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Watermelon Seeds as Food: Nutrient Composition,Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity.

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International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences

 !!"
#$!!"$
%&&'()%&&'((*
Watermelon Seeds as Food: Nutrient Composition,
Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity
Betty Tabiri, Jacob K. Agbenorhevi
*
, Faustina D. Wireko-Manu, Elsa I. Ompouma
+, "-#&,#./01, '2 ,34/"&,#./01 ,05,,
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!2,46/, 71840!2,462#7184
9
:#,
To cite this article:
;/.,07,1840-,,+<2=,0>,%*  ,<, &#,-#': 0
)/ ,,#8?#,84/International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences@0'0 
#$!!"$
Received=,(0Accepted=,$0Published=,0
Abstract:
<, Citrullus lanatus#,"#,##",%#/0#"
4, " , :,,/0:  ,# ;,2#, # ,,/A#" ? ,0 ,0
/ ,0 ,   ,# ,?#, ,4/. ? , ,,/ ,#/ ,  
" #,#,##, ,,# #/, , /+))B
",#,,4,4/,#-,,,,/## ,?#,,4/,#,0
4/.  #,#,,  # ,#  , " ($C ",0 
($C0((C"0$C,0C,/#,0C,#/4,"
2,.#,,#,, ,:,0)0=0',01,#D1 
',($ ,,+))BC4,#$$C
?E4,"$F=##4,/&,0,0#/#,#,2,#
  , ,  :   # ,#  ,   58>0 "#/ ;,2
#, # 58>,#,0:,,/ 58>& ,/0: ,#
,?#,,4/0"#/;,2#, #,#,/0:,,/."#, #,
#,  "  #,# ,/ ,4 ,,#  "#  "0 ,0 
,#,?#,,4/
Keywords:
Citrullus lanatus0)? ,: 0=,0.,)0-G,#,&,484/
1. Introduction
<, Citrullus lanatus,"0,,
 ,    ", / cucurbitaceae % 
,/,,#/#,#4, ,,%
 , , , ,# E ,  "  ,# 
 , " 4H: "    <, 
4,#,#""",/,#, %
,,,,,,"5,,0"A
,# ,/ , 4 #   ' &,4,,
,,IJ
.,,#,,",
#  E,/ " ,/ ,  4, % 
2     ,  /  ,# 
E <,  ,  # , ",,#0 #0
,20,#"#,+2,, ,#" 
! % ', ,0  !  " #  , "0
/,#2IJ% ,"8",0#
#0 ##02# ,# , )2# , # 
#/, ,"3&8."2,
#"/,#,#%E
" ,#, ,   # 2 , ,0
,0#,0,,#,%,
 ",# , ,  ,# #/ 
,2,IJ
<, #,2/,/
,   " 0 4,  ;0 ,  ,
, 0 , 0 0 # 0 0 A0
,, ,#  ,# ", ,   ,  ,
 ;/.,et al. <, &#,-#': 0)/ ,,#8?#,84/
/ ,IJ. # " , ,2
,4   " ,/   
4,,.#,",#
,,20 # ",# # ", *
" #,#2,#,# 
#" IJ %  "  4,,
,,0, #,"#,##
",., #,""
" 4,/  ,0 / ,,# ,?#,
 "  ,  # %  #/0 
? , ,# ,?#, ,4/  # #  
#" ",  4,. # ,
# "   "   / , ,#
,
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Materials and Sample Preparation
-:,  , '0 .? :

B
$
*
0
(C0 5, ,# :
B
*B
:**B ,#
0#///#,A/+))B,#,,#
" & ,8#)0+0318 ,
#",,/,,#
., ",#" ;,, ,
"=,208,G05,,.#" 
4, " ,  , / :, ,/0 : 
 ,# ;,2 #, #   4# "   "0
,# ,# ## . ## #  #  ,
,,# ,##   "," "
,,/
2.2. Determination of Proximate Composition
)? ,,,/# 0#",0#0
# ,0 # "0 ,/#, ,# /
# ,,#  , # 
8*8:  #/ . ,  ,
# # /  ,1!#, #,# 4#
#   / /  ", 
:,/#,,# #/#""
2.3. Determination of Minerals
. , :,0 =0 10 ',0 D0 :0 = ,# - 
# #", , , 
 #@5)0;2&"03&8
2.4. Phytochemicals Screening
., #"/ ,",4#0
/, ,# ,, /#0 ,0 ,0
# /# ,# ,2,# ,#  
#,##I0(0$J
2.5. Determinations of Antioxidant Activity
. ,?#, ,4/ , # # / , "
+))B,#,,4,,/I$0J
. K",?,#, ,#,#,#.?
0$ K" = +))B, ,### ,
. ?,2" ,#"
#,2" ,",,,,#
   , (   ,,  ,2
8, " , ,4  8

 , ,2 ,"
,## +))B ,#,    K "  ?,
4##,
 
 !!

