescences!in!particular!requires!providing! emotional! support! to!ensure!arriving!to!a!good!
level!of!psychological!growth,!good!human!interaction!and!close!personal!relationships!such!as!
friends,! family,! or! emotional! relationships! (Burleson,! 2003).! Cobb! (1976)! points! out! that!
emotional! support! is! about! information! that! leads! individuals! to! believe! that! they! have!
someone! who! cares! and! loves! them,! and! there! are! those! who! appreciate! them! and! they! feel!
they!belongs!to!a!social!network!that!provides!them!with!mutual!responsibility.!
)
Catrona! &! Russell! (1990)! defined! emotional! support! as! the! need! for! help! and! security! in!
stressful!times,!resulting! in!an!individual!sense! of!caring!for! others.!!They!are! suggesting!that!
emotional!support!is!the!emergence!of!susceptibility!to!the!other!direction!to!seek!comfort!and!
safety! during! times! of! stress,! and! to! direct! the! person! to! feel! the! attention! of! others.! ! Also,!
Sarafino!(1998)!points!out!that! emotional!support!is!the!feelings!of!affection,!friendship,!care,!
attention,! love! and! confidence! that! others! demonstrate! to! the! individual! and! his! sense! of!
comfort!and!belonging!while!dealing!with!them.
!
Atoum,' A.' Y.,' &' Al-Shoboul,' R.' A.' (2018).'Emotional'supp ort'and' its' relationship' to' Emotional' intelligence.' !"#$%&'() *%) +,&*$-) +&*'%&'() .'('$/&0)
1,2/%$-3)5456'7-15.'
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T.U>)http://dx.doi.org/10.14738/assrj.51.4095.)
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The! concept! of! emotional! support! includes! a! wide! range! of! behaviors! such! as! empathy,!
Confront,!compassionate!participation,!caring,!encouragement!toward!others,!love!that!appear!
in! caring! and! attention,! valued! feeling,! and! dependable! bonds! of! friendship! (Gregory,! et! al.,!
1996;!Campbell!&!Wright,!2002).!!In!addition,!emotional!support!shows!care!and!attention!that!
is! presented! orally! or! non-verbally,! including! listening,! empathy,! and! reassurance.! It! also!
provides!an!opportunity!to!express!emotions!that!may!reduce!hardship,!improve!interpersonal!
relationships,! and! provide! some! of! the! goals! or! meanings! of! life! experiences.! The! emotional!
characteristics! of! personal! life! of! the! human! being! include! communication,! attention,! moral!
guidance! and! trust,! thus! providing! an! opportunity! to! vent! emotions! (Cohen,! 2004;! Cohen! &!
Wills,!1985).!
!
The! importance! of! emotional! support! emanates! from! the! fact! that! individuals! who! receive!
more!emotional!support!or!realize!that!emotional!support!is!available!are!happier,!healthier,!
and! able! to! cope! with! the! problems! and! troubles! of! life! (Catrona! &! Russell,! 1990;! Pierce,!
Sarason! &! Sarason,! 1990).! ! Receiving! emotional! support! helps! individuals! to! cope! with!
problems,!anxiety,!and!disappointments!of!hope!and!pain!in!their!lives,!but!if!left!unchecked!or!
treated,! it! will! have! serious! negative! effects! that! can! affect! the! physical,! psychological! and!
emotional!health!of!the!individual!(Burleson,!1990).!
!
Gregory,!Sarson,!and! Sarason! (1996)!note!that!potential!emotional! support!providers!include!
family,!friends,!co-workers,!colleagues,!and!experts!such!as!counselors!and!clergy.!Therefore,!
there! are! many! sources! responsible! for! providing! emotional! support,! which! can! vary! from!
culture!to!culture!in!terms!of!the!sources!or!the!importance!of!each!source.!!People!also!see!the!
ability! to! provide! emotional! support! to! close! friends! and! loved! ones! by! means! of!
communication!such!as!Facebook,!Twitter,!You-Tube,!and!WhatsApp!(Burleson,!2003).!
)
Golman!(1995)!notes!that!emotional!intelligence!is!more!important!to!the!individual's!success!
in!life!than!cognitive!intelligence,!as! it! plays! an! important!role!in!success!in!work,!study,!and!
social!life.!The!ability!to!adapt!and!cope!successfully!depends!on!the!integrated!recruitment!of!
mental! and! emotional! abilities,! and! that! success! in! personal! relationships! depends! on! the!
individual's! awareness! and! ability! to! think! about! his! emotional! experiences! and! information!
about!them.!
!
