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Aronia, Apfelbeere (Aronia melanocarpa [Michx.] Elliot)

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... In Russia, Aronia was intensively popularised by biologist and breeder Ivan Mitschurin. In 1982, Mitschurin's variety of aronia was established as a new hybrid species A. x mitschurinii (Walther and Müller, 2012). In Russia, chokeberry juice is used as a polyvitamin source and for prevention in the early stages of hypertension (Turova and Sapozhnikova, 1984). ...
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Herbal medicine in Russia has a long history starting with handwritten herbalist manuscripts from the Middle Ages to the officinal Pharmacopoeia of the 21st century. The "herbophilious" Russian population has accumulated a lot of knowledge about the beneficial effects of local medicinal plants. Yet, for a long time, Russian traditional and officinal herbal medicine was not well known to the international audience. In our previous comprehensive review, we discussed the pharmacological effects of specific plants included in the 11th edition of the Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, which was also for a while used in Russia. The 14th edition of the Russian Federation’s State Pharmacopoeia was implemented in 2018. Aim of the review The aims of the present review are: (i) to trace the evolution of medicinal plant handling from handwritten herbalist manuscripts to Pharmacopoeias; (ii) to describe the modern situation with regulatory documents for herbal medicinal products and their updated classification; (iii) to summarize and discuss the pharmacology, safety, and clinical data for new plants, which are included in the new edition of the Pharmacopoeia. Methods New medicinal plants included in the 14th edition of the Russian Federation’s State Pharmacopoeia were selected. We carefully searched the scientific literature for data related to traditional use, pharmacological, clinical application, and safety. The information was collected from local libraries in Saint-Petersburg, the online databases E-library.ru, Scopus, Web of Science, and the search engine Google scholar. Results Investigating the evolution of all medicinal plants referred to in the Russian Pharmacopoeias led us to the identification of ten medicinal plants that were present in all editions of civilian Russian Pharmacopoeias starting from 1778. In the 14th edition of the modern Russian Pharmacopoeia, medicinal plants are described in 107 monographs. Altogether, 25 new monographs were included in the 14th edition, and one monograph was excluded in comparison to the 11th edition. Some of the included plants are not endemic to Russia and do not have a history of traditional use, or on the other hand, are widely used in Western medicine. For 15 plants, we described the specificity of their application in Russian traditional medicine along with the claimed dosages and indications in officinal medicine. The pharmacology, safety, and clinical data are summarized and assessed for nine plants, underlining their therapeutic potential and significance for global phytopharmacotherapy. Conclusions In this review, we highlight the therapeutical potential of new plants included in the modern edition of the Russian Pharmacopoeia. We hope that these plants will play an imperative role in drug development and will have a priority for future detailed research.
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Cultivation and consumption of berry fruits in the world and in our country is increasing due to reasons such as different ways of evaluation, high income per unit area and health benefits. Aronia, which belongs to the Rosaceae family, is a berry type that can be easily grown in temperate climates and has a high yield per unit area. Aronia is included in healthy nutrition programs due to the antioxidants, phenols, minerals and vitamins it contains. Besides fresh consumption, aronia fruits are also used by drying, processing into products such as fruit juice, vinegar, jam, tea, marmalade.
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