  
- E,0  ",#,,4,?#,
,4/ , ?# ,  ,   " .?
E4,L=.>
2.6. Determinations of Total Phenol Content
. ,   , ,,/# 
-:, # , 4/ # I0 J -
,,#,#,,#,#, ,,
,2 ## ,0  K , #  ,  K
4 ",2,# K"##,,###.,
"#
/,##" K"-:,,
'>,
, ,

?#,#"" 
,"  K" C #  ,,  ,
,### .  , ,#    K ,2 
## , ,# ?# /. 
,,#,H:"##,2,"
 ,, ,#  ,2 , (   
& ,A 3@@%&  8   .,
,, ,#  ,2 " , "  #,
# , " ,,  . ", 
?#,,",,#E4, 
58>   E, ,# "  ,#,#
,,4
2.7. Statistical Analysis
&,, ",   " #  &)&&
40 %;= &)&& &,0 3& ,  M  / , "
,/ ,,/ " 4,, 8'*@8 "# / K&+
  ,
3. Results and Discussion
Table 1. Proximate composition of seeds of three watermelon varieties.
Watermelon variety % Moisture % Protein % Fat % Ash % Fibre % Carbohydrate Energy (kcal/100g)
:,,/ ($(N

((N(
,
$N
,
N
,
(N
,
(N
,
N
,
: & (N

(N
,
N(
,
N
,
N
,
N
,
$N
,
;,2#, # $±
,
N(
,
($N
,
N
,
$N
,
N
,
N
,
@,,#, ,N&+@,, ,",/#""O
%,,7,"',#-#& 
Table 2. Mineral Composition of seeds of three watermelon varieties.
Watermelon variety
%P %Ca %Mn %K %Na %Mg Fe (mg/100g)
Cu (mg/100g)
Zn (mg/100g)
:,,/ (N
,
N
,
N

(N

(N
,
N
,
(N
 $N
 (N
: & N
,
N
,
N

N(

$N
,
N
,
(N
 N
 $N
,
;,2#, # $±
,
N
,
N
,
$N
,
(N
,
(N
,
N(
,
 $N
,
 N
@,,#, ,N&+@,#"",",/#""M
Table 3. Total Phenol content and antioxidant activity of seeds of three watermelon varieties.
Variety Total Phenol (mg GAE/100g) % DPPH Inhibition Trolox equivalent (µMTE/g)
:,,/ N
,
$$N
,
 $
,
: 
N(

