Article

Understanding the factors that determine workplace coaching effectiveness: a systematic literature review

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Abstract

Meta-analytic results have established that workplace coaching is effective, however, little is known about the determinants of coaching effectiveness. This paper reports an inclusive systematic literature review, covering the quantitative and qualitative research on workplace coaching. We focus on seven promising areas in the current workplace coaching literature that emerged by the synthesis of 117 empirical studies: self-efficacy, coaching motivation, goal orientation, trust, interpersonal attraction, feedback intervention, and supervisory support. The major contribution of our paper is the systematic integration of well-established theoretical constructs in the workplace coaching context and the new insights we provide in the synthesis of these literatures. Based on our review, we provide specific recommendations to be addressed in future research, including recommended research methodologies, which we propose will significantly progress the field of workplace coaching theory and practice.

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... In addition, from reviews of relevant literature of practice and theory (Beattie et al., 2014) and using search tools such as Business Source Complete, Google Scholar, PsychINFO, Science Direct and Education Research Complete, areas for exploration were identified. These areas include (1) manager-as-coach (Hawkins, 2012;Lawrence, 2017), (2) coaching skills (Ellinger, 2013) and (3) efficacy of coaching (Steelman and Wolfeld, 2018;Bozer and Jones, 2018;Barry, 2020). ...
... There is a large body of research evidence that demonstrates the efficacy of coaching practice some of which is mentioned here (Bozer and Jones, 2018). Few studies provide evidence that coaching is not effective. ...
... Supportive of this finding is the work of Beattie et al. (2014) in which they examined empirical research on coaching and found that the various forms of coaching (external, internal and managerial) are quite similar when it comes to actual practices applied and that managerial coaching is synonymous with the facilitation of learning. Because the various forms of coaching practice seem to have so much in common, included in this section is research (for example, Bozer and Jones, 2018;Theeboom et al., 2014) on coaching efficacy that examined professional coaches but did not include manager-as-coach. ...
Article
Purpose The essay is practitioner-focused with manager-as-coach applying experiential learning to aid an employee's learning and improve performance as well as helping to build employee commitment to job and organization. Reciprocity is intended as the learning and commitment of both the employee and manager are enhanced. Design/methodology/approach As a conceptual, not empirical, paper, the present study aimed at guiding manager behavior the methodology aims to examine the areas of manager-as-coach, efficacy of coaching, theoretical grounding of employee commitment and experiential learning processes. Study and coordination of information in these areas provided support for a detailed action plan for practical application. Findings It is possible to create for manager use a research results driven practical guide/action plan. The guide incorporates manager skills and commitment theory (investment) along with an experiential learning approach aimed at improving employee growth and building commitment. Practical implications There is clear evidence in empirical research that finds employee commitment positively related to work performance, job engagement and job retention. This essay aims at application of investment theory to build commitment as it is based on actual inputs and efforts of the employee. Originality/value There is very little research currently available that directly addresses manager-as-coach deliberately working to increase or build employee commitment to job, organization or the manager her/himself. This essay aims directly at how commitment may be enhanced.
... Coaching at the workplace Coaching at the workplace is primarily aimed at workforce development (Bozer and Jones, 2018;Cameron and Ebrahimi, 2014;Jones et al., 2016). Workplace coaching is a goal-oriented process based on trust and discretion, and depending on the goal, workplace coaching can have a variety of outcomes (Grant and Cavanagh, 2007). ...
... Thus, to promote workforce development, coaching at the workplace is primarily concerned with competence development. Because coaching at the workplace is a goal-oriented process, based on trust and discretion (Bozer and Jones, 2018;Jones et al., 2016), it is not necessary for the coach to have experience or expertise in the coachee's area of work. Coaching can also occur between two people of equal status within the organization (Jones et al., 2016). ...
... In higher education, providing career path support involves giving support in setting career goals and making decisions, by asking questions and stimulating students to reflect on their learning experiences (Crisp and Cruz, 2009;Nora and Crisp, 2008;Ragins and Kram, 2007). At the workplace, a coach provides competence support and assists employees in establishing personal and professional development goals by providing the employee with ongoing feedback (Bozer and Jones, 2018;Jones et al., 2016;Spence and Oades, 2011). Even though a coach helps with setting personal and professional development goals, the coachee is stimulated to be proactive in attaining those goals, in both higher education and at the workplace, which relates to autonomy support. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The present study proposes coaching as a pedagogical intervention to prepare students for transitioning to the labour market. Taking a competence-based approach, the proposed coaching practice aims to enhance students' employability competences to facilitate a smoother school-to-work transition. However, what transition coaching looks like remains largely unclear. Moreover, in competence-based education, teachers are expected to be highly skilled coaches, facilitating students' transition to the labour market. The present study aims to map the core competencies of a transition coach. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative design was adopted to map the core competences of a transition coach. Data were collected from two focus groups, consisting of coaches in higher education and in the workplace. Findings Results show that, to create the necessary support conditions, a coach creates a safe coaching environment and supports students in setting goals, guide them in the activities they undertake to attain these goals, and asks reflective questions. Moreover, the coach stimulates students' ownership by putting the student in the centre of the decision-making process. Furthermore, the results emphasize the importance of the coach's professional attitude and knowledge about the transition process and the labour market. Practical implications The article concludes with practical implications for novice transition coaches and teachers in higher education. Originality/value The present study adds to the agenda of graduate work readiness by proposing a coaching practice aimed at preparing students for their transition to the labour market.
... In response to the profession's growth over the last decade, research into workplace coaching processes and outcomes has increased significantly, and numerous randomized controlled trials (e.g., De Haan et al., 2019;Fontes & Dello Russo, 2021) and meta-analyses (e.g., Jones et al., 2016;Theeboom et al., 2014) have produced a strong evidence base for its effectiveness. Workplace coaching is defined as an adaptable, one-to-one customized, supportive learning and development intervention that uses a collaborative, reflective, goal-focused relationship targeted at all-level employees (i.e., coachees), who work in partnership with a professional coach to attain specific goals in an organizational context (Bozer & Jones, 2018). ...
... As coaching has become a central HRD practice, an increasing number of organizations apply coaching for their employees' development, with the literature using different and often interchangeable terms such as executive coaching or business coaching. In the current study, we adopted the term "workplace coaching" as a more inclusive concept which incorporates coaching interventions provided to all levels of employees by coaching professionals who do not have formal authority over the coachee (Bozer & Jones, 2018). It is also important to distinguish workplace coaching from managerial coaching, which refers to a leadership practice including feedback provision, goal setting, and role modeling delivered by managers to their subordinates in order to advance employee learning, overcome their personal challenges, help them develop their competence and potential, and ultimately improve their performance (e.g., Beattie et al., 2014;Dahling et al., 2016;Ellinger et al., 2010). ...
... Moreover, although recent work highlights the importance of coachee motivational factors in coaching processes and outcomes (e.g., Blackman et al., 2016;Bozer & Jones, 2018;De Haan, 2019), there is little empirical evidence regarding the motivational processes through which coaching interventions are associated with coaching outcomes beyond goal setting and goal orientation (Bozer & Delegach, 2019). In response to this gap, we draw on regulatory focus theory, which assumes that the process of self-regulation unfolds through two coexisting self-regulatory motivational systems (Higgins, 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study responds to the call for a closer analysis of the role that contextual and individual factors play in workplace coaching as a context‐sensitive intervention. We build on theories of regulatory focus and training motivation, to propose and examine a model that explains employees' pre‐coaching motivation when assigned to workplace coaching. Specifically, we propose that the employees' perception of the organizational coaching context, as either developmental or remedial, contributes to their pre‐coaching motivation through employees' situational regulatory focus. Results of a scenario‐based experimental study (N = 175) demonstrated that organizational coaching context affects employees' situational regulatory foci beyond their chronic dispositions. Further, the indirect relationship between developmental organizational coaching context and pre‐coaching motivation was mediated by employee situational promotion focus. However, we did not find the hypothesized indirect relationship between remedial organizational coaching context and employee pre‐coaching motivation via employee situational prevention focus. The study highlights the important role that organizations' management and human resource development personnel play in the “kick‐off” of a workplace coaching intervention by shaping the context of coaching assignments prior to coaching. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the importance of including the organization's informal feedback to the employee prior to coaching as a key contractual element that contributes to coachees' pre‐coaching motivation. We conclude with implications for future workplace coaching research and practice.
