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The Relationships among Leisure Involvement, Organizational Commitment and Well-Being: Viewpoints from Sport Fans in Asia

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Baseball spectating is one of the most popular leisure activities in Asia. Leisure participants with high well-being levels usually demonstrate loyal behavior to the teams they follow. Previous research indicates that professional sport fans are serious leisure participants and their participation has career qualities. The goal of this research was to investigate the relationship of leisure involvement with the well-being of professional sport fans and the possible mediating effect of organizational commitment, a career-related characteristic, on well-being. Some 406 fans of the Brother Elephants Baseball Team in Taiwan were surveyed. The results showed that leisure involvement positively and significantly influenced fans’ well-being and organizational commitment partially mediated the influence of leisure involvement on well-being. This study pioneers the integration of leisure involvement, well-being and organizational commitment in the context of a Professional Baseball League team within Asia. Implications and future research directions are presented.
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sustainability
Article
The Relationships among Leisure Involvement,
Organizational Commitment and Well-Being:
Viewpoints from Sport Fans in Asia
Su-Lan Pan 1ID , Homer C. Wu 2, Alastair M. Morrison 3,*ID , Min-Tzu Huang 4
and Wen-Shiung Huang 5ID
1School of Tourism & Hospitality Management and Institute for Development of Cross-strait Small and
Medium Enterprises, Hubei University of Economics, Wuhan 430205, China; sandypan2015@163.com
2Graduate Program of Sustainable Tourism and Recreation Management,
National Taichung University of Education, Taichung 40306, Taiwan; hcwu@mail.ntcu.edu.tw
3National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
4Hualien Sun Dance High School, Hualien 97367, Taiwan; wendy75328@gmail.com
5Department of Tourism and Leisure Management, Ling Tung University, Taichung 40852, Taiwan;
didon@mail.uma.org.tw
*Correspondence: alastair@belletourism.com
Received: 18 February 2018; Accepted: 28 February 2018; Published: 8 March 2018
Abstract:
Baseball spectating is one of the most popular leisure activities in Asia. Leisure participants
with high well-being levels usually demonstrate loyal behavior to the teams they follow. Previous
research indicates that professional sport fans are serious leisure participants and their participation
has career qualities. The goal of this research was to investigate the relationship of leisure involvement
with the well-being of professional sport fans and the possible mediating effect of organizational
commitment, a career-related characteristic, on well-being. Some 406 fans of the Brother Elephants
Baseball Team in Taiwan were surveyed. The results showed that leisure involvement positively
and significantly influenced fans’ well-being and organizational commitment partially mediated
the influence of leisure involvement on well-being. This study pioneers the integration of leisure
involvement, well-being and organizational commitment in the context of a Professional Baseball
League team within Asia. Implications and future research directions are presented.
Keywords:
leisure involvement; organizational commitment; serious leisure; professional sport fans;
well-being
1. Introduction
In Asia, professional sport is not yet as vibrant as in the USA and Europe and the current
population of sport fans is smaller. Since 1970, Taiwan
'
s Little League Baseball, Junior League Baseball
and Senior League Baseball teams have repeatedly won international competitions. The Chinese
Professional Baseball League (CPBL) began in Taiwan in 1989 and is the sixth professional baseball
league in the world. The total attendance reached 10 million in 1997 [
1
] but the population of Taiwan
is only 23 million. These statistics indicate that baseball spectating is a favorite leisure activity that has
blended into the lifestyles of Taiwanese.
The success of professional sports is derived from fans’ support and developing a loyal fan base
is a fundamental aim of professional sport organizations [
2
]. Each CPBL team is managed by an
enterprise. Usually, loyal fans travel to baseball fields around Taiwan to support their teams [
3
,
4
].
Hence fostering loyal fans is very important to every CPBL team. Fans benefit in many ways from the
association with teams, just as do the loyal customers of other companies. Much previous academic
Sustainability 2018,10, 740; doi:10.3390/su10030740 www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability
Sustainability 2018,10, 740 2 of 18
research has focused on sport fans’ loyalty. Some researchers assessed the attitudinal or behavioral
loyalty of sport fans [
5
10
]. Others analyzed fans’ sponsoring or consumption intentions [
11
13
].
However, if fans cannot obtain happiness or well-being from watching sports or participating in
sport activities, the relationship between fans and their teams will not be sustainable. Well-being
or happiness has positive affect and motivations that encourage people to pursue certain activities
and communicate favorable word of mouth about them [
14
]. For example, Chiu, Cheng, Huang and
Chen investigated users’ experiences with social network sites, showing that subjective well-being
positively influenced loyalty toward SNSs [
15
]. However, studies on well-being generated by sport
remain scarce [16].
In Taiwan, baseball spectating is a favorite leisure activity and baseball fans represent a
large community. The relationship between community well-being and community development
intersect; good community development fosters community well-being [
17
]. Hence, considering
the well-being of baseball fans contributes to a better understanding of community well-being and
community development.
The concept of serious leisure emerged through the work of Stebbins, which he defined as “the
systematic pursuit of an amateur, hobbyist, or volunteer activity that is sufficiently substantial and
interesting for the participant to find a career there in the acquisition and expression of its special
skills and knowledge” (p3) [
18
]. According to Jones [
19
], quoting Stebbins [
18
], one of the six distinct
qualities of serious leisure is the delivery of significant benefits to individual participants. The normal
assumption is that these benefits outweigh the costs. However, Jones found that English professional
football fans engaged with the sport as serious leisure but continuously participated in unrewarding
activities [
19
]. Lamont, Kennelly and Moyle concluded that despite the costs and disappointment
of event cancellations, serious ironman triathlon participants persisted with their careers as amateur
athletes in this sport [
20
]. Previous research on outdoor activities has shown that well-being has a
positive effect on participants’ loyalty [
21
,
22
]. Thus, enhancing the well-being of sport fans could
increase their loyalty.
Leisure activities play a buffering role against stress [
23
25
] and assist with the effective
management of life stressors [
26
,
27
]. They have been found to reduce depression [
28
]; and enhance life
satisfaction [
27
,
29
,
30
] and well-being [
31
34
]. Researchers have demonstrated that increased levels of
leisure involvement have a positive impact on well-being [3538].
Empirical research on company employees suggests that organizational commitment is positively
associated with well-being [
39
41
]. Likewise, serious leisure participants involved with professional
sport may have high levels of organizational commitment to their favorite clubs and this can influence
their well-being. Based on this assumption, the main goal of this research was to explore the influence
of professional sport fans’ leisure involvement on their well-being and to determine the mediating
effect of organizational commitment. The specific research objectives were to:
1. Test the effect of leisure involvement on well-being.
2. Test the effect of leisure involvement on organizational commitment.
3. Test the effect of organizational commitment on well-being.
4.
Examine the mediating role of organizational commitment between leisure involvement
and well-being.
This research examined the causal relationships among these three variables to provide a reference
for professional baseball teams in enhancing the well-being of their fans. Furthermore, the results could
assist the sport agencies of governments of other Asian communities in promoting the sustainable
development of professional baseball leagues.
Sustainability 2018,10, 740 3 of 18
2. Literature Review
2.1. Leisure Involvement and Well-Being
The concept of involvement originated from psychology. Havitz and Dimanche consider
involvement as “undetected motivation, incentive, or interest toward a certain leisure activity or
related products, often elicited by a specific stimuli or situation.” In other words, “leisure involvement
refers to how we consider our leisure and how leisure influences our behavior” (p. 246) [
42
].
Therefore, to understand leisure involvement means to realize the leisure meaning for life and related
leisure behavior.
Many scholars divide measurement methods of leisure involvement into behavioral and
psychological involvement [
27
,
36
,
43
]. Behavioral involvement refers to the time and energy individuals
put into specific activities [
44
], measured in terms of participation frequency, time spent, related
resources available, etc. [
45
,
46
]. Psychological involvement refers to an individual’s internal
psychological process that prompts them to participate in leisure activities. Attraction, self-expression
and centrality are the most widely used constructs for psychological involvement [
43
,
47
49
]. Attraction
is the extent of a person’s connection to a specific situation after being stimulated by an activity;
the activity has importance and significance to the individual. Self-expression refers to a person’s
need to pursue self-realization, characterized by free self-expression and recognition for the activity,
which prompts the individual to convince others to participate in the activity. Centrality refers to a
person’s lifestyle or social network, the degree of integration with the activity in which the individual
participates and the central role the activity plays. In this research, the concept of McIntyre and Pigram
was adopted to identify suitable leisure involvement-related questions. Attraction, self-expression and
centrality served as the observed variables of leisure involvement [50].