Golman!(1995)!defined!emotional!intelligence!as!a!set!of!emotional!skills!that!are!necessary!for!
success! in! professional! interactions! and! in! different! life! situations.! He! also! added,! it! is! the!
ability!of! the! individual! to! know! their! feelings,! feelings! of! others! and!manage! their! emotions!
and!relations!with!others!effectively.!!Mayer!&!Salovy!(1997)!defined!emotional!intelligence!as!
the!ability!to!monitor!an!individual's!feelings,!and!the!use!of!information!in!guiding!a!person's!
thinking!and!actions.!!George!(2000)!stated!that!emotional!intelligence!is!the!ability!to!perceive!
emotions!through!thinking,!understanding!emotional! knowledge,! and! organizing! emotions!so!
that!the!individual!can!influence!the!feelings!of!others.!!While!Bar-on!(2006)!defined!emotional!
intelligence! as! a! set! of! emotional,! personal! and! social! abilities! that! give! the! individual! the!
ability!to!adapt!to!the!difficulties!and!stress.!
!
Golman! (1995)! has! divided! emotional! intelligence! into! four! dimensions,! which! are! self-
awareness,! self-control,! social! awareness,! and! social! skills.! ! While! Meyer! and! Salovy! (1997)!
mentioned! that! emotional! intelligence! consists! of! four! dimensions,! which! are! perception! of!
emotions,!understanding!and!analyzing!emotions,!managing!emotions,!and!emotional!thinking.)
)
Advances!in!Social!Sciences!Research!Journal!(ASSRJ)!
Vol.5,!Issue!1!Jan-2018!
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The! availability! of! emotional! support! for! the! individual! may! contribute! to! happiness,!
adaptation!and!harmony!of!the!adolescents!and!their!relations!with!others.!!It!will!makes!them!
able!to!understand!their!emotions!and!feelings!and!dealing!with!kindness!and!affection! which!
is!an!important!part!of!the!characteristics!of!emotional!intelligence.!!
!
Gregory,! et,! al,! (1996)! indicated! that! children! continue! to! develop! a! different! and! evolving!
basis!and!reference!for!the!strategies!of!comfort,!consolation!and!empathy,!so!they!can!be!able!
to! provide! emotional! support! in! the! form! of! sensitive,! knowing,! cooperative! and! conscious!
emotions!to!the!other! persons!who!need!emotional!support.! Emotional! support!from!parents!
or! other! adolescences! are! the! most! important! factors! that! develop! their! emotional! support!
skills.! Depending! on! their! specific! personality,! support! from! caregivers! can! affect! individual!
support!skills!and!may!be!catalysts!for!many!emotional!support!mechanisms.!Clearly!learning!
by!observation!is!an!important!mechanism;!children!learn!how!and!when!to!provide!emotional!
support!by!observing!and!imitating!others.!!
Shaw,! Krause,! Connel! &! Dayton! (2004)! conducted! a! study! in! the! United! States! designed! to!
assess!the!relationship!between!recipients!of!emotional!support!from!parents!early!in!life!and!
the!health!of!an! individual!in!adolescence.!The!emotional!support!of!parents!in!childhood!was!
strongly!correlated! with! increased! levels! of! symptoms! of! depression! and! chronic! diseases! in!
adulthood.!!The!study!also!found!that!children!who!provide!adequate!emotional!support!from!
parents!are!less!likely!to!suffer!from!mental!and!physical!illnesses!than!children!who!received!
less!emotional!support!than!their!parents!did.!
!
Emotional!support! was! linked! to! so! many! factors! related! to! emotional! intelligence.! Caldwell,!
Silverman,!Lefforge!&!Clayton!(2004)!investigate!the!relationship!of!emotional! family!support!
to!self-esteem,!emotional!well-being! and! delinquency! of! Mexican! American! adolescents.! ! The!
study! found! a! positive! correlation! between! emotional! support! provided! by! mothers! and!
emotional!well-being!and!self-esteem!among!adolescents.!!!
!
Frederick,! Gwen,! Dimitiri! &! Wayne! (2005)! conducted! a! study! to! reveal! the! relationship! of!
emotional! support! in! children! to! bullying.! ! The! results! showed! that! emotional! support! for!
children! at! 4! years! of! age! was! negatively! associated! with! bullying.! Also,! Sabihat! (2011)!
conducted!a!study!in! Palestine! aimed!at!revealing!the!relationship!between! forms! of!bullying!
and! psychological! security! and! emotional! support.! The! results! showed! that! the! forms! of!
bullying!were!inversely!related!to!the!level!of!emotional!support!for!the!student.!
Radi! (2002)! conducted! a! study! aimed! at! examining! the! correlation! between! parental!
maltreatment! and! neglect! with! cognitive,! emotional! and! social! intelligence! for! children.! The!
aim!was!to!identify! differences!in!cognitive,!emotional!and! social! intelligence!among!children!
according! to! the! level! of! abuse! and! neglect! of! parents.! The! results! have! linked! abuse! and!
neglect!of!parents!negatively! with!the!cognitive,!emotional!and! social! intelligence!of!children.!!
