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Effects of Small-Sided Games and High-Intensity Interval Training on Aerobic and Repeated Sprint Performance and Peripheral Muscle Oxygenation Changes in Elite Junior Basketball Players

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The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of small-sided game (SSG) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on aerobic fitness and muscle oxygenation during a repeated sprint (RS) sequence in elite male junior basketball players. Twenty participants (14.3 ± 0.5 years; 176.8 ± 12.5 cm; 74.5 ± 9.8 kg) performed pre- and post-tests interspersed by 6-weeks of SSG or HIIT training. Testing sessions consisted of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test and a RS sequence (two bouts of 15-s). During RS, muscle oxygenation parameters (tissue saturation index (TSI, %), post-sprint muscle reoxygenation rate) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The results showed that both training interventions similarly improved maximal aerobic speed (VIFT, 3.4 and 4.1%, respectively for HIIT and SSG, P<0.05) as well as RSA (smaller percentage decrement by 62.5% and 21.6%, respectively for HIIT and SSG, P<0.05). Both training interventions also resulted in a greater ΔTSI during the second sprint (47.8% to 114%, P<0.05) and significant improvements in post-sprints reoxygenation after both sprints (+23.0% to +107.7%). Finally, the variation in muscle reoxygenation after sprint 1 was significantly associated with improvements in aerobic (ΔVIFT, r =0.61, P=0.008) and anaerobic (Δ% Dec during RS, r =-0.487, P=0.028) performances. The current study has observed that SSG and HIIT resulted in similar improvements in aerobic and anaerobic variables and a better muscle oxygenation capacity during RS. Coaches should be aware that both trainings are applicable methodologies to improve in-season aerobic and anaerobic fitness capacities in junior basketball players.
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... 11,12 Furthermore, the playing positions of players have an impact on the physiological demands of SSG, with guard and forward having higher HR responses than center in SSG. 13 Optimising the SSG methodology could elicit basketball-specific adaptation, as well as long-term training effects of concurrently developing physical performance and specific technical skills. 5,8,14,15 HIT consists of a series of short intermittent exercises performed at a maximal or near-maximal effort with an intensity greater than 90% of peak oxygen uptake. 16 Some studies showed that HIT could improve aerobic and anaerobic performance in basketball players. ...
... 16 Some studies showed that HIT could improve aerobic and anaerobic performance in basketball players. 13,14,17 Since players frequently perform high-intensity running as well as many changes of direction (CODs) during the game, 1 the ability to CODs while running at high-intensity has been recognized as an important factor for players to achieve a high level of competition. 18 Interestingly, some studies have attempted to add different formats of CODs into HIT in order to induce specific adaptations of players. ...
... Meanwhile, the majority of authors focused on investigating the effects of 6-8 weeks of SSG and interval training programs in basketball. 5,14,15 Only one study investigated the effects of a 4-week specific basketball training in adolescent basketball players and showed that physical and technical performance were effectively improved after the short training period. 22 More strong evidence is still needed to determine the effectiveness of shorter training duration in basketball. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 4-week small-sided games (SSG) and high-intensity interval training with changes of direction (HIT-COD) on physical performance and specific technical skills in female collegiate basketball players. Nineteen players were divided into SSG (n = 9) and HIT-COD (n = 10) groups, that performed either SSG or HIT-COD three times per week for 4 weeks during the pre-season. Players’ heart rate (HR) and perceived exertion responses (RPE) were assessed during the intervention. Before and after the intervention period, performances were assessed with 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT ), repeated sprint ability (RSA) test, modified agility T-test (MAT), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20-m sprint, shooting accuracy test, 1 min shooting test, passing test, defensive movement test and control dribble test. Both training interventions led to similar physiological and perceived exertion responses, showing no significant differences in HR ( P = .49, d = 0.2) and RPE ( P = .77, d = 0.1) between groups. Significant improvements were observed in 30-15 IFT (SSG: 4.1%, d = 1.5; HIT-COD: 4.2%, d = 1.7), RSA mean (SSG: −2.2%, d = 1.0; HIT-COD: −1.9%, d = 1.0), RSA best (SSG: −2.0%, d = 0.9; HIT-COD: −2.1%, d = 1.1), MAT (SSG: −7.2%, d = 1.7; HIT-COD: 5.7%, d = 1.5), defensive movement test (SSG: −5.1%, d = 2.1; HIT-COD: −5.8%, d = 1.8) and control dribble test (SSG: −3.4%, d = 1.0; HIT-COD: −2.6%, d = 1.0). The only significant group × time interaction was found ( P = .032, [Formula: see text] = 0.24), with SSG improving 1 min shooting (22.4%, d = 1.0) and HIT-COD performing slightly worse (−2.6%, d = 0.1) after a 4-week intervention. The current study suggests that using SSG is more effective than HIT-COD for female collegiate basketball players in pre-season, since SSG improves physical performance and basketball-specific movements as well as shooting abilities after a 4-week intervention.
