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Abstract

Background: It has been recognized that a number of mechanisms mediating the health benefits of beneficial bacterial cells do require viability. However, new terms such as paraprobiotic or postbiotic have emerged to denote that non-viable microbial cells, microbial fractions, or cell lysates might also offer physiological benefits to the host by providing additional bioactivity. Scope and approach: This review provides an overview of the postbiotic concept, evidence of their health benefits and possible signaling pathways involved in their protective effects, as well as perspectives for applications in foods and pharmaceuticals. Key findings and conclusions: Postbiotics refers to soluble factors (products or metabolic byproducts), secreted by live bacteria, or released after bacterial lysis, such as enzymes, peptides, teichoic acids, peptidoglycan-derived muropeptides, polysaccharides, cell surface proteins, and organic acids. These postbiotics have drawn attention because of their clear chemical structure, safety dose parameters, long shelf life and the content of various signaling molecules which may have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-obesogenic, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant activities. These properties suggest that postbiotics may contribute, to the improvement of host health by improving specific physiological functions, even though the exact mechanisms have not been entirely elucidated.

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... The classical definition of postbiotic, also called metabiotics, metabolites, or cell-free supernatant (CFS) (Cuevas-González et al., 2020), describes it as soluble products or by-products produced by live bacteria (probiotic or non-probiotic) or released after cell lysis (Aguilar-Toalá et al., 2018). A new definition of postbiotic was recently presented without the differentiation between the terms paraprobiotics and postbiotics (Salminen et al., 2021). ...
... These methods are followed by additional extraction and cleaning steps, which can be performed by centrifugation, dialysis, lyophilization, and column purification . The different bioactivities presented by postbiotics can be classified both by their composition (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins/cofactors, organic acids, and complex molecules, as muropeptides derived from peptidoglycans and lipoteichoic acid) and by their physiological functions (immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemia, anti-obesogenic, anti-hypertensive, anti-proliferative and antioxidant) (Aguilar-Toalá et al., 2018). ...
... Postbiotics and paraprobiotics has been shown to be a good solution for consumers with unbalanced immune systems since they can be considered safer by reducing the risk of translocation and microbial infection (Taverniti & Guglielmetti, 2011). Recent postbiotics research points to several components as potential candidates for this use such as pili, cell wall components, or other structures (Salminen et al., 2021), SCFAs, enzymes, peptides, organic acids, and polysaccharides (Aguilar-Toalá et al., 2018). This is a crucial breakthrough for meat science, since these components, in opposition to probiotics, may have an insignificant number of viable cells remaining in the final product, which greatly favors the expansion of its use for cured or heat-treated products. ...
Article
In recent years, many studies have been conducted to develop functional meat products, focusing on strategies to maximize health-promoting compounds and reduce the presence of those that may cause negative impacts on the consumer's health. As such, the use of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic agents in meat products has grown considerably. In addition, the use of new generation probiotics in meat products is a novel field that can be explored. With the most recent paraprobiotics/postbiotics update, several components could be tested in meat products. Some interventional studies using meat products added with biotic agents have shown great potential as functional foods by reducing the formation of nitrous compounds in the gut and improving the functionality of the gut microbiota. Although there are few studies focusing on synbiotic meat products, the results are also very promising in this field. As such, this review seeks to describe how probiotics, prebiotics, paraprobiotics and postbiotics can be employed in meat products to give them functional properties, as well as some of the major issues that may arise when using these agents.
... As can be seen, when postbiotic word roots are examined, it is seen that there are materials that do not contain living cells (Salminen et al., 2021). Another postbiotic definition (Toala et al., 2018) is based on the fact that non-living cells such as paraprobiotics, microbial fractions and cell lysates provide physiological benefits to the host by providing bioactivity. With these features, they are also called as post-stage products of probiotics and prebiotics. ...
... Postbiotics are also on the agenda with their use in spite of many diseases such as type 1 diabetes and cancer that may occur due to the imbalance of intestinal system flora . In many studies (Juntunen et al., 2001;Servin, 2004;Brito et al., 2012;Vyas and Ranghanatan, 2012), it is seen that living microorganisms are used in the modification of the intestinal microbiota, competitive attachment to the mucosa and epithelium, improvement of the epithelial lining barrier function and modulation of the immune system (Toala et al., 2018). ...
... Understanding that there is no obligation to use live microorganisms in order to see these effects (Toala et al., 2018) has led to an increase in studies to be conducted with non-living microorganisms, metabolites and their components. As a matter of fact, Toala et al. (2018) reported that similar effects emerged in studies conducted with different fractions and metabolites of the same microorganisms in parallel with studies conducted with live probiotics. ...
... However, the use of live bacteria on skin poses several challenges. For this reason, they are usually used in topical formulation in the form of non-viable microorganisms with the same probiotic activity and health benefits as viable microorganisms but safer than live probiotics [120]: They are the so-called "paraprobiotics" [120]. A new open perspective in the field is that represented by "postbiotics". ...
... However, the use of live bacteria on skin poses several challenges. For this reason, they are usually used in topical formulation in the form of non-viable microorganisms with the same probiotic activity and health benefits as viable microorganisms but safer than live probiotics [120]: They are the so-called "paraprobiotics" [120]. A new open perspective in the field is that represented by "postbiotics". ...
... A new open perspective in the field is that represented by "postbiotics". The term refers to molecules released by beneficial bacteria that are responsible for the beneficial effects of probiotics themselves [120,121]. They include peptides, enzymes, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), polysaccharides, cell-surface proteins, vitamins, plasmalogens, and organic acids [121]. ...
Article
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The continuous research advances in the microbiome field is changing clinicians’ points of view about the involvement of the microbiome in human health and disease, including autoimmune diseases such as alopecia areata (AA). Both gut and cutaneous dysbiosis have been considered to play roles in alopecia areata. A new approach is currently possible owing also to the use of omic techniques for studying the role of the microbiome in the disease by the deep understanding of microorganisms involved in the dysbiosis as well as of the pathways involved. These findings suggest the possibility to adopt a topical approach using either cosmetics or medical devices, to modulate or control, for example, the growth of overexpressed species using specific bacteriocins or postbiotics or with pH control. This will favour at the same time the growth of beneficial bacteria which, in turn, can impact positively both the structure of the scalp ecosystem on the host’s response to internal and external offenders. This approach, together with a “systemic” one, via oral supplementation, diet, or faecal transplantation, makes a reliable translation of microbiome research in clinical practice and should be taken into consideration every time alopecia areata is considered by a clinician.
... The efficacy of probiotics is associated with the viability of the microorganisms used. However, there is evidence that the viability of the microbes is not a requisite for conferring the beneficial effects of probiotics to the host [221]. The emergence of terms such as 'postbiotics', 'paraprobiotics', 'metabiotics', 'inactivated probiotics', and 'ghost probiotics' indicates that supplementing non-viable microbes or microbial products can also confer health benefits to the host. ...
... The emergence of terms such as 'postbiotics', 'paraprobiotics', 'metabiotics', 'inactivated probiotics', and 'ghost probiotics' indicates that supplementing non-viable microbes or microbial products can also confer health benefits to the host. Postbiotics are low molecular weight soluble factors that are either secreted by live bacteria or released after bacterial cell lysis and when administered in sufficient amounts confer health benefits to the host [221]. Postbiotics are obtained by disrupting the microbial cell structure through heat treatment [222], enzymatic treatment [223], solvent extraction [224], or sonication [225]. ...
... Postbiotics (Nonbiotics) are low molecular weight non-viable factors such as metabolic products, byproducts, or cell wall components (metabiotics, cell-free supernatants, secretions, cell lysates, or biogenic metabolites) derived from probiotic microorganisms which when administered in sufficient amounts confer health benefits to the consumer [221,229]. Postbiotics can be soluble substances secreted by the live bacteria or the products of bacterial cell lysis, as summarized in Figure 3. This soluble fraction contains SCFAs, bacteriocins, vitamins, peptides, organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, enzymes, cell surface proteins, plasmalogens, peptidoglycan-derived muropeptides, teichoic acids, exopolysaccharides and endopolysaccharides [229,234,235]. ...
Article
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The gut of warm-blooded animals is colonized by microbes possibly constituting at least 100 times more genetic material of microbial cells than that of the somatic cells of the host. These microbes have a profound effect on several physiological functions ranging from energy metabolism to the immune response of the host, particularly those associated with the gut immune system. The gut of a newly hatched chick is typically sterile but is rapidly colonized by microbes in the environment, undergoing cycles of development. Several factors such as diet, region of the gastrointestinal tract, housing, environment, and genetics can influence the microbial composition of an individual bird and can confer a distinctive microbiome signature to the individual bird. The microbial composition can be modified by the supplementation of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics. Supplementing these additives can prevent dysbiosis caused by stress factors such as infection, heat stress, and toxins that cause dysbiosis. The mechanism of action and beneficial effects of probiotics vary depending on the strains used. However, it is difficult to establish a relationship between the gut microbiome and host health and productivity due to high variability between flocks due to environmental, nutritional, and host factors. This review compiles information on the gut microbiota, dysbiosis, and additives such as probiotics, postbiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, which are capable of modifying gut microbiota and elaborates on the interaction of these additives with chicken gut commensals, immune system, and their consequent effects on health and productivity. Factors to be considered and the unexplored potential of genetic engineering of poultry probiotics in addressing public health concerns and zoonosis associated with the poultry industry are discussed.
... Postbiyotikler, bağırsak mikrobiyotası ve epitel bariyer fonksiyonunun düzenlenmesi, immün hücre yanıtının modülasyonu ve patojenlere karşı inhibitör rol üstlenmesi gibi antienfektif, antibakteriyel ve antioksidan özelliklere sahiptir. 3 Bu derleme, intestinal mikrobiyotanın önemli bir bileşeni olan postbiyotiklerin; çeşitleri, özellikleri ve sağlık üzerine etkilerini güncel bilgiler eşliğinde incelemek amacıyla yazılmıştır. ...
... Bu özelliklerin mikrobiyota homeostazını, fizyolojik, immünolojik, ve metabolik reaksiyonları olumlu etkileyebileceği gösterilmiştir. 3,37 Postbiyotiklerin konakçı üzerindeki lokal ve sistemik etkileri Şekil 2'de verilmiştir. ...