Recently,!Iruloh!&!Ukaegbu!(2015)! conducted! a! study!aimed!at!investigating!the!relationship!
between! emotional! and! social! intelligence! and! the! social! support! network! among! young!
people.!The!result!showed!a!positive!correlation!between!emotional!and!social!intelligence!and!
social!support!networks!among!young!people.!
:.SIUDV)SX)JYD)+JT=F>
Many! parents! are! often! suffering! in! raising! their! children! in! the! early! stage! of!
adolescence! and! face! many! difficulties! in! dealing! with! their! emotional! sensitivity! and!
fluctuating!moods!that!are! often! noticeable!at!this!age.!! This! could! lead!to!problems!between!
Atoum,' A.' Y.,' &' Al-Shoboul,' R.' A.' (2018).'Emotional'supp ort'and' its' relationship' to' Emotional' intelligence.' !"#$%&'() *%) +,&*$-) +&*'%&'() .'('$/&0)
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adolescents!and!their!parents!or!family!members!and!could!produce!a!lot!of!tension!and!fear!in!
the!relationship.!!The!researchers!also!noted!that!many!students!at!this!age!are!in!strong!need!
for! emotional! support! from! those! who! care! for! them! such! as! parents,! teachers,! friends,! and!
other!significant!people.!
Due! to! limited! research! that! addressed! the! direct! relationship! between! emotional! support!
from!various!sources!and!emotional!intelligence,!the!aim!of!the!study!was!to!find!out!the!extent!
of!the!emotional!support!provided!by!various!sources!of!emotional!support,! and!to!reveal! the!
relationship! between! emotional! support! in! general! and! emotional! intelligence! among! 9th!
grade!students!in!Jordan.
!
Specifically!the!study!aimed!to!answer!the!following!questions:!
-! What! is! the! level! of! emotional! support! provided! by! family,! friends,! teachers,! and! social!
networking?!
-!What!is!the!relationship!between!emotional!supports!provided!by!family,!teachers,!friends!
and!social!networks!and!emotional!intelligence?!
!
J0')*EA,/<$%&'),G)(<2"B)
The!importance!of!the!study!stems!from!the!fact!that!it!examines!variables!of!importance!in!the!
lives! of! our! students.! Research! on! emotional! support! is! rare! in! Jordan! and! no! studies! have!
examined!the!relationship!between!emotional!support!and!emotional!intelligence!in!Jordan!or!
the!region.!!The!practical!importance!of!this!study!is!to!provide!parents,!adults!and!educational!
staff!with! information!that!helps!them!care! for!adolescents!by!providing!them! with!emotional!
support.!The! results!of!the!study!can! reflect!in!increasing!awareness!of! teachers!and!family!of!
the!impact!of!emotional!support!on!emotional!intelligence!and!the!development!of!awareness!
programs,!training!and!guidance!to!improve!their!practices!in!providing!such!support.!
!
+<2"B)A,A2-$<*,%)$%")($EA-')
The!study!population!consists!of!ninth!grade!Jordanian!students!enrolled!in!the!first!semester!
of! the! academic! year! 2016/2017! in! Jordan!(2932)! students! (1446! male! students! and! 1486!
female!students).!!The!study!sample!was!chosen!randomly!based!on!gender!and!sub-districts.!!
It! consisted! of! (732)! male! and! female! students! from! the! ninth! grade! (366! males! and! 366!
females.!!!!
)
+<2"B)J,,-()
First:'Emotional'support'Scale'
The!present!study!used!the!emotional!support!scale!developed!by!Hasada,!Senda,!&!Minoguchi!
(1989).! ! The! scale! consisted! of! (16)! items! using! 5! point! liker-type! responses.! ! Items! were!
divided!among!four!dimension!sources!(family,!friends,!teacher,!social!networks).!The!original!
scale! has! good! indicators! of! validity! and! reliability! (Uchida,! Kitayama,! Mesquite,! Reyes! and!
Morling,! 2009).! ! The! scale! was! translated! from! English! to! Arabic! and! translated! back! from!
Arabic!to!English!to!check!for!possible!translation!errors.!
!
4$-*"*<B>!In! order! to! achieve! content! validity! for! the!new! Arabic! scale,! it! was! presented! to! a!
panel!of!10! specialists!to!check!for!content! issues.!!Based!on! 80%!agreement!of!panel! judges,!
no! items! were! removed! or! added! and! only! few! were! clarified.! ! Also,! Pearson! correlation!
coefficients! were! calculated! between! item! score! and! source! score! based! on! a! data! collected!
from! (36)! exploratory! sample.! ! ! Correlations! ranged! from! .21! to! .75! which! are! considered!
acceptable.!!
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Advances!in!Social!Sciences!Research!Journal!(ASSRJ)!
Vol.5,!Issue!1!Jan-2018!
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@,AB/*C0<!©!Society!for!Science!and!Education,!United!Kingdom!