N



;,2#, #
N$(

(N



@,,#, ,N&+@,#"",",/#""M
."  ? ,,# ,  "
 ,  ### ,#  ., P0
4/ ,  " ,   ,#
,?#,,4/,.,
84,, ,    " ,  #
##"", "0",0"0 0
,,# ,/#,   , 
IJ.,",#""#
,#4,,,#,#""
%  #/0   # ,   ? ,
,, ,,/A# ,"# # "0,
$C0(C,#C04/";,2+, #0
:,5,/,#: &.,",
#""M, 4,.4,
,  ,#C,#C4/
"  # ,# " # , # / -8*
$IJ8,0#"4,"4,,
"#,," 2#IJ."
 "#  2  ?,#  # , "  0
,,,",0 ,2""4,,
,    4   # ,#
#2"4,,
. # ",   "  # ?,# ,# 
#  ,    ? ,   " 
, .4,($C0$C,#C"
;,2 +, #0 :, 5,/ ,# :  &0
4/ .  , #  ",
#""M, 4,% ,
  , ,  # #  ?# " 
# . "# "  #/ #  ?#
" 2  4,/,  #   ,
#=,,,,et al0(IJ,#/#
"#," $CCitrillus lanatus,#C.
colocynth  4/0 , =,#,, ,# K,
$ IJ #   4, " C 
 # . , " ", ?,# # /
*/2et alIJ, (C" , #
   ,   ,# "   
4, ",   #/ ., " K,2  ,#
1,IJ,#,","$C"
# , * 4# ,# /  # ,#
,# ,,,/ %  /  , ,! #
," , ,#,,,,,#,
4,#"#"#0,
,#4",#"# ,/,#
,#,/:#,",,/
,#I0J
. #   # 4, " C0
((C ,# (C 4/ " ;,2 +, #0
:, 5,/ ,# :  & . , 
", #""O  , 4,
.  0  ,  ,   ", 
#0,0,0,#0, #,#,IJ
Citrullus vulgaris,  "cucurbitaceae
 ", /0  / "#  ,  #0 0
  28," ,,,
" 0  # ,/ , #  ,
,? ,/ C /  " #,# #
,,4,,/,#E,, ,#"I$J.
# " "#   "" ,  
,/ ,/  / ,  ?4
# , ,/#,  # %  #  ,"/ 
,#/# ,#"0 
?#<?IJ)424,
"C. vulgaris #,4,,4,
, ,2  #4,,, , # " %
, #0 ,/#, ,# ,0 ,2  ,
 "#IJ
. ,$C";,2+, #
,#, ",($(C" :,5,/
,# (C    "  & . ,
",#""M, 4,.
  ,#   #/  "#  
 ,  ,#  C ,# C # "
#,#"#IJ
.,/#,C0C,#C
4/";,2+, #0:,5,/,#: 
&.,",#""M, 
 4, . ,/#,  ,# "  
#""4,,, ,#C#
" " IJ *  " ,/#, 
,# "  ($C .  4, , 
Cucumeropsis edulis,,Leganariasi ceraria
.4,,"4,##"C.
 ;/.,et al. <, &#,-#': 0)/ ,,#8?#,84/
lanatus$(C0C. manni$C,#C. melo $C/
K2et al0(IJ
. , , "  ,  #,  ,
,  "  ,  "    ,
 #  ,# . ,  , C "
;,2 +, #0 C" :, 5,/,# C "
: &",#""M, 
4,&, ,?#
,4 , " 4, ,  0
,?## ,0 4
,##4 
. ,  " 4, , # ,
# ., . "# ,# 
#  ", #"" O ,   
4, B40 " , 0 ,,0  ,# A0
 ", #"" ,   4,
M 8#  8,  ,  IJ  ,
 "  , ,   "#   #""
###,##.
,#"  #/.,  /
 ,  ,#   " 8,  ,  IJ
: 0 ;,2 +, #0 :, 5,/ ,#
: &##  0(   ,#
(  4/ . 4, ,  
,#"##,#2%,##0D
4 ,#     ,  #
#(($ ",, 2- 
,,/##0;,2+, #,# "D0
:,5,/,#($ ,#: &,#
$ .4,"A ,
4/# IJ.,$C ",  "
;,2 +, #0 (C" :, 5,/,# C "
:  & .   ,  #""
, ###, ,,##,#
#0 " , "   ,#  ,  ,
 " ,.4,, , 
##  ,00  /0 ,,#
,,,###,
.4,"# ,,, 
IJ,#  #2, ,,
07,2,( , 
=,0;,2+, #0 :,5,/,#: 
&#$C0(C,#$C4/:, 
,  , , E# "  " , ,#
,""#/., ,#
"    "   # ,  ;,2
+, # ,#  "  :,
5,/,#: &,#( ,#( 0
4/ .  ## #,/ ,, "  
,#,## #,/" ,,# #,/
%  E# " # ,  " , .###
# "    # "   .
  " :, 5,/ ,# : & 
   # "     IJ
:, ,,",,,",#
, E#   #/ " A/  #0 ,
,",###" ,#=,
,4/ ,,  , ,#,
44#  4 " ,/ #, %  
, #  ,#  ,. ,,
4,";,2+, #, 0:, 5,/
,# ,#: &, .
E##,/ ,2" ,,    IJ . A
", #,#" $ 
 .,  D   ,  # " ,/  ,#
A/   ,   4 ,, , IJ <B*