... Numerous studies have compared the training effects of HIIT and SSGs programs in team sports, particularly in soccer [8,9,16]; however, few studies have investigated the performance responses and technical activities of young basketball players [12,17]. There is no study in the literature that thoroughly compared the effects of HIIT and SSGs training programs on the psychophysiological, performance responses, and technical skills of young basketball players during the preparation period; therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of SSG and HIIT on the psychophysiological, performance responses, and technical skills of young basketball players. ...
... SSGs are typically used in small doses to improve athletes' aerobic power because they tax both anaerobic and aerobic systems in short bursts of activity [29]. Similarly, with short HIIT, SSGS improves maximal oxygen uptake by focusing on maximal cardiac outputs [34], while also allowing active glycolytic [17] and neuromuscular systems [12]. As a result, it is reasonable to expect (if well designed) that SSGs will improve energetic systems, thereby providing support for improving locomotor profile, aerobic fitness, or repeated-sprint ability. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of the 6-week small-sided games training (SSGs) vs. high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the psychophysiological and performance responses, and technical skills of young basketball players. Thirty-two male players (age: 14.5 0.5 years of age) were randomly divided into SSGs group (n = 16) and HIIT group (n = 16) training methods thrice per week for 6 weeks. The players in the SSGs group performed two 5–8 min of 2 vs. 2 with 2 min rest periods, while the players in HIIT performed 12–18 min of runs at intensities (90 to 95%) related to the velocity obtained in the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT). Pre-testing and post-testing sessions involved assessments of Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1, 30-15 intermittent fitness test, 5 and 30 m sprint times, vertical jump height, repeated sprint ability, defensive and offensive agility, and technical skills. The SSGs group demonstrated significantly higher agility-based technical responses in terms of the control dribbling and shooting skills (d = 1.71 vs. 0.20, d = 1.41 vs. 0.35, respectively) compared with the HIIT group. Conversely, the HIIT induced greater improvements in 30 m sprint times (d = 3.15 vs. 0.68). These findings provided that SSGs in youth basketball players may allow similar positive physical adaptations to HIIT, with an extra advantage of improving technical skills while improving enjoyability.
... Therefore, all movement vectors should be emphasized in training periodization in order to integrally develop basketball players [3,9,[27][28][29]. Additionally, continuous and intermittent endurance training along with high intensity interval training (HIIT) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) are claimed to be the best methods in order to improve aerobic and anaerobic fitness in basketball [9, 10,30,31]. However, special adaptations should be considered in youth athletes and specially according to their development stage and sex [32][33][34][35][36]. ...
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The main aims of this systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression were to describe the effect of multidisciplinary neuromuscular and endurance interventions, including plyometric training, mixed strength and conditioning, HIIT basketball programs and repeated sprint training on youth basketball players considering age, competitive level, gender and the type of the intervention performed to explore a predictive model through a meta-regression analysis. A structured search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines and PICOS model in Medline (PubMed), Web of Science (WOS) and Cochrane databases. Groups of experiments were created according to neuromuscular power (vertical; NPV and horizontal; NPH) and endurance (E). Meta-analysis and sub-groups analysis were performed using a random effect model and pooled standardized mean differences (SMD). A random effects meta-regression was performed regressing SMD for the different sub-groups against percentage change for NPV and NPH. There was a significant positive overall effect of the multidisciplinary interventions on NPV, NPH and E. Sub-groups analysis indicate differences in the effects of the interventions on NPV and NPH considering age, gender, competitive level and the type of the intervention used. Considering the current data available, the meta-regression analysis suggests a good predictability of U-16 and plyometric training on jump performance. Besides, male and elite level youth basketball players had a good predictability on multidirectional speed and agility performance.