Studies of well-being originated from three fields: mental health, quality of life and social
gerontology [
51
]. Diener believes that subjective well-being positively reflects a person’s overall life and
consists of high life satisfaction and positive feelings, along with minimal negative feelings [
52
]. Diener,
Emmons, Larsen and Griffin compiled the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), using assessments of
overall life to measure the degree of life satisfaction [
53
]. Diener and Emmons used eight affective
words to measure positive and negative affects [
54
]. Watson, Clark and Tellegen designed the Positive
and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), including 20 questions each for the positive and negative
dimensions [
55
]. Positive and negative affective responses and overall life satisfaction were adopted in
this research to represent well-being.
Previous researchers have shown that when participating consistently in a specific activity,
individuals experience less stress and a stronger sense of well-being [
38
,
56
,
57
]. In two studies of college
students, it was concluded that leisure involvement had a positive effect on well-being [
58
,
59
]. A study
of seniors showed that behavioral and socio-psychological involvement affected well-being [
60
].
Huang found that leisure involvement of serious leisure participants had a positive impact on
well-being [
61
]. Huang also pointed out that leisure involvement of baseball fans had a positive
influence on well-being [62]. Therefore, the first hypothesis of this research was:
Hypothesis 1. Leisure involvement has positive and significant effects on well-being.
2.2. Serious Leisure
Serious leisure has six distinguishing characteristics; perseverance, career, significant personal
effort, durable benefits, unique ethos and tendency to identify strongly. Serious leisure participation
is usually profound and long-lasting. Participants have strong skills, knowledge or experience with
the activities and they generally get no remuneration [
63
,
64
]. They gain various social and personal
benefits from the activities [
65
]. Sport fans usually have more knowledge and watch games in person,
online or on TV. In general, they do not receive any remuneration but derive various benefits from the
sport. Therefore, the researchers regard sport fans as serious leisure participants.
Sustainability 2018,10, 740 4 of 18
Many studies have shown that well-being positively correlates with different kinds of leisure
activities, including visiting family and friends, playing sport games, watching television and taking
trips [
66
68
]. Cheng found that those engaged in serious leisure activities received the highest
satisfaction, while casual leisure participants experienced moderate satisfaction [
69
]. Liu also reported
greater well-being when participants were engaging in a serious and committed leisure activity [
70
].
Therefore, it appears that serious leisure participants usually derive a higher level of well-being.
Before leaving this discussion of serious leisure, some criticism of the concept must be noted and
acknowledged. Veal, for example, assessed the serious leisure perspective (SLP) and challenged its
status as a theory and a three-level typology (casual, serious and project-based leisure). He argued
that SLP theory had been untested in forms other than serious leisure and that serious leisure was a
continuum rather than being represented by three discrete categories [71].
2.3. Organizational Commitment
The concept of organizational commitment originated from the side-bet theory of Becker [
72
].
Robbins believes that organizational commitment is members’ loyalty toward the organization,
recognition for the organization and degree of participation in organizational events [
73
]. Some
authors summarized previous research measurements of organizational commitment, dividing these
into personal affection, perceived costs and risks and social relations into affective, continuance
and normative commitment. Affective commitment is an individual’s degree of attachment to an
organization; continuance commitment refers to perceived costs and risks for leaving the existing
organization; and normative commitment is a type of moral commitment, deeming organizational
loyalty essential [
74
,
75
]. Some studies have used these three dimensions of organizational commitment
developed by Allen and Meyer [
74
] to analyze work commitment [
76
] and consumer commitment [
77
].
Lee, Allen, Meyer and Rhee used the three dimensions to measure the organizational commitment of
nurses and industrial hygiene technicians in South Korea [78].
Baseball spectating is a process that satisfies individuals’ subjective feelings and stimulates their
passion while creating a better quality of life [
79
]. When participants are involved in leisure activities,
as time goes by, they become committed to leisure service providers [
42
,
76
,
80
,
81
]. Research by Kyle and
Mowen showed that some variables of leisure involvement have a positive impact on organizational
commitment [
48
]. The paper of Wu, Pan and Huang indicated that if sport fans have more leisure
involvement, they will have more commitment to the organization [
82
], thus, the second hypothesis
was framed as:
Hypothesis 2. Leisure involvement has positive and significant effects on organizational commitment.
Organizational identification is a specific type of social identification [
83
]. However, the research
is inconsistent on the relationship between organizational identity and commitment. Some suggest
that organizational commitment is part of the organizational identity construct [
84
], whereas others
consider organizational identity to be an element of organizational commitment [
85
]. Still other
scholars believe that organizational identity leads to organizational commitment [
86
]. Ashforth and
Mael argued that organizational commitment and identification are different but organizational
identity is an important reference for organizational commitment [
83
]. Some past research has
found organizational identification to be closely related to organizational commitment [
39
,
87
].
Stinglhamber et al. explored the relationship between employee organizational identity and affective
organizational commitment [
88
]. The results showed organizational identification to be an antecedent
of organizational commitment.
In sport fans’ perceptions, organizational identification is close to team identification. Sport
fans who highly identify with their teams, maintain memberships in related social networks and this
enhances their social identity [
89
,
90
]. Wann, Melnick, Russell and Pease found that identification
with a team was positively associated with personal self-esteem and positive emotions and was
Sustainability 2018,10, 740 5 of 18
negatively correlated with depression and negative affection [
91
]. Team identification is associated
with higher levels of social self-esteem [
92
,
93
] and more frequent positive emotions [
94
]. Wann [
95
] and
Wann, Waddill, Polk and Weaver [
96
] found a positive relationship between sports team identification
and well-being.
Panaccio and Vandenberghe explored the correlations among organizational support,
organizational commitment (emotions, norms, perceived sacrificed leaving and perceived lack of
alternatives) and subjective well-being perceived by members. Their findings showed that the higher
the respondents’ attachment to an organization, the greater their well-being [
97
]. Galais and Moser
conducted a survey targeting temporary agency workers from 2000 to 2002. Temporary agency
employees’ commitment to the client organization had positive effects on individuals’ well-being [
98
].
Jamal and Khan revealed there is a positive relationship between survivors’ organizational commitment
and psychological well-being after the downsizing process [
41
]. Harris and Cameron indicated that
various dimensions of attachment to the organization (normative, affective, continuance commitment)
are important positive predictors of the well-being of employees [
39
]. Hence, employees’ organizational
commitment positively influences their well-being. Sport fans’ organizational identification positively
affects their well-being. There are stronger relationships between organizational identification and
organizational commitment. According to Stebbins’ serious leisure concept, sport fans are regarded
as serious leisure participants with career qualities [19]. Cuskelly, Harrington and Stebbins indicated
that participants in serious leisure activities identify positively with the organization and have more
commitment to it [
99
]. The study showed that organizational commitment of baseball fans has a
positive impact on their well-being [
82
]. Therefore, this research examined the mediating effect of
organizational commitment on the leisure involvement and well-being of sport fans. The third and
fourth hypotheses were posited as follows:
Hypothesis 3. Organizational commitment has positive and significant effects on well-being.
Hypothesis 4. Organizational commitment mediates the influence of leisure involvement on well-being.
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Research Framework and Instrument
Based on these four hypotheses, structural equation modeling was applied to determine
the influential effects among leisure involvement, organizational commitment and well-being.
The mediating effect of organizational commitment on leisure involvement and well-being was
also measured.
Brother Elephants Baseball Team is one of the founding members of the CPBL. Since its foundation
in 1990 through 2013, the team set the record for winning the Taiwan Series for three consecutive years,
in 1992–1994 and 2001–2003 respectively, making it the first to have achieved three consecutive wins
twice in the history of the League. Brother Elephants Baseball Team also has most fans in Taiwan.
This team’s fans were selected as the focus for this research. The conceptual model proposed is shown
in Figure 1.
Sustainability 2018,10, 740 6 of 18
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 17
Well-being was the fans’ perceived emotions and life satisfaction. The SWLS scale of Diener et
al. [53] and the questions of Diener and Emmons [54] served as references and revisions were made,
including three dimensions, namely life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect, consisting of
10 questions. A 7-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree) was applied. Thus,
the higher the degree of life satisfaction and positive affect, the higher the well-being; the higher the
perceived negative affect, the lower the well-being.
Figure 1. Conceptual Model. Note: Means directly affects Means indirectly affects.