 #D,2",# #,/04/",#
,##.#"" 4,,# "
 ,#/, ,#  &, ,et al0
 IJ 4,#  , "#""
# " # ,,/, #0 , #0 ,4, #0
, 0 ,# 2/ ,#0 , #0 ,#
,2,#" 
Phytochemicals
."##",0
,0 #0 /# ,  , ,2,# 
",4#0,,/#,#/,/#
,.,, ,!,/
,#" # # ,,4 
,,4/" ", 0, ,0
,#,0 ,",40 ,,, ,#
, /  IJ . ,  "  ,0
, , ,# # , , ,  2# 
,IJ ;"# ?4 E,0 ,
  , " ,  ,  ,#, 
 ,/,#,, ,"#IJ
5/#,#,2
,4,#,, I(J82,#, 2 ,2#
  "" ,,/  , , #,/
,,#,#/###,,,,"
,,0 ,, # ,# ,, "" I$J
82,#,, *et al.,
I$J # , ,2,#  "#  ,4  
,#
:/,/#,,, 
, 2   ? :/, /# 
A/ ,,/ /#/#0, /,/# ,# 2
,,#.,#? /?#,/"
2  ,  , -
Q
0 =
Q
 ,# :
Q
  ,
",  " ,/ A/  / 
 2 # " ?/   / 
,/,0,/0,#
,4/"A/ 2,,,0?#,IJ."
,"#;,#et al.0IJ#
"//##", 
 , , 4/  , "  . / 4# 
 " ,0 ,2,#0 ",4#0 ?,, ,#
,#
& ,4#/7et al.IJ
",0,2,#0,0,#/,
,#, "",4#,# ?,,,  #
: ,    ,0  ,  
4#   ? " /, /# ,#
",4####,
%,,7,"',#-#& 
#/;,#et al.,IJ.#,,
"4,/,#,.#,
,, ,#,2,#
",*,#*2/,I$J0#"
,0",4#0,#,2,##"
, ,4,/,,#
Total Phenol Content
.  # , #, ,  "  
, ,  . # "   :   4,/
,#, ",4,"
58>0 "# / ;,2 #, # 
58>,#",/:,,/,,
" 58>.4,",
" , , #"" ",/, M 
- .,0,4#,"#
,  ":  # ,/4   " ,
0   "  ;,2 #, # ,#   " 
#":,,/4,/."
" ,# 4, ,4 ,,# , 4  /,
# ,?#, ,4/%, ,/ ,4
" ,#, ,# ,  "" / 4
#, 2 , ,# ,#4,, #, K,
" , ,4 # ,, ,  " ,
#""7,#7,IJ#
 58>  "   ,  # ,
 ,#"#2 0,",#,
,"$$0,#( 58>
04/G, ,et al.0IJ,#+#,:#,2
,# .,2 ( IJ , ##   58> ,#
 ,
#", , 
#: ,,0 ,
4#  ,  4, .  #""  
"," , ,/,,
" #""  4,0 #
,#,?,4#IJ%2,
## , ,  # # ,?#,
,4/   / ###   ?, 4
#?,
%2,,,
,   ,# ,?#, ,4/0 , 
,4,/"",#,#
/#?/  ."0    " ,
,/#/,?#,,IJ
Antioxidant activity
.,?#,,4/?#,C+))B"
," ,   #.,- 0
# "  :  4,/ #   ,
+))B ,4 ,/   . , "# /
;,2 #, #  (C ,4 ,/ ,# ",/
:,,/$$C
8    4,0 :   # 
,?#,,4/,#,#,
.#""",4/ ,/#"
     #"" ?,  
,2,?#,,4/, ,#
/ ,IJ
*,#*2/0I$J#C+))B"
,#, ,4 ,/ " ,  # . ,
 ,,",#,,4,/"
#":,,/4,/8,et al.0IJ
,#,,,#,,4,/"
##, #,,"C.
,?#,,4/",, #""#",/,
M8?#,, 2E",#,0
, ,   " ,, " ,
8?#, , "" ,,#, ,  
#   # , "" " 4 , ,# 
,,#,,/ ,, "
""" " ,#, IJ :  " # ,/
#  , "  ,#4,, #, ,#
,#,,, ","#
#,#,?#,,4/
4. Conclusion
.#/#,, #,"
",# ,,,,#//  .
#" :   , "
 ,#    ,?#, ,4/ ,
 ,# #" ,2 #, #,# ,,/
4,.,  # ,/ 4##,
#,0,,# """/ #
A#"##
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IJ =/ " -# ,# 8  -,  
, #5,,
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 )  8,, ,, 4  International
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IJ */20 5 * 0 *,!0 >* ,# *!0 8 
-, ,# )/ , ) " <, 
Citrullus Lanatus &# ,# &#* Journal of 8#
: /00
IJ ;,#<0*#0% 7,#*, & )/ ,
,# 8,,  "  # " , 
Citrullus lanatusPrime Journal of Microbiology Research0
0
IJ 7;+0.0-=0B, ,,0= 80.0-8,#
', R+ 8  <  &,# " &,,,
:4,,#"#,#,. 
G " =,0 Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 0