Article
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İntestinal mikrobiyota sindirim sistemi, deri, ürogenital sistem ve solunum sisteminde bulunan çeşitli mikroorganizmalardan oluşmaktadır. Probiyotik, prebiyotik ve bu 2 bileşenin kombinasyonundan oluşan sinbiyotikler mikrobiyota homeostazınının sağlanmasında önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Postbiyotik kavramı ise probiyotik, prebiyotik ve sinbiyotiklere kıyasla son yıllarda gelişmekte olan yeni bir kavramdır. Probiyotik, bakterilerin metabolik aktiviteleri sonucunda postbiyotik adı verilen, suda çözünebilen ekzopolisakkarid, organik asit, kısa zincirli yağ asitleri, lipoteikoik asit, hücre yüzey proteinleri, vitamin ve bakteriyosin gibi metabolitler üretilmektedir. Postbiyotikler; termal işlem, yüksek basınç, ultraviyole ışın ve sonikasyon gibi çeşitli yöntemlerle Lactobacillus ve Bifidobacterium gibi probiyotik mikroorganizmaların inaktivasyonundan elde edilmektedir. Postbiyotikler, bakteriyosin üretimi ile bağırsak mikrobiyotası ve epitel bariyer fonksiyonunun düzenlenmesi, peptidoglikan, lipoteikoik asit ve ekzopolisakkarid gibi metabolitlerin üretimi ile immün hücre yanıtının modülasyonu, antibiyofilm özelliği ile patojenlere karşı inhibitör rol üstlenmesi gibi çeşitli özelliklere sahiptir. Bu özellikleri ile antienfektif, antibakteriyel ve antioksidan etki göstererek konakçı sağlığını olumlu yönde etkilemektedir. Ayrıca postbiyotiklerin proapoptotik hücrelerin ölüm yolaklarını aktive ederek kolorektal kanser üzerinde de olumlu etkilerinin olabileceğini gösteren çalışmalar bulunmaktadır. Konakçı sağlığı üzerindeki etkilerine ek olarak ekzopolisakkarid ve bakteriyosin gibi postbiyotik çeşitleri emülgatör, stabilizatör ve kıvam artırıcı özellikleri ile besin endüstrisinde sıkça kullanılmaktadır. Tüm bu özellikleri ile postbiyotikler sağlık üzerine etkileri açısından oldukça önemlidir. Bu derleme, postbiyotikler ve sağlık üzerine etkilerini incelemek amacıyla yazılmıştır.
... Postbiotics are all components produced and released by microorganisms as a result of metabolic activities. The components of postbiotics are intracellular or extracellular soluble byproducts of metabolism, as well as cell wall and cell membrane components, released as a result of bacterial cell lysis [43] (Figure 3). The term postbiotics is still very current, but its use beyond probiotics has led to its use in many different areas, such as the food industry, human health, nutrition, functional foods, and pharmaceuticals [44]. ...
... Unlike probiotics, postbiotics have the advantage of being more stable and longer lasting, posing fewer risks than live probiotics in immunocompromised individuals, and not spreading antibiotic resistance factors. Finally, publications investigating the potential immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, released as a result of bacterial cell lysis [43] (Figure 3). The term postbiotics is still very current, but its use beyond probiotics has led to its use in many different areas, such as the food industry, human health, nutrition, functional foods, and pharmaceuticals [44]. ...
Article
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Periodontitis is a destructive disease of the tooth-surrounding tissues. Infection is the etiological cause of the disease, but its extent and severity depend on the immune–inflammatory response of the host. Immune cells use reactive oxygen species to suppress infections, and there is homeostasis between oxidative and antioxidant mechanisms during periodontal health. During periodontitis, however, increased oxidative stress triggers tissue damage, either directly by activating apoptosis and DNA damage or indirectly by activating proteolytic cascades. Periodontal treatment aims to maintain an infection and inflammation-free zone and, in some cases, regenerate lost tissues. Although mechanical disruption of the oral biofilm is an indispensable part of periodontal treatment, adjunctive measures, such as antibiotics or anti-inflammatory medications, are also frequently used, especially in patients with suppressed immune responses. Recent studies have shown that probiotics activate antioxidant mechanisms and can suppress extensive oxidative stress via their ability to activate nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The aim of this narrative review is to describe the essential role of Nrf2 in the maintenance of periodontal health and to propose possible mechanisms to restore the impaired Nrf2 response in periodontitis, with the aid of probiotic and postbiotics.
... In this study, we investigated the relevance of fecal metabolomics by comparing conventional targeted physiological measurements, targeted microbiota quantification, and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing with the information obtained from untargeted fecal metabolite profiling on the fecal samples collected within a clinical trial that compared an infant formula with specific prebiotics and postbiotics with a control formula. Postbiotics being defined here as bioactive compounds produced by food-grade microorganisms in a fermentation process, based on Aguilar-Toalá and coworkers (16,17). These bioactive compounds support the development of the early-life gut microbiota and immune system. ...
... This trial tested the efficacy of an infant milk formula with a prebiotic mix containing 90% short-chain galactooligosaccharides and 10% long-chain fructooligosaccharides (scGOS/ lcFOS; 0.8 g/100 mL, 9:1) and postbiotics derived from the Lactofidus fermentation process (18). Postbiotics being defined here as bioactive compounds produced by food-grade microorganisms in a fermentation process including microbial cells, cell constituents, and metabolites, which support health and/or well-being, based on Aguilar-Toalá and coworkers (16). In the experimental formula, the postbiotics were generated by subjecting 30% of the total formula composition to a unique fermentation process (Lactofidus) involving two bacterial strains, Bifidobacterium breve C50 and Streptococcus thermophilus 065. ...
Article
This study examined fecal metabolome dynamics to gain greater functional insights in the interactions between nutrition and the activity of the developing gut microbiota in healthy term born infants. The fecal samples used here originate from a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical study that assessed the efficacy of infant formula with prebiotics and postbiotics (experimental arm) in comparison to a standard infant formula (control arm). A group of exclusively breast-fed term infants was used as a reference arm. First conventional targeted physiological and microbial measurements were performed, which showed differences in fecal Bifidobacterium levels and corresponding activity (e.g., lactate levels). Next, the overall fecal microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The microbiota composition profiles showed several bacterial groups in the experimental arm to be significantly different from the control arm and mostly closer to the levels observed in the reference arm. Finally, we applied an untargetted UPLC-MS/MS approach to examine changes in the fecal metabolome. Fecal metabolome profiles showed the most distinct separation, up to 404 significantly different metabolites, between the study arms. Our data reveal that infant formula with specific prebiotics and postbiotics may trigger responses in the intestinal microbiota composition that brings it and the ensuing fecal metabolite profile of formula fed infants closer towards those observed in breastfed infants. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a clear need for establishing an infant gut metabolome reference database to translate these metabolite profile dynamics into functional and physiologically relevant responses.
... In 2021, ISAPP defined postbiotics as preparations containing inanimate microorganisms and/or their components that induce a health benefits on the host [10]. The term "postbiotic" was introduced to distinguish live microbial cells, i.e., probiotics, from a bioactive product that contains dead microorganisms and their metabolites, such as soluble factors secreted by live bacteria or released after bacterial lysis of probiotic strains, including enzymes, peptides, bacteriocins, cell surface proteins, polysaccharides, vitamins, organic acids, SCFA, and amino acids [15,100,101]. In addition, the term "postbiotics" refers to preparations that contain detailed information on the microbial strains present in the product, matrix, and the description of the inactivation method that the microorganisms have been subjected to, since the composition of the postbiotic may depend on its type as well as the detailed composition of the final product [10]. ...
... They can also inhibit the multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms, because this group of products includes, among others, bacteriocins, organic acids, peptides, fatty acids, and hydrogen peroxide [10,15,102]. Moreover, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory, and anti-obesity effects have also been demonstrated [15,44,100]. Postbiotics may also influence the gut microbiome indirectly, e.g., through the quorum sensing mechanisms and "quorum quenching molecules" [10]. ...
Article
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The proper functioning of the human organism is dependent on a number of factors. The health condition of the organism can be often enhanced through appropriate supplementation, as well as the application of certain biological agents. Probiotics, i.e., live microorganisms that exert a beneficial effect on the health of the host when administered in adequate amounts, are often used in commonly available dietary supplements or functional foods, such as yoghurts. Specific strains of microorganisms, administered in appropriate amounts, may find application in the treatment of conditions such as various types of diarrhoea (viral, antibiotic-related, caused by Clostridioides difficile), irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, or allergic disorders. In contrast, live microorganisms capable of exerting influence on the nervous system and mental health through interactions with the gut microbiome are referred to as psychobiotics. Live microbes are often used in combination with prebiotics to form synbiotics, which stimulate growth and/or activate the metabolism of the healthy gut microbiome. Prebiotics may serve as a substrate for the growth of probiotic strains or fermentation processes. Compared to prebiotic substances, probiotic microorganisms are more tolerant of environmental conditions, such as oxygenation, pH, or temperature in a given organism. It is also worth emphasizing that the health of the host may be influenced not only by live microorganisms, but also by their metabolites or cell components, which are referred to as postbiotics and paraprobiotics. This work presents the mechanisms of action employed by probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, postbiotics, paraprobiotics, and psychobiotics, together with the results of studies confirming their effectiveness and impact on consumer health.
... Postbiotics are metabolic by-products or non-viable bacterial products released by several probiotic bacteria after their lysis. These products may contribute positively for improving the health status of hosts (Aguilar-Toalá et al., 2018). ...
... These products can also be defined as the non-viable bacterial products obtained from microorganisms and possess several biological activities for the host (Nataraj et al., 2020). There are several examples of postbiotics such as peptides, enzymes, exopolysaccharides, cell surface proteins, peptidoglycan-derived muropeptides, enzymes, peptides, short-chain fatty acids, and teichoic acids (Aguilar-Toalá et al., 2018). A recently published literature showed that postbiotics could provide several important and beneficial applications for enhancing immunity and controlling infectious diseases in aquaculture (Ang et al., 2020). ...
Article
The shrimp industry has been greatly expanded in the past two decades in several countries throughout the globe to provide humans with nutritious seafood and healthy protein. In this concern, shrimp farmers have tried to increase their production rates by intensifying shrimp in culture facilities, which increases the possibilities of the entrance of emergent diseases, which will dramatically cause severe economic loss and reduce the profitability of shrimp culture. Shrimp vibriosis is one of the devasting bacterial diseases that commonly affect a wide range of shrimp species. Many diseases are associated with Vibrio infections in shrimp, such as red disease, “seagull syndrome”, “Bright red” syndrome, luminous vibriosis, shell disease, zoea II syndrome, septic hepatopancreatic necrosis, early mortality syndrome or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease. Owing to the above, preventive strategies are considered “critical” and even “necessary” to be applied to prevent the negative impacts of shrimp vibriosis. On the other hand, the FDA has banned antibiotic usage for food animals because of their negative consequences on the host, human beings, and environment. Researchers have paid great interest in finding possible, effective, economical, and environmentally safe alternatives. Currently, vaccination, water quality control, bacteriophages “phage therapy”, biosecurity protocols, herbal immunomodulators, and several others are extensively utilized to reduce the impacts of shrimp vibriosis. The trend of using probiotics, postbiotics, parabiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in controlling shrimp diseases has been comprehensively evaluated in several publications and their efficacy to limit the usage of antibiotics in aquaculture has been proven. The possible efficacy of pro-, post-, pre-, and synbiotics as possible control methods of shrimp vibriosis has been assessed in many publications. Of interest, the present review article draws the most current knowledge on the applications and beneficial roles of pro-, post-, pre-, and synbiotics to fortify shrimp immunity and decrease the side effects of vibriosis in several shrimp species. It will also spotlight the proposed modes of action of pro-, post-, pre-, and synbiotics and discuss the research gaps that merit additional explanations. Overall, the literature will be valuable to enhance the sustainability of shrimp culture and increase the welfare and resistance of cultured shrimp against vibriosis.