3.2. Sampling and Research Tools
The original questionnaire was in English and was translated into Chinese. To ensure that it was
translated appropriately, the instrument was reviewed by six professors specializing in leisure, sport
and tourism. Before conducting the survey, this research was approved by five professors (Review
Committee) at the Graduate Institute of Sustainable Tourism and Recreation Management, National
Taichung University of Education.
The researchers went to the stadium to survey the fans of Brother Elephants. Before
administering the survey, interviewees were asked whether they were Brother Elephants’ fans. Upon
confirmation, respondents completed the questionnaires. The sampling method was purposive. The
questionnaire was distributed before the break time in games, without unnecessarily disturbing the
respondents. The sampling period was from 23 September to 23 October 2010. A total of 450
questionnaires were distributed and 406 valid copies were received, indicating a response rate of
90.2%. The researchers did not offer any incentives to participate in the study. The average number
of home game spectators for the Brother Elephants Team was 4730 in the past 20 years, which is the
highest among the four teams. This is 1.35 times greater than the second team (LaNew).
The probability value of the questionnaire content validity was 0.83. The Cronbach’s alpha
coefficient of leisure involvement was 0.921 and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of organizational
commitment was 0.955. Well-being had Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.857. All the reliability
coefficients were at satisfactory levels.
3.3. Reliability and Validity Analysis
Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to verify whether the observed variables could
be used to measure the latent variables. The factor loading of all the questions of leisure involvement
were between 0.56 and 0.86; the composition reliability (CR value) was 0.93 and the Average
Variances Extracted (AVE) was 0.53 (Table 1). For organizational commitment, the factor loadings
were between 0.66 and 0.92; the CR value was 0.95 and the AVE value was 0.63 (Table 2). For well-
being, the factor loadings were between 0.63 and 0.94; the CR value was 0.96 and the AVE value was
0.72 (Table 3). Raines-Eudy pointed out that composite reliability values of over 0.5 were acceptable
[101]. Fornell and Larcker believed that AVE values over 0.5 indicated that the scale possessed
convergent validity [102].
Leisure
Involvement
Organizational
Commitment
Well-Being
H1
H2 H3
H4 H4
Figure 1. Conceptual Model. Note:
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 17
Well-being was the fans’ perceived emotions and life satisfaction. The SWLS scale of Diener et
al. [53] and the questions of Diener and Emmons [54] served as references and revisions were made,
including three dimensions, namely life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect, consisting of
10 questions. A 7-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree) was applied. Thus,
the higher the degree of life satisfaction and positive affect, the higher the well-being; the higher the
perceived negative affect, the lower the well-being.
Figure 1. Conceptual Model. Note: Means directly affects Means indirectly affects.
3.2. Sampling and Research Tools
The original questionnaire was in English and was translated into Chinese. To ensure that it was
translated appropriately, the instrument was reviewed by six professors specializing in leisure, sport
and tourism. Before conducting the survey, this research was approved by five professors (Review
Committee) at the Graduate Institute of Sustainable Tourism and Recreation Management, National
Taichung University of Education.
The researchers went to the stadium to survey the fans of Brother Elephants. Before
administering the survey, interviewees were asked whether they were Brother Elephants’ fans. Upon
confirmation, respondents completed the questionnaires. The sampling method was purposive. The
questionnaire was distributed before the break time in games, without unnecessarily disturbing the
respondents. The sampling period was from 23 September to 23 October 2010. A total of 450
questionnaires were distributed and 406 valid copies were received, indicating a response rate of
90.2%. The researchers did not offer any incentives to participate in the study. The average number
of home game spectators for the Brother Elephants Team was 4730 in the past 20 years, which is the
highest among the four teams. This is 1.35 times greater than the second team (LaNew).
The probability value of the questionnaire content validity was 0.83. The Cronbach’s alpha
coefficient of leisure involvement was 0.921 and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of organizational
commitment was 0.955. Well-being had Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.857. All the reliability
coefficients were at satisfactory levels.
3.3. Reliability and Validity Analysis
Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to verify whether the observed variables could
be used to measure the latent variables. The factor loading of all the questions of leisure involvement
were between 0.56 and 0.86; the composition reliability (CR value) was 0.93 and the Average
Variances Extracted (AVE) was 0.53 (Table 1). For organizational commitment, the factor loadings
were between 0.66 and 0.92; the CR value was 0.95 and the AVE value was 0.63 (Table 2). For well-
being, the factor loadings were between 0.63 and 0.94; the CR value was 0.96 and the AVE value was
0.72 (Table 3). Raines-Eudy pointed out that composite reliability values of over 0.5 were acceptable
[101]. Fornell and Larcker believed that AVE values over 0.5 indicated that the scale possessed
convergent validity [102].
Leisure
Involvement
Organizational
Commitment
Well-Being
H1
H3
H4
H4
Means directly affects
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 17
Well-being was the fans’ perceived emotions and life satisfaction. The SWLS scale of Diener et
al. [53] and the questions of Diener and Emmons [54] served as references and revisions were made,
including three dimensions, namely life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect, consisting of
10 questions. A 7-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree) was applied. Thus,
the higher the degree of life satisfaction and positive affect, the higher the well-being; the higher the
perceived negative affect, the lower the well-being.
Figure 1. Conceptual Model. Note: Means directly affects Means indirectly affects.
3.2. Sampling and Research Tools
The original questionnaire was in English and was translated into Chinese. To ensure that it was
translated appropriately, the instrument was reviewed by six professors specializing in leisure, sport
and tourism. Before conducting the survey, this research was approved by five professors (Review
Committee) at the Graduate Institute of Sustainable Tourism and Recreation Management, National
Taichung University of Education.
The researchers went to the stadium to survey the fans of Brother Elephants. Before
administering the survey, interviewees were asked whether they were Brother Elephants’ fans. Upon
confirmation, respondents completed the questionnaires. The sampling method was purposive. The
questionnaire was distributed before the break time in games, without unnecessarily disturbing the
respondents. The sampling period was from 23 September to 23 October 2010. A total of 450
questionnaires were distributed and 406 valid copies were received, indicating a response rate of
90.2%. The researchers did not offer any incentives to participate in the study. The average number
of home game spectators for the Brother Elephants Team was 4730 in the past 20 years, which is the
highest among the four teams. This is 1.35 times greater than the second team (LaNew).
The probability value of the questionnaire content validity was 0.83. The Cronbach’s alpha
coefficient of leisure involvement was 0.921 and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of organizational
commitment was 0.955. Well-being had Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.857. All the reliability
coefficients were at satisfactory levels.
3.3. Reliability and Validity Analysis
Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to verify whether the observed variables could
be used to measure the latent variables. The factor loading of all the questions of leisure involvement
were between 0.56 and 0.86; the composition reliability (CR value) was 0.93 and the Average
Variances Extracted (AVE) was 0.53 (Table 1). For organizational commitment, the factor loadings
were between 0.66 and 0.92; the CR value was 0.95 and the AVE value was 0.63 (Table 2). For well-
being, the factor loadings were between 0.63 and 0.94; the CR value was 0.96 and the AVE value was
0.72 (Table 3). Raines-Eudy pointed out that composite reliability values of over 0.5 were acceptable
[101]. Fornell and Larcker believed that AVE values over 0.5 indicated that the scale possessed
convergent validity [102].
Leisure
Involvement
Organizational
Commitment
Well-Being
H1
H2
H3
H4
H4
Means indirectly affects.
Leisure involvement was defined as the affective input, motivation, excitement and other
psychological states of a fan toward professional baseball games. The scales of McIntyre and
Pigram [
50
] and Kyle et al. [
43
] were used. The contents included three dimensions: attraction,
self-expression and centrality, consisting of 12 positive questions. A 5-point Likert scale (1 = strongly
disagree to 5 = strongly agree) was adopted for measurement.
Organizational commitment was defined as the identity of a fan’s recognition, loyalty and
participation toward a baseball team. The scale of Lee et al. [
78
] was used combining the dimensions
of Meyer and Allen [
75
] and Meyer, Allen & Smith [
100
]. The questions were then revised where
appropriate to measure the organizational commitment toward Brother Elephants Baseball Team.
Three dimensions, namely affective, continuance and normative commitment were included, with a
total of 12 questions. A 7-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree) was applied.
Well-being was the fans’ perceived emotions and life satisfaction. The SWLS scale of
Diener et al. [53]
and the questions of Diener and Emmons [
54
] served as references and revisions
were made, including three dimensions, namely life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect,
consisting of 10 questions. A 7-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree) was
applied. Thus, the higher the degree of life satisfaction and positive affect, the higher the well-being;
the higher the perceived negative affect, the lower the well-being.