... In response to the profession's growth over the last decade, research into workplace coaching processes and outcomes has increased significantly, and numerous randomized controlled trials (e.g., De Haan et al., 2019;Fontes & Dello Russo, 2021) and meta-analyses (e.g., Jones et al., 2016;Theeboom et al., 2014) have produced a strong evidence base for its effectiveness. Workplace coaching is defined as an adaptable, one-to-one customized, supportive learning and development intervention that uses a collaborative, reflective, goal-focused relationship targeted at all-level employees (i.e., coachees), who work in partnership with a professional coach to attain specific goals in an organizational context (Bozer & Jones, 2018). ...
... As coaching has become a central HRD practice, an increasing number of organizations apply coaching for their employees' development, with the literature using different and often interchangeable terms such as executive coaching or business coaching. In the current study, we adopted the term "workplace coaching" as a more inclusive concept which incorporates coaching interventions provided to all levels of employees by coaching professionals who do not have formal authority over the coachee (Bozer & Jones, 2018). It is also important to distinguish workplace coaching from managerial coaching, which refers to a leadership practice including feedback provision, goal setting, and role modeling delivered by managers to their subordinates in order to advance employee learning, overcome their personal challenges, help them develop their competence and potential, and ultimately improve their performance (e.g., Beattie et al., 2014;Dahling et al., 2016;Ellinger et al., 2010). ...
... Moreover, although recent work highlights the importance of coachee motivational factors in coaching processes and outcomes (e.g., Blackman et al., 2016;Bozer & Jones, 2018;De Haan, 2019), there is little empirical evidence regarding the motivational processes through which coaching interventions are associated with coaching outcomes beyond goal setting and goal orientation (Bozer & Delegach, 2019). In response to this gap, we draw on regulatory focus theory, which assumes that the process of self-regulation unfolds through two coexisting self-regulatory motivational systems (Higgins, 1997). ...
Article
This study responds to the call for a closer look at the role that contextual and individual factors play in workplace coaching as a context-sensitive intervention. Drawing on and integrating theories of regulatory focus and training we proposed and examined a model that explains the impact of organizational coaching context on coachee pre-coaching motivation using coachee situational regulatory focus as an underlying mechanism. Results of a scenario-based experimental study (N=175) demonstrated that organizational coaching context affects coachees’ situational regulatory foci beyond chronic dispositions. Further, the indirect relationship between developmental organizational coaching context and pre-coaching motivation was mediated by coachee situational promotion focus. However, we did not find the hypothesized indirect relationship between remedial organizational coaching context and coachee pre-coaching motivation via coachee situational prevention focus. The study highlights the important role that organizations’ management and human resource personnel play in the ‘kick-off’ of a workplace coaching intervention by shaping the context of coaching assignments prior to coaching. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the importance of including the organization’s informal feedback for the employee prior to coaching as a key contractual element that contributes to coachees’ pre-coaching motivation. We conclude with implications for future workplace coaching research and practice.
... A decade later there has been a significant increase in the number of coaching-related publications in peer-reviewed journals, including a number of recent literature reviews and meta-analyses (e.g., Athanasopoulou & Dopson, 2018;Blackman et al., 2016;Bozer & Jones, 2018;Burt & Talati, 2017;De Haan, 2019;Jones et al., 2016;Kotte, 2019;Pandolfi, 2020) dedicated to the efficacy of workplace coaching and factors that impact upon coaching efficacy. ...
... We specifically focused on the field of workplace coaching, given that coaching has been reported to be one of the fastest-growing fields within consulting (Liljenstrand & Nebeker, 2008) and has become an integral approach to facilitating the development and performance of individuals, groups, and teams in organizations worldwide (Athanasopoulou & Dopson, 2018). Following Bozer and Jones (2018), we define workplace coaching as "a one-to-one custom-tailored, learning and development intervention that uses a collaborative, reflective, goal-focused relationship to achieve professional outcomes that are valued by the coachee" (p. 1). ...
... Coaching research has been criticized for its lack of theoretical grounding (e.g., Bozer & Jones, 2018). In line with extant studies that have empirically investigated reasons for research participation in other fields (e.g., Haunberger, 2011), we have applied the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical model for conceptualizing the attitudes of coaching practitioners toward coaching research. ...
... Even while this is a widely held concept, not everyone agrees. Knowledge management's mediating role, on the other hand, has received less attention (Schniederjans et al., 2013;Bozer and Jones, 2018). Knowledge is a non-measurable phenomenon that can only acknowledge via observable outputs. ...
... This is a legal requirement (Ferdig, 2007;Dugan, 2017;Farooq, 2019). The trust-building culture among workers is thus essential for the organization's success (Cavazotte et al., 2013;Bozer and Jones, 2018;Graha et al., 2019). When it comes to business, this is referred to as "social capital" since it is the cornerstone of a highly cooperative workplace that stimulates knowledge sharing and collaboration, enhancing corporate sustainability. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to elaborate and recognize a model in which knowledge management practices affect corporate sustainability via corporate structure, corporate culture, corporate leadership style, and a unique variable social capital, used for the first time. Knowledge management is now used as a mediating variable for corporate sustainability. Creating long-term sustainable strategies emphasizes the need for a distinctive model of knowledge management practices in a rapidly changing business environment. Therefore, this paper delivers insights on how an organization can sustain its performance by addressing new dimensions due to the changing socio-economic environments and the pursuit of incessant improvement of competition. The authors used a quantitative research approach. Data is collected through a well-designed questionnaire from 130 respondents from Dhaka's textile sector, a significant sector of Bangladesh's economy and the world's second-largest ready-made garment (RMG) manufacturer and exporter. The result revealed that corporate sustainability is significantly related to corporate structure, culture, social capital, and corporate leadership styles. The mediated role of knowledge management in the link between organizational culture and sustainable performance is also crucial, and the relationship between leadership style and sustainable performance is also vital. A new variable known as social capital is also identified. Giving value and novelty to the academic literature also confirmed knowledge management and corporate sustainability theories that governments and regulators should follow.
... are built, maintained, promoted, and protected" (Mischel and Morf, 2003, p. 29). The elements of identity, goals and values are all relevant for workplace coaching (Bozer and Jones, 2018). For our study, following Bozer and Jones (2018), we define workplace coaching as a one-to-one custom-tailored learning and development intervention in organizations provided to all levels of employees by external or internal coaching practitioners without any supervisory authority over the client. ...
... The elements of identity, goals and values are all relevant for workplace coaching (Bozer and Jones, 2018). For our study, following Bozer and Jones (2018), we define workplace coaching as a one-to-one custom-tailored learning and development intervention in organizations provided to all levels of employees by external or internal coaching practitioners without any supervisory authority over the client. In this context, coach and client collaborate in a goal-focused relationship to reflect over time and with the mental space, support and guidance that the client may need to make sense how to achieve professional outcomes that reflect the client's values and identity in an organizational context. ...
Article
Purpose Little is known about how individual differences play out in the process of authentic self-development (ASD) through workplace coaching. This article explores whether the Big Five personality traits and affective, behavioral, cognitive and desire (ABCDs) components of the Big Five personality traits were relevant to ASD, specifically examining the role of affect as a potential mediator. Design/methodology/approach In total, 176 clients' personality was assessed pre-coaching. Aspects of ASD (perceived competence, goal commitment, self-concordance and goal stability) were assessed post-coaching. Clients' affect balance (AB) scores were obtained post-session. Findings Multilevel path models showed that higher levels of mean AB (but not the slope) mediated the associations between personality and perceived competence and goal commitment. Personality predicted goal self-concordance, but these effects were not mediated by AB, neither personality nor AB predicted goal stability. Research limitations/implications The authors encourage randomized controlled trials to further test findings of this study. Ruling out method variance is not possible completely. However, the authors put forth considerations to support the authors' claim that method variance did not overly influence our results. Practical implications These results suggest the necessity of an optimal experience of affect for ASD in workplace coaching and the understanding of how ABCDs, AB and ASD are related beyond coaching psychology. Social implications A deeper understanding of personality processes is important for fostering ASD to meet the challenges of management development in the authors' volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA) world. Originality/value This is the first study to test personality as a process in workplace coaching linking personality to one of the most valued leadership skills: authenticity.