... Based on the Horne and Ostberg self-assessment Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) [30], participants who presented an and tactical skills under high physical loads [2,5,[14][15][16][17]. Furthermore, International Basketball Federation (FIBA) has shown increasing interest in SSG with 3 × 3 (10 min gameplay) becoming an Olympic sport since Tokyo 2020 games. ...
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The effect of 40-min nap (NAP) opportunity on psycho-physiological outcomes and technical performance during small-sided basketball game (SSG) was examined in ten professional basketball players. Nocturnal sleep and naps were monitored by actigraphic recording and sleep diaries. Nocturnal total sleep time (TST), time in bed (TIB), sleep efficiency (SE), sleep onset latency (SOL) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) were analyzed. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with visual analogue scale (VAS). Profile of mood state (POMS) and simple reaction time (SRT) were measured before and after Nap and no-nap (CON) conditions. During both test sessions, participants played 10-min SSG. Technical and tactical performances were assessed using Team Sport Assessment Procedure. Volume of play (VP), attack with ball (AB), efficiency index (EI) and performance score (PS) were determined. Heart rate (HR) was measured during SSG, and rating of perceive excretion (RPE) after. Lower HR (p ≤ 0.03, d ≥ 0.78) and RPE (p = 0.007, d = 1.11) were obtained in NAP compared to CON. There was no significant difference in TIB, TST, SE, WASO and VAS between CON and NAP conditions. AB, EI and PS were higher in NAP compared to CON (0.0002 ≤ p ≤ 0.001, 1.3 ≤ d ≤ 1.8). A significant reduction was observed in POMS’ fatigue (p = 0.005, d = -1.16, Δ = -53.6%), anxiety (p = 0.02, d = -0.9, Δ = -32.1%), anger (p = 0.01, d = -0.94, Δ = -30.3%), and an improvement in vigor (p = 0.01, d = 0.99, Δ = + 23.8%); which may reflect better readiness after nap and more concentration to start a game-situation. In summary, NAP reduced fatigue, anger, anxiety and enhanced vigor, allowing better technical and tactical performances during basketball SSG.
... Thus, a higher variability of tHb in observed 5x5 basketball may be interpreted as physiological adaptation to guarantee a sufficient supply of oxygen to the muscles in order to comply with the more random endurance demands of this game format. Indeed, it has been already documented that muscle reoxygenation is essential for aerobic conditioning in basketball (Buchheit and Ufland, 2011;Delextrat et al., 2018). ...
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This study aims to examine youth players’ physiological responses and technical-tactical performance when playing simulated 3x3 and 5x5 basketball games. Fifteen well-trained male basketball players (16.6 ± 0.2 years old) participated in scrimmage basketball games under two different conditions: 3x3 (half-court) and 5x5 (full-court). The players’ heart rate, muscle oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin data were collected and computed to describe physiological responses, while video analysis was used to characterize their technical-tactical performance. A Bayesian one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to quantify the predictive influence of both game conditions on the physiological and the technical-tactical variables. The results indicated that different game conditions influenced the players’ physiological responses slightly, as only hemoglobin sample entropy increased between the 3x3 and 5x5 game scenarios. Conversely, statistical differences in most of the technical-tactical variables were moderate and decisive in favour of the game condition model. Overall, this study emphasizes that playing 3x3 and 5x5 basketball games lead to relatively negligible differences in the players’ physiological response but pronounced variations in their technical-tactical performance. Therefore, important implications may be drawn to the applied field as the specificity of technical-tactical adaptations when playing 3x3 or 5x5 formats should be considered by basketball coaches to better design the training sessions for players that fall within our sample age category.