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.'-*$;*-*<B:!Pearson!correlation!coefficients!were!calculated!between! the! two! applications! of!
the!scale!(2!weeks!interval)!based!on!sources!using!the!data!from!the!exploratory!sample.!The!
correlation! coefficients! of! the! scale! sources! ranged! from! (.50! -! .78)! which! are! considered!
acceptable.!!The!homogeneity!of!the!internal!consistency!was!calculated!using!the!α-Cronbach!
equation!on!the!exploratory!sample!data.!!The!coefficients!ranged!between!(0.83!-!0.89)!for!all!
four!sources!which!are!considered!acceptable.!!!
!
Second:'Emotional'intelligence'Scale:'The'present'study'used'
Shutte!scale,! which!was!translated!to!Arabic!language!by!Badarin!(2008).!!The!scale! consisted!
of! 33! items! divided! into! four! dimensions! which! are! emotional! awareness,! emotional!
management,! managing! the! emotion! of! others,! and! use! of! emotions.! ! The! scale! has! good!
validity!and!reliability!indicators!in!the!original!and!translated!forms!(Badarin,!2008).!!!
!
4$-*"*<B>) In! order! to! achieve! content! validity! for! the! translated! copy! of! the! scale,! it! was!
presented!to!a!panel!of!10!specialists!to!check!for!content!issues.!!Based!on!80%!agreement!of!
panel! judges,! 2! items! were! deleted! and! minor! language! changes! were! made! to! some! of! the!
items.! ! The! Scale! consisted! of! ! 31! items! after! content! ! validity.! ! ! ! ! Also,! Pearson! correlation!
coefficients!were!calculated!between!item!score,!dimensions!scores!and!total!score!based!on!a!
data!collected!from!the!previous!exploratory!sample.!!!Correlations!ranged!from!.18!to!.77!and!
one!item!was!below!the!.20!norm!so!it!was!deleted.!!The!number!of!items!became!30.!!!
)
.'-*$;*-*<B:!Pearson!correlation!coefficients!were!calculated!between!the!two!applications!of!
the! scale! (2! weeks! interval)! based! on! data! from! the! previous! exploratory! sample.! The!
correlation! coefficients! ranged! between! (.57! -! .70)! and! for! the! total! scale! (.85),! which! are!
considered!acceptable.!!Also,!the!homogeneity!of!the!internal!consistency!was!calculated!using!
the! α-Cronbach! equation! ! on! the! exploratory! sample! data.! ! !! The! values! of! consistency!
coefficients!ranged!from!0.67!to!0.83!for!the!dimensions!and!for!the!whole!scale!(0.92),!which!
are!considered!acceptable.!!!
!
+<2"B):/,&'"2/'(>)To!achieve!the!objectives!of!the!study,!the!following!steps!and!procedures!
were!followed:
1. Translation!of!the!measure!of!emotional!support!through!its!translation!from!English!to!
Arabic!and!from!Arabic!to!English,!and!then!obtaining!validity!and!reliability!indicators.
2. !Development!of!the!measure!of!emotional!intelligence!and!obtaining!validity!and!
reliability!indicators.
3. Identifying!the!study!sample!after!obtaining!prober!official!approval!to!conduct!the!
study.!!
4. Collecting!data!from!subjects!after!explaining!the!objectines!of!the!study!and!assuring!
them!that!all!information!to!be!obtained!will!only!be!used!for!scientific!research!
purposes,!they!will!be!kept!confidential,!giving!sufficient!time!for!sample!subjects!to!
answer!all!items!of!the!study!tools,!and!answered!all!subjects’!questions!regarding!the!
study.!
5. Using!the!SPSS!program!for!statistical!analysis!of!data!collected!from!the!study!sample.!
!
.D+TUJ+
X*/(<7)to!answer!the! first!question)"What!is!the!level!of!emotional!support!provided!by!family,!
friends,! teachers,! and! social! networking?",! means! and! standard! deviations! of! the! emotional!
support!and!dimensions!as!provided!by!students!were!extracted!and!shown!in!Table!1.!
!
!
!
Atoum,' A.' Y.,' &' Al-Shoboul,' R.' A.' (2018).'Emotional'supp ort'and' its' relationship' to' Emotional' intelligence.' !"#$%&'() *%) +,&*$-) +&*'%&'() .'('$/&0)
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T.U>)http://dx.doi.org/10.14738/assrj.51.4095.)
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J$;-')M9Q>)V'$%()$%")(<$%"$/")"'#*$<*,%(),G)<0')-'#'-),G)'E,<*,%$-)(2AA,/<)A/,#*"'");B)(,2/&'(
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"'#*$<*,%(
V'$%(
=*E'%(*,%(
1!
High
.741!
4.31!
My!family
2!
High
.798!
3.95!
my!friends
3!
Average
.955!
3.48
my!teacher
4!
Average
1.124!
3.14!
Network
-!
High
.666!
3.72!
Total!
Emotional!
Support!