3.2. Sampling and Research Tools
The original questionnaire was in English and was translated into Chinese. To ensure that it
was translated appropriately, the instrument was reviewed by six professors specializing in leisure,
sport and tourism. Before conducting the survey, this research was approved by five professors
(Review Committee) at the Graduate Institute of Sustainable Tourism and Recreation Management,
National Taichung University of Education.
The researchers went to the stadium to survey the fans of Brother Elephants. Before administering
the survey, interviewees were asked whether they were Brother Elephants’ fans. Upon confirmation,
respondents completed the questionnaires. The sampling method was purposive. The questionnaire
was distributed before the break time in games, without unnecessarily disturbing the respondents.
The sampling period was from 23 September to 23 October 2010. A total of 450 questionnaires were
distributed and 406 valid copies were received, indicating a response rate of 90.2%. The researchers
did not offer any incentives to participate in the study. The average number of home game spectators
for the Brother Elephants Team was 4730 in the past 20 years, which is the highest among the four
teams. This is 1.35 times greater than the second team (LaNew).
The probability value of the questionnaire content validity was 0.83. The Cronbach’s alpha
coefficient of leisure involvement was 0.921 and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of organizational
commitment was 0.955. Well-being had Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.857. All the reliability
coefficients were at satisfactory levels.
Sustainability 2018,10, 740 7 of 18
3.3. Reliability and Validity Analysis
Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to verify whether the observed variables could be
used to measure the latent variables. The factor loading of all the questions of leisure involvement
were between 0.56 and 0.86; the composition reliability (CR value) was 0.93 and the Average Variances
Extracted (AVE) was 0.53 (Table 1). For organizational commitment, the factor loadings were between
0.66 and 0.92; the CR value was 0.95 and the AVE value was 0.63 (Table 2). For well-being, the factor
loadings were between 0.63 and 0.94; the CR value was 0.96 and the AVE value was 0.72 (Table 3).
Raines-Eudy pointed out that composite reliability values of over 0.5 were acceptable [
101
]. Fornell and
Larcker believed that AVE values over 0.5 indicated that the scale possessed convergent validity [
102
].
Table 1. Statistical Analysis of Leisure Involvement.
Variables and Dimensions Mean Standard Deviation Factor Loading CR AVE
Leisure Involvement 3.99 0.58 0.93 0.53
Attraction 4.40 0.60 0.88 0.65
I am interested in watching
professional baseball. 4.58 0.62 0.76
It is important for me to watch
professional baseball. 4.25 0.78 0.86
To me, watching professional
baseball is one of the most
pleasurable things to do.
4.46 0.65 0.74
I really enjoy watching
professional baseball. 4.45 0.71 0.84
Self-Expression 4.01 0.64 0.75 0.43
Watching professional baseball
helps me relieve stress in life. 4.28 0.75 0.68
To me, watching professional
baseball allows me to truly
express myself.
3.91 0.84 0.72
I am mastering knowledge about
professional baseball watching. 3.96 0.82 0.60
I expect others to share the same
views on professional baseball
watching as mine.
3.90 0.91 0.62
Centrality 3.57 0.71 0.82 0.53
My life is centered on watching
professional baseball. 3.45 0.99 0.82
I met most of my friends through
professional baseball watching. 2.74 0.99 0.56
I am very willing to share
everything about professional
baseball watching with friends.
4.00 0.79 0.71
I derive higher satisfaction from
professional baseball watching
than I do in regular activities.
3.85 0.93 0.79
Sustainability 2018,10, 740 8 of 18
Table 2. Statistical Analysis of Organizational Commitment.
Variables and Dimensions Mean Standard Deviation Factor Loading CR AVE
Organizational Commitment 5.49 1.11 0.95 0.63
Affective Commitment 5.59 1.15 0.92 0.70
Problems faced by Brother
Elephants Baseball Team are like my
problems.
4.98 1.48 0.66
I feel a strong sense of
belongingness toward Brother
Elephants Baseball Team.
5.87 1.25 0.89
I have strong emotional attachment
to Brother Elephants Baseball Team.
5.71 1.29 0.92
Brother Elephants Baseball Team is
like family to me. 5.54 1.33 0.86
Brother Elephants Baseball Team
means a lot to me. 5.87 1.24 0.85
Continuance Commitment 5.57 1.17 0.85 0.59
If I don’t support brother Elephants
Baseball Team, I may never be able
to find a team to support.
5.86 1.43 0.68
To me, the cost of not supporting
Brother Elephants Baseball Team is
far higher than the benefits.
5.02 1.48 0.72
I will not stop supporting Brother
Elephants Baseball Team; otherwise,
I might lose my stand.
5.64 1.42 0.85
My life will be affected if I decide to
no longer support Brother
Elephants Baseball Team.
4.97 1.66 0.81
Normative Commitment 5.30 1.25 0.79 0.56
I feel obligated to continue
supporting Brother Elephants
Baseball Team.
5.63 1.45 0.82
Even if there is a better baseball
team to choose. I will still support
Brother Elephants Baseball Team.
6.04 1.28 0.71
If I stop supporting Brother
Elephants Baseball Team, I am a
person with no credibility.
4.35 1.84 0.71
Sustainability 2018,10, 740 9 of 18
Table 3. Statistical Analysis of Well-Being.
Variables and Dimensions Mean Standard Deviation Factor Loading CR AVE
Well-Being 4.95 0.85 0.96 0.72
Life Satisfaction 4.78 1.10 0.87 0.63
In general, my life is close to my
ideal. 4.96 1.20 0.77
My living condition is good. 5.41 1.09 0.83
I am quite satisfied with my life.
5.16 1.20 0.91
So far, I have acquired things
important to me in my life. 4.40 1.63 0.63
Positive Affect 5.49 1.02 0.94 0.84
I feel pleasurable 5.54 1.05 0.91
I feel satisfied 5.42 1.13 0.94
I feel enjoyable 5.45 1.08 0.91
Negative Affect 3.41 1.43 0.90 0.74
I feel depressed 3.42 1.34 0.84
I feel angry 3.24 1.50 0.87
I feel worried 3.67 1.29 0.87
4. Results
Among the research participants, 66.2% were males, 33.8% were female and 57.9% were aged
21–30. Most of the respondents (51.2%) had university educations. The highest proportions were whose
length of time engaged in baseball watching was 6–10 years (33.8%) and who had been supporting
Brother Elephants Baseball League for 6–10 years (33.3%).
4.1. Test of Hypothesis 1
The researchers determined whether leisure involvement had a positive effect on well-being.
The statistics for goodness of fit were
χ2
= 28.50 (p= 0.00), Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) = 0.98, Adjusted
Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) = 0.94,
Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) = 0.04
,
Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.08
, Non-normed Fit Index (NNFI) = 0.96,
Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.98,
χ2
/df = 3.56. It was concluded that the proposed model had a good
fit (Table 4). According to the path analysis results, the direct effect of baseball fans’ leisure involvement
on their well-being was significant, accounting for 0.47 (p< 0.01) (Figure 2). The relationship of leisure
involvement to well-being was positive and significant. Thus, Hypothesis 1 was supported.
Table 4. Goodness-of-fit Test for Leisure Involvement and Well-Being.
Indices Model fit Criteria
χ2/df 3.56
GFI 0.98 >0.90
AGFI 0.94 >0.90
SRMR 0.04 <0.05
RMSEA 0.08 <0.08
NNFI 0.96 >0.90
CFI 0.98 >0.90
Sustainability 2018,10, 740 10 of 18
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 9 of 17
Table 4. Goodness-of-fit Test for Leisure Involvement and Well-Being.
Indices Model fit Criteria
χ
2
/df 3.56
GFI 0.98 >0.90
AGFI 0.94 >0.90
SRMR 0.04 <0.05
RMSEA 0.08 <0.08
NNFI 0.96 >0.90
CFI 0.98 >0.90
Figure 2. The effect of leisure involvement on well-being. Note: ** p < 0.01.