... Probiotics are referred to as "live microorganisms which upon ingestion in 10 8 -10 9 colony forming units (CFU) per serving exert health benefits on its host beyond inherent general nutrition" [1]. It is believed that the health benefits delivered by probiotics are mainly due to their ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract, contributing to the establishment of a healthy and balanced intestinal microflora [2]. In addition to probiotic effects, consumption of probiotic-fermented foods can also deliver paraprobiotic (dead probiotic cells) and postbiotic (probiotic metabolites) benefits, as well. ...
... In general, health benefits delivered by probiotics, paraprobiotics (non-viable cells) [3] or postbiotics (bioactive cellular components and metabolites) [3,4] include increases in lactose tolerance, improvement of intestinal microbiota, increases in antioxidant, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-obesogenic, antihypertensive, and antiproliferative activities [2,3]. In recent years, probiotic foods, especially probiotic beverages, have been receiving increasing interest. ...
Article
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Bread wastage is a growing concern in many developed countries. This research aimed to explore the biovalorization of market surplus bread for the development of probiotic-fermented beverages in a zero-waste approach. Bread slurries with different initial total solid contents were inoculated with probiotics Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3856, alone and in combination. Our results showed that, of all percentages tested, 5% (w/w, dry weight) initial total solid content resulted in better growth of the probiotics and higher cell counts, while the texture of bread slurries with concentrations higher than 5.0% was too thick and viscous for bread beverage developments. In addition, the development of probiotic-fermented bread beverages was feasible on various types of bread. Furthermore, food additives (sweetener and stabilizer) did not affect the growth of LGG and S. cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 in both mono- and co-culture fermentation. During shelf life measurement, co-inoculation of LGG with S. cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 significantly improved the survival of LGG compared to the mono-culture at 5 and 30 °C, demonstrating the protective effects provided by the yeast. Our study suggests the potential of using market surplus bread as raw materials to deliver live probiotics with sufficient cell counts.
... Long-term treatment with probiotic strains changes the expression of GABA receptors in the central nervous system [19]. Postbiotics is a new term relating to bioactive components generated during fermentation, including different metabolites, cell lysates, extracellular polysaccharides, short-chain fatty acids, functional proteins and peptides, peptidoglycan-derived structures [20]. It seems that the health effects of probiotics rely on the released available bioactive metabolites, and postbiotics components can directly promote health. ...
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The current study aimed to examine the effect of post-weaning treatment with probiotics on memory formation under stress during the adult period in male Wistar rats. Considering GABA is a potential mediator between probiotics and the host, the present study also investigated the involvement of the GABAergic system in the probiotic response. The hippocampal and prefrontal cortical (PFC) expression levels of BDNF and c-Fos were also assessed to show whether the treatments affect the memory-related signaling pathway. Three weeks after birth, the post-weaning rats were fed with probiotic water (PW) or tap water (TW) for 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks. Exposure to acute stress impaired memory formation in a passive avoidance learning task. Feeding the post-weaning animals with probiotic strains (3, 4, or 5 weeks) inhibited stress-induced amnesia of the adult period. Post-training intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinjection of muscimol improved stress-induced amnesia in the animals fed with TW. ICV microinjection of muscimol inhibited probiotic treatment’s significant effect on the stress response in the memory task. The expression levels of BDNF and c-Fos in the PFC and the hippocampus were significantly decreased in the stress animal group. The levels of BDNF and c-Fos were increased in the PW/stress animal group. The muscimol response was compounded with the decreased levels of BDNF and c-Fos in the PFC and the hippocampus. Thus, the GABA-A receptor mechanism may mediate the inhibitory effect of this probiotic mixture on stress-induced amnesia, which may be associated with the PFC and hippocampal BDNF/c-Fos signaling changes.
... Aguilar-Toalá et al., 2018).Jung et al. and Sapra et al. reported that culture supernatants of probiotics prevented RANKL induced osteoclastogenesis. Postbiotics also have a role in the prevention of bone loss. ...
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A growing body of scientific evidence supports the notion that gut microbiota plays a key role in the regulation of various physiological and pathological processes related to human health. Recent findings have now established that gut microbiota also contributes to the regulation of bone homeostasis. Studies on animal models have unraveled various underlying mechanisms responsible for gut microbiota-mediated bone regulation. Normal gut microbiota is thus required for the maintenance of bone homeostasis. However, dysbiosis of gut microbiota communities is reported to be associated with several bone-related ailments such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and periodontitis. Dietary interventions in the form of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and postbiotics have been reported in restoring the dysbiotic gut microbiota composition and thus could provide various health benefits to the host including bone health. These dietary interventions prevent bone loss through several mechanisms and thus could act as potential therapies for the treatment of bone pathologies. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge of how gut microbiota and its derived microbial compounds are associated with bone metabolism and their roles in ameliorating bone health. In addition to this, we also highlight the role of various dietary supplements like probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and postbiotics as promising microbiota targeted interventions with the clinical application for leveraging treatment modalities in various inflammatory bone pathologies.
... Such technologies promote health, performance, immunity, and pathogen control through a variety of mechanisms generally impacting the gastrointestinal tract and immune system [21][22][23][24][25]. The most commonly used products are often classified as prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, or postbiotics, based upon composition and functionality, though these definitions continue to evolve [26][27][28]. ...
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Postbiotic feed additives may aid foodborne pathogen reduction during poultry rearing. The study objective was to evaluate a postbiotic additive in parallel to an industry control diet and the subsequent associated burden of Salmonella enterica on a single, commercial broiler farm in Honduras. Twelve houses were matched and assigned the standard diet (CON) or standard diet plus postbiotic (SCFP). New litter was placed in each house and retained across flock cycles with sampling prior to each chick placement and three consecutive rearing cycles. At ~33–34 days, 25 ceca were collected on-farm from each house, treatment, and cycle. Salmonella prevalence in litter for CON (30.6%) and SCFP (27.8%) were equivalent; however, Salmonella load within positive samples was lower (p = 0.04) for SCFP (3.81 log10 MPN/swab) compared to CON (5.53 log10 MPN/swab). Cecal prevalence of Salmonella was lower (p = 0.0006) in broilers fed SCFP (3.4%) compared to CON (12.2%). Salmonella load within positive ceca were numerically reduced (p = 0.121) by 1.45 log10 MPN/g for SCFP (2.41 log10 MPN/g) over CON (3.86 log10 MPN/g). Estimated burden was lower (p = 0.003) for SCFP flocks (3.80 log10 MPN) compared to CON (7.31 log10 MPN). These data demonstrate the preharvest intervention potential of postbiotics to reduce Salmonella enterica in broiler chickens.
... Though the new definition by the ISAPP categorizes inactivated microorganisms as postbiotics, most studies on postbiotics focus on the metabolites from probiotic microorganisms, not the inactivated microorganisms [3]. Postbiotics can be categorized by their elemental composition, including lipids (such as short-chain fatty acids), proteins (including bioactive peptides and enzymes), carbohydrates (such as exopolysaccharides), vitamins, organic acids, and complex molecules (such as lipoteichoic acids) [4]. In most cases, postbiotics are considered as a set of microbial molecules rather than single metabolites; however, published studies lack a functional characterization of these metabolites [5]. ...
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Crystalline silica (cSiO2) particles are naturally existing environmental toxicants. Exposure to cSiO2 could cause local or systemic inflammation and aggregate inflammation-associated diseases. Dietary postbiotics are reported to possess anti-inflammatory activities; however, their effects on cSiO2-triggered inflammation are unknown. Here, we investigate the impact of postbiotics from Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus (LGG), Limosilactobacillus reuteri (L.reu), and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 (BB12) on cSiO2-induced cytotoxicity and IL-1 cytokines in vitro using macrophages. The postbiotics used in this study were cell-free fractions of a probiotic growth medium collected at different time points. The in vitro model used was the wild-type murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line stably transfected with the inflammasome adapter protein, ASC. Our results indicate that all the postbiotics could reduce cSiO2-induced cytotoxicity in the wild-type and ASC macrophages and the effects were OD-dependent. Following priming with a lipopolysaccharide, cSiO2 treatment resulted in robust inflammasome activation in ASC, as reflected by the IL-1β release. These responses were minimal or absent in the wild-type RAW cells. All the postbiotics decreased the release of IL-1β from ASC; however, only LGG and BB12 reduced the IL-1β secretion from wild-type cells. Only the L.reu postbiotics reduced the IL-1α release from ASC. We conclude that the postbiotics from LGG, BB12, and L.reu can protect macrophages against cSiO2-induced cytotoxicity and suppress IL-1β activation.
... They have afforded a better impact on health than their parent compounds, probiotics. Postbiotics mainly consist of enzymes derived from Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria [97]. Their development in recent years as interesting tools to modulate the microbiota has not yet taken the place of intestinal microbiota transplantation [94,95]. ...
... Incorporating prebiotic fibers may result in expansion of the pet microbiome, leading to increased bacterial protein synthesis and increased fecal bulk. Further, expansion of microbiome activity can increase production of postbiotics, which can provide energy and exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects [16][17][18][19]. Given the potential benefits of a diet with targeted prebiotic properties, a novel fiber blend was developed that consists of both soluble and insoluble fibers specifically chosen for their prebiotic content, waterholding and stool-bulking capacity, and fiber-bound plant components. ...
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Background Chronic large bowel diarrhea is common in dogs and can have a significant impact on their overall health and well being. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a therapeutic food with select dietary plant fibers known to contain antioxidant and polyphenol compounds on clinical signs in dogs with chronic diarrhea. Methods A prospective clinical study was conducted in 31 adult dogs currently experiencing chronic diarrhea from private veterinary practices in the United States. Enrolled dogs were switched to a complete and balanced dry therapeutic food containing whole grains and polyphenol-containing fiber sources for 56 days. Veterinarians evaluated changes from baseline in overall clinical signs, recurrence of clinical signs, and stool parameters at Days 2, 3, 4, 28, and 56. Dog owners evaluated stool consistency daily and nausea/vomiting, quality of life (QoL), and stooling behaviors at Days 1, 14, 28, and 56. Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed-effects model with Day as a fixed-effect. Results Assessments of overall clinical response and stool parameters indicated that diarrhea improved significantly within 1 day of initiating the therapeutic food. Veterinarians reported that 68% of dogs had complete resolution of their clinical signs by Day 56 and the remaining 32% experienced improvement ( P < 0.05), with no cases of recurrence. Veterinarians also reported improvement in stool consistency ( P < 0.001) and reductions of blood and mucus in stool ( P < 0.001). Significant improvements in nausea/vomiting, stooling behaviors, and quality of life (QoL) were reported by dog owners after 28 days and were sustained through day 56 ( P < 0.05). The therapeutic food was safe and well tolerated. Conclusions In dogs with chronic large bowel diarrhea, the therapeutic food rapidly improved stool consistency, resolved clinical signs, and improved stooling behaviors and QoL. Therapeutic foods supplemented with fiber sources rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds contribute to rapid resolution of chronic diarrhea without recurrence and may contribute to long term health.