IJ .,0 5 > ,# >4,0 < :  8 ? 2 "
, ,/0

#8,# 0K#
I(J .,0)01 ,0;01,0=01,05,#1,0B
)/ ,  ,# >?, 8 G4
Internationale Pharmaceuticasciencia0$
I$J ;,2/08 80 <2=,0 - +0 840 7 1,#
*#0 %  8?#, 84/0 ., ) ,#
)/ , : " " 3## .,
-0International Food Research Journal00
 ;/.,et al. <, &#,-#': 0)/ ,,#8?#,84/
IJ +0@=840710: /0&,#8"1/0
&0  82 Blighia sapida - 8 ',0
)/ , ,# 8?#, )0 International
Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 0(
IJ 840 7 1 ,# =,, K 7  %4,
,,#,?#,,4/#,"
" Journal of Food Science and Engineering,0
((
IJ K,2 0 7 ,# ) , 1  ', ,0
,/ " , ,# ",/ " , 
Citrullus vulgaris#LWT - Food Science and Technology,
44, 1821- 1826.
IJ -8*$0-# ,",>,,#
#0-8*-#,#'),
IJ =,#,,0 . G ,# K,0 ; = $&  #  
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Plant Foods for Human Nutrition0$$
IJ K2 8 K0 5,2 +0 +! S0 1 8 @0=, =0
;,#7)0D;%8(=,: 
".:&:4,#"&#: 
: +T4 African Journal of Biotechnolology,  0

IJ =,,,,0 = ;0 S : = ,# & * S,0 ( 8
: ,,4#/ "  "# #
, , ,##," #4   ,
#4,Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society,
$
IJ B,,0 K 50 +,0 & = 3 ,0 1 7 &,#0 % ,#
-0 - 8 $ )? ,0 =, ,#
8, -, " Daniellia oliveri # 2
: ,7,00
I(J UA,=0& )? ,:,,"-,#
* " <, 7,, K 5  .2/0 %,,
7,": /P: ,>0$0(
I$J 7,2. 7( :&#:,,A, ,#3
"*,#)8G4Economic Botany 26(2): 135–
141.
IJ <?0 ; -  -#, , " -# : /