4.2. Tests of Hypotheses 2 and 3
The relationships among leisure involvement, organizational commitment and well-being were
examined. A mediating model was developed (Figure 3). The fit statistics of the model were as
follows: χ
2
=88.21 (p = 0.00), GFI = 0.95, AGFI = 0.91, SRMR = 0.04, RMSEA = 0.08, NNFI = 0.97, CFI =
0.98 and χ
2
/df = 3.70. Overall, the mediating model had good fit (Table 5). Moreover, the path analysis
results showed that the direct effect of leisure involvement on organizational commitment was
positive and significant at 0.77 (p < 0.01) and the direct effect of organizational commitment on well-
being was positive and significant at 0.39 (p < 0.01). In other words, the higher fans’ leisure
involvement, the higher was their organizational commitment; the higher fans’ organizational
commitment, the higher was their well-being. Thus, Hypothesis 2 and 3 were supported. It was found
that leisure involvement indirectly affected well-being through organizational commitment, the
indirect effect was 0.30 (0.77 × 0.39) (p < 0.01).
Figure 3. The test for the mediating model of organizational commitment. Note: ** p < 0.01 * p < 0.05.
Leisure
Involvement Well-Being
0.47**
0.87*
Leisure
Involvement
Organizational
Commitment
Well-Being
Affective
Commitment
Continuance
Commitment
Normative
Commitment
Self-
expression
Attraction
Centrality to
lifestyle Negative
Affect
0.39
0.23
0.38
0.71
0.25 0.19 0.27
0.77** 0.39**
0.18*
0.78*
0.88*
0.78* 0.54*
0.41
0.70
Positive
Affect
0.33
0.85*0.90*
Life
Satisfaction 0.49
0.82*
0.71*
Figure 2. The effect of leisure involvement on well-being. Note: ** p< 0.01.
4.2. Tests of Hypotheses 2 and 3
The relationships among leisure involvement, organizational commitment and well-being were
examined. A mediating model was developed (Figure 3). The fit statistics of the model were as follows:
χ2
=88.21 (p= 0.00), GFI = 0.95, AGFI = 0.91, SRMR = 0.04, RMSEA = 0.08, NNFI = 0.97, CFI = 0.98 and
χ2
/df = 3.70. Overall, the mediating model had good fit (Table 5). Moreover, the path analysis results
showed that the direct effect of leisure involvement on organizational commitment was positive and
significant at 0.77 (p< 0.01) and the direct effect of organizational commitment on well-being was
positive and significant at 0.39 (p< 0.01). In other words, the higher fans’ leisure involvement, the higher
was their organizational commitment; the higher fans’ organizational commitment, the higher was their
well-being. Thus, Hypothesis 2 and 3 were supported. It was found that leisure involvement indirectly
affected well-being through organizational commitment, the indirect effect was 0.30 (
0.77 ×0.39
)
(p< 0.01).
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 9 of 17
Table 4. Goodness-of-fit Test for Leisure Involvement and Well-Being.
Indices Model fit Criteria
χ
2
/df 3.56
GFI 0.98 >0.90
AGFI 0.94 >0.90
SRMR 0.04 <0.05
RMSEA 0.08 <0.08
NNFI 0.96 >0.90
CFI 0.98 >0.90
Figure 2. The effect of leisure involvement on well-being. Note: ** p < 0.01.
4.2. Tests of Hypotheses 2 and 3
The relationships among leisure involvement, organizational commitment and well-being were
examined. A mediating model was developed (Figure 3). The fit statistics of the model were as
follows: χ
2
=88.21 (p = 0.00), GFI = 0.95, AGFI = 0.91, SRMR = 0.04, RMSEA = 0.08, NNFI = 0.97, CFI =
0.98 and χ
2
/df = 3.70. Overall, the mediating model had good fit (Table 5). Moreover, the path analysis
results showed that the direct effect of leisure involvement on organizational commitment was
positive and significant at 0.77 (p < 0.01) and the direct effect of organizational commitment on well-
being was positive and significant at 0.39 (p < 0.01). In other words, the higher fans’ leisure
involvement, the higher was their organizational commitment; the higher fans’ organizational
commitment, the higher was their well-being. Thus, Hypothesis 2 and 3 were supported. It was found
that leisure involvement indirectly affected well-being through organizational commitment, the
indirect effect was 0.30 (0.77 × 0.39) (p < 0.01).
Figure 3. The test for the mediating model of organizational commitment. Note: ** p < 0.01 * p < 0.05.
Leisure
Involvement Well-Being
0.47**
0.87*
Leisure
Involvement
Organizational
Commitment
Well-Being
Affective
Commitment
Continuance
Commitment
Normative
Commitment
Self-
expression
Attraction
Centrality to
lifestyle Negative
Affect
0.39
0.23
0.38
0.71
0.25 0.19 0.27
0.77** 0.39**
0.18*
0.78*
0.88*
0.78* 0.54*
0.41
0.70
Positive
Affect
0.33
0.85*0.90*
Life
Satisfaction 0.49
0.82*
0.71*
Figure 3. The test for the mediating model of organizational commitment. Note: ** p< 0.01 * p< 0.05.
Table 5. Goodness-of-fit Test for the Mediating Model.
Indices Model Fit Criteria
χ2/df 3.70
GFI 0.95 >0.90
AGFI 0.91 >0.90
SRMR 0.04 <0.05
RMSEA 0.08 <0.08
NNFI 0.97 >0.90
CFI 0.98 >0.90
Sustainability 2018,10, 740 11 of 18
4.3. Test of Hypothesis 4
Fans’ leisure involvement had a positive and significant effect on well-being, with a direct effect
of 0.47 (p< 0.01) (Figure 2). When organizational commitment was included in the model (Figure 3),
leisure involvement also had a significant effect on well-being but with a weak direct effect of 0.18
(
p< 0.05
). In the mediating model, leisure involvement had a significant effect on well-being through
organizational commitment and the indirect effect was 0.30. Thus, the total effect of leisure involvement
on well-being was 0.48 (0.18 + 0.30). The indirect effect value of leisure involvement through the effect
of organizational commitment accounted for 62.5% of the total effects (0.30/0.48), thus indicating
organizational commitment is a mediating variable of leisure involvement and well-being. Thus,
for Hypothesis 4, organizational commitment partially mediated the influence of leisure involvement
on well-being and it was supported.
The findings showed that the Brother Elephants Team fans’ performance was above average in
three respects: leisure involvement, organizational commitment and well-being. The average value of
the leisure involvement was 3.99 and the standard deviation was 0.58, thus indicating these baseball
fans’ positive leisure involvement. The concept with the most profound leisure involvement was
attraction, with an average value of 4.40, followed by self-expression (4.01) and centrality (3.57) (Table 1).
The average value of overall organizational commitment was 5.49 with a standard deviation of 1.11.
The concept with the highest value was affective commitment at 5.59. Continuance commitment
followed with the value of 5.57. Finally, normative commitment had an average value of 5.30 (Table 2).
For well-being, the overall average value was 4.95 with a standard deviation of 0.85. The concept with
the highest average value was positive affect (5.49), followed by life satisfaction (4.78) and negative
affect (3.41) (Table 3).
The results indicated that attraction, self-expression and centrality were representations of sport
fans’ leisure involvement, of which self-expression had the highest factor load (0.88), followed by
attraction (0.78) and centrality (0.78). The organizational commitment of baseball fans can be reflected
in affective, continuance and normative commitment, of which continuance commitment had the
highest factor load (0.90), followed by affective commitment (0.87) and normative commitment (0.85).
As for well-being, it was reflected by life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect, of which
positive affect had the highest factor load (0.82), followed by life satisfaction (0.71) and negative
affect (0.54).
5. Discussion
The overall goal of this research was to explore the influence of the leisure involvement of sport
fans on their well-being and the mediating effect of organizational commitment. The findings revealed
that the leisure involvement of baseball fans has a positive impact on their well-being. This finding
coincides with the research results of Lu and Hu [
59
], Dai et al. [
103
], Huang [
62
] and Doerksen et
al. [
58
]. Huang indicated the leisure involvement of sport volunteers had a positive impact on their
well-being [
62
]. Doerksen et al. not only suggested that leisure activity related to well-being but also
indicated that participating in specific activities (including social activities and volunteering) readily
enhanced well-being [
58
]. This analysis found that the leisure involvement of sport fans positively
influenced their well-being.