... The evidence was supported by other studies that analysed the efficiency with different standards, according to the fluency of the scoring (e.g. only shots without touching the rim or backboard were considered successful; higher points were awarded for successful shots without touching the rim or backboard, while lower points were awarded for successful shots touching the rim several times) (Delextrat et al., 2018;Lyons et al., 2006;Miller & Bartlett, 1996;Uygur et al., 2010) so as to clearly assess the influence of fatigue on basketball techniques. Despite the fact that fatigue did not affect the efficiency of jump shot in this study, it should be noticed that the RH and EA significantly decreased as previous studies have stated that these two variables play an important role in determination of shooting efficiency (Miller & Bartlett, 1993;Okazaki & Rodacki, 2012;Tran & Silverberg, 2008). ...
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Few studies investigated the influence of fatigue on the change of kinematic parameters in basketball shooting regarding female players. This study aimed to determine the difference of kinematics in basketball jump shot between non-fatigue and fatigue conditions. Thirty-two professional female basketball players volunteered to take part in the study (age: 22.11 ± 4.92 years; height: 173.99 ± 7.06 cm; weight: 67.89 ± 5.65 kg). 3D motion analysis using an inertial suit and a smart ball were performed for measuring the kinematic parameters. The results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in angular velocity of ankle, knee and hip joints. Conversely, differences in angular velocity of elbow (p = 0.036) and wrist (p = 0.002) were detected. In addition, the results showed that the release height and entry angle of the ball significantly decreased in fatigue condition, suggesting that coaches need to include in the training process exercise that is similar in terms of fatigue and performance to the situational condition during the game as these two variables play an important role in the determination of shooting efficiency. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Maximal muscle deoxygenation did not change with training in the 200-m and 500-m TT, despite increased performance. Previous studies have found increased deoxygenation during short anaerobic performances (Jones and Cooper 2014;Jones et al. 2015;Delextrat et al. 2018). In particular, in 10 elite women hockey players, 6 weeks of cycling SIT were associated with an increased deoxygenation (larger decrease in tissue saturation index, ΔTSI) and an increased O 2 extraction (larger increase in deoxy[heme]) during repeated 30-s all-out sprints (Jones et al. 2015). ...
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PurposeTo assess the performance change and physiological adaptations following nine sessions of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or sprint-interval training (SIT) in sprint kayakers.Methods Twelve trained kayakers performed an incremental test and 3 time trials (200 m, 500 m and 1000 m) on a kayak ergometer. Oxygen consumption (V̇O2) and muscle oxygenation of the latissimus dorsi, biceps brachii, and vastus lateralis were measured. Athletes were then paired for sex and V̇O2max and randomized into a HIIT or a SIT training group, and performed nine training sessions before repeating the tests.ResultsTraining improved performance in HIIT (200 m: + 3.8 ± 3.1%, p = 0.06; 500 m: + 2.1 ± 4.1%, p = 0.056; 1000 m: + 3.0 ± 4.6%, p = 0.13) but changes in performance remained within the smallest worthwhile change in SIT (200 m: + 0.8 ± 4.1%, p = 0.59; 500 m: + 0.5 ± 4.1%, p = 0.87; 1000 m: + 1.3 ± 4.6%, p = 0.57). In the 1000 m, training led to a greater deoxygenation in the biceps brachii and vastus lateralis in HIIT, and in the latissimus dorsi in SIT. In HIIT, the best predictors of improvements in 1000 m performance were increases in latissimus dorsi and vastus lateralis maximal deoxygenation.Conclusion In a group of trained sprint kayakers, greater improvements in performance can be obtained with HIIT compared with SIT, for any distance. Training did not change V̇O2peak, but increased muscle maximal deoxygenation, suggesting both HIIT and SIT elicit peripheral adaptations. Performance improvement in the 1000 m was associated with increased maximal muscle deoxygenation, reinforcing the contribution of peripheral adaptations to performance in sprint kayaking.
... Recent studies have shown the positive impact of High intensity Interval Training on the aerobic performance of team sports athletes. Delextrat et al. [14], found a similar increase in maximum aerobic performance among teenage basketball players after adding 12 HIIT sessions to training during the season. The study by Eather, et al. [15], showed significant improvements in aerobic performance after implementing specific high-intensity training with various changes of direction in basketball players. ...
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