>#0),,0',0
IJ *! 5 :0 *, * = 0* S G0 8# 1 >0
>#,5 *,#*G.$: ,#
"Citrulluslanatus> &#The Internet Journal
of Nutrition and Wellness. Vol. 6 No 1.
IJ 8,0G0UA,0 = =0 1,0 5,# +0' 
&  / ,  " # ,# ",
, #0Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng., 0(
IJ *0*8,#*2/0@%&#")/ ,
,# 8?#,  "  - " <, 
Citrullus lanatusJournal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical
sciences; 27(27): 508-514. (Article no 14).
IJ &, ,->&,"/0G,,0B&, ,# 8# >5,/0=>
: ,,#',>4,,"+""&#
-,'4&")0World Journal of DairyP
-#&0(00
IJ 8,, )  B/#/A, , ,,/  "#
Elsevier Food Chemistry. Food Chemistry 135 1708–1717
IJ 8#=  %  ; , ,# =,
,,/" , ,28, # " , 
 MPhil. Thesis, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology.
IJ @,,#,,!,@0 7,,,, 3 10 @!,/,,2 1
)/ ,0 )/ ,  ,# )" "
#,/ ,"annonasquamosa ,"?,World
Journal of pharmaceutical research1(4), 1143-1164.
I(J .,)0 1 , ;0 1, =0 1, 5 ,# 1, B 
)/ , & ,# >?, G4
Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia. 1(1), 98-106.
I$J *0*8,#*2/0@%&#")/ ,
,# 8?#,  "  - " <, 
Citrullus lanatusJournal of pharmaceutical and biomedical
sciences; 27(27): 508-514.
IJ -,0 % 8 ,# ) = B )  :/
/#  , Brazilian Archives of Biology and
Technology, $(
IJ 77 .0%,> 30B 7 .0*#/= *0>"
>> ,# >0 * > 
>4,, " ,
", Citrullus lanatus. Annals of Biological
Research, 3 (11): 5145-5150.
IJ 70 B ,# 7,0 ) 1  : , : , ,#
), ,, )" Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical
Science 2(6), 236-240.
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& American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2, 847850.
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Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional, Campinas, 13(1): 1-22.
... The proximate compositions of 100% watermelon seed and melon seed flours in this study varied from the values previously reported (21,22,23).These variations could be attributed to differences in climatic conditions, average rainfall, freshness, storage, harvesting time of the seeds, varietal and regional/soil differences of the plants as well as differences in the formulation of products with watermelonseed flour (3,21,22,23,24). The ash content of sample 100%watermelon seed flour was significantly higher (P<0.05) ...
... than the others with 100% melon seed flour having the lowest value. These values where higher when compared to the range (2.00 to 3.0%) reported for three different varieties of water melon by Betty et al. (3) and the study by Tak and Jain (22). The ash value in 100% watermelon seed flour in this study however agrees with that of the study by Ibeanuet al. (21). ...
... Thus, the zinc in watermelon seed flour when supplemented with other soup ingredients can serve effectively as a good source of zinc. Magnesium has been reported to be important in regulating potassium fluxes and it is involved in calcium metabolism in bones and prevention of circulatory diseases as well as helps in regulating blood pressure and insulin release (3,32). The magnesium value of watermelon (100%w) seed flour in this study is comparatively higher than 0.15±0.01, ...
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ABSTRACT Background: Ways to alleviate hunger and poverty does not always depend on new varieties but should consider local sourcing of raw materials like watermelon seeds which are discarded after consuming the pulp. Objectives: The study determined chemical, functional and sensory properties of melon seed flours and their blends. Materials and methods: Watermelon seeds were manually separated from fruit pulp, cleaned, washed, dried, and dehulled mechanically, air dried, milled into flour using locally fabricated machine and the flour stored in air tight container. Dehulled melon seeds were also sorted, sun dried, milled and stored as above. Watermelon (w) and melon (m) flours were formulated into 5 different flour blends (namely: 400 (70%w:30%m), 401 (30%w:70%m), 402 (50%w:50%m), 403 (100%w) and 404 (100%m) for analysis and soups for sensory evaluation using 9-point hedonic scale. Results: Result showed carbohydrate content (29.85%) of sample 400 was significantly higher than other samples while protein content (29.57%) of sample 400 was significantly higher. Fat content (44.71%) of 402 was higher than other blends. Sample 403 had the highest fibre content (4.95%). Magnesium (20.11mg/100g), phosphorus (5.69mg/100g), potassium (4.97mg/100g), iron (14.40mg/100mg), zinc (20.74mg/100g), sodium (0.23mg/100g), manganese (21.87mg/100g), niacin (0.82mg/100g), vitamin C (0.37mg/100g) and vitamin E (0.57mg/100g) contents of 404 blend were significantly higher; while thiamine (0.07mg/100g) of 403 was higher. No significant difference (P>0.05) existed in riboflavin for all the samples. Anti-nutrient contents of all the samples were below their lethal dosages except for tannin. Higher oil absorption capacity (4.77g/ml) and water absorption capacity (2.99g/ml) were obtained from sample 400. Least gelation capacity (7.01w/v) of 100%w was significantly higher. Soup from 404-blend was the most accepted and 403 was moderately liked in all the sensory attributes. Conclusion: Watermelon seed flour proved an acceptable soup thickener with nutritional and functional properties that can fill food diversity and economic gaps generally. Keywords: Chemical, functional, watermelon, melon, soup thickener.
... These compounds present different mechanisms to exert their antioxidant property, out of which scavenging of free radicals is among [15]. Betty seeds displayed percentage scavenging activity of DPPH free radicals from the range of 59.88% to 94.46% [16]. This is in agreement with the result from this study where watermelon seed extract gave % RSA of 48.6% at a concentration of 500µg/ml. ...
... This was higher than that of the seed extract, at the same concentration (67.25%), though the difference was not significant (P˃0.05). A possible mechanism by which it confers protection against Fe 2+ -induced lipid peroxidation in this homogenate can be attributed to the presence of flavonoids and phenolics found in these plants, which are well known to be chelator compounds, that may form redox inactive complexes with Fe 2+ , rendering this prooxidant unavailable for Fenton reaction [16]. Flavonoids and phenolics are potent antioxidants in lipid systems where they reduce oxidative modifications of membranes by restricting the access of oxidants to the bilayer and the propagation of lipid oxidation in the hydrophobic membrane matrix. ...
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Dyslipidemia is a traditional risk factor for atherosclerosis development. It is associated closely with increased endothelial production of reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress play a major part in the development of chronic and degenerative ailments such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, cataract, ageing, cardiovascular and degenerative disease. In this study, the in vitro antioxidant effect of the ethanol extract of watermelon seed and the effect of watermelon seed oil on serum lipid profile of albino wistar rats was evaluated using standard methods. A total of 24 rats were used for the animal study. The animals were grouped into four of 6 rats each. Group ' A' served as the negative control and received normal feed with distilled water throughout the period of the experiment. Groups B, C and D received feed mixed with the watermelon seed oil at a ratio of 2%, 5% and 10% oil respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract of watermelon seed scavenges free radicals with % RSA of 46.8% at a concentration of 500µg/ml which is comparable with that of BHA, a standard antioxidant (48.9%). It also has a ferric reducing capacity and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. The results obtained may be attributed to the high polyphenol content of water melon seed. From the result of animal studies, the oil reduced the LDL-c and increased HDL-c. This could be as a result of the unsaturated fatty acid and tocotrienol content of the oil. These results suggest that watermelon seed, when consumed along with watermelon fruit, could help in the management of obesity and prevention of lipid related diseases.