In this research, the sport fans with career-like qualities were assumed to be serious leisure
participants. Related studies of enterprises found that the higher the employees’ organizational
commitment, the higher the level of their well-being. Hence, the mediating effect of organizational
commitment on sport fans’ leisure involvement and well-being was explored. Indeed, the results
confirmed that organizational commitment possesses a partial mediating effect. The sport fans
with higher leisure involvement had higher organizational commitment. In other words, the
higher the involvement of the fans in watching baseball games, the more likely it was for them
to develop commitment to the baseball team. This result is comparable to previous research
findings [48,80,81]
. When the fans developed commitment to the baseball team they support, it
Sustainability 2018,10, 740 12 of 18
enhanced their well-being, as confirmed in previous studies [
39
,
41
,
97
,
98
]. Some previous studies
found organizational commitment to be an important positive predictor of the well-being of
employees [
39
,
41
,
98
]. This research investigated the effect of organizational commitment on the
well-being of sport fans and showed that organizational commitment was also a positive predictor
of fan well-being. Additionally, it demonstrated that the most effective way to promote well-being is
by simultaneously increasing fans’ leisure involvement and their organizational commitment. Since
community well-being interacts with community development [
18
], increasing the well-being of sport
fans will enhance community well-being and community development in teams’ locations.
6. Conclusions and Implications
6.1. Conclusions
This research explored the relationship between the leisure involvement and well-being of baseball
fans. The results are exploratory and provide initial support for the mediating role of organizational
commitment for sport fans. The leisure involvement of baseball fans had a positive impact on
their well-being and organizational commitment partially mediated between leisure involvement
and well-being.
Leisure involvement positively and significantly affected organizational commitment. That is,
the greater the extent of baseball fans’ involvement in the leisure activity, the more likely it is for
them to accumulate commitment to the baseball team. Furthermore, organizational commitment
also positively and significantly affected their well-being. When baseball fans are committed to the
sport team organization, their perceived emotions and life satisfaction are affected. Finally, leisure
involvement positively and significantly affects well-being, while organizational commitment enhances
the effect of leisure involvement on well-being.
These findings indicate that for baseball fans to enhance their well-being, in addition to their
involvement in watching professional baseball games (leisure involvement); they must also have a
commitment with the ball team organization to attain a higher-level well-being. The findings showed
that the baseball fans’ performance was above average regarding leisure involvement, organizational
commitment and well-being. Among the leisure involvement variables, attraction was the highest,
while centrality was the lowest. In organizational commitment, affective commitment was highest,
while normative commitment was the lowest. For well-being, positive affect was higher, while negative
affect was lower. After revising the model, it was found that the three dimensions of attraction,
self-expression and centrality sufficed as representations of the baseball fans’ leisure involvement.
Among them, the reflection of self-expression was more evident than attraction and centrality. Affective,
continuance and normative commitment were representative of the baseball fans’ commitment to
the baseball team organization. In particular, continuance commitment reflected more evident effects
compared to affective commitment and normative commitment. Life satisfaction, positive affect and
negative affect represented baseball fans’ well-being, of which positive affect showed the highest
reflection, followed by life satisfaction and negative affect.
There is insufficient research on the relationships among sport fans’ leisure involvement,
organizational commitment and well-being. This study regards fans as serious leisure participants
to understand the impact of their leisure involvement on well-being. Because of serious leisure
participants have career characteristics, this research explored whether organizational commitment
mediates the influence of leisure involvement on well-being. The results showed that the fans’ leisure
involvement will affect the sense of well-being and organizational commitment partially mediates the
influence of leisure involvement on well-being. This study extends the previous research and uses
the concept of organizational commitment to explore the relationships for sport fans among leisure
involvement, organizational commitment and well-being. Sport organizations may benefit from the
enhancement of sport fans’ well-being. Furthermore, increasing sport fans’ well-being may improve
sport community well-being and community development.
Sustainability 2018,10, 740 13 of 18
6.2. Implications, Limitations and Future Research Directions
Professional sport promotion not only encourages the public to take part in such activities. Also,
if participation in spectating activities promotes people’s psychological satisfaction (well-being), the
activities are said to be worthy of receiving promotion. The results showed that leisure involvement
and organizational commitment are influential in enhancing baseball fans’ well-being, Therefore, to
increase fans’ well-being, in addition to attracting sport fans to more frequently watch games, proper
sport fan management is a strategic option. These initiatives include organizing sport fan gatherings to
share baseball knowledge, making friends, exchanging ideas after watching games, giving baseball fans
face-to-face encounters with players, to link living, friend-making and baseball-spectating. Baseball
fans often choose to continue to support a baseball team because the main players stay on the side.
It is suggested that baseball teams sign multi-year contracts with players to ensure fans continue to
be supportive of the team. To have “hot” game topics to discuss and make games worth watching,
baseball teams may recruit domestic and foreign professionals who are experienced in international
games. Furthermore, territorialism, court adoption and so on may be increased to strengthen audience
cohesion and foster fan commitment to the team. Once the relationship is strengthened, well-being
will improve as well.
This research only sampled the sport fans of Taiwan’s Brother Elephants’ Baseball Team as the
subjects. Although the research results had good reliability and validity, this does not mean that
different samples still possess stable results or can be used to make inferences on the fans of other
baseball teams. Thus, it is recommended that the fans of other baseball teams be targeted as research
participants in future studies to further test the applicability of “the sport fans’ model of leisure
involvement, organizational commitment and well-being.” Furthermore, it is suggested that sport
fans for other sports be targeted for surveys, such as professional basketball, soccer and American
football, to examine the validity extension of the model. While most of the literature discusses the
relationship between two of the above three constructs [
41
,
48
,
58
,
59
], integrating all three constructs for
a Professional Baseball League has not yet been attempted. This study of Asian perspectives might
be considered as a pioneering research effort. The findings show that organizational commitment
indeed affects sport fans’ well-being. Therefore, it is advisable that future studies explore the effect
of enterprise organizational influential factors, such as organizational identification, organizational
loyalty and so on, on the well-being of sport fans.
The authors also acknowledge that there are other variables influencing sport fans’ commitment
and loyalty to specific clubs and that significant related research exists but was not extensively
covered in this analysis. Some of these variables can be controlled by the professional sport club
management and others cannot. These include, among others, branded online communities [
104
];
fan club membership [105]; and corporate social responsibility (CSR) [106].
Acknowledgments:
This article is based on a paper presented at the 13th ApacCHRIE Conference in conjunction
with 14th Asia Pacific Forum Conference. Thanks for the comments from reviewers and audience of the conference.
Part of this research was supported by the National Science Council (now Ministry of Science and Technology) of
Taiwan, under project number NSC 100-2628-H-142-003 and NSC 99-2410-H-142-025-SSS.
Author Contributions:
Su-lan Pan revised the introduction, literature review, discussion and performed statistical
analysis. Homer C. Wu is the supervisor of this project and proposed the idea of the research framework.
Alastair M. Morrison revised the discussion and wrote the conclusion. He also coordinated the whole manuscript.
Min-Tzu Huang developed the instruments, collected the data and wrote the results. Wen-Shiung Huang
participated in the research discussion and offered statistical advice.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Sustainability 2018,10, 740 14 of 18
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... In the existing studies, some researchers proved the existence of psychic income through measuring with relevant scales, and further predicted that psychic income might affect residents' attitudes toward the sports event (Wilson et al., 2000;Hastie, 2001;Oja et al., 2018). In some other literature, researchers deemed involvement an important variable in sports psychology, which could explain and affect behavior and attitude (Liu et al., 2014;Zhang, 2015;Pan et al., 2018). Sport event involvement refers to the host city residents' awareness and knowledge of it, and the extent of their enthusiasm, interest, and participation in the event (Bee and Havitz, 2010;Liu et al., 2014). ...
... In the field of consumption, sponsorship, leisure, tourism, and sports event, involvement is considered a key variable, and scholars generally agree that involvement is a useful concept for explaining behavior and attitudes and is an important moderator of consumer attitudes (Pan et al., 2018;Vera and Espinosa, 2019). Some scholars think it is an important moderator of consumer attitudes, decisions, and behaviors (Johnson et al., 2001). ...
... Similarly, Armenakyan et al. (2017) argued that involvement in sports events would affect individuals' beliefs, expectations, and evaluation of the sports event. Individuals closely related to sports events tend to maintain a positive impression of it because they tend to think that sports events are related to themselves, and can meet their own needs, values, and interests (Pan et al., 2018). Regarding the studies of the image of host cities, Kim and Kaplanidou (2019) agreed residents with higher event involvement tended to have a positive impression of the host country, the reason was that individuals with higher involvement usually paid more attention to the media coverage, and had stronger emotional investment, which made the image of the event more positive, and efficiently transferred to the image of the host country. ...