... Попри значну увагу та велику кількість досліджень патофізіологія СПК залишається недостатньо вивченою. До провокуючих патогенних чинників належать генетична схильність, вісцеральна гіперчутливість, непереносність їжі, порушення моторики кишечника, дисбаланс імунної системи та дисбіоз [1,2,4,13]. ...
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Objective — to evaluate the clinical efficacy of B. infantis 35624 on the course of IBS depending on the phenotype. Materials and methods. The clinical study involved 1870 patients. From them, 1260 patients with a verified diagnosis of IBS according to Rome IV criteria (2016) were included for further follow-up. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the phenotype: diarrhea predominant IBS (IBS-D) — 522 patients, constipation predominant IBS (IBS-C) — 376 patients, mixed IBS (IBS-M) — 362 patients. All patients were prescribed a dietary supplement «Alflorex», which contains the original strain of B. infantis 35624 in a dosage > 109 bacteria,1 capsule daily. The efficiency criteria included dynamic of bowel movement frequency, stool consistency according to the Bristol stool scale, an assessment of pain syndrome and flatulence on a visual analog scale (VAS). Assessment of the severity of the symptoms in patients with IBS was performed by specialized questionnaire IBSSSI (Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Symptom Severity Index). Results. After 8 weeks of treatment, absence of the pain was detected in 450 (86.2 %) patients with IBS-D, in 296 (79.6 %) patients with IBS-M and in 282 (75.0 %) patients with IBS-C. The satisfaction of stool consistency and bowel movement was marked in 309 (59.2 %) patients with IBS-D, in 166 (44.6 %) — patients with IBS-M and in 93 (24.7 %) patients with IBS-C after 4 weeks of the treatment. At the end of the 8th week, this index significantly improved in 420 (80.5 %) patients with IBS-D, 231 (62.1 %) patients with IBS-M and in 184 (49.0 %) patients with IBS-C. The greatest positive effect of B. infantis 35624 on the pain intensity was found in patients with IBS-D after 8 weeks of treatment. It was confirmed by a reducing pain intensity in 2.4 times (p < 0.02) and in 1.9 times (p < 0.05) compared with patients with IBS-C and IBS-M, respectively. The patients with IBS-D had a significant decrease in stool frequency 1.4 times (p < 0.05) after the first treatment week. Reduction in the IBS severity (according to the IBS-SSI questionnaire) was found in all groups of patients who received B. infantis 35624. However, after 4 treatment weeks, the fastest positive dynamics were found in patients with IBS-D. It was a significant reduction in symptom severity 2.0 times (p < 0.01) due to a decrease in bloating and heaviness in the abdomen, reduced pain intensity, and days when the pain was appeared. Conclusions. The results of the clinical study confirmed that during treatment with B. infantis 35624 the most positive dynamics of the IBS symptoms reduction were found in patients with IBS-D. Based on patients’ evaluation, the normalization of the stool frequency and bowel movements with attenuation of pain intensity and flatulence took place regardless of IBS type.
... Our data suggest yet unknown inflammatory molecules in yeast-fermented bread not detected via proteome or FOD-MAP analysis that mediate the negative effects of yeast-fermented breads. Alternatively, yeast-fermented bread might lack some protective factors such as inactivated bacterial cells or bacterial metabolites that are generated during bacterial fermentation and have health-promoting effects via mucosal healing and immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory or antibacterial properties [51,52]. ...
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Background Cereals are known to trigger for wheat allergy, celiac disease and non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS). Inflammatory processes and intestinal barrier impairment are suspected to be involved in NCWS, although the molecular triggers are unclear. Aims We were interested if different bread types influence inflammatory processes and intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease. Methods Epithelial caspase-8 gene knockout (Casp8ΔIEC) and control (Casp8fl) mice were randomized to eight groups, respectively. The groups received different diets for 28 days (gluten-free diet, gluten-rich diet 5 g%, or different types of bread at 50 g%). Breads varied regarding grain, milling and fermentation. All diets were isocaloric. Results Regardless of the diet, Casp8ΔIEC mice showed pronounced inflammation in colon compared to ileum, whereas Casp8fl mice were hardly inflamed. Casp8fl mice could tolerate all bread types. Especially yeast fermented rye and wheat bread from superfine flour but not pure gluten challenge increased colitis and mortality in Casp8ΔIEC mice. Hepatic expression of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and colonic expression of tumor necrosis factor-α genes were inversely related to survival. The bread diets, but not the gluten-rich diet, also decreased colonic tight junction expression to variable degrees, without clear association to survival and inflammation. Conclusions Bread components, especially those from yeast-fermented breads from wheat and rye, increase colitis and mortality in Casp8ΔIEC mice highly susceptible to intestinal inflammation, whereas control mice can tolerate all types of bread without inflammation. Yet unidentified bread components other than gluten seem to play the major role.
... Enzymes, secreted proteins, shortchain fatty acids, vitamins, secreted biosurfactants, amino acids, peptides, organic acids and other metabolic products produced by probiotics in cell-free supernatants are the instances of postbiotics (Nataraj et al., 2020). Postbiotics might help to boost the potency of active microorganisms or transform them into functional ingredients (Aguilar-Toalá et al., 2018a). The aquaculture industry is evolving at such a rapid pace, and infectious epidemics are becoming more prevalent. ...
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Aquaculture accounts for 8% of animal protein intake in the human diet globally, and per capita consumption is expanding faster than meat and dairy consumption. Antibiotic usage has been recorded in the rapidly developing aquaculture business, which may contribute to the growth of antimicrobial resistance, with possible ramifications for animal, human and ecosystem health. Among the several proposed alternatives, one of the investigated tactics was postbiotics. Although several studies on other alternative tactics have been published, the use of postbiotics in aquaculture is scarce. Recognizing aquaculture's rapid rise as a global source of animal nutrition, postbiotics could be a need to improve antimicrobial stewardship in a fast-growing industry with broad ties to aquaculture and ecosystem health. This review focuses on various postbiotics as microbially produced postbiotics metabolites and their use as an infectious disease management agent in aquaculture
... Postbiotics, also known as metabiotics, biogenics, or simply metabolites, are soluble factors secreted by live microbes or released after microbial lysis, and they provide physiological benefits to the host 101 . Postbiotics are a newly emerging modality in therapy. ...
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Over several decades, the disease pattern of intractable disease has changed from acute infection to chronic disease accompanied by immune and metabolic dysfunction. In addition, scientific evidence has shown that humans are holobionts; of the DNA in humans, 1% is derived from the human genome, and 99% is derived from microbial genomes (the microbiome). Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer-delimited nanoparticles and key messengers in cell-to-cell communication. Many publications indicate that microbial EVs are both positively and negatively involved in the pathogenesis of various intractable diseases, including inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancers. Microbial EVs in feces, blood, and urine show significant differences in their profiles between patients with a particular disease and healthy subjects, demonstrating the potential of microbial EVs as biomarkers for disease diagnosis, especially for assessing disease risk. Furthermore, microbial EV therapy offers a variety of advantages over live biotherapeutics and human cell EV (or exosome) therapy for the treatment of intractable diseases. In summary, microbial EVs are a new tool in medicine, and microbial EV technology might provide us with innovative diagnostic and therapeutic solutions in precision medicine.
... Some Lb. casei strains were lends general health benefits through acting as probiotics. They are capable to decrease the incidences of gastrointestinal disorders caused by pathogenic bacteria (Tang and Lu, 2019), modulate immunity and reduce the risk of bladder cancer in the host (Aguilar-Toalá et al., 2018 ;Aryana and Olson , 2017), According to this mention, the aimed of this research was conducted to determine the role of orally dosage of probiotics as Lb. casei isolated from dairy products in treatment of diarrhea infections induced with Salmonella typhimurium on laboratory rats. ...
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This research was conducted to isolation and diagnosis of Salmonella typhimurium that caused child diarrhea infections, whom attend in Salah-Adin Teaching Hospital in Tikrit. and determine the susceptibility of isolates against some antibiotics, also, determine the Lactobacillus casei as probiotics which, isolation and identification from fermented dairy samples collected from different local in Salah-Adin governorate markets, then assay the effect of orally dosage of probiotics on some physiological and biological parameters in rats that infected with Salmonella typhimurium isolate. Salmonella typhimurium were appeared at 15 isolates from child diarrhea infections samples and the Lb. casei isolates from fermented dairy products, then identified according to morphological, microscopic, cultural and biochemical characterizes, then selective the probiotics isolate from Lb. casei which depended according to their ability to grow in pH 2 and able to tolerance growth at 0.3% bile salts, furthermore their ability to adhesion with intestine mucus surface at 43.8%.
... Postbiotics is a broad term to describe constituents (bioactive compounds) and metabolites secreted by microbial cells during fermentation processes from probiotic microorganisms with equivalent effectiveness as the probiotics (Wegh et al., 2019). The definition of postbiotics have been used interchangeably with that of parabiotics since both of them involve the use of non-viable or cell fractions to confer a health benefit to the consumer when administered in sufficient amounts (Aguilar-Toalá et al., 2018). These non-viable compounds confer beneficial therapeutic outcome to the host without the risk of administering live microbes to impaired immune hosts (Patel and Denning, 2013;Pandey et al., 2015;Compare et al., 2017). ...
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"Unity in strength" is a notion that can be exploited to characterize biofilms as they bestow microbes with protection to live freely, escalate their virulence, confer high resistance to therapeutic agents, and provide active grounds for the production of biofilms after dispersal. Naturally, fungal biofilms are inherently resistant to many conventional antifungals, possibly owing to virulence factors as their ammunitions that persistently express amid planktonic transition to matured biofilm state. These ammunitions include the ability to form polymicrobial biofilms, emergence of persister cells post-antifungal treatment and acquisition of resistance genes. One of the major disorders affecting vaginal health is vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and its reoccurrence is termed recurrent VVC (RVVC). It is caused by the Candida species which include Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The aforementioned Candida species, notably C. albicans is a biofilm producing pathogen and habitually forms part of the vaginal microbiota of healthy women. Latest research has implicated the role of fungal biofilms in VVC, particularly in the setting of treatment failure and RVVC. Consequently, a plethora of studies have advocated the utilization of probiotics in addressing these infections. Specifically, the excreted or released compounds of probiotics which are also known as postbiotics are being actively researched with vast potential to be used as therapeutic options for the treatment and prevention of VVC and RVVC. These potential sources of postbiotics are harnessed due to their proven antifungal and antibiofilm. Hence, this review discusses the role of Candida biofilm formation in VVC and RVVC. In addition, we discuss the application of pro-, pre-, post-, and synbiotics either individually or in combined regimen to counteract the abovementioned problems. A clear understanding of the role of biofilms in VVC and RVVC will provide proper footing for further research in devising novel remedies for prevention and treatment of vaginal fungal infections.