... In addition, they are rich source of fiber (39.09-43.28%) (Betty et al., 2016) which is a desirable quality in production of cookies. This is because fibre aids in bowel movement and cleaning of the colon when consumed in the body. ...
... There is considerable amount of phenols in water melon seeds. Phenols have ability to scavenge free radicals and neutralize their effects thereby preventing cancer and other cardiovascular diseases (Betty et al, 2016). ...
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Composite flour of different ratios were produced from wheat, date fruit pulp and toasted watermelon seeds. Cookies of various blends (CHU= 100% wheat Flour without fat and sugar; CHUY=100% wheat flour with sugar and fat; CHUY1=90%: 5%:5%; CHUY2= 80%:10%:10%; CHUY3=70%:15%: 15%; CHUY4= 60%: 20%:20% wheat flour: toasted watermelon seed: date fruit pulp flour respectively) were produced. The physical and organoleptic properties of the cookies were determined and Mean values of the triplicate data were subjected to One-Way ANOVA. The means were separated using Fishers’ test (p≤0.05). CHUY3 was preferred in physical properties: spread ratio (3.95), thickness (11.65mm), diameter (45.66mm) and weight (7.30g). The organoleptic qualities of CHUY: aroma (7.15), Colour (7.45), taste (7.55), texture (7.45), crispness (7.35) and overall acceptability (7.35) were better. However no significant (p≤0.05) difference was observed in overall acceptability. Efforts should be geared towards the commercial production of this cookies as well as suitable packaging material for it.
... Mariod et al. (2009) suggested that watermelons have potential economic benefits especially due to chemicals contained in their seeds. The seeds can be used to prepare a number of consumables including snacks, flour and sauces (Tabiri et al., 2016). However, seeds are often discarded while only the fruit is eaten. ...
... As expected, landraces from Sekhukhune were found to contain higher Fe, Zn, S, Ca and Mg. These findings are favourably comparable with observations made by Tabiri et al. (2016) even though their ash percentages were relatively low (2.0 to 3.0%). Landraces differed in the amount of copper, sulphate and iron. ...
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Seeds from different indigenous watermelons were analysed for their chemical composition such as phenolics, proteins, oils, minerals, ash and fibre content as well as antioxidant activity measured in methanol extract using 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The morphological variations of watermelons, which revealed diversity in terms of fruit and seed colour were also assessed. Average percentages for lipid content, total proteins, crude fibre, ash and total carbohydrates as 34.4, 16.5, 23.1, 3.99, and 3.16%, respectively, were recorded for Capricorn district and 31.6, 14.9, 22.0, 4.58, and 5.26% were recorded for Sekhukhune landraces. The Capricorn landraces had higher content of flavonoids (0.222 mg/g) than Sekhukhune varieties (0.130 mg/g). But, landraces from Sekhukhune had higher antioxidant activity (46.5%) which corresponded to higher total phenolic content of 0.59 mg/g. Thus, suggest that watermelon seeds may serve as potential source of natural products for food, feed and pharmaceutical applications.
... It is mildly diuretic and as with many other fruits, it is a source of vitamin C and lycopene [2] . Most people spit out or throw away watermelon seeds while eating this fruit [3] . This is why seedless watermelons are so popular because they save people from the hassle of picking out seeds, spitting them out, and throwing them away. ...
... The seeds are known to have economic benefits especially in countries where cultivation is on the increase. The seeds are for instance used to prepare snacks, milled into flour and used for sauces [3] . In Kebbi state, north-west Nigeria, Citrullus lanatus seed has been reported to have medicinal uses such as in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, hypertension, ulcer, diabetes and head ache. ...
Article
Citrullus lanatus is widely distributed in Africa where majority of people consume its fruits while discarding its seeds. Apart from its nutritional benefit, traditionally, its seeds are used in the treatment of various ailment including ulcer. This study aims at evaluating the antiulcer property of Citrullus lanatus seed in animal models. The antiulcer activity of Citrullus lanatus seed (CLS) was evaluated in ethanol-induced model of gastric ulcers in albino rats. CLS extract has showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-ulcer effect at both 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg dose level in a dose dependent manner as well as significant (p<0.05) reduction in the ulcer index when compared to control group. However, the antiulcer effect of CLS extract (400mg/kg) was greater compared to the standard drug Ranitidine (100mg/kg). The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, Saponin, Alkaloids, Steroids and terpenoids. These findings suggest that the CLS extracts possess antiulcer potential which may contribute to its ethno medicinal use.
... The mineral compositions of processed and unprocessed seeds are presented in Table 2. Potassium concentrations were 1.81 µg/g and 1.92 µg/g which are statistically the same. Betty et al., [22] reported a value of 5.7 µg/g for potassium in melon seed. The percentage composition of calcium in both processed and unprocessed seeds was 0.79 µg/g and 0.83 µg/g respectively. ...
... Magnesium deficiency interferes with the transmission of nerve and muscle impulses, causing irritability and nervousness [24]. The concentration of copper in both processed and unprocessed seeds was 0.011 µg/g and 0.013 µg/g which is in variation with the report of Betty et al., [22] who reported values of 0.38 mg/100g of melon seeds. The concentration of sulphur was found to be 37.80 µg/g and 42.00 µg/g respectively for processed and unprocessed seeds. ...
... [12] which is a desirable quality in production of cookies. This is because it aids in bowel movement and cleaning of the colon when consumed in the body [13]. ...
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This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of melon (Citrallus lanatus) seed oil (WMO) on the growth performance and immune response of growing rabbits. Thirty-six (36), 5-6 weeks weaner rabbit of mixed breed and sex with an average weight of 435 g – 438 grams were randomly divided into four (4) treatments of nine rabbits per group and each rabbit served as a replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). The experiment lasted for 12 weeks and all other management practices were strictly observed. The basal diet was formulated according to the nutrient requirements of the rabbit according to NRC (1977). Treatment (T1) was fed basal diet with 0 % WMO, T2, T3, and T4 were fed basal diet supplemented with WMO at 0.2 %, 0.4 % and 0.6 % respectively. Results obtained were used to examine the average daily weight gain (ADWG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed: gain, mortality, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malonyl dialdehyde (MLA). ADWG, feed: gain, and mortality were significantly different (P˂0.05) among the treatments. ADFI increased as the level of WMO increases, though not at a significant level (P˃0.05). The highest mortality was recorded among animals in T1 (1.00 %), none was recorded in the other treatments (P˂0.05). Activities of SOD, GST, GSH, and MLA were significantly (P˃0.05) influenced by WMO. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of WMO up to 0.6 % enhanced growth performance, improved feed: gain, and had no negative effect on the antioxidant parameters of rabbits, it is safe and could be used to bridge the gap between food safety and production.