... Workplace coaching research (also referred to as executive coaching research) has been described as a one-to-one, custom-tailored learning intervention that uses a collaborative and goal-focused relationship to achieve workplace outcomes (e.g., cognitive, skill-based, results) valued by the person receiving the coaching (Bozer & Jones, 2018;Smither, 2011). Unlike managerial coaching, which focuses on a supervisor as coach, workplace coaching includes professional and/or external coaches. ...
... There is some evidence that feedback receptivity influences coaching outcomes, but this depends on a variety of factors, such as interpersonal fit between the coach and coachee and context (Bozer & Jones, 2018). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Entrepreneur coachability is the degree to which an entrepreneur seeks, carefully considers, and integrates feedback to improve a venture’s performance. There is increasing evidence that entrepreneur coachability is important for attracting the social and financial resources necessary for venture growth. Although entrepreneur coachability has emerged as an especially relevant construct for practitioners, start-up ecosystem leaders, and scholars alike, research on this entrepreneurial behavior is in its infancy. What appears to be a consistent finding across studies is that some entrepreneurs are more coachable than others, which affects downstream outcomes—particularly resource acquisition. However, there are sizable theoretical and empirical gaps that limit our understanding about the value of coachability to entrepreneurship research. As a body of literature develops, it is useful to take inventory of the work that has been accomplished thus far and to build from the lessons learned to identify insightful new directions. The topic of entrepreneur coachability has interdisciplinary appeal, and there is a surge of entrepreneur coaching taking place across start-up ecosystems. Research on coaching is diverse, and scholarship has developed across the academic domains of athletics, marketing, workplace coaching, and entrepreneurship. To identify progress to date, promising research gaps, and paths for future exploration, the literature on entrepreneur coachability is critically reviewed. To consider the future development of entrepreneur coachability scholarship, a research agenda is organized by the antecedents of entrepreneurship coachability, outcomes of entrepreneur coachability, and how entrepreneur– coach fit affects learning and development. Future scholarship is needed to more fully explore the antecedents, mechanisms, and/or consequences of entrepreneur coachability. The pursuit and development of this research stream represent fertile ground for meaningful contributions to entrepreneurship theory and practice.
... Coaching has been defined as one of the change interventions drawn upon effective interpersonal interactions, professional relationships and coachees' strengths for the enhancement of desired outcomes (Lai, 2015;Passmore and Fillery-Travis, 2011). In addition, coachees' commitment and acceptance of change (i.e., motivation or readiness for change) were identified as contributing factors in facilitating sustainable transformation (Athanasopoulou and Dopson, 2018;Bozer and Jones, 2018;de Haan, 2019). Nevertheless, there has been lack of empirical research focusing on individual resistance in the coaching process. ...
... This commitment relies on the trust building with their coach and organisation (de Haan, 2019). Bozer and Jones (2018) suggested that the coachees' motivation to change is a precursor to the results of coaching as well as an important indicator for their sustainable changes. Furthermore, the coach's positive pre-coaching mindset eased coachees' concerns about "coaching" and activated constructive responses and behaviours through "friendly" interactions within the coaching dyad. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate resistance to change and change management through a micro-level interpersonal perspective. Specifically, this paper addresses in what way external change experts, such as coaches, identify distinctive emotional and behavioural indicators of resistance and facilitate individuals to develop positive strengths and motivation to change. Design/methodology/approach The authors drew upon critical realism and abductive research methodology to understand connections between coaching intervention and individual change resistance through 21 in-depth interviews with independent coaches listed in coaching associations in Germany. Findings This study first re-evaluates the implications of resistance and extends its meaning from negative obstacles into natural emotional responses of individuals and constructive resources for change. In addition, the study results indicate resistance can be distinguished through both explicit behaviours, body language along with implicit emotional reactions, like being tired or making small jokes. Moreover, several micro-level interpersonal approaches for coaches to apply in dealing with resistance, including understanding coachees' cognitive status and working environment, adapting varied communication styles as well as drawing upon coachees' strengths. Practical implications The research results offer organisations (e.g. managers and human resource professionals) essential guidelines in micro-level change management strategy by considering external coaching as a valuable option to deal with varied individual, social and contextual factors (e.g. organisational power and politics). From the organisational investment perspective, indicators of resistance and approaches to facilitate coachees' emotional reactions can be served as a preliminary protocol for stakeholders to evaluate the effectiveness of their change management schemes. Moreover, the framework outlined in this research can be considered in the future coaching education and professional development programmes. Originality/value Overall, this study demonstrates that external coaching is one of the valuable approaches in responding to individual resistance in organisational change management. The research findings widen existing bipolar paradigms of resistance (either change obstacles or positive resource) into a neutral spectrum that holds an impartial view on emotional reactions to change. Furthermore, individual differences and contextual factors play essential roles in the change process, e.g. coachees' personality, personal experiences, knowledge, interpretations to change process and topics as well as organisational context (e.g. power, hierarchy and culture) need to be considered into change management strategy.
... Berbeda dari pelatihan dengan bentuk yang lebih instruksional, coaching menunjukkan keunggulannya karena membantu anggota organisasi untuk beradaptasi dan memperoleh solusi melalui proses pembelajaran dan pengembangan yang disesuaikan dengan tujuan organisasi (Bozer & Jones, 2018). Coaching sendiri dapat dipahami sebagai suatu proses yang terdiri dari beberapa langkah utama. ...
... Dewasa ini, coaching telah dikenal, diterima, dan digunakan secara luas di banyak industri sebagai bentuk pembinaan eksekutif dan manajer untuk intervensi individu dalam pengembangan organisasi (Rothwell et al., 2021). Kini, coaching telah digunakan pada puluhan ribu profesional di seluruh dunia, dan semakin banyak organisasi yang mengaplikasikan berbagai jenis coaching (Bozer & Jones, 2018). Semakin besarnya implementasi coaching menunjukkan urgensi dalam penerapan coaching yang tepat. ...