... The majority of research has focused on postbiotics, which are molecules or components of bacteria that confer a health benefit.178 Within postbiotics there are two main classes: paraprobiotics and fermented infant formulas (FIFs)infant formula is fermented by bacteria.180 Research into these products is currently aimed at determining which bacterial molecules provide health benefits. ...
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Background From consumption of fermented foods and probiotics to emerging applications of faecal microbiota transplantation, the health benefit of manipulating the human microbiota has been exploited for millennia. Despite this history, recent technological advances are unlocking the capacity for targeted microbial manipulation as a novel therapeutic. Aim This review summarises the current developments in microbiome‐based medicines and provides insight into the next steps required for therapeutic development. Methods Here we review current and emerging approaches and assess the capabilities and weaknesses of these technologies to provide safe and effective clinical interventions. Key literature was identified through Pubmed searches with the following key words, ‘microbiome’, ‘microbiome biomarkers’, ‘probiotics’, ‘prebiotics’, ‘synbiotics’, ‘faecal microbiota transplant’, ‘live biotherapeutics’, ‘microbiome mimetics’ and ‘postbiotics’. Results Improved understanding of the human microbiome and recent technological advances provide an opportunity to develop a new generation of therapies. These therapies will range from dietary interventions, prebiotic supplementations, single probiotic bacterial strains, human donor‐derived faecal microbiota transplants, rationally selected combinations of bacterial strains as live biotherapeutics, and the beneficial products or effects produced by bacterial strains, termed microbiome mimetics. Conclusions Although methods to identify and refine these therapeutics are continually advancing, the rapid emergence of these new approaches necessitates accepted technological and ethical frameworks for measurement, testing, laboratory practices and clinical translation.
Chapter
In this chapter, the deteriorating and pathogenic microbiota of processed cheeses will be addressed with an emphasis on the main aspects of processing, sources and routes of contamination, in addition to the important action of melting salts as inhibitors of deteriorating microorganisms and pathogens. During processing, the vegetative forms of pathogens and deteriorators are inactivated, but the spores remain viable. Thus, the characteristics of the main associated microorganisms will be presented and discussed, especially the spore-forming bacteria, with emphasis on the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. There is also a discussion on action points to carry out the microbiological control of processed cheeses, such as conservative agents, biopreservatives, control of extrinsic factors and predictive microbiology. Finally, the recent findings regarding the use of probiotics in processed cheeses will be presented.
Article
Background: Wound healing is a complex and overlapping process involving immune cells, cytokines, and growth factors. Objectives: This study aimed to design and evaluate a novel wound dressing based on postbiotic/chitosan in accelerating wound healing. Methods: Lactobacillus reuteri PTCC1655 was cultured, and the cell-free supernatant (postbiotic) was obtained by medium centrifugation. The films were prepared using the solvent casting method and evaluated in terms of water absorption index, water vapor transmission rate, and antimicrobial properties. Forty-five male Wistar rats were subjected to a full-thickness excisional wound to assess the wound healing potential. The rats were randomly divided into ctrl-, chitosan, and postbiotic groups. The time-course histological and gene expression analysis was performed to compare the dressing efficacy. Results: The films showed proper water absorption and water vapor transmission rate and inhibited the pathogens commonly associated with wound infection. The postbiotic film improved wound healing by modulating the inflammatory phase, increasing collagen and elastin deposition, and enhancing angiogenesis based on the histological results. The gene expression assay showed that the postbiotic film accelerated wound healing by improving the expression of inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory mediators (TGF-β and VEGF). Conclusions: The cell-free supernatant/chitosan/polyethylene glycol (CFS/CS/PEG) biodegradable film could be introduced as a novel dressing for cutaneous wound healing. This transparent film enhances cutaneous wound healing by modulating infiltrated immunity cells and expressing inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines.
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To understand the beneficial health-promoting effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on immune cells, it is necessary to understand the relationship between LAB and innate immune receptors. We investigated the possible involvement of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) in the immune-stimulating function of LAB in several strains. We found that levels of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-10 were reduced by the addition of inhibitors for spleen tyrosine kinase (syk), a signaling molecule used by several CLRs. Furthermore, employing CLR-Fc fusion proteins and reporter cells, we found that macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) binds to Levilactobacillus brevis strain La37. Interestingly, this interaction was only observed in heat-killed L. brevis and disappeared after proteinase K treatment. Seven strains of L. brevis from different sources were also examined; among them, six strains showed Mincle reactivity, and the characteristics of the ligand were similar to those of La37. These results may facilitate a better understanding of the immunomodulatory effects of LAB for the development of functional foods.
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the paraprobiotics, lactic acid bacteria lysates (LAB-P) prepared from Lactiplantibacillus plantarum K8, on obesity and obesity-induced inflammatory responses in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. LAB-P (100 mg/kg) significantly decreased the HFD-induced increase in weight by approximately 20% compared to that in the HFD control. This result was accompanied by a decrease in adipose weight/size. The white adipose tissue weight of epididymis, subcutaneous inguinal region, and mesentery were decreased by 36%, 20%, and 40%, respectively, in LAB-P (100 mg/kg)-administered mice. The size of the epididymal white adipose tissue-derived adipocytes was reduced by 41%. The LAB-P-mediated reduction in adipose tissues was associated with downregulation of adipogenic factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα). In addition, LAB-P administration reduced total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels by 23% and 42%, respectively, with a 55% reduction in lactate dehydrogenase levels. Stromal vascular fraction-derived adipose tissue macrophages were favorably regulated by LAB-P administration; the expression of CD11c, an inflammatory marker, was reduced by 30%, and that of CD206, an anti-inflammatory marker, was increased by 9-fold. These results were shown to correlated with the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6) and downregulation of NF-κB expression. Furthermore, LAB-P administration suppressed HFD-induced fatty liver by activating AMPKα, an energy metabolic sensor. This study indicates that LAB-P effectively prevents HFD-induced obesity and obesity-induced inflammatory responses and serves a valuable basic work for utilizing LAB-P as functional food ingredient to preventing obesity and treating obesity-associated inflammatory diseases.
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The incidence of cancer has been rising expeditiously, and postbiotics have been receiving great attention from researchers for cancer therapy due to the side effects and complications of conventional cancer treatment. Postbiotics encompass a wide range of complex macromolecules such as inactivated microbial cells, cellular fractions or metabolites and provide various physiological health benefits to the host. Postbiotics exert anti-cancer effects by apoptosis, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as modulating the composition of the gut microbiota and the immune system. This review provides an overview of the conceptual and safety issues surrounding postbiotics, highlighting their biological role in the prevention and treatment of cancer.
Article
Postbiotics have recently emerged as critical effectors of the activity of probiotics and, because of their safety profile, they are considered potential therapeutics for the treatment of fragile patients. Here, we present recent studies on probiotics and postbiotics in the context of novel discovery tools, such as organoids and organoid-based platforms, and nontransformed preclinical models, that can be generated from intestinal stem cells. The implementation of organoid-related techniques is the next gold standard for unraveling the effect of microbial communities on homeostasis, inflammation, idiopathic diseases, and cancer in the gut. We also summarize recent studies on biotics in organoid-based models and offer our perspective on future directions.
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Bacillus subtilis, a probiotic, has been applied in the medical, food, and feed industries among others. However, the mechanisms of its benefits to hosts are not yet fully understood. Here the characterization and bioactivities of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) from Bacillus subtilis were investigated to reveal its partial mechanisms and provide the theoretical basics for further development and utilization of Bacillus subtilis. In this study, the novel strain Bacillus subtilis xztubd1 (GenBank: MG458322.1) was isolated from a housefly’s body, identified according to phenotypical and genotypical analyses, and found to produce large amounts of an EPS. Through ultraviolet spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectroscopy), the EPS was found to contain a variety of chemical functional groups, such as O–H groups, C=C, C=O, CH3, C–O–H and C–O–C bonds, and alpha-type pyranose. Furthermore, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the EPS on DPPH radicals at a concentration of 90 μg/ml was 62%; on the superoxide radical at a concentration of 90 μg/ml, this value was 75%; and on hydroxyl radicals at a concentration of 90 μg/ml, the activity was 54%. EPS also enhanced significantly phagocytosis, lysozyme activity in macrophages, IL-2 content in mice and inhibited dramatically the growth of HeLa cells. These results showed that the EPS with reductive groups have the strong capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), reinforce the immune system and inhibit the growth of cancer cell, which helps theirs hosts defence against many diseases, including inflammation and cancer. The EPS from Bacillus subtilis has the potential to be an anticancer and anti-inflammatory drug candidate in the pharmaceutical industries, which provide scientific evidence for the development and utilization of probiotic-derived medicines.
Article
Probiotics such as Lactobacillus spp. plays important role in human health as they embark beneficial effect on the human gastrointestinal microflora composition and immune system. Dysbiosis in the gastrointestinal microbial composition has been identified as a major contributor to chronic inflammatory conditions, known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Higher prevalence of IBD is often recorded in most of the developed Western countries, but recent data has shown an increase in previously regarded as lower risk regions, such as Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, and India. Although the IBD etiology remains a subject of speculation, the disease is likely to have developed because of interaction between extrinsic environmental elements; the host’s immune system, and the gut microbial composition. Compared to conventional treatments, probiotics and probiotic-based interventions including the introduction of specific prebiotics, symbiotic and postbiotic products had been demonstrated as more promising therapeutic measures. The present review discusses the association between gut dysbiosis, the pathogenesis of IBD, and risk factors leading to gut dysbiosis. In addition, recent studies focused on the alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiome as an effective therapy for IBD. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and other viral infections on IBD are also discussed in this review. Clinical and animal-based studies had proven that probiotic-based therapies can restore the gastrointestinal microbiota balance and reduce gut inflammations. In addition, this review also assesses the status quo of these microbial-based therapies for the treatment of IBD. A better understanding of the mechanisms of their actions on modulating altered gut microbiota is required to enhance the effectiveness of the IBD therapeutics.
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In recent years, the emerging concern regarding safety issues associated with live bacterial cells is enhancing the interest in using cell components and metabolites derived from microbiota. Therefore, the term "postbiotics" is increasingly found in food microbiology, food scientific and commercial products. Postbiotics is defined as non-viable microorganisms or their components that provide benefits to the host. Many in vivo and in vitro experiments have shown that beneficial microbiota-generated extracellular nanoparticles (NPs) confer unique health promoting functions to the intestinal local and systemic effects, which can be considered as a novel postbiotics. Meanwhile, the postbiotics-NPs is a protective complex, delivering bioactive components to reach distant tissues and organs at high concentrations. These properties demonstrate that postbiotics-NPs may contribute to the improvement of host health by regulating specific gut microbiota and physiological functions, while the exact mechanisms are not fully elucidated. This review highlights the current understanding of postbiotics-NPs functional properties and mechanisms of health benefits, especially focusing on the interactions in gut microbiota and host, functions in human health and potential applications in future functional food and biomedical fields.