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It is all about Phytochemical Screening and Nutritional Profile of Citrullus lanatus Seeds
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The present study was carried out to investigate the proximate composition, mineral content, functional properties, protein digestibility, amino acid composition and antinutritional factors of papaya, apple, watermelon, guava, orange, prickly pear, apricot and paprika seed flours. The results indicated that the studied seed flours considered an important new protein sources. All seed flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe and Zn which made them potentials for future food supplements. The investigation showed that papaya, apple, watermelon, apricot and paprika seed flours are characterized with good functional properties, beside their high nutritive value which appeared from the amino acid contents of all tested seed flours. Therefore it can be used in food enrichment to compensate the shortage of certain amino acids. It was concluded that investigated seed flours can be used as an effective additives in foods such as meat and cereal products.
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Watermelon seed was evaluated for its phytochemical and antimicrobial potentials. Crude extract of the seeds was obtained using hot water, cold water, ethanol and methanol. Test organisms were screened to confirm their viability and identities using standard microbiological methods. Extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity using the standard disc diffusion assay method against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus. All the seed extracts showed evidence of antibacterial properties. Hot water extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 14mm diameter zone of inhibition whereas ethanol and methanol extracts showed the lowest against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with 8mm diameter zone of inhibition. Watermelon seed showed low antimicrobial activity when compared to the result of the commercial antibiotics. The analysis for phytochemical constituents was performed using generally accepted laboratory techniques for quantitative determinations. The constituents analyzed for were tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cyanogenic glycosides, oxalates and alkaloids. Alkaloid had the highest concentration of about 1.23% whereas cyanogenic glycoside had the lowest of about 0.00237%. There was a correlation between the phytochemical levels and the antimicrobial activities. The low level of phytochemicals explains the low antimicrobial activities of extracts of watermelon seeds.
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Objective: The objective of present work is to study the In-vitro anti-oxidant activities of n-Hexane, Chloroform and Ethanol extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds to find out the extract having highest anti-oxidant activity. Material and Methods: The In-vitro anti-oxidant activity of the extracts were studied using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, Ferric reducing power activity, Hyderogen peroxide(H2O2) scavenging activity and Nitric Oxide(NO) scavenging activity. The total Phenolic contents and Flavanoid contents were estimated taking Gallic Acid and Quercetin calibration curve respectably. Results: In In-vitro anti-oxidant studies it was found that all the extracts posses In-vitro anti-oxidant activities. But the order of possessing activities were n-hexane>ethanol>chloroform extracts of Citrullus lanatus seeds. The total Phenolic content was highest in n-hexane extract and Total Flavanoid content was highest in ethanol extract. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Citrullus lanatusseed extracts possess anti-oxidant activities and the potency of anti-oxidant activities depends on the type of extract. The n-hexane extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds possess highest anti-oxidant activity in-vitro.
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The crude oil, crude protein, crude ash, crude fiber, total phenol and antioxidant activity values, peroxide values, specific gravity, the refraxtive index and acid value of Citrullus lanatus and their oils were determined. Fatty acid composition of seeds belong to both watermelon were determined by Gas Chromotography (GC). These oils are important sources of essential fatty acid, linoleic acid (63.19% to 72.03%). Oleic acid contents of seeds ranged between 17.55% (Forage watermelon kernel) to 24.65% (watermelon kernel). Cd, Cr, Mn contents of watermelon kernel were found between 0.02 to 0.09 mg/kg, 0.37 to 1.46 mg/kg and 6.08 to 11.31 mg/kg, respectively. Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and S were found as major elements in seed samples. Total phenol contents of watermelon seeds ranged between 0.13 mg GAE /100 mg to 0.30 mg GAE/100 mg. Antioxidant activity of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) seeds (5.06 and 13.90%) were found higher than those of normal seeds (1.31 and 4.42%). Peroxide values of watermelon oils ranged between 7.6 meqO2/kg to 11.7 meqO2/kg.
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Coumarins are classified as a member of the benzopyrone family. all of which consist of a benzene ring joined to a pyrone ring. The benzopyrones can be subdivided into the benzoalfa- pyrones to which the coumarins belong and the benzo-gama-pyrones, of which the flavonoids are principal members. Umbelliferone, esculetin and scopoletin are the most widespread coumarins in nature. During the synthesis of these compounds ortho-hydroxylation should respectively take place on p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acid. The coumarins are of great interest due to their pharmacological properties. In particular, their physiological, bacteriostatic and anti-tumor activity makes these compounds attractive backbone derivatisation and screening as novel therapeutic agents.
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Walnut (Juglans regia L.) were evaluated for some physical properties and chemical composition. Ripe fruits were determined for moisture (2.71%), crude protein (14.6%) crude fibre (1.8%) ash (1.57%), crude energy (576 Cal) ether soluble extract (24.71%), nut (10.5 g) and kernel (5.09 g) veights. Relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, saponification number, unsaponifiable matter were established in the walnut oil. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were palmtic (6,4%) oleic (13.4%), linoleic (55,3%) and linolenic (8,7%) acids. The mineral contents of walnuts were established by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Contents of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Se and Zn were also determined in the fruits. The work attempts to contribute to knowledge of the nutritional properties of walnut kernels. The fruits were found to be rich in protein, oil, fibre, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. These results may be useful for the evaluation of dietary information.