Levels:!(1.33!-!2.33!=!low),!(2.34!-!3.66!=!average),!and!(3.67!–!5=!high)!
!
Table!(1)!showed!that!the!mean!for!total!emotional!support!was!(3.72)!which!indicates!a!high!
level!of!support.!!For!the!four!sources,!they!ranged!between!(3.14!-4.31), Where!the!emotional!
support!provided!by!members!of!my! family! in! the! first! place! with!the!highest!average!(4.31)!
and!at!a!high!level.!!While!the!networking!support!came!last!(3.14)!with!an!average!level.!
!
+'&,%"7)to!answer!the!second!question!“What!is!the!relationship!between!emotional!supports!
provided!by!family,!teachers,!friends!and!social!networks!and!emotional!intelligence?[7)simple!
correlations!between)emotional!supports!and!emotional!intelligence!and!the!predicative!ability!
of! emotional! supports! on! emotional! intelligence! were! calculated5) ) Pearson! correlation!
coefficients! between! emotional! supports! provided! by! the! family,! teachers,! friends,! social!
networks,!and!emotional!intelligence!and!its!dimensions!are!shown!in!Table!2.!
!
J$;-')MPQ):'$/(,%)&,//'-$<*,%)&,'GG*&*'%<();'<K''%)'E,<*,%$-)(2AA,/<)$%")'E,<*,%$-)
*%<'--*C'%&')
Total!emotional!
intelligence!
Use!Emotions!
Managing!the!
emotions!of!
others!
Emotional!
Management!
Emotional!
awareness!
Variables!
.310!**!
.275!**!
.267!**!
.293!**!
.235!**!
Correlation!
coefficient!
.000!
.000!
.000!
.000!
.000!
Statistical!
significance!
.209!**!
.167!**!
.199**!
.166!**!
189.!**!
Correlation!
coefficient!
.000!
.000!
.000!
.000!
.000!
Statistical!
significance!
.157!**!
.100!**!
.181!**!
134.!
.113!**!
Correlation!
coefficient!
.000!
.007!
.000!
.000!
.002!
Statistical!
significance!
.053!
-.008!
Positive!
.046!
.043!
Correlation!
coefficient!
.153!
.832!
.022!
.214!
.240!
Statistical!
significance!
.227!**!
159.!**!
.234**!
.199**!
.181!**!
Correlation!
coefficient!
.000!
.000!
.000!
.000!
.000!
Statistical!
significance!
*!Statistical!function!at!the!level!of!significance!(0.05).!
**!Statistical!function!at!the!level!of!significance!(0.01).!
!
Results!of!table!2!showed:!
Advances!in!Social!Sciences!Research!Journal!(ASSRJ)!
Vol.5,!Issue!1!Jan-2018!
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- There!were!statistically!significant!positive!correlations!between!the!sources!of!family,!
friends,!teachers,!and!total!emotional!support!with!emotional!intelligence!and!all!its!
dimensions.!
- There!was!a!statistically!significant!positive!correlation!between!networks!emotional!
support!and!the!managing!emotions!of!others.!
!
Also,!a!multiple! regression!analysis!was! used!to!determine!the! predictive!power!of! emotional!
support!sources!on!total!emotional!intelligence!among!students,!as!shown!in!Table!3.!
!
J$;-')MOQ>)V2-<*A-')/'C/'((*,%)$%$-B(*(),G)<0')*EA$&<),G)'E,<*,%$-)(2AA,/<)(,2/&'(),%)<,<$-)
'E,<*,%$-)*%<'--*C'%&'))
:)
)X)
.P)
.
I)
)
+,2/&'()
J0')
"'A'%"'%<)
#$/*$;-')
5\\\)
NN56N])
5\^_)
5O9\)
5P6`)
VB)G$E*-B)
J,<$-)
DE,<*,%$-)
*%<'--*C'%&
'))
5\\\)
`P5]6N)
59\6)
5OP`)
5\N^)
EB)G/*'%"()
!
Results! of! table! 3! showed! that! emotional! support! provided! by! family! and! friends! together!
accounted!for!about!10.5%!of!total!emotional!intelligence.!Family!members!supported!9.6%!of!
emotional!intelligence!and!friends!accounted!for!0.9%!of!emotional!intelligence.!
!
To! determine! the! predictive! ability! of! emotional! support! sources! on! the! dimensions! of!
emotional!intelligence,!multiple!regression!analysis!was!used!as!shown!in!Table!4.!
!
J$;-')M`Q>)E2-<*A-')/'C/'((*,%)$%$-B(*(),G)<0')*EA$&<),G)'E,<*,%$-)(2AA,/<)(,2/&'(),%)<0')
"*E'%(*,%(),G)'E,<*,%$-)*%<'--*C'%&')
:)
X)
.P)
.