Chapter
The global market value of probiotics is increasing over the years. Probiotics are widely used by human beings and animals to enhance immunity and reduce stress levels. The strain characteristics, safety evaluation and the key health benefits linked to probiotics are discussed. The present paper also describes the various steps for the development of probiotic-based foods and their nutritional content. The major mechanisms of action for probiotic stimulating beneficial effects on human health are described. The increasing knowledge of the human microbiome and its functions are providing an opportunity to develop next-generation probiotics. Probiotic uses in daily food consumption have a great potential in personalised nutrition for various chronic disorders in human being and livestock. The microbial population of the gut in different environments modulates both physiological and psychological disorders. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in different physiological conditions. The issue of maintaining the safety and efficacy of probiotics is a major concern, and there is a need to harmonize guidelines for the production, marketing and use of probiotics globally.
Article
The prevalence of obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders has been steadily increasing in the past few decades. Apart from the establishment of caloric restrictions in combination with improved physical activity, there are no effective pharmacological treatments for most metabolic disorders. Many scientific-studies have described various beneficial effects of probiotics in regulating metabolism but others questioned their effectiveness and safety. Postbiotics are defined as preparation of inanimate microorganisms, and/or their components, which determine their safety of use and confers a health benefit to the host. Additionally, unlike probiotics postbiotics do not require stringent production/storage conditions. Recently, many lines of evidence demonstrated that postbiotics may be beneficial in metabolic disorders management via several potential effects including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, immunomodulatory, anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-proliferative, and hypocholesterolaemia properties that enhance both the immune system and intestinal barrier functions by acting directly on specific tissues of the intestinal epithelium, but also on various organs or tissues. In view of the many reports that demonstrated the high biological activity and safety of postbiotics, we summarized in the present review the current findings reporting the beneficial effects of various probiotics derivatives for the management of metabolic disorders and related alterations.
Article
Prevention of necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), is one of the most important goals to improve the profitability of broiler chickens. This work aimed to compare the efficacy of two antibiotic alternatives including a postbiotic (dry feed additive and aqueous nonviable Lactobacillus (L.) species fermentation) and a probiotic (dry feed additive and aqueous Bacillus (B.) subtilis and B. lischeniformis mixture) with an antibiotic (amoxicillin in water) against NE. Four hundred, day-old broiler chicks were divided into 8 equal groups (Gs), n=50 each (5 replicates; 10 each). Chickens of G1 (postbiotic dry-feed additive), G2 (postbiotic and antibiotic in drinking water), G3 (postbiotic dry and aqueous), G4 (probiotic dry-feed additive), G5 (probiotic and antibiotic in drinking water), G6 (probiotic dry and aqueous), and G7 (non-treated) were orally inoculated with a toxigenic C. perfringens type A on the days 19 to 21 of age and predisposed with 3X coccidial vaccine for induction of NE. However, chickens of G8 were kept non-treated or challenged. The severity of NE signs was markedly decreased in G3 in comparison with other challenged treatment groups, and the mortality rates were 22%, 10%, 16%, 22%, 12%, 20%, and 36% in Gs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, respectively. The best significant (P≤0.05) feed conversion ratio was detected in G3 (1.51), G6 (1.54), and G2 and G8 (1.61). In addition, the European production efficiency factor was significantly (P≤0.05) improved in G3 (279.33) and G2 (266.67), but it was decreased in G7 (177.33) when compared with G8 (339.33). An improvement in intestinal and hepatic pathology and liver function tests, as well as a significant (P≤0.05) decrease in bacterial counts were observed in Gs 2, 5, 3, 6, 1, and 4, respectively in comparison with G7. Immunologically, the highest significant (P≤0.05) hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus vaccine were in Gs 1 and 3 (6.4 log2). In conclusion, the combined feed and water postbiotic treatment demonstrated promising results in ameliorating the severity of NE and improving the hepatic and the immune status of broiler chickens when compared with the commonly used probiotic and antibiotic.
Article
Cellular components, surface layer protein (SLP) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) of postbiotic lactic bacteria (PLAB) can rehabilitate high-fat diet-induced dysbiosis and obese characteristic gut microbiome. However, it is not clear whether and how PLAB components affect gut microbiota and specifically adipocyte gene expression. Furthermore, SLP and EPS of PLAB in combination with polyphenolics of prebiotic wine grape seed flour (GSF) may have greater benefit on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and gut microbiota imbalance. To investigate interactions, C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD and orally administered saline (CON), 250 mg/Kg EPS, or 120 mg/Kg SLP or saline with fed 2% GSF (GSF) or combination (42 mg/Kg EPS+ 20 mg/Kg SLP+0.5% GSF; ALL). There were significant reductions of HFD-induced body weight gain, adipose weight, serum triglyceride, and insulin resistance by the SLP and ALL diets compared to CON, with the most profound effect by ALL. ALL significantly affected the distribution of intestinal bacterial genus and species particularly those involved in production of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and anti-obesogenic action. Microarray analysis from adipose tissue showed that ALL significantly affected expression of genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis, autophagy, inflammatory response, immune response, brown adipose tissue development and response to lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan (p < 0.05). Interestingly, expression of Akp13 (A-kinase anchoring protein 13) gene, which is related to body mass index and immune response, was negatively associated with the abundance of obesogenic and SCFAs producing gut bacteria. These data suggest that a combination of postbiotic kefir LAB cellular components and prebiotic GSF establishes a healthy intestinal microbiota that in part was associated with the prevention of obesity and obesity-related diseases.
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The current trend of health‐conscious consumers and healthy food habits prompted researchers to explore developing food products with synbiotic benefits. Synbiotic foods have gained popularity in recent years due to their functional, nutritional, physiological, and therapeutic characteristics. Lactose intolerance, dyslipidaemia, and allergic milk proteins became the barriers in the development of dairy probiotics. The present scenario of an increase in the demand for vegetarian products led to a rise in the consumption of non‐dairy probiotics. Prebiotics like, resistant starch, inulin, and polyphenols are selectively used by gut microbiota to enhance the selection and colonisation of probiotics bacteria. Probiotic's action mechanisms include the production of bacteriocins, peptides, short‐chain fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins and other metabolites. Therefore, this review article explores the alternative sources of probiotics so it will help to an understanding of non‐dairy based functional fermented foods for both pro and prebiotics. We also addressed dietary fibres in vegetables, fruits, and cereals are one of prospective prebiotics and highlighted the various methods for making non‐dairy synbiotics based on dietary fibres, such as microencapsulation, freeze‐drying, and spray drying. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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The study evaluated the individual and combined influence of polyphenol (quercetin), prebiotic (galactooligosaccharide), probiotic ( Lactobacillus acidophilus), and/ or postbiotic (inanimate Lactobacillus acidophilus) on the cellular oxidative status of CACO-2 intestinal epithelial cells. The CACO-2 cells were treated with quercetin (1 µmol L-1), galactooligosaccharide (4 mg mL-1), Lactobacillus acidophilus (2 x 106 CFU mL-1), and/or inanimate Lactobacillus acidophilus (2 x 106 CFU mL-1) individually and in all combinations over twenty four hours. Cellular antioxidant capacities (DPPH radical scavenging activity, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity, Total Peroxyl Trapping Potential, and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity), antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase), and oxidative damages (F2-isoprostanes and lipid hydroperoxides) were measured. Intracellular quercetin and total short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, and butyric acids) were determined. Treatments with quercetin or inanimate Lactobacillus acidophilus exhibited significant greater cellular antioxidant effects compared to those without quercetin or inanimate Lactobacillus acidophilus. Antioxidant capacities of treatments with quercetin and inanimate Lactobacillus acidophilus were significantly stronger than those with either one. Quercetin and short-chain fatty acids accumulated into the CACO-2 cells incubated with quercetin and inanimate Lactobacillus acidophilus, respectively. Polyphenol, probiotic, and postbiotic, individually or interdependently, influenced the oxidative status of intestinal epithelial CACO-2 cells and protected them from oxidative damage.
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The relationship between food and human health drives the search for knowledge of food components that are related to these benefits. The scientific community shows a growing interest in the knowledge of the interactions between components of citrus fruits and probiotics to develop ways to improve the quality of the food produced. In this bibliometric review, a study of scientific publications is carried out on the potential of probiotics in citrus fermentation, addressing the importance and future trends of plant-based products in the functional food group as an alternative to the dairy market. The review process of the articles initially took place with a bibliometric analysis and was followed by a literature review. The Scopus database was used in the search for articles, carried out in May 2021. The use of foods as carriers of probiotics is an alternative that has been growing and the surveys evaluated show the desire to diversify the probiotics available on the market. In addition, it was observed that citrus fruits have great potential for the development of functional foods due to their high acceptability and possibilities of development and application in various products.
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Allergic diseases, derived from the dysregulation of immune tolerance mechanisms, have been rising in the last two decades. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that probiotic-derived polysaccharide capsules exhibit a protective effect against allergic diseases, involving regulation of Th1/Th2 balance, induction of differentiation of T regulatory cells and activation of dendritic cells (DCs). DCs have a central role in controlling the immune response through their interaction with gut microbiota via their pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors and C-type-lectin receptors. This review discusses the effects and critical mechanism of probiotic-derived polysaccharide capsules in regulating the immune system to alleviate allergic diseases. We first describe the development of immune response in allergic diseases and recent relevant findings. Particular emphasis is placed on the effects of probiotic-derived polysaccharide capsules on allergic immune response. Then, we discuss the underlying mechanism of the impact of probiotic-derived polysaccharide capsules on DCs-mediated immune tolerance induction.
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The shrimp farming industry is receiving increasing attention globally. However, extending the frontiers of the industry has been a challenge as high stocking density often increases susceptibility to diseases and compromises shrimp quality. There has been a huge adoption of bacterial‐derived additives in recent decades, particularly in Asia. Accumulating evidence demonstrates the modulatory effect of these functional additives on the animal gut microbiota composition, thus making them potential alternatives to antibiotics in controlling infectious diseases, such as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). These functional additives could be introduced in various forms, such as probiotics, synbiotics, paraprobiotics, and postbiotics. This article aims to critically review previous studies that investigated the effects of these bacterial derivatives, particularly on shrimp species. The surge of research in recent years indirectly attested to the immense potentialities of these functional additives. Generally, the introduction of bacterial derivatives not only helped in disease control but also demonstrated encouraging outcomes, including better survival rate, immune enhancement, and growth promotion effects. It is interesting to note that the effectiveness of probiotics extended beyond the viability of the bacteria, thus leading to concepts such as paraprobiotics and postbiotics. Although this is a relatively new research area with limited information, this review aims to consolidate available data and provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the art of this research arena. The challenges in each research domain were also discussed towards the end of this review to provide insights into potential future research niches.