Book
Stephen R. Covey berhikmat bahwa "cara terbaik untuk mempelajari sesuatu adalah dengan mengajarkannya". Terinspirasi akan hal tersebut, maka untuk memahami dengan baik dan cepat mengenai Organizational Development Strategy adalah dengan mengajarkannya—baik secara lisan dengan melakukan presentasi pada setiap sesi pertemuan dan juga dengan menuliskan hasil pembelajaran tersebut dalam bentuk buku. Bagi khalayak yang sudah memiliki pengalaman bekerja apalagi pengalaman memimpin dalam organisasi bisnis—baik itu perusahaan keluarga, swasta nasional, BUMN/D, maupun perusahaan multi nasional, tentulah bisa dengan cepat dan mudah memahami konsep-konsep teoritis terkait dengan pengembangan organisasi bisnis. Namun tidak demikian halnya bagi mahasiswa undergraduate program yang umumnya belum memiliki pengalaman langsung berada dalam organisasi bisnis. Membahas mengenai Organizational Development Strategy merupakan hal yang abstrak dan tidak mudah dicerna. Oleh karena itulah maka dalam pengajaran mata kuliah Organizational Development Strategy di BINUS Business School Undergraduate Program pada semester ganjil 2021–2022, saya selaku Dosen pengampu mata kuliah tersebut untuk kelas LB21 dan LC21 mengembangkan pola pembelajaran yang khas. Kelas dibagi dalam delapan kelompok yang terdistribusi merata antara mahasiswa yang memiliki IPK tertinggi dengan yang mahasiswa yang memiliki IPK rata-rata dan rendah di kelasnya. Setiap kelompok mendapat dua tugas utama, yaitu mempresentasikan satu pokok bahasan sesuai dengan agenda pembelajaran dan menuliskan hasil presentasi tersebut dalam sebuah book chapter. Dari kedua kelas yang saya ampu, diperolehlah 16 book chapters yang membahas delapan topik. Dari masing-masing topik, dipilihlah hasil tulisan terbaik. Dari delapan topik yang dibahas, ada satu topik yang tidak diikutsertakan dalam buku ini, karena kualitas tulisan yang masih banyak kesalahan dan perlu ditingkatkan kualitasnya. Dari 16 book chapters yang ditulis oleh kelas LB21 dan LC21 terpilih tujuh bab saja yang diterbitkan. Ada pun "ruh" dari buku ini bersumber dari buku "Organization Development: A process of Learning and Changing", karya Burke dan Noumair (2015) yang menjadi buku pegangan atau text book pada mata kuliah Organizational Development Strategy. Secara keseluruhan, buku ini terdiri dari tujuh bab. Bab pertama dari buku ini membahas mengenai apa, mengapa, dan bagaimana Organizational Development atau OD itu. Bab ini merupakan pengantar untuk memudahkan memahami kseseluruhan mengenai OD. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan bab kedua yang membahas mengenai OD sebagai sebuah proses perubahan. Sementara itu bab ketiga membahas mengenai beragam model atau konsep yang lazim digunakan praktisi OD untuk menganalisis organisasi. Selanjutnya bab keempat membahas mengenai bagaimana melakukan pemodelan terhadap perubahan di dalam organisasi. Bab kelima mengetengahkan pembahasan mengenai perencanaan dan pengelolaan perubahan. Bab keenam membahas mengenai pendekatan coaching dalam melakukan intervensi OD. Akhurnya, buku ini ditutup dengan bab ketujuh yang membahas mengenai arah atau tren perkembangan konseptual OD di masa mendatang. Buku ini merupakan hasil kolaborasi dua kelas paralel yang terdiri dari 52 orang penulis. Mereka adalah (1) Andrew J Stokes, (2) Muhammad F. P. Arbi, (3) Bernardus William, (4) Mohammad A. H. Hasan, (5) Hendri Kusniawan, (6) Rizky A. Indrajaya, (7) Vanessa A. Tanuwijaya, (8) Abdul Munir, (9) Ihsan N. Usman, (10) Daniel A. Saputra, (11) Muhammad J. Alfaridzi, (12) Anjunior, (13) Daffa Syahli, (14) Marsya K.Putri, (15) Farrel A. Maleakhi, (16) Kelvin, (17) Martina W. Anggraini, (18) Charles D. Lie, (19) Brian A. Mahendra, (20) Jang J. Hyeok, (21) Kevin R. Priyantoko, (22) Alyssa Aileen, (23) Aldetiara Putie, (24) Bryan Valentino, (25) Maylitta Br Barus, (26) Muhammad Ramadhan, (27) Regina N. Liwoso, (28) Zakky Alfathoni, (29) Stevania F. Natalie, (30) Marcella Emelia, (31) Marchelin Wally, (32) Alvianka Pasaribu, (33) Rasha Pramasta, (34) Sylvia Khanza, (35) Abdullah Reza, (36) Nabila A. Azizah, (37) Ni Kadek D. A. Pranawati, (38) Dewi Mulyani, (39) Eleanor V. K. Alliston, (40) Dhimas H. Nugroho, (41) Mulkika A. Nazansia, (42) Dira A. Aisyah , (43) Rainanda A. Murod, (44) Abdu R. Syah, (45) Alifarrell P. Fauzi, (46) Andina Stefandi, (47) Andreas E. T. Tumbol, (48) Calvin Paulus, (49) Fify, (50) Patricia I. Saverina, (51) Ryan C. Lodrinata, dan (52) Theofilus. Semoga buku ini dapat memberikan manfaat yang besar, baik bagi para pembaca terutama sekali bagi penulis yang terlibat aktif dalam pengembangan materi pada setiap bab.
... The existing reviews of the scientific literature in the field of coaching focus on such aspects as qualitative studies of executive and workplace coaching [6], and the determinants of the effectiveness of workplace coaching [7]. However, an initial exploration of the available scientific literature revealed the shortage of reviews on the assessment methods aimed at estimating the impact of coaching on a company's performance which is believed to have changed as a result of the coaching interactions. ...
... Ellinger Behavioral Scale is proposed to use for team members while the Park Skills-based Scale for leaders 6 Nansubuga et al. [53] to assess the effect size of coaching interaction regarding the ability to coach clients to reflect on their behavior pre-test assessment, treatment group and control groups, and post-test assessment as an assessment of the entire chain of impact of coaching interaction 7 Gan and Chong [54] to research the relationship of trust, rapport and commitment with the effectiveness of coaching objective-driven model as the measurement of coaching goals achievement 8 Grant [55] to assess the impact of coaching at the time of organizational change a set of qualitative and quantitative methods of evaluation: pre-/post-design measures were taken at Time 1 (pre) and Time 2 (four months later) 9 ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study is to provide an analysis of the literature about methods for assessing the impact of coaching on the performance of a company, and elaborate a framework of assessment methods emphasizing their use in the course of coaching interaction. The paper also explores the relationship between open innovation and coaching and proposes the themes for further research. The Scopus and Web of Science databases were selected for the review of the research papers in the business subject area. The review was guided by the following research questions: What methods are used for assessing the impact of coaching? How are these methods used in the course of the coaching interaction? How does coaching interrelate with open innovation? The findings suggest that the assessment of the impact of coaching on the individual’s behavior and performance of a company is considered from different perspectives. The methods differ based on the needs for the assessment whether the process evaluation or the outcome evaluation is required. The analysis of the literature proves that the relationship between coaching and open innovation is mutually advantageous.
... (3) The research evidence on the effectiveness of coaching was not mixed (1) The future research should be a more context-sensitive based and better research designed (2) 25 future research questions were outlined, such as compare coaching models' level of effectiveness and what makes outcomes sustainable? Bozer and Jones (2018) Workplace coaching (both external and internal) k 5 117 Seven essential factors were identified: self-efficacy, coaching motivation, goal orientation, trust, interpersonal attraction, feedback intervention and supervisory support 15 future research questions were outlined, such as ...
... Workplace coaching is a type of investment in people through supporting coachees' professional and personal development. This sort of social support either from the organization or supervisors indeed reinforced coachees' satisfaction of the coaching process (Zimmermann and Antoni, 2020) and therefore encouraged their motivation and efforts to change (Baron and Morin, 2010;Bozer and Jones, 2018). Our analysis indicated psychologically informed coaching, which provides a more holistic facilitation of coachees by understanding their internal motivators, emotions and unconscious assumptions (Gray, 2006), increased coachees' organizational commitment and job satisfaction listed above. ...
Article
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Purpose The authors examine psychologically informed coaching approaches for evidence-based work-applied management through a meta-analysis. This analysis synthesized previous empirical coaching research evidence on cognitive behavioral and positive psychology frameworks regarding a range of workplace outcomes, including learning, performance and psychological well-being. Design/methodology/approach The authors undertook a systematic literature search to identify primary studies ( k = 20, n = 957), then conducted a meta-analysis with robust variance estimates (RVEs) to test the overall effect size and the effects of each moderator. Findings The results confirm that psychologically informed coaching approaches facilitated effective work-related outcomes, particularly on goal attainment ( g = 1.29) and self-efficacy ( g = 0.59). Besides, these identified coaching frameworks generated a greater impact on objective work performance rated by others (e.g. 360 feedback) than on coachees' self-reported performance. Moreover, a cognitive behavioral-oriented coaching process stimulated individuals' internal self-regulation and awareness to promote work satisfaction and facilitated sustainable changes. Yet, there was no statistically significant difference between popular and commonly used coaching approaches. Instead, an integrative coaching approach that combines different frameworks facilitated better outcomes ( g = 0.71), including coachees' psychological well-being. Practical implications Effective coaching activities should integrate cognitive coping (e.g. combining cognitive behavioral and solution-focused technique), positive individual traits (i.e. strength-based approach) and contextual factors for an integrative approach to address the full range of coachees' values, motivators and organizational resources for yielding positive outcomes. Originality/value Building on previous meta-analyses and reviews of coaching, this synthesis offers a new insight into effective mechanisms to facilitate desired coaching results. Frameworks grounded in psychotherapy and positive appear most prominent in the literature, yet an integrative approach appears most effective.