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Using Shanghai Tennis Masters as an example, this study seeks to explore the psychic income associated with major sports events hosting and whether the psychic income would predict the attitudes of local residents toward events hosting. In addition, the moderating effect of sport involvement on the relationship between psychic income and attitude is also tested. In this study, a questionnaire survey is adopted. The structured questionnaire was developed based on 4 parts, including the demographics of the residents, involvement in the sport event, psychic income from the sport event, and their attitudes toward the sports event, there were 47 items in total. Data were collected from the local residents of Shanghai (including 16 districts or counties), as a result, 1,302 valid questionnaires were collected. A series of statistical analyses were conducted by using SPSS25.0 and AMOS 24.0 to examine the reliability and validity of the scales and to test the hypotheses. The results showed that the event has brought a significant level of psychic income to the local community, and the perceived psychic income would predict the attitudes of the residents toward the event hosting. The moderating effect of sports involvement on the relationship between psychic income and attitude is also confirmed.
... The literature divides measuring leisure involvement into behavioral and psychological involvement (Pan et al., 2018). Behavioral involvement refers to the time and energy that individuals put into specific activities (Stone, 1984), measured in terms of frequency of participation, time spent, and related resources available (Pan et al., 2018). ...
... The literature divides measuring leisure involvement into behavioral and psychological involvement (Pan et al., 2018). Behavioral involvement refers to the time and energy that individuals put into specific activities (Stone, 1984), measured in terms of frequency of participation, time spent, and related resources available (Pan et al., 2018). Psychological involvement refers to an individual's internal psychological process that leads them to participate in leisure activities, represented broadly by the constructs of attraction, self-expression, and centrality (Chang, 2017;Cheng et al., 2016;McIntyre & Pigram, 1992;Suhartanto et al., 2019). ...
... In order to measure leisure involvement, the literature divides into behavioral involvement (referring to energy and time spent on leisure) and psychological involvement (referring to an individual's internal psychological process that leads them to participate in leisure activities) (Pan et al., 2018). Psychological involvement is broadly represented by the constructs of attraction, self-expression, and centrality (Chang, 2017;Cheng et al., 2016;McIntyre & Pigram, 1992;Suhartanto et al., 2019). ...
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This study aims to analyze leisure involvement and voluntary simplicity as antecedents of leisure satisfaction and the relationship with experiential consumption. To this end, we conducted a survey with 815 Brazilian runners and cyclists, and the data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Age, education, and income were also investigated as moderators in the relationship between leisure involvement and leisure satisfaction. The main results showed that leisure involvement positively influenced leisure satisfaction and voluntary simplicity of its practitioners. Voluntary simplicity positively influenced leisure satisfaction and experiential consumption. The moderation test showed that the relationship between leisure involvement and leisure satisfaction is stronger for higher age, education, and income. We concluded that leisure involvement could be a path to a simple living choice, one source for a more sustainable world. The findings provide theoretical and practical implications for practitioners, policymakers, and society.
... Moreover, Sedikides et al. (2016) contended nostalgia as a positive emotion that has the capacity to yield psychological benefits, such as well-being. Likewise, psychological commitment has been identified as another factor that enhances individuals' wellbeing (Pan et al., 2018;Rathi et al., 2011). That is, previous studies showed the vital roles of nostalgia and psychological commitment in examining satellite fans' behavioral and psychological responses. ...
... Also, researchers in the field of occupational health psychology found that employees' commitment had a significant effect on their well-being (Galais & Moser, 2009;Meyer & Maltin, 2010;Panaccio & Vandenberghe, 2009). More similar to the present study's target sample, a study by Pan et al. (2018) emphasized the effect of commitment on sport fans' well-being. According to a sport fans' standpoint, the commitment stems from their identity construct (Pan et al., 2018). ...
... More similar to the present study's target sample, a study by Pan et al. (2018) emphasized the effect of commitment on sport fans' well-being. According to a sport fans' standpoint, the commitment stems from their identity construct (Pan et al., 2018). Hence, when sport fans strongly identify with a team, they attempt to maintain their membership, which strengthens their social identity (Abrams & Hogg, 1990;Wann & Pierce, 2003). ...
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Sport tourists have the potential to create a significant impact on the development of regional economy and tourism. Especially, satellite fans who enthusiastically support foreign-based teams through media platforms are now drawing attention in the fields of sport and tourism. However, despite the attention from academia and industry, it has not been much studied on factors influencing satellite fans’ psychological and behavioral responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to extend theoretical evidence of the relationships among satellite fans’ nostalgia, psychological commitment, subjective well-being, and travel intention. Data were collected from satellite fans of European professional football leagues in Singapore. The findings showed all hypothesized relationships identified to be significant except for the direct path from satellite fans’ nostalgia to travel intention. However, the indirect effects of nostalgia on travel intention were established through psychological commitment and subjective well-being. The findings of this study shed light on the role of nostalgia on satellite fans’ psychological and behavioral outcomes. As a result, this provided a fresh perspective for sport tourism marketers to strategize new marketing styles that utilize nostalgic elements to generate satellite fans’ nostalgia.
... Regarding the relationship among the variables, relevant studies point out the influence of leisure involvement on leisure satisfaction [28][29][30]; for example, Chen, Li, and Chen [28] used quantitative research to study 701 adolescents in Central Taiwan to explore the relationship between leisure motivation, leisure involvement, and leisure satisfaction. The research results found that leisure motivation had no significant effect on leisure satisfaction when leisure involvement was included in the model, but leisure motivation had a significant effect on leisure involvement. ...
... According to the findings, a positively significant relationship was determined between the level of well-being and leisure involvement. Pan, Wu, Morrison, Huang, and Huang [30] conducted a study to investigate the relationship of leisure involvement with the well-being of professional sports fans; and the possible mediating effect of organizational commitment, which is a career-related characteristic, on well-being. Some 406 fans of the Brother Elephants Baseball Team in Taiwan were surveyed, and the results showed that leisure involvement positively and significantly influenced fans' well-being. ...
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of leisure involvement and leisure satisfaction on the well-being of pickleball players. This study enrolled 260 participants from the 2019 International Pickleball Tournament by purposive sampling. A total of 250 questionnaires were returned, for a return rate of 96%; 215 questionnaires were valid, for an effective recovery rate of 86%. The data were archived using SPSS 24.0, and the correlation between variables was analyzed using AMOS 24.0. By analyzing the empirical data in this paper, the following main findings were obtained: (1) leisure involvement has a significant effect on leisure satisfaction; (2) leisure involvement does not have a significant effect on well-being; (3) leisure satisfaction has a significant effect on well-being; and (4) leisure satisfaction has a mediating effect on the relationship between leisure involvement and well-being.
... Similarly, research has documented that employee well-being has a positive influence on employee work-related attitudes and behaviors such as, increasing OCB (Mousa et al., 2020), as well as job performance (Magnier-Watanabe et al., 2017) and decreasing employees' work-family conflict (Karapinar et al., 2019) and absenteeism (Schaumberg and Flynn, 2017). Although there is evidence that employee well-being positively influences employee work-related attitudes, less is known about the relationship between psychological well-being (hedonic and eudaimonic) and employee affective commitment (Pan et al., 2018;Semedo et al., 2019). Moreover, the existing literature indicated that employee affective commitment is either used as an antecedent or an outcome variable of employee well-being (Semedo et al., 2019;Ryff, 2018). ...
... Based on SDT, we propose that employees who are satisfied and happy in their lives will be more committed to their organizations. Research in the past has found a positive linkage between employee commitment and indicators of psychological well-being such as happiness, personal growth, vitality and personal expressiveness (Pan et al., 2018;Sharma et al., 2016). Similarly, Thoresen et al. (2003), in their meta-analysis, also found a positive association between organizational commitment and indicators of hedonic well-being and eudaimonic well-being. ...
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Full-text available
Purpose-Given the importance of employee psychological well-being to job performance, this study aims to investigate the mediating role of affective commitment between psychological well-being and job performance while considering the moderating role of job insecurity on psychological well-being and affective commitment relationship. Design/methodology/approach-The data were gathered from employees working in cellular companies of Pakistan using paper-and-pencil surveys. A total of 280 responses were received. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling technique and Hayes's Model 1. Findings-Findings suggest that affective commitment mediates the association between psychological well-being (hedonic and eudaimonic) and employee job performance. In addition, perceived job insecurity buffers the association of psychological well-being (hedonic and eudaimonic) and affective commitment. Practical implications-The study results suggest that fostering employee psychological well-being may be advantageous for the organization. However, if interventions aimed at ensuring job security are not made, it may result in adverse employee work-related attitudes and behaviors. Originality/value-The study extends the current literature on employee well-being in two ways. First, by examining psychological well-being in terms of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being with employee work-related attitude and behavior. Second, by highlighting the prominent role played by perceived job insecurity in explaining some of these relationships.