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The human intestinal microbiota is a collection of microorganisms that reside in the gastrointestinal tract and there is a direct link between the presence of beneficial microbiota and the development of immune function, the nervous system and the host metabolic pathways.Probiotics are known to be non-pathogenic microorganisms that, if taken in sufficient amounts, can have health effects. Therefore, consumption of foods or supplements containing postbiotic compounds is one of the most important strategies to balance the microbiota and improve the health of the host. Evidence suggests that postbiotics do not require survival compared to their parent probiotic cells and can produce health-like effects similar to probiotics.Also, the production and use of postbiotics is safer, more stable and more cost-effective. Postbiotics have biological activity, including immune modulating, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-cancer activity. Clinical studies also confirm the efficacy of probiotics as an effective factor in improving the treatment of a wide range of diseases such as ulcerative colitis, acute infectious diarrhea, antibiotic resistant diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, necrotic enteritis, liver disorders and gastrointestinal cancers. In this study, a review of the concept of postbiotics and classification of postbiotics based on type and chemical composition and physiological activities and promising effects on prevention or improvement in treatment methods as well as delaying spoilage and increasing shelf life in food products has been done. : Plant Biotechnology Persa 2021; 3(2); 56-62. Review Article [ Downloaded from pbp.medilam.ac.ir on 2022-04-11 ]
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The scientific community has proposed terms such as non-viable probiotics, paraprobiotics, ghostbiotics, heat-inactivated probiotics or, most commonly, postbiotics, to refer to inanimate microorganisms and/or their components that confer health benefits. This article addresses the various characteristics of different definitions of ‘postbiotics’ that have emerged over past years. In 2021, the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) defined a postbiotic as “a preparation of inanimate microorganisms and/or their components that confers a health benefit on the host”. This definition of postbiotic requires that the whole or components of inactivated microbes be present, with or without metabolic end products. The definition proposed by ISAPP is comprehensive enough to allow the development of postbiotics from different microorganisms, to be applied in different body sites, encouraging innovation in a promising area for any regulatory category and for companion or production animals, and plant or human health. From a technological perspective, probiotic products may contain inanimate microorganisms, which have the potential to impart a health benefit. However, their contribution to health in most cases has not been established, even if at least one probiotic has been shown to confer the same health benefit by live or inanimate cells.
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Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that has serious animal welfare and economic consequences worldwide. In mammals, this stealthy intracellular pathogen causes abortion and infertility, and in humans, it produces a terrible febrile illness that can progress into a long-term condition with serious implications. The pathogenicity of brucellae is based on their ability to survive and replicate in host cells, which allows them to escape from the immune system. The gold standard test for diagnosis, which demands competence, is still isolation and identification. Advancements in diagnostic procedures and screening of recently infected animals are required to achieve effective control. Despite their drawbacks, the most widely used vaccine strains to protect against Brucella infection and relevant abortions in cattle are B. abortus strains S19 and RB51 and in small ruminants is B. melitensis Rev1. However, there are no safe vaccine candidates for humans. Therefore, it is critical needs to improve vaccine production using advanced techniques such as subunit vaccines that are both effective and safe. Studying the overview of the Brucella immune response mechanism and advances in the diagnosis procedures allow more understanding of effective control strategies. The current review provides an overview on the immune response and updates on the diagnosis and control of brucellosis based on published literature on different search engines
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The incidence of stress-related type 2 diabetes (stress-T2D), which is aggravated by physiological stress, is increasing annually. The effects of Lactobacillus, a key component of probiotics, have been widely studied in diabetes; however, studies on the effects of postbiotics are still limited. This study aimed to examine the mechanism through which heat-killed Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LRCC5314 (HK-LRCC5314) alleviates stress-T2D in a cold-induced stress-T2D C57BL/6 mouse model. HK-LRCC5314 markedly decreased body weight gain, adipose tissue (neck, subcutaneous, and epididymal) weight, and fasting glucose levels. In the adipose tissue, mRNA expression levels of stress-T2D associated factors (NPY, Y2R, GLUT4, adiponectin, and leptin) and pro-inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, and CCL-2) were also altered. Furthermore, HK-LRCC5314 increased the abundance of Barnesiella, Alistipes, and butyrate-producing bacteria, including Akkermansia, in faeces and decreased the abundance of Ruminococcus, Dorea, and Clostridium. Thus, these findings suggest that HK-LRCC5314 exerts protective effects against stress-T2D via gut microbiome modulation, suggesting its potential as a supplement for managing stress-T2D.
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The vagina endures multifaceted changes from neonatal to menopausal phases due to hormonal flux, metabolite deposition, and microbial colonization. These features have important implications in women's health. Several pre-factors show dynamic characteristics according to the phases that shift the vaginal microbiota from anaerobes to aerobes which is a hallmark of healthy vaginal environment. These factors include oestrogen levels, glycogen deposition, and vaginal microstructure. In the adult phase, Lactobacillus is highly dominant and regulates pH, adherence, aggregation, immune modulation, synthesis of bacteriocins, and biosurfactants (BSs) which are antagonistic to pathogens. Maternal factors are protective by favouring the colonization of lactobacilli in the vagina in the neonatal phase, which diminishes with age. The dominance of lactobacilli and dysbiosis in the adult phase depends on intrinsic and extrinsic factors in women, which vary between ethnicities. Recent developments in probiotics used against vaginal microbiome dysbiosis have shown great promise in restoring the normal microbiota including preventing the loss of beneficial bacteria. However, further in-depth studies are warranted to ensure long-term protection by probiotics. This review highlights various aspects of the vaginal microenvironment in different phases of growth and diverse ethnicities. Furthermore, it discusses future trends for formulating more effective population-specific probiotics and implications of paraprobiotics and postbiotics as effective therapeutics.
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Postbiotic modification is actually bioactive compounds produced by probiotics, which are living organisms. Another term, called parabiotics, is used in conjunction with postbiotics, which are inactivated probiotic cells or cell extracts, while postbiotics are bacterial or metabolic products that have effects on the consumer. There are different types of postbiotics (vitamins, organic acids, peptides, biosurfactants, cell-free supernatants (CFS), bacteriocins and others). Compared to probiotics, postbiotics have better advantages, so that they can have a longer shelf life, safe structure, lack of transmission of antibiotic resistance, lack of biogenic amine production, specific and safe chemical structure, ease of use And noted storage, stability over a wide range of pH and temperature as well as having antimicrobial activity over a wide range. Various applications of postbiotics in the field of food safety include bio-preservation, film formation control, food packaging. Inhibitory effect on the formation of postbiotic films such as biosurfactants (BSs), bacteriocins and Exo-polysaccharides (EPSs); in the field of food storage, bacteriocin and exopolysaccharide should be use as a natural antimicrobial additive in the field of food storage as well as food packaging.
Chapter
Probiotics are included in the group of health promoting functional foods that promotes good gut health through the supply of essential metabolites with therapeutic characteristics. Promoting a healthy digestive tract and a healthy immune system are their most widely studied benefits of late. A series of food and pharmaceutical products have drawn the attention and interest of consumers due to their exclusive health benefits. Therefore, food-based probiotics are gaining popularity in the recent years, even though there is an increase in commercially available probiotic supplements. Probiotics can be naturally found in some food groups, whereas, the other food groups can act as a vehicle for probiotics. One of the most abundant sources of probiotics is the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which plays an important role in preventing intestinal problems. Under certain stress conditions, intestinal microbiota may be altered manifesting in gut disorders. Probiotic bacteria stimulate the growth of indigenous beneficial gut microbiota by inhibiting the growth of opportunistic pathogenic microbes. These are also commonly known as healthy bacteria which are obtained from food, beverages and dietary supplements. Thus, this chapter will focus on the probiotics naturally occurring across different food groups of the food pyramid, and also their potential in fermented food products for healthy diets.
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A microbial pathogen is a potentially armed opportunist entity to colonize intestinal mucosa. They have phenomenal ability to evolve and adapt accordingly which further seizes signalling molecules and pathways of host to become pathogenic. In order to colonize mucosal layer, they need to cross the physicochemical barrier formed by intestinal epithelium. This gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium with inhabitant microbiota acts as synergistic partners in system of defense that protect the host from intrusion into GI tract. Resident microbiota ferment carbohydrates to lower the luminal pH by production of organic acids to attenuate gene expression of toxin genes in pathogens, they down regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production induced by pathogens, displays competitive exclusion with pathogenic bacteria for attachment sites and nutrition and enhance the barrier integrity. Among them, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species (members of Lactic acid bacteria) are found to be the most active inhabitant that provides better therapeutic benefits. Consumption of these live health beneficial microorganisms in adequate amounts constitutes probiotics. Colonial microbiota can be modified by some potential non digestible oligosaccharides known as prebiotics. These sugars transforms gut microflora towards healthier composition. They are not only found to enhance anti-pathogenic ability and survival of probiotic microorganisms as synbiotic synergy but a few of them have an immense capability to mimic adhesion sites of pathogens thereby providing cytoprotection to intestine. Recent studies also demonstrate anti-pathogenic action of postbiotic metabolites obtained from these lactic acid bacteria. Antimicrobial potency can be further enhanced by creation of recombinant designer probiotics expressing oligosaccharide receptors for adhesins and toxins of pathogens on surface. This chapter illustrates anti-pathogenic mechanisms and actions of probiotic microorganisms alone as live or dead cells or in combination with prebiotics achieved through interaction with pathogenic bacteria.
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Background The evidence on the role of gut microbiota in post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is convincing. Lactobacillus spp. positively affect IBS symptoms, although the mechanisms through which probiotics exert their beneficial effects are largely unknown. The aim of the study is to evaluate the role of Lactobacillus casei DG (LC-DG) and its postbiotic (PB) in modulating the inflammatory/immune-response in PI-IBS in an ex-vivo organ culture model. Methods Ex vivo cultures of ileal and colonic mucosa from 10 PI-IBS, diarrhea predominant subtype (D) patients, and 10 healthy controls (HC) were treated with LPS, LC-DG and PB. Interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 mRNA levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Toll like receptor 4 (TLR-4) protein expression by Western blotting. ResultsAt baseline, IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels as well as TLR-4 protein expression were significantly higher while IL-10 mRNA levels were lower in PI-IBS D than in HC in both ileum and colon. LC-DG and PB significantly reduced the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TLR-4 while increased that of IL-10 after LPS stimulation. The protective effect was more pronounced for PB than LC-DG treatment. ConclusionLC-DG and its PB attenuate the inflammatory mucosal response in an ex-vivo organ culture model of PI-IBS D.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of postbiotics originated from Lactobacillus fermentum BGHV110 strain (HV110) to counteract acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells. This strain was selected according to its autophagy inducing potential, based on previous studies reporting protective role of autophagy in APAP caused cellular damage. Cell viability was assessed using MTT and LDH assays, while autophagy was monitored by qPCR analysis of BECN1, Atg5, p62/SQSTM1, and PINK1 mRNA expression and by Western blot analysis of p62/SQSTM1 and lipidated LC3 accumulation. Our results showed that detrimental effect of APAP on cell viability was suppressed in the presence of HV110 which was linked with increased conversion of LC3 protein and p62/SQSTM1 protein degradation. Additionally, higher p62/SQSTM1 and PINK1 mRNA transcription were noticed in cells co-treated with APAP/HV110, simultaneously. In conclusion, this study suggests that HV110 enhances activation of PINK1-dependent autophagy in HepG2 cells and its eventual co-supplementation with APAP could be potentially used for alleviation of hepatotoxic side effects caused by APAP overdose.