... There is also an approach that coaching and mentoring tries to clarify the distinction and still use the knowledge of both phenomena by defining different roles and change between roles (Wiginton III, 2018). More research into the understanding of the interactions between these concepts is important for a better understanding and further development (Bozer & Jones, 2018). ...
... Coaching is viewed as an effective developmental tool as it helps aspiring leaders to internalise their learning (Kappler-Hewitt, 2020). It is a learning and development approach where the learner is the centre of the session (Bozer & Jones, 2018) and the method for coaching is a two-way communication between the coach and the coachee. Coaching is unlocking a person's potential to maximize their performance (Whitmore, 2009) and this is achieved through structured conversation sessions. ...
Conference Paper
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Education, Engineering, Inter-Disciplinary, Technology and Social Sciences 2022 (ICEBTS22) hereby state that the papers that are published in this proceeding book were accepted upon review. The editors are not responsible for any research misconducts (i.e., plagiarism, manipulation of data, fabrication of data, etc.), content and language of the papers. INSERT BARCODE HERE
... I don't know if it's because coaching is something that has been widely publicized in recent years or because they realized that there is an increasing demand to personalize the process of acquiring knowledge and managing competences. In relation to the workplace, there are a number of factors that determine the effectiveness of coaching and it is important to know them before adopting this strategy [11]. In any case, the main argument to convince companies to use this service is the ability to monitor and observe, in the long term, greater employee commitment and increased productivity. ...
Preprint
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The Learning Technologies France, which takes place in Paris, is one of the most important events in Europe for those working with technologies related to learning, training, and skills development. This paper is a brief report of the 2022 edition, including the main solutions categories present in the event, the author's opinion on trends that will transform Education in the coming years, and what is relevant to follow up with in the near future in the field of Education technologies.
... First, relatively little is known about the coaching techniques and psychological mechanisms underlying positive coaching outcomes. Here, we aim to uncover these mechanisms by focusing on the effects of three different questioning techniques that coaches can use (Bozer and Jones, 2018;Fontes and Dello Russo, 2021;Jones et al., 2021). We employ a self-coaching intervention rather than a real-life coaching intervention to examine the effects of each questioning technique and isolate it from relational factors that might otherwise impact the outcomes of coaching. ...
Article
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Coaching is a systematic and goal-oriented one-on-one intervention by a coach aimed to guide clients in their professional and personal development. Previous research on coaching has demonstrated effects on a number of positive outcomes, including well-being and performance, yet little is known about the processes that underlie these outcomes, such as the type of questions coaches use. Here, we focus on three different types of coaching questions, and aim to uncover their immediate and sustained effects for affect, self-efficacy, and goal-directed outcomes, using a between-subjects experiment. One hundred and eighty-three medical residents and PhD students from various medical centers and healthcare organizations in the Netherlands were recruited to participate in a self-coaching writing exercise, where they followed written instructions rather than interacting with a real coach. All participants were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: either one of two solution-focused coaching conditions (i.e., the success or miracle condition) or a problem-focused coaching condition. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure key outcomes of coaching, that is positive and negative affect, self-efficacy, goal orientation, action planning (i.e., quantity and quality) and goal attainment. Two follow-up measurements assessed if the effects of the self-coaching exercise led to problem-solving actions within an initial follow-up period of 14 days and a subsequent follow-up period of 10 days. Findings showed that participants experienced more positive affect, less negative affect, and higher approach goal orientation after the solution-focused coaching exercise compared to the problem-focused coaching exercise. In all conditions, goal attainment increased as a consequence of the self-coaching intervention. We discuss the implications of our findings for the science and practice of contemporary coaching.
... book chapters and industry reports in this study) in our review; this method has been adopted by several management and organisation reviews (e.g. Bozer and Jones 2018;Ghezzi et al. 2018) to look into more evidence-based management issues. We believe the inclusion of this strand of literature is better for this review paper for three reasons. ...
Article
Employee assistance programmes (EAPs) are designed to provide organisational support to employees, which is increasingly critical to improving employees' well‐being in the current macro and micro environment of pandemic and work pressure. Despite their potential significant role as part of human resource management (HRM), EAPs in China are under‐researched. Drawing on academic and practical sources of literature in both English and Chinese, this review study sheds light on the current state of research and practice of EAPs in China. We examine why, what and how EAPs are adopted in organisations in China and highlight differences between the public and private sectors in their EAPs, as well as the role of Chinese culture and guanxi with leaders in the delivery of EAPs. We also point out research avenues to extend the research field both theoretically and thematically, including the role of artificial intelligence and digital technology as part of effective EAPs.
... To ensure that our literature review was conducted systematically, we implemented an SLR process. SLR is a systematic review method that collects and analyzes studies based on the RQs [39]. As mentioned in the previous section, this study's RQs were already identified along with their corresponding objectives and presented in Table 1. ...
Article
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Business incubators (BIs) are important supporters for young businesses, since they provide firms with physical facilities and intangible support. Existing literature reviews focusing on BIs have neglected to consider individual factors in their success in favor of combining key performance measurements to identify their development targets. This systematic literature review thus aimed to combine studies that examined specific issues pertaining to BI performance and related key performance indicators to measure their activities. We conducted a systematic literature review based on two research questions: the first research question concerned critical factors for BIs’ performance; the second concerned their performance measurements. To ensure that we covered crucial factors and indicators of the latest generation of BIs, our systematic procedure included 74 studies published between 2005 and 2020 that were read in full and revealed ten critical factors that particularly emphasized financial resources and networking. We identified six categories for performance measurement, placing the greatest emphasis on the measurement of social capital. We recommend that academic researchers and BIs prioritize the intangible factors that constitute organizations’ hidden value. This review thus provides novel findings by identifying common critical factors for BIs’ performance and offering guidelines for performance measurement that consider BIs’ intangible assets and trends for future studies.
... Dichotomization of variables (for example p-value cutoffs, effect size boundaries) has been critiqued as an unnecessary step which sacrifices numerical nuance and specificity [61]. The American Statistical Association clearly advises that policy decisions should not be made on p-values alone [35], yet most intervention evaluation studies still choose their dependent variables a priori and place a simple 'yes' or 'no' result on the success of the intervention to achieve change in each of the measures, which typically represents only one domain [62]. However, in the eyes of the participant, the practitioner and those responsible for funding the interventions, some form of evidence-based dichotomization is needed to answer the question: did it work? ...
Article
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The evaluation of applied psychological interventions in the workplace or elsewhere is challenging. Randomisation and matching are difficult to achieve and this often results in substantial heterogeneity within intervention and control groups. As a result, traditional comparison of group means using null hypothesis significance testing may mask effects experienced by some participants. Using longitudinal studies of coaching interventions designed to provide support for dyslexic employees, this study describes and evaluates a different approach using a Meta-Impact score. We offer a conceptual rationale for our method, illustrate how this score is calculated and analysed, and show how it highlights person-specific variations in how participants react and respond to interventions. We argue that Meta-Impact is an incremental supplement to traditional variable-centric group-wise comparisons and can more accurately demonstrate in practice the extent to which an intervention worked. Such methods are needed for applied research, where personalized intervention protocols may require impact analysis for policy, legal and ethical purposes, despite modest sample sizes.
... The participants intend to refuse a scenario in which the main aim of coaching is an increase in client performance, and that coaches will be evaluated on the achievement of this goal. This reflects the attitude of many coaches, in which coaching fosters self-directed learning and personal growth (Grant & Stober, 2006) and goals that are valued by clients (Bozer & Jones, 2018). This does not exclude performance enhancement, but is significantly broader in its direction. ...