... Similarly, research has documented that employee well-being has a positive influence on employee work-related attitudes and behaviors such as, increasing OCB (Mousa et al., 2020), as well as job performance (Magnier-Watanabe et al., 2017) and decreasing employees' work-family conflict (Karapinar et al., 2019) and absenteeism (Schaumberg and Flynn, 2017). Although there is evidence that employee well-being positively influences employee work-related attitudes, less is known about the relationship between psychological well-being (hedonic and eudaimonic) and employee affective commitment (Pan et al., 2018;Semedo et al., 2019). Moreover, the existing literature indicated that employee affective commitment is either used as an antecedent or an outcome variable of employee well-being (Semedo et al., 2019;Ryff, 2018). ...
... Based on SDT, we propose that employees who are satisfied and happy in their lives will be more committed to their organizations. Research in the past has found a positive linkage between employee commitment and indicators of psychological well-being such as happiness, personal growth, vitality and personal expressiveness (Pan et al., 2018;Sharma et al., 2016). Similarly, Thoresen et al. (2003), in their meta-analysis, also found a positive association between organizational commitment and indicators of hedonic well-being and eudaimonic well-being. ...
Article
Purpose: Given the importance of employee psychological well-being to job performance, this study investigates the mediating role of affective commitment between psychological well-being and job performance while considering the moderating role of job insecurity on psychological well-being and affective commitment relationship. Methodology: Data were gathered from employees working in cellular companies of Pakistan using paper-and-pencil surveys. A total of 280 responses were received. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling technique and Hayes's Model. Findings: Findings suggest that affective commitment mediates the association between psychological well-being (hedonic and eudaimonic) and employee job performance. In addition, perceived job insecurity buffers the association of psychological well-being (hedonic and eudaimonic) and affective commitment. Practical Implications: The study results suggest that fostering employee psychological well-being may be advantageous for the organization. However, if interventions aimed at ensuring job security are not made, it may result in adverse employee work-related attitudes and behaviors. Originality/value: The study extends the current literature on employee well-being in two ways. First, by examining psychological well-being in terms of hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing with employee work-related attitude and behavior. Second, by highlighting the prominent role played by perceived job insecurity in explaining some of these relationships. Keywords: Psychological well-being, affective commitment, job insecurity, job performance.
...  In a sample of Taiwanese baseball fans, involvement was positively related to team identification, knowledge of the team, and intention to watch games (Gau et al., 2019)  Hargrove (2011) surveyed women in an outdoor recreation program and found that involvement predicted activity involvement, frequency of participation, and satisfaction  In a sample of Greek tennis club members, subscales of recreational involvement predicted intrinsic motivation to play recreational tennis (Alexandris, 2012)  Japanese participants' involvement with a Korean celebrity was positively related to intention to visit South Korea , a finding similarly found in a sample of Taiwanese participants (Yen & Teng, 2015)  In a study of Busan International Film Festival attendees (South Korea), recreational involvement scores were positively associated with identity salience, psychological commitment, and loyalty to the festival  Recreational involvement was associated with purchasing intentions (Nassis et al., 2012) and with commitment to the team (Tachis & Tzetzis, 2015) in Greek football fans, with word of mouth advertising in Greek basketball fans (Nassis et al., 2014), and with frequency of consuming sport-related media in Greek volleyball fans (Zetou et al., 2013)  Taiwanese baseball fans showed a positive relationship between recreational involvement and well-being (Pan et al., 2018) ...
Book
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Researchers across disciplines have been studying the psychology of fans for decades. Seeking to better understand fan behavior and the various factors motivating fans, researchers have studied dozens of variables in hundreds of studies of different fan groups. To date, however, there have been relatively few attempts to integrate this sizable body of work, pulling together findings across from the field to with a broader, more holistic perspective. This book does exactly that, identifying and concisely summarizing research on 28 separate lines of inquiry on the psychology of fans and integrating it all into an empirically-validated model known as the CAPE model. Useful as a textbook for a fandom studies course and as a handbook for fan researchers, this book is essential reading for anyone looking to better understand the state of fan psychology and wanting to conduct their own research exploring the ins and outs of fans of all sorts!
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between leisure involvement (LI), conspicuous sport consumption and subjective well-being (SW) for two luxury leisure activities: golf and skiing. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected data from Guangdong Province (golf, n = 342) and Jilin Province (skiing, n = 310) and examined the proposed model using structural equation modeling (SEM) and tested the mediating effect of conspicuous sport consumption using bootstrapping method. Findings The findings show that the proposed model explained the relationships among LI, conspicuous sport consumption and SW. Furthermore, the findings suggest that LI and conspicuous consumption (CC) can elevate sport participants' perception of SW, enriching leisure-class theory. Originality/value The authors’ findings contribute to the domain of CC in sport participant and leisure research and provide significant implications for the sport tourism marketers.
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There is a dearth of information pertaining to ethnicity and serious leisure among immigrants. The purpose of our study was to explore the health benefits of serious engagement in sports among Korean immigrants who are part of club activities. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, we identified three themes associated with the benefits of serious leisure: (a) coping with acculturative stress, (b) creating ethnic strength, and (c) personal benefits. Participants gain personal and social benefits by pursuing leisure activities in a serious manner within their ethnic in-group.
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This paper outlines antecedents of involvement and mediating roles of developmental processes leading to participants' behavioral loyalty (i.e., involvement → psychological commitment → resistance to change → behavioral loyalty). We propose that individuals go through sequential psychological processes to become loyal participants including: (a) the formation of high levels of involvement in an activity, (b) the development of psychological commitment to a brand, and (c) the maintenance of strong attitudes toward resistance to change preferences of the brand. Furthermore, because not all individuals show the identical processes in the development of participants' loyalty, we propose that both personal characteristics and social-situational factors moderate the developmental processes.
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Authors have disagreed on whether sports spectating has positive or negative consequences for individuals and society. Based on Smith's 1988 discussion of “the noble sports fan,” the current research tested the prediction that identification with a sports team would be positively related to collective or group's self-esteem and not related to trait scores of aggression. The hypothesis was confirmed. Discussion centers on patterns of the observed correlations.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Article
The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
Chapter
Community well-being, defined as that state in which the needs and desires of a community are fulfilled, is the focus of this chapter. Additionally, the connections between community well-being and community development, an allied and complementary area of study and practice, is explored. Community development can serve a vital role in actualizing community well-being as defined by those who live it—the citizens and residents of villages, towns, cities and countries. Application in particular is where community development and community well-being intersect.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role played by corporate social responsibility (CSR) in building relationship quality (RQ) in the context of sports organisations. In turn, the link between RQ and customer loyalty is examined. Acknowledging that customers develop a psychological connection with the sports organisation over time, the study also examines whether the link between CSR and RQ is moderated by the psychological continuum model (PCM) stages (awareness, attraction, attachment and allegiance). Design/methodology/approach The survey data were drawn from almost 6,000 season ticket holders of a professional sports club. Structural equation modelling and the non-parametric bootstrapping regression technique were used to test the hypotheses. Findings The results support the direct impact of CSR activities on RQ. RQ, in turn, drives customer loyalty. Importantly, RQ is found to fully mediate the relationship between CSR and customer loyalty. However, as customers move through the psychological connection stages, the effect of CSR on customer loyalty via RQ tends to diminish. Practical implications This study provides evidence of a direct impact of CSR activities on RQ, and also attests the role of psychological connection in sports organisations. Originality/value The incorporation of a multidimensional RQ construct and the PCM stages allows a deeper understanding of how CSR might be employed to achieve organisational goals.
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The serious leisure perspective (SLP), which divides leisure activities into three distinct forms (serious, casual, and project-based), has been developed by Robert Stebbins over the last 40 years. This article evaluates the perspective as theory and as a typology. The theory associated with the SLP concerning social worlds, identification, and optimal leisure lifestyles is found to be generally untested because it has been developed in relation to the serious leisure form only. The validity of the typology is questioned on the grounds that “seriousness” is a continuum, rather than discrete categories, and that most leisure activities can be engaged in with varying degrees of seriousness. It is proposed that the SLP be replaced by a more flexible, open research approach, the Leisure Experience Perspective, which consolidates features of the SLP and other research traditions and theoretical perspectives.