I)
X,/'&$(<'/()
J0') "'A'%"'%<)
#$/*$;-')
5\\\)
`P5NO\)
5\66)
5PO6)
5P96)
VB)G$E*-B)
DE,<*,%$-)
$K$/'%'(()
5\\\)
P65^6\)
5\__)
5P6])
5\^N)
EB)G/*'%"()
)
\\\.)
_]5N99)
5\]_)
P^O.)
5P_9)
VB)G$E*-B)
DE,<*,%$-)
V$%$C'E'%<)
5\\\)
665]N])
5\N9)
5P_N)
5P_P)
VB)G$E*-B)
V$%$C')<0')
'E,<*,%(),G)
,<0'/()
5\\\
OP5`^`
5\]P
5P]_
59\O)
EB)G/*'%"()
)
5\\\)
6^5^9P)
5\N_)
5PN6)
5PN^)
VB)G$E*-B)
T(')DE,<*,%()
5\\\
OP5O]O
5\]P
5P]_
H5\6P)
8'<K,/L*%C)
)
5\\\
P`5\O_
5\^\
5O\\
5\^^)
EB)G/*'%"()
)
!
The!results!of!table!4!showed:!!!
Emotional!support!from!family!and!friends!explained!6.6%!of!emotional!awareness.!Family!
members!supported!5.5%!of!the!emotional!awareness!and!friends!supported!1.1%!
emotional!awareness.!
!Support!provided!by!family!members!explained!8.6%!of!emotional!management.!
Atoum,' A.' Y.,' &' Al-Shoboul,' R.' A.' (2018).'Emotional'supp ort'and' its' relationship' to' Emotional' intelligence.' !"#$%&'() *%) +,&*$-) +&*'%&'() .'('$/&0)
1,2/%$-3)5456'7-15.'
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T.U>)http://dx.doi.org/10.14738/assrj.51.4095.)
!
!Emotional!support!from!family!and!friends!explained!8.2%!of!managing!the!emotions!of!
others.!Family!members!supported!7.1%!of!managing!the!emotions!of!others!and!friends!
supported!1.1%!of!managing!the!emotions!of!others.!
The!support!provided!by!family!members,!networks!and!friends!explained!about!9%!of!the!
use!of!emotions.!!Support!of!family!members!explained!7.6%,!support!from!network!
explained!0.6%,!and!support!from!friends!explained!0.8%!of!use!of!emotion.!
)
=?+@T++?S8))
The! results! showed! that! the! level! of! support! provided! to! students! from! all! sources! (family,!
friends,! teachers,! and! social! networks)! is! generally! high.! ! However,! support! from! family! and!
friends!was!high,!while!the!level!of!teachers!and!social!networking!were!average.!Support!from!
family!members!came!first,!followed!by!support!from!friends,!teachers!and!social!networks.!
!
These! results! can! be! explain! in! term! of! the! importance! of! family! in! adolescent! development!
and!the!ability!of!family! in!meeting!the!demands!and!psychological!needs!that!they!face!daily.!!
Families!in!Jordan,!as!an!Arab!and!Muslim!country,!considered!a!major!supporter!of!adolescent!
because! of! the! characteristics! of! the! Jordanian! family! in! terms! of! cohesion,! compassion! and!
communication.!!The! role! and! duties! of! family! toward! raising! children! are! very! clear! and!
demanding!meeting!all!kinds!of!psychological!needs.!!
!
High!emotional!support! from!family!and!friends!is! supported!by!Gregory,!et,! al,!(1996)!Ideas.!!
They!also!confirmed!by!Lerner!(2002)!in!which!the!family!is!the!principal!institution!and!pillar!
that!works!to!promote!the!adolescent's!emotional!development.!In!the!event!of!any!imbalance,!
it!may!be!due!to!the!lack!of!information!and!shortcomings!of!the!parents,! with! regard! to! the!
nature! and! characteristics! of! the! adolescent! and! severe! shortcomings! in! parental! treatment!
methods.!!
!
The! emotional! support! of! friends,! which! came! second! among! all! four! sources,! could!be!
explained! by! the! fact! that! the! Arab! society! values! friendship! among! adolescent! and! are!
considered! a! high! source! of! emotional! support.! ! Adolescents! begin! to! expand! their! circle! of!
social! relationships! and! looking! for! people! to! share! experiences! early! since! the! end! of!
childhood.! Teenager! at! this! stage! starts! relying! heavily! at! times! on! friends! in! the! sense! of!
security!and! assistance! and! self-development.! ! This! result! is! consistent! with! Eriksson! theory!
stressing! the! role! of! friends! in! shaping! the! adolescent's! personal! identity,! providing! the!
emotional! support! needed,! and! the! friendship! that! provides! suitable! opportunities! for! self-
exploration! and! developing! a! deep! understanding! of! others! through! safe! and! open!
communication!processes!(Berk,!2001).
!
Teacher's!emotional!support!was!ranked!third!with!an! average! level! of! emotional! support.! !