Article
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Current mega-trends and the Covid-19 pandemic are influencing the future of work. Workplace coaching is directly and indirectly affected by these changes in numerous ways, which is why we have conducted a Delphi study about the future of workplace coaching. We followed the standard procedures for this technique, using 16 structured interviews and identifying 15 future workplace coaching scenarios. These scenarios were evaluated for their estimated prevalence in 2020 and 2030 and desirability by N = 822 (before the pandemic) and N = 337 (during the pandemic), with market participants from German-speaking countries. To explore different perspectives, four different groups were recruited: coaches, HR professionals, representatives of coaching associations and coaching institutes. The prevalence of digitally-related scenarios is rated significantly higher for 2030. At the same time, artificial intelligence, algorithm-based programs, online coaching and online coach training are rather disliked, especially by coaches who prefer high quality, face-to-face coaching processes. During the Covid-19 pandemic, these scenarios were estimated to be more likely than beforehand.
... Phase 0 -Pre-science Trueblood, 1911;Huston, 1924;Gordy, 1937;Bigelow, 1938 Phase 1: Case study andsurveys Diedrich, 1996;Winum, 2005 Phase 2: Qualitative studies -theory generation Duff and Passmore, 2010 Phase 3: Small sample RCT's and theory testing Grant et al., 2010 Phase 4: Large sample RCT's Passmore and Rehman, 2010 Phase 5: Meta-Analysis studies Jones et al., 2016;Theeboom et al., 2014;Sonesh et al., 2015 Phase 6: Systematic Literature Review Grover andFurnham, 2016;Athanasopoulou and Dopson, 2018;Bozer and Jones, 2018 How does coaching impact on the wider system of stakeholders? ...
Article
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This conceptual paper explores the development of coaching, as an expression of applied positive psychology. It argues that coaching is a positive psychology dialogue which has probably existed since the emergence of sophisticated forms of language, but only in the past few 1000years, has evidence emerged of its use as a deliberate practice to enhance learning. In the past 50years, this dialectic tool has been professionalised, through the emergence of professional bodies, and the introduction of formal training and certification. In considering the development of the coaching industry, we have used Rostow’s model of sector development to reflect on future possible pathways and the changes in the coaching industry with the clothing sector, to understand possible futures. We have offered a five-stage model to conceptualise this pathway of development. Using this insight, we have further reviewed past research and predicted future pathways for coaching research, based on a new ten-phase model of coaching research.
... Coaching in higher education reflects to a great extent the coaching interventions in primary and secondary sectors, in coaching educational leaders, administrative staff and faculty development, student-peers, and life skills all borrowed from the executive landscape of coaching with an underpinning from positive psychology. It seems that educational sectors have leveraged the effectiveness of coaching in organisations in learning and performance outcomes (Theeboom, Beersma and van Vianen, 2014;Jones, Woods and Guillaume, 2015;Bozer and Jones, 2018). Athanasopoulou and Dopson (2018, p. 48) warn, however, that there is "an obsession" on the outcomes of coaching "at the expense of the 'journey'." ...
Thesis
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This study investigates the implementation of a team coaching model in undergraduate education to facilitate critical dialogue and develop criticality in student-team work. It explored three unconnected areas: criticality, critical dialogue, and team coaching. The paucity of studies in critical dialogue in undergraduate business education, the overarching definition of coaching in education, which focuses on personal development, and the limitations of critical thinking in problem-solving, support the significance of this study. The research proposes to bridge critical management studies and critical management education to facilitate critical dialogue in student-team work so as to develop criticality, that is re-conceptualised to support the need for business graduates to be able to address crisis and change. Two action research cycles were implemented at Deree - The American College of Greece, (NECHE accredited, and OU validated), during a period of 10 months and took various forms. These include eight semi-structured interviews with business faculty, reflecting on their experiences of assessed team-work in their modules; two orientation cycles to the coaching model; semi-structured interviews with the three co-coaches/co-researchers; three coaching sessions for every one of the 10 student teams that participated in the study and that were registered in the module Professional Communication; two focus group sessions; and electronic diary entries from the co-coaches and individual participants in the student-teams. The main findings of the study are that the proposed critical team coaching model can support critical dialogue and provide a fertile ground for student-teams to explore answers to questions, discover knowledge for themselves and construct knowledge through a collective dialogic process. The coaching fostered critical reflection and accountability and developed their criticality. These findings add to the theoretical knowledge of team coaching in undergraduate education, which also provides a practical framework of orienting undergraduate tutors in implementing the team-coaching model. Moreover, it enriches the literature on formal and post-formal thinking with the re-definition of criticality and the evidence-based literature on critical dialogue. The findings also will inform future academic studies in higher education into the exploration of coaching student-teams for criticality.
... More recently, academia moves on to examine factors which predict coaching effectiveness (De Haan, 2019;De Haan, Grant, Burger, & Eriksson, 2016). The coaching intervention is thereby understood as a relationship between the coach and the client (Bozer & Jones, 2018). Apart from the individual coach and client factors also the relationship between both, as well as the process are fundamental (Ely, Boyce, Nelson, Zaccaro, Hernez-Broome, & Whyman, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
The article discusses the features of using the ecosystem approach in implementing the digital transformation of a company, creating a business model using machine learning to differentiate its customers, and suggests a method for creating omnichannel communications, digital profiles and forming dynamic customer clusters on their basis Itisshownthatthedescribedmechanismscanincreasesalesandthelevelofcustomerloyalty to a specific company in the ecosystem, and to the products and services of the ecosystem as a whole.
... Workplace coaching 1 is a customized intervention that implies learning and development through reflection and goal setting, producing positive outcomes for the coachee's professional life. As this type of coaching occurs in organizational contexts and applies to all hierarchical levels, it differs from other designations currently used, such as leadership or executive coaching (normally directed at people who manage others or have a higher level of responsibility in an organization; Bozer & Jones, 2018). The main actors of the coaching process establish a working alliance (De Haan et al., 2011) that is instrumental to coachees' goal achievement. ...
Article
Coaching literature assumes that people undergo personal change through coaching. We contend that different types of change may occur with coaching and investigate whether this is the case in reflection (a key competence in coaching). Results from our sample of 61 coachees indicate that three types of change (alpha, beta, gamma) are observed across participants. Alpha change refers to a substantive change in reflection (i.e. an increase or decrease), beta to a recalibration of one's assessment of reflection and gamma to a re‐conceptualization of reflection. We further examine implicit person theory (IPT) as a predictor and perceived coaching utility as a correlate of the three types of change. We observe a higher probability that incremental IPT will associate with alpha change versus other types of change, and that beta and gamma changes correlate positively and negatively, respectively, with perceived utility for work. No significant correlations are observed between types of change and perceived utility for personal development. Our study represents an exploratory contribution to a better understanding of the within‐person changes in reflection following coaching intervention, and has implications for both theory and practice, which we discuss along with indications for future directions.
... As well as head nurses was held accountable to help novice nurses to practice their new role through using of interactive listening and clarifying coaching skills (24) . So the present study education program is very important not only to improve head nurses coaching skills but also to manage novice nurses role ambiguity and held them being (25) stated that coaching is about the mutual relationship between head nurse and novice, that process has the purpose of facilitating professional and personal growth within the novice. Adding that Rekalde et al. ...
... The coach can then apply similar techniques to guide the coachee towards altering their job crafting behaviour to something more productive and prosocial. Taken together, evidence suggests that it is not enough to foster more job crafting, but it is also important to foster more effective and adaptive forms of job crafting, which coaching is well positioned to facilitate (Bozer & Jones, 2018). ...
Chapter
Job crafting is an employee-initiated form of proactive job redesign, that has, in recent years, attracted substantial evidence for its associations with work engagement and employee well-being. Yet, despite this research, the advantages of integrating job crafting within a coaching partnership have not been examined. We address this gap in the present chapter, which is structured as follows. First, we explore the evolution of job crafting theory, benefits of job crafting, and examine how coaching could be complementary to job crafting efforts. In particular, we argue that coaching can help improve the duration and structure of job crafting interventions, with coaches providing psychological support and guidance throughout the job crafting process. Second, we explore how job crafting could be integrated with coaching, by providing practical tools and examples. Finally, we end by providing a case study that explores how job crafting could be successfully applied within a coaching partnership.
... There is also an approach that coaching and mentoring tries to clarify the distinction and still use the knowledge of both phenomena by defining different roles and change between roles (Wiginton III, 2018). More research into the understanding of the interactions between these concepts is important for a better understanding and further development (Bozer & Jones, 2018). ...
