Article

Vanishing time in the pursuit of happiness

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Abstract

Happiness can be conceptualized as a positive affective state or as a goal whose pursuit ironically pulls the pursuer away from achieving it (Mauss, Tamir, Anderson, & Savino in Emotion, 11(4), 807-815, 2011). But how do people think about time during this latter, never-ending pursuit of happiness? The present investigation asks how seeking happiness influences perceptions of time availability. Four studies demonstrated that trait-level happiness seeking (Study 1) as well as direct manipulation of happiness seeking (Studies 2, 3, and 4) consistently reveal the same pattern: reduced feelings of time availability while pursuing happiness. This negative effect on time availability is mitigated when happiness seems like it has been achieved (Study 2) or seems quick to achieve (Study 3). In addition, pursuing happiness can ultimately decrease happiness, in part, by reducing perceptions of time availability (Study 4), extending theories on happiness, goal pursuit, and perceptions of time.

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... In particular, the pursuit of pleasures and happiness is usually counterproductive, notably because it tends to leave individuals dissatisfied (e.g., Shankland, 2014;Kim & Maglio, 2018;Mauss et al., 2011). Similarly, wanting to minimize negative affect is not a guarantee of happiness either: as suffering is an integral part of the human condition, seeking to avoid it deprives individuals of the learning and evolution that inevitably stem from it (Peck, 1978). ...
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Mapping Career Counseling Interventions provides an innovative insight into identifying and resolving problems within career management. In recent years, myriad of counselling tools has been developed so that practitioners can offer the most appropriate support possible. To guide the selection of such tools, this book offers a "map" that introduces and links 63 frequent career management difficulties with more than 160 qualitative interventions and solutions. Through its highly organized layout and extensive detail, major career management difficulties—namely lack of motivation, indecisiveness, dysfunctional beliefs, lack of information, conflicts, and lack of employability—are scrutinized and divided into specific, more manageable sub-difficulties. Targeted interventions to address each of those difficulties, originating from vocational, motivational, and positive psychology, are then suggested and described. From these conclusions, the book delivers practical advice to help conduct these interventions in a sensitive and respectful manner. Overall, this book outlines the most effective ways to foster a good working alliance. One of the book’s standout features is its inclusion of an inventory and card sort to facilitate the identification of obstacles to professional choice and career management. This book is a pivotal resource for the large and diverse community of career development practitioners, such as career counsellors, career advisors, employment counsellors, and career coaches, regardless of their specific audience and work settings. https://www.routledge.com/Mapping-Career-Counseling-Interventions-A-Guide-for-Career-Practitioners/Rochat/p/book/9781032212289
... En effet, les travaux réalisés sur ces notions tendent à mettre en évidence que la poursuite d'un bien-être dit « hédonique »-caractérisée par la recherche des plaisirs et l'évitement des affects négatifs-est peu susceptible de procurer un bonheur durable(Deci & Ryan, 2008). La poursuite des plaisirs et du bonheur en soit s'avère généralement contre-productive, notamment car elle tend à laisser les individus insatisfaits (e.g., Shankland, 2014 ;Kim & Maglio, 2018 ;Mauss, Tamir, Anderson & Savino, 2011) ...
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Dans un monde en constante mutation, les individus qui cherchent à s'orienter peuvent rencontrer une multitude de difficultés. Ces dernières années, une myriade d'outils de conseil a ainsi été développée pour que les psychologues en orientation puissent offrir un accompagnement le plus adapté possible. Pour guider la sélection de tels outils, cet ouvrage propose une "carte" d'interventions utiles pour répondre à 63 difficultés fréquentes d'orientation, telles que le manque de motivation, l'indécision chronique, ou encore une faible employabilité. Au total, plus de 160 interventions qualitatives, issues de la psychologie du conseil et de l'orientation, de la psychologie positive et des approches systémiques et motivationnelles, sont proposées et décrites. En complément, un inventaire et un jeu de cartes sont proposés pour faciliter l'identification des obstacles au choix professionnel et à la gestion de carrière. Plus d'informations et possibilités de commande sur le site www.shekinarochat.com
... The main critique of PP is that its exclusive focus on the positive can place an implicit burden on people to be happy when they are suffering (Ehrenreich, 2009;Held, 2004). Research has shown that there is a downside in pursuing happiness (Gruber, Mauss, & Tamir, 2011), that there is an upside of negatives (Kashdan & Biswas-Diener, 2014), and that the pursuit of happiness can lead to unhappy people (Kim & Maglio, 2018). PP has also been criticized for classifying human experiences as either 'positive' or 'negative' (Lomas & Ivtzan, 2016;Wong & Tomer, 2011). ...
... The main critique of PP is that its exclusive focus on the positive can place an implicit burden on people to be happy when they are suffering (Ehrenreich, 2009;Held, 2004). Research has shown that there is a downside in pursuing happiness (Gruber, Mauss, & Tamir, 2011), that there is an upside of negatives (Kashdan & Biswas-Diener, 2014), and that the pursuit of happiness can lead to unhappy people (Kim & Maglio, 2018). PP has also been criticized for classifying human experiences as either 'positive' or 'negative' (Lomas & Ivtzan, 2016;Wong & Tomer, 2011). ...
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... In a sample of college students, Tamir and Ford (2012) found that participants' preferences for seeking happiness in contexts in which it is unlikely to be useful (e.g., confrontational social situations) were associated with decreased psychological wellbeing and adaptive functioning (i.e., interpersonal support and college grade point average). Similarly, Kim and Maglio (2018) found not only that seeking happiness leads to less happiness and feelings that time is limited, they also found that viewing the pursuit of happiness as effortful and time-consuming leads to the perception that time is scarce, ultimately reducing happiness. ...
Chapter
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In this paper I examine the association between subjective time pressure and depression and consider whether time pressure mediates the relationship between roles and depression, whether social and economic resources moderate the association between time pressure and depression, and whether time pressure explains gender differences in depression. Results of a telephone survey of 790 respondents indicate that time pressure is significantly associated with distress for men and women, and that subjective time pressure accounts for the significantly higher depression of employed women. Time pressure mediates the impact of housework and the volunteer role among women and it partially explains the differential depression of divorced men. Several resources moderate the impact of time pressure on depression: income among both men and women and perceived co-worker social support among men. Results suggest that the subjective experience of time pressure can be thought of as a potentially important mechanism by which lived experience is transformed into depression. However, in spite of the ubiquity of time pressure in the North American context, the depressing consequences of this subjective experience are not distributed equitably, suggesting that the capacity to manage time pressure and avoid depression may be another benefit associated with strategically advantageous social locations.
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