This! intermediate! level! may! be! due! to! the! self-educational! philosophy! of! the! majority! of!
teachers!in!imposing!control!and!assuming!that!the!teacher!is!the!source!of!authority,!in!order!
to! do! his! job! perfectly. ! Some! teachers! ignore! the! role! of! emotional! support! believing!
achievement!and!learning!are!the!basic!role!of!teachers.!!This!was!confirmed!by!Jaber,!Hunt,!
Sabin-Farrell !and!Alqaysi!(1995)! who! found! that! some! teachers! may! overlook! their! role! of!
providing!a!safe!environment!free!of!fear,!threats!and!punishment.!!
!
Network! emotional! support! came! in! fourth! and! final! rank! with! an! average! level.! ! This!
intermediate! level! of! support! may! explain! that! networks,! as! a! virtual! space,! may! allow!
adolescents!to!connect!to!individuals!and!sharing!similar!interests!and!tendencies!but!it!is!not!
the!ideal!place!for!emotional!support.!!Many!teenagers!have!reservations!over!sharing!personal!
issues!on!social!media! due! to! problems!of!confidentiality!and!fear! of! being! exploited!by!their!
Advances!in!Social!Sciences!Research!Journal!(ASSRJ)!
Vol.5,!Issue!1!Jan-2018!
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mates.!!Atoum!and!Hattab!(2015)!found!that!Jordanian!teenagers!fear!addiction!to!internet!and!!
fear!personal !scandals!by!their!social!media!mates.!!
!
The!results!also!showed! that! there!were!positive!correlations!between! each!of!the!sources!of!
emotional!support!(family,!friends!and!teacher)!and!emotional!intelligence!and!its!dimensions,!
and! between! the! emotional! support! from! networks! and! management! of! emotions! of! others.!!
Also,! the! results! also! showed! the! contribution! of! family,! friends! and! network! emotional!
support!in!predicting!emotional!intelligence! with! a! clear! contribution!to!family!in!accounting!
for!the!variation!in!emotional!intelligence.!!
!
These!results!can!be!explained!by! the! fact! that! family,! friends!and!teachers!can!contribute!to!
adolescents’’!emotional!intelligence.!Adolescents!spend!a!lot!of!time!at!home,!with!friends!and!
at!the!school.!!These!sources!are!often!in!contact!with!the!individual!during!crises!or!situations!
with!personal!or!social!or!emotional! nature.! ! All! components!of!emotional!support!generates!
empathy!and!understanding!which!in!turn!is!an!integral!part!of!emotional!intelligence.!!Atoum!
and!Almunaizel! (2011)!found!that!Individuals!who! are!able!to!understand!their!emotions!and!
the! emotions! of! others! will! be! able! to! use! and! manage! them! effectively! and! provide! the!
necessary!support!in!the!situations!required.!
!
Tomas! &! Alberecht! (1980)! argues! that! emotional! support! increases! the! individual's! self-
esteem!and!increases!innovative!abilities,!and!allow!them!to!acquire!skills!through!learning!by!
observation! and! imitation.! It! also! provides! experiences! of! love,! acceptance! and! form! social!
relationships!which!in!return!makes!them!able!to!manage!and!use!their!emotions!effectively.!
!
Family!emotional!support!has!contributed!to!the!prediction!of!emotional!intelligence!and!all!of!
its!dimensions!strongly!in!comparison!to!the!other!three!sources.!Family!plays!a!major!role!in!
adolescents!behavior!such!as!self-esteem,!decision!making,!future!direction,!and!many!aspects!
of!their!daily!activities.!!!!Gregory,!et,!al,!(1996)!indicated!that!families!that!allow!individuals!to!
grows!up!in!an!atmosphere!full! of! love! and! trust,!they!become!emotionally!balanced!and!can!
manage! their! social! and! emotional! relations.! Freeman! (1983)! emphasized! that! emotional!
intelligence!needs!an!emotional!state!that!is!capable!of!intelligence,!such!as!love!and!disciples;!
Which!in!turn!frees!responsible!areas!of!the!brain!for!these!abilities!.!
!
In!light!of!the!findings!of!the!study,!the!researchers!recommend!the!followings:!
1. Conduct!more!studies!on!emotional!support!and!link!it!with!self-esteem!and!
psychological!security!of!students.!
2. Develop!an!integrated!plan!to!train!teachers!on!emotional!support!skills!to!become!
active!support!providers!in!the!school!community.!
3. Explore!the!relationship!between!social!media!and!other!social!and!psychological!
aspects!of!Jordanian!students!due!to!the!spread!of!such!services.!!!
)
.'G'/'%&'()
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Atoum,!A.!and!Hattab,!L.!(2015).!!Internet!Addiction!and!its!Relation!to!Psychosocial!Adaptation!among!Jordanian!