Article
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Interest in coaching and mentoring has increased over the past decades. However, confusion about what is meant in practice and in the literature and the lack of sound definitions makes it hard to research the antecedents and outcomes of both concepts. We show that coaching and mentoring share a lot, but they are often treated as separate fields. By developing models that combine the concepts of coaching and mentoring, we aim to provide a base for more rigorous research. Such a base hopefully encourages researchers and practitioners of coaching and mentoring to work together instead of struggling against each other.
... There are multiple definitions of coaching and a myriad of types of coaching, resulting in a lack of consensus on how coaching should be defined (Bono et al., 2009;Bozer & Jones, 2018;Gray & Goregaokar, 2010). This study will focus on what is often labelled as 'workplace' coaching, as this can be described as a rapidly growing industry (Forbes, 2017) and one that is increasingly used to develop leaders and managers in businesses (Baron & Morin, 2009;Joo et al., 2012). ...
Article
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It is proposed that it is critical that coaches are highly self-aware to be effective at facilitating the development of self-awareness in their clients. Accordingly, self-awareness is included in the competency frameworks of the coaching professional bodies, yet there is a lack of evidence supporting how coaches develop self-awareness. This is problematic as it brings into question the design and development of coach training programmes, which is likely to hinder the professionalization of coaching. Therefore, we set out to provide evidence as to whether coach training develops self-awareness, and if so, what aspects of the training facilitate this development. A mixed-methods design was utilized with two separate studies. Firstly, a pre-post-test quantitative study to test whether coach education increases participant self-awareness. Followed by a qualitative study to provide an in-depth understanding of how the coach training supported the participants in developing self-awareness. The research found that coach training partially develops self-awareness and that key enablers to this development include experiential learning supported by reflection in a psychologically safe environment. The contribution of this research and paper is to contribute to the theory of coach development by illuminating how coach training can develop self-awareness. In addition, it is our hope that our findings will contribute to practice by informing the future design of coach training programmes and providing a means to evaluate coach development as a result of coach training.
... Managers' responses to initial stage of One widely used managerial and leadership development and support mechanism is executive coaching, which is emerging as a powerful, effective and individually tailored learning and support intervention . Executive coaches form a close bond with their clients, getting to know them intimately professionally in a confidential and psychologically safe collaborative space (Bozer and Jones, 2018). This privileged position provides executive coaches with unique insights into their clients' thinking, emotions and behaviour. ...
Article
Purpose This research investigates how the Covid-19 pandemic initially affected organisational managers, as seen from their executive coaches' perspective by asking: (1) What challenges did managers experience during the initial stages of the Covid-19 pandemic? and (2) How did coaching foster crisis management skills during this time? Executive coaches are in a unique, confidential and professionally intimate position to observe their clients' thoughts, emotions and behaviours. Design/methodology/approach Using an interpretivist approach, interviews conducted with 26 executive coaches from the USA, UK, Australia and South Africa during the initial stages of the pandemic (first three weeks of April 2020) were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings Coaches observed how the Covid-19 pandemic caused managers to experience a tension between managing their staff, their own bosses and themselves. Ranging from logistical challenges to personal fear, uncertainty and loss of identity, managers confided in and relied on their coaches to help them to reflect, provide support, but also challenge them to take a forward-looking stance. Findings were interpreted through the lenses of crisis management and coaching efficacy theory. Crisis management theory is extended by suggesting that greater priority must be given to managers' personal well-being and by adding coaching as a new intervention to develop crisis management skills. Coaching theory is extended by showing that executive coaching can foster certain crisis management skills and that the benefits of coaching in non-crisis times are also relevant during a crisis. Practical implications Managers, their leaders, executive coaches and purchasers of coaching services, such as human resource practitioners, should take note of the challenges managers face during crises. They should consider executive coaching as a support intervention to foster requisite crisis management skills. Originality/value The findings provide novel, empirical evidence suggesting that executive coaching could foster crisis management skills. The unique Covid-19 context provides rare insights into managerial thinking, emotions and behaviour during extreme crisis situations, contributing to the design of appropriate support interventions.
Article
Working alliance theory describes the therapist–client relationship in psychotherapy and has been adapted to study workplace coaching effectiveness. The application of this theory in workplace coaching research has produced mixed results suggesting that additional factors could be at play. In workplace coaching, the organization often pays for and influences the coaching process. The role of the organization in the working alliance between coach and coachee has, however, not been studied sufficiently. his exploratory, hybrid deductive–inductive qualitative study used the Working Alliance Inventory as theoretical lens to examine coachees’ perspectives on the organizational role in the coach–coachee working alliance. The findings indicate that organizations have a direct impact on the bond, task, and goals of the working alliance by facilitating the coaching process, influencing the coaching agenda and contract, and through coach selection. This tentative analysis suggests that measurements of the working alliance should be extended to include these organizational aspects.
Article
How can work be accomplished while sustaining the human capital that enables it? To date, research on this question has been piecemeal and indirect with different literatures and paradigms offering important but not integrated insights. In this meta-synthesis, we reviewed 368 meta-analyses and review articles published this millennium, sampled from the vast body of research relevant to employee health and well-being. We organize our review using dynamic energy budget theory (DEB), a life-sciences framework that describes how nonhuman animals achieve biological sustainability by balancing maintenance, growth, and generativity. After identifying the ways this research fits within DEB, we develop restricted employee sustainability theory (REST), which describes the ways in which human sustainability goes beyond the fundamental biological necessities outlined in DEB and encompasses the functions (maintenance, growth, generativity) that enable humans to sustain their physical, psychological, and social health. Organization of this vast literature allows us to identify synergies and dynamic balances among the life functions; understand how humans recover after a dramatic crash in health; and articulate the distinctions among subsisting, surviving, and thriving at work. We conclude this meta-synthesis and theory development by offering a roadmap to advance research on human sustainability at work as a unified area of study, guided by our new framework—restricted employee sustainability theory (REST).
Article
This study develops and empirically examines a model of voluntary employee self-development behaviours and presents a unique lens for the study of self-development behaviours that integrates the disparate social exchange and motivational models currently applied in the management and training motivation literature. Specifically, the current model utilizes the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a guiding framework in the combination and expansion of these streams to create an integrated model. This model was validated using a survey of 203 employees. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data. The results indicated support for nine out of eleven theorized relationships in the model, and the new model explained more variance in self-development behaviours (38%) than either lens: the social exchange (8.5%) or the motivational (19%). Thus, the results indicate there is important value in integrating the lenses. Implications for research and practice are also discussed.
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Tujuan penelitian adalah ingin melihat bentuk program latihan psikologis yang dilakukan di ABVB. Metode penelitian berupa metode survei, untuk mencari informasi langsung kepada pelatih di ABVB yang berjumlah 12 orang. Hasil pati pengumpulan data ini menunjukan bahwa 1) para pelatih telah melakukan pendekatan personal dengan baik, 2) tidak terjemahkannya dengan baik program psikologi dalam periodesai latihan serta 3) pelatih mengerti bentuk latihan dalam program psikologi.
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate resistance to change and change management through a micro-level interpersonal perspective. Specifically, this paper addresses in what way external change experts, such as coaches, identify distinctive emotional and behavioural indicators of resistance and facilitate individuals to develop positive strengths and motivation to change. Design/methodology/approach The authors drew upon critical realism and abductive research methodology to understand connections between coaching intervention and individual change resistance through 21 in-depth interviews with independent coaches listed in coaching associations in Germany. Findings This study first re-evaluates the implications of resistance and extends its meaning from negative obstacles into natural emotional responses of individuals and constructive resources for change. In addition, the study results indicate resistance can be distinguished through both explicit behaviours, body language along with implicit emotional reactions, like being tired or making small jokes. Moreover, several micro-level interpersonal approaches for coaches to apply in dealing with resistance, including understanding coachees' cognitive status and working environment, adapting varied communication styles as well as drawing upon coachees' strengths. Practical implications The research results offer organisations (e.g. managers and human resource professionals) essential guidelines in micro-level change management strategy by considering external coaching as a valuable option to deal with varied individual, social and contextual factors (e.g. organisational power and politics). From the organisational investment perspective, indicators of resistance and approaches to facilitate coachees' emotional reactions can be served as a preliminary protocol for stakeholders to evaluate the effectiveness of their change management schemes. Moreover, the framework outlined in this research can be considered in the future coaching education and professional development programmes. Originality/value Overall, this study demonstrates that external coaching is one of the valuable approaches in responding to individual resistance in organisational change management. The research findings widen existing bipolar paradigms of resistance (either change obstacles or positive resource) into a neutral spectrum that holds an impartial view on emotional reactions to change. Furthermore, individual differences and contextual factors play essential roles in the change process, e.g. coachees' personality, personal experiences, knowledge, interpretations to change process and topics as well as organisational context (e.g. power, hierarchy and culture) need to be considered into change management strategy.