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Purpose of review: The present review focuses in the hypertension-associated changes in the microbiota and the current insights regarding the impact of probiotics on blood pressure in animal models and in human hypertensive patients. Recent findings: Gut dysbiosis in hypertension is characterized by (i) the gut microbioma that is less diverse and less rich with an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and (ii) a decrease in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in lactate-producing bacterial populations. The meta-analysis of the human studies supports that supplementation with probiotics reduces blood pressure. The mechanism of this antihypertensive effect of probiotics and its protective effect on endothelial function has not been fully elucidated. Further investigations are needed to clarify if the effects of probiotic bacteria result from the changes in the gut microbiota and its metabolic by-products; the restoration of the gut barrier function; and the effects on endotoxemia, inflammation, and renal sympathetic nerve activity.
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Antibiotic resistance is a global public health problem that requires our attention. Indiscriminate antibiotic use is a major contributor in the introduction of selective pressures in our natural environments that have significantly contributed in the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains. The use of probiotics in lieu of antibiotic therapy to address certain health conditions in both animals and humans may alleviate these antibiotic-mediated selective pressures. Probiotic use is defined as the actual application of live beneficial microbes to obtain a desired outcome by preventing diseased state or improving general health. Multiple studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of probiotic use in the health of both livestock and humans. As such, probiotics consumption is gaining popularity worldwide. However, concerns have been raised in the use of some probiotics strains that carry antibiotic resistance genes themselves, as they have the potential to pass the antibiotic resistance genes to pathogenic bacteria through horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, with the current public health concern on antibiotic resistance globally, in this review, we underscore the need to screen probiotic strains that are used in both livestock and human applications to assure their safety and mitigate their potential in significantly contributing to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in our natural environments.
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Colorectal cancer is closely associated with environment, diet and lifestyle. Normally it is treated with surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy but increasing systemic toxicity, resistance and recurrence is prompting scientists to devise new potent and safer alternate prophylactic or therapeutic strategies. Among these, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and metabiotics are being considered as the promising candidates. Metabiotics or probiotic derived factors can optimize various physiological functions of the host and offer an additional advantage to be utilized even in immunosuppressed individuals. Interestingly, anti colon cancer potential of probiotic strains has been attributable to metabiotics that have epigenetic, antimutagenic, immunomodulatory, apoptotic, and antimetastatic effects. Thus, it’s time to move one step further to utilize metabiotics more smartly by avoiding the risks associated with probiotics even in certain normal/or immuno compromised host. Here, an attempt is made to provide insight into the adverse effects associated with probiotics and beneficial aspects of metabiotics with main emphasis on the modulatory mechanisms involved in colon cancer.
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Axillary malodour is a frustrating condition for many people. It can lead to significant discomforts and various psychological effects. The underarm microbiome generally plays a major role in axillary malodour formation. Not only the bacteria on the armpit epidermis, but especially those living in the sweat glands, sweat pores and hair follicles play a pivotal role in malodour development. In order to treat underarm malodour, this viewpoint paper envisions a bacterial treatment. Replacing the autochthonous malodour causing microbiome with a non-odour causing microbiome, through an armpit bacterial transplantation or direct application of probiotics/non-odour causing bacteria could resolve the condition. Selective steering of the microbiome with prebiotics, biochemicals or plant extracts could likewise greatly help in improving the underarm odour. Elimination/inhibition of the ‘bad bugs’ and application/stimulation of the ‘good bugs’ should be part of the future treatment for axillary body odour. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Background: Some beneficial effects of probiotics may be due to secreted probiotic-derived factors, identified as postbiotic mediators. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether supernatants harvested from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) cultures (ATCC53103 strain) protect colonic human smooth muscle cells (HSMCs) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myogenic damage. Materials and Methods: LGG was grown in de Man, Rogosa, Share medium at 371C and samples were collected in middle and late exponential, stationary, and overnight phases. Supernatants were recovered by centrifugation, filtered, and stored at 201C. The primary HSMCs culture was exposed for 24 hours to purified LPS of a pathogen strain of Escherichia coli (O111:B4) (1 mg/mL) with and without supernatants. Postbiotic effects were evaluated on the basis of HSMCs morphofunctional alterations and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production. Data are expressed as mean±SE (P<0.05 significant). Results: LPS induced persistent, significant, 20.5%±0.7% cell shortening and 34.5%±2.2% decrease in acetylcholine-induced contraction of human HSMCs. These morphofunctional alterations were paralleled to a 365.65%±203.13% increase in IL-6 production. All these effects were dose-dependently reduced by LGG supernatants. Supernatants of the middle exponential phase already partially restored LPS-induced cell shortening by 57.34%±12.7% and IL-6 increase by 145.8%±4.3% but had no effect on LPS-induced inhibition of contraction. Maximal protective effects were obtained with supernatants of the late stationary phase with LPS-induced cell shortening restored by 84.1%±4.7%, inhibition of contraction by 85.5%±6.4%, and IL-6 basal production by 92.7%±1.2%. Conclusions: LGG-derived products are able to protect human SMCs from LPS-induced myogenic damage. Novel insights have been provided for the possibility that LGG-derived products could reduce the risk of progression to postinfective motor disorders.
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This study examined the effects of different combinations of inulin and postbiotics RG14 on growth performance, cecal microbiota, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ileal cytokine expression in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-and sixteen, one-day-old chicks were allocated into 6 treatment groups, namely, a basal diet (negative control, NC), basal diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (positive control, PC), T1 = basal diet + 0.15% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T2 = basal diet + 0.3% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T3 = basal diet + 0.45% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, and T4 = basal diet + 0.6% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, and fed for 6 weeks. The results showed that birds fed T1 and T3 diets had higher (P < 0.05) final body weight and total weight gain than NC and PC birds. A lower (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio was observed in birds fed T1 and T2 compared with those fed the NC diet. Birds fed PC, T1, T2, and T3 had higher (P < 0.05) cecum total bacteria and Bifidobacteria compared to the NC birds. Diet had no effect on cecum Lactobacilli, Enterococcus and Salmonella. The NC birds had higher (P < 0.05) Enterobacteria and E. coli than other treatments. Concentration of acetic acid was higher in birds fed PC, T1, and T4 compared to the NC birds. However, the concentration of butyric acid, propionic acid, and total VFA did not differ (P > 0.05) among diets. The NC birds had higher (P < 0.05) expression of interferon (IFN) and Lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITAF) gene compared with those fed other diets. The mRNA expression of interluken-6 (IL-6) was up-regulated in birds fed T3 and T4 compared to the NC birds. However, the expression of interluken-8 (IL-8) gene was not influenced by diet. Postbiotic and inulin combinations are potential replacements for antibiotic growth promoters in the poultry industry.
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Fermented beauty products rich in nutrients and other ingredients such as vitamins, antioxidants, probiotics, Omega-3 fatty acids and beneficial enzymes, although trendy, are not new. However, what makes probiotic breaking news in cosmetics is the way that the microorganisms are now being added to formulations which has a direct impact on product positioning in the market. The long-established Crème de la Mer owned by Estée Lauder has been using fermented sea kelp in its formulations for decades, and premium brands such as Murad and SK-II from Procter & Gamble, Sulwashoo from the South Korean cosmetics giant AmorePacific and SU:M37 from LG Household & Healthcare, have been marketing products containing fermented and probiotic ingredients for some years. Brands such as Oskias in the UK and Tula in the US also market products containing fermented probiotic ingredients........
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Lactic acid bacteria that can produce alpha-galactosidase are a promising solution for improving the nutritional value of soy-derived products. For their commercial use in the manufacturing process, it is essential to understand the catabolic mechanisms that facilitate their growth and performance. In this study, we used comparative proteomic analysis to compare catabolism in an engineered isolate of Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 with enhanced raffinose metabolic capacity, with the parent (or wild-type) isolate from which it was derived. When growing on semi-defined medium with raffinose, a total of one hundred and twenty-five proteins were significantly up-regulated (>1.5 fold, P < 0.05) in the engineered isolate, whilst and one hundred and six proteins were significantly down-regulated (<−1.5 fold, P < 0.05). During the late stages of growth, the engineered isolate was able to utilise alternative carbohydrates such as sorbitol instead of raffinose to sustain cell division. To avoid acid damage the cell layer of the engineered isolate altered through a combination of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis and modification of existing lipid membrane phospholipid acyl chains. Interestingly, aspartate and glutamate metabolism was associated with this acid response. Higher intracellular aspartate and glutamate levels in the engineered isolate compared with the parent isolate were confirmed by further chemical analysis. Our study will underpin the future use of this engineered isolate in the manufacture of soymilk products.
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Background Postbiotics (metabolic products by lactic acid bacteria) and prebiotics have been established as substitute to antibiotics in order to enhance immunity and growth performance in broiler chickens. Nonetheless, insufficient information is available on the effects of postbiotics and prebiotics combination on growth performance, faecal microbiota, pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA), as well as liver insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA expressions in broiler chickens. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of different types of postbiotics with different levels of prebiotic (inulin) on broiler for those parameters. ResultsThe results showed that birds fed T3: (0.3 % RI11 + 0.8 % Inulin), T4: (0.3 % RI11 + 1.0 % Inulin), and T6: (0.3 % RG14+ 1.0 % Inulin) had higher (p < 0.05) final body weight (BW) and total weight gain (WG) than other treatments. Birds fed T3 had lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) which was significantly different from those fed with negative control diet but was similar to other treatments. Postbiotic and inulin increased (p < 0.05) faecal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and reduced (p < 0.05) Enterobacteriaceae count. Birds fed T4 and T6 had higher faecal acetic acid and propionic acid respectively, and both had higher total VFA and lactic acid bacteria but lower pH and Enterobacteriaceae (ENT) counts compared to other treatments. The liver of birds fed T4 and T6 had higher IGF1 expression compared to other treatments while T6 had higher GHR mRNA expression compared to other treatments. Conclusions Results indicate that the addition of postbiotics and inulin combinations had beneficial effects on total BW, feed efficiency, mucosa architecture and IGF1 and GHR mRNA expression in broiler chickens.
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The interaction between the gut microbiota and the host immune system is very important for balancing and resolving inflammation. The human microbiota begins to form during childbirth; the complex interaction between bacteria and host cells becomes critical for the formation of a healthy or a disease-promoting microbiota. C-section delivery, formula feeding, a high-sugar diet, a high-fat diet and excess hygiene negatively affect the health of the microbiota. Considering that the majority of the global population has experienced at least one of these factors that can lead to inflammatory disease, it is important to understand strategies to modulate the gut microbiota. In this review, we will discuss new insights into gut microbiota modulation as potential strategies to prevent and treat inflammatory diseases. Owing to the great advances in tools for microbial analysis, therapeutic strategies such as prebiotic, probiotic and postbiotic treatment and fecal microbiota transplantation have gained popularity.
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