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Badarin,!G.!(2008).!!Parental'integration,'emotional'intelligence'and'the'tendency'of'the'school''as'the'initiator'of'
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Bar-!on,!R.!(2006).!The!bar-!on!model!of!emotional-!social!intelligence!(ESI).!!The'consortium'for'research'on'
emotional'intelligence'in'organizations,'18(1),!13-!25.
Berk,!L.!E.!(2001).!Infants,'children,'and'adolescents'(3rd!ed.).'!Bosten:!Allyn!and!Bacon.
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... However, it is not clear in this model how family members help their members to build resilience, and remain independent from recurrent support in particular when they are adults. Discussing emotional support, Atoum and Al-Shoboul (2018) note that love, affection, warmth that adolescents receive from family members, peers, friends, is associated with the growth of emotional intelligence amongst adolescents. They argue that such support is a signal to adolescents that they can find comfort and resources they need to bounce back in time of crisis from those who care for them. ...
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Purpose: Having a strong family support is one of the most important factors contributing to successful rehabilitation and especially among adolescent ex-offenders and thereafter gain a sustainable livelihood. This study sought to examine the role of family support in the social re-integration of adolescent offenders in Kinshasa city. The study was grounded on strain theory as proposed by Merton (1957) as well as pm system theory. Methodology: Mixed methods research approach focusing on explanatory sequential design was adopted. Data was collected from a sample of 345 individuals including 330 adolescents and 15 key informants using questionnaires, FGDs, and key informant interviews. The study participants were selected from three localities, Kisenso, Limete, and Matete and Kisenso, using stratified sampling technique and purposive sampling. Findings: Findings on adolescent offenders’ perception on family support indicates that, 10% (n=33) of adolescent offenders expressed low perceptions of family support; 82.7% (n=273) had moderate perception of family support while 7.3% (n=24) have high perceptions of the support received from family members. The study also found a positive albeit rather weak correlation between family support and social reintegration of adolescent offenders, with a Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r) 0.377. From the findings, the ANOVA tests revealed that, family support (F=1.962, p=0.018) has statistically significant influence on social reintegration of adolescent offenders. The study concludes that, family support was found to be a predictor of social reintegration as family financial, material, and emotional support is needed to influence readjustment and social functioning of affected individuals. Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy: From the study, it was recommended that, different stakeholders including the government, NGOs, the religious organizations and individual philanthropists should support the family in her role to provide material and non-material support towards their adolescent ex-offenders for effective social re-integration.
... Reblin and Uchino (2009) characterize emotional support as a connection with friends, family, and other groups. According to Atoum and Al-Shoboul, (2018), emotional support is one of the aspects of human development, and some people consider it to be the most essential component of a person's conduct, personality, dreams, and ambitions. The majority of people are defined by powerful emotions as a result of a combination of unbalanced physiological and psychological elements (Phelps, 2004;Um et al., 2012). ...
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Purpose: The concept of negative behaviors in organizational psychology is at its emerging stage. Negative behaviors not only affect the well-being of the employees but also the overall performance of the organization. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between emotional support (from co-workers) and employees’ wellbeing in the presence of social undermining as a mediator. Materials and Methods: This study was quantitative. Cross-sectional and convenience sampling design (non-probability sampling technique) was applied to collect the data through questionnaires from the participants by using the survey method. Data was gathered from 287 Lecturers, Assistant Professors, and Professors from different public and private universities of Balochistan. Process Macro was applied to find the direct and indirect effect of emotional support on employees ‘wellbeing. Findings: Results showed that emotional support positively influenced wellbeing while social undermining partially mediates the relationship between emotional support and wellbeing. Recommendation: These findings can be applied in organizations to improve the wellbeing of the employees and minimize the negative behaviors in an organizational setting.
... Emotional support includes the provision of care, empathy, love, appreciation and trust (Atoum & Al-Shoboul, 2018). When women are supported, they may experience positive feelings, whereas a lack of support may result in negative emotions. ...
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Background Young women are more likely to acquire Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) than other population groups. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is using antiretroviral medicines by HIV-negative individuals before HIV exposure to avert HIV infection. Various conditions may influence women’s decisions to initiate and continue PrEP. Objective This study aimed to explore young women’s lived experiences using PrEP in the Rundu district, Namibia. Method Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with nine young women between 21 and 24 years who had experience of current or previous use of PrEP and attended at least one follow-up visit after commencing PrEP. Colaizzi’s seven-step process of qualitative data analysis was used to analyse data. Findings: Young women were aware of their risk of acquiring HIV, prompting them to use PrEP. These risks included a lack of awareness of their partner’s HIV status, a lack of trust in their partners, or being in a sexual relationship with a partner living with HIV. Awareness also emanated from information provided by healthcare workers, peers and the media. Using PrEP empowered young women for self-care by enabling them to make choices about managing their risk. Some women persisted using PrEP despite several challenges, including the lack of privacy, stigma and inadequate support. Conclusion PrEP is an empowering HIV prevention strategy for young women; however, much still needs to be done to promote young women’s willingness to initiate and continue PrEP.
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