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Why does a family sell and why does a family member repurchase the business after it has been sold? We explore these questions by analysing the case of Champagne Taittinger which was sold as part of the sale of the family business by the second-generation in 2005, and the repurchase of the business by third generation, Pierre-Emmanuel Taittinger, in 2006. Guided by affective events theory, we use a qualitative approach to identify “turning points” of attachment and conflict and illustrate how an interplay of these affective states at the microfoundations of the Taittinger family influences the macro-level events of the sale and repurchase of Champagne Taittinger. We contribute to understanding how affective events at the microfoundations of family crucially influence business strategy.
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Zusammenfassung Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt Einblicke, inwiefern der Kontext von Coaching in der bisherigen Coachingforschung berücksichtigt wurde und welche Erkenntnisse daraus abgeleitet werden können. Zunächst wird genauer auf die organisationale Einbettung von Coaching eingegangen: Welche Spannungsfelder entstehen aus dem Zusammenspiel der verschiedenen Stakeholder (u. a. Coach, Coachee, Auftraggeber:in)? Welche Funktionen soll Coaching aus Sicht der Organisation erfüllen? Und wie wird Coaching von der Organisation „gerahmt“? Anschließend wird auf verschiedene Zielgruppen und deren jeweils spezifische Arbeitsanforderungen genauer eingegangen, exemplarisch anhand des Coachings von Führungskräften auf unterschiedlichen Hierarchieebenen und von Gründer:innen. Der Beitrag schließt mit Perspektiven für die weitere Forschung zum Kontext von Coaching.
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Zusammenfassung Eine gelingende Arbeitsbeziehung zwischen Coach und Coachee ist einer der zentralen Erfolgsfaktoren im Coaching und kann erklären, warum manche Coachingprozesse erfolgreicher verlaufen als andere. Dieser Beitrag liefert einen Überblick über den Stand der Forschung zur Arbeitsbeziehung im Coaching. Er zeigt die Bedeutung der Arbeitsbeziehung zu verschiedenen Outcome-Ergebnissen für Coachees auf sowie Faktoren, die die Arbeitsbeziehung fördern oder auch nicht fördern können. Darüber hinaus wird die Rolle der Arbeitsbeziehung im digitalen Coaching-Setting näher beleuchtet. Der Beitrag benennt offene Fragen für die Coaching-Forschung und leitet Handlungsempfehlungen für die Coaching-Praxis ab.
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Zusammenfassung In einer Online-Umfrage befragten wir 252 Coaches und analysierten ihre Einstellung zur Coaching-Forschung, Faktoren, die ihre Einstellung beeinflussen, und wie sich ihre Haltung wiederum auf ihre Bereitschaft zur Teilnahme an Coaching-Forschung auswirkt. Die Faktorenanalyse ergab vier verschiedene Einstellungsfaktoren: (1) Mehrwert und (2) Schaden durch Coaching-Forschung, (3) Effektivitätszweifel, (4) Aufwand im Zusammenhang mit der Teilnahme an Coaching-Forschung. Die Erfahrung der Coaches (d. h. Novizen vs. Expert:innen; mit Coaching-Ausbildung vs. ohne) sagte die Einstellung zur Coaching-Forschung voraus, insbesondere für die Faktoren (2) und (3). Alle vier Faktoren sowie eine frühere Forschungsteilnahme sagten signifikant die Bereitschaft zur Teilnahme an Coaching-Forschung voraus.
Article
Problem The important role played by executive coaching in the development of leaders is well established in the literature. While some scholars suggest that executive coaching fosters transformative learning (TL), there is insufficient empirical evidence to support this. Solution This study set out to investigate the process of TL in executive coaching from the coachee’s perspective. A longitudinal multiple case study was adopted to examine how three key transformative learning elements—disorienting dilemma, critical reflection, and rational dialogue—occurred in an executive coaching engagement and the learning outcomes that emerged. A key finding was that, in addition to the three accepted elements, there is a fourth element (acceptance) that precedes the rational dialogue. The results of this study informed the development of a transformative learning model, which could guide future research, theory, and practice in the field of human resource development (HRD). Stakeholders The study will benefit scholars and practitioners in the fields of human resource development, executive coaching and leadership development.
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Workplace coaching is a rapidly growing industry, and while there has been some research carried out to explore the effectiveness of coaching and to evaluate coaching outcomes, there has been very little research to underpin coach development and how coaches best develop coaching competence for workplace coaching. Self‐awareness is perceived by many, including the professional coaching bodies, to be a core‐competency for practising coaches. However, there is a lack of research evidence to underpin this perception and therefore this study, using an inductive grounded theory approach, explores the linkages between self‐awareness and coach development. It finishes by presenting a conceptual framework to identify the linkages between self‐awareness and coach development. The paper aims to make a theoretical contribution to the literature supporting workplace coaching and in particular coach development, by developing theoretical principles to underpin those providing coach development. The findings indicate that self‐awareness is an important competency for coaches to develop as it provides the backbone to developing deep and meaningful connections both for the coach in terms of self‐acceptance and confidence, and for the client in terms of the depth of the relationship, thereby creating an environment in which challenging work can be carried out.
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During business coaching, situations regularly occur that coaches experience as difficult. In this chapter, we will take a closer look at exactly which situations coaches experience as difficult in their professional practice and how they handle them. After a brief presentation of an explanation of how it comes to the judgement difficult and a brief insight into what is already known about difficult situations in coaching and psychotherapy research, the Kassel study on difficult situations from the perspective of coaches is presented and its results are discussed in more detail. It will be shown, among other things, that the difficult nature of situations has various sources and can come from the coaches themselves, the coachees, or the commissioning organization.
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This chapter addresses how positive psychology coaching is delivered in an organisational setting, highlighting the key differences from how individual coaching is delivered in a community setting. Individual coaching in organisations is driven by dual motivations (personal and organisational), involves multiple stakeholders and is conducted across multiple levels. The coaching relationship is triadic rather than dyadic. Reporting relationships are to the client and sponsor, as well as to the coachee. The roles played by these three key stakeholders (coachee, client and sponsor) are explained, as is the role of HR professionals in arranging the ‘chemistry’ match between coach and coachee. HR is responsible for selecting external coaches to a coaching panel based on specific selection criteria. The stages in the ©AIPC Organisational COACHing model are presented: contracting and preparation, assessment and feedback, conducting the coaching session using the ©AIPC COACH model, and evaluating the coaching. Organisational coaching has been found to decrease workplace stress, increase job satisfaction and team morale, and assist employees cope with and manage change. How to measure the success of the coaching using formative and summative methods of evaluation are outlined.
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Using findings from both traditional and positive psychology research, this chapter focuses on how coaching is conceptualised and the motivations for coaching as it is delivered to individuals in community and organisational settings. The differences among coaching and other interventions such as mentoring, counselling, supervision, and training are detailed. The theoretical evidence for coaching from the disciplines of psychology and education, as well as from management research, are summarised. Coaching in contemporary practice is goal-oriented and solution-focused. Developmental, humanistic, and positive psychology techniques are used to address the client’s needs and promote their mental and emotional wellbeing. Coaches utilise cognitive behavioural psychology to assist clients reframe their mental model and dispel limiting beliefs. Within educational research, coaching is positioned as a developmental, learning opportunity for clients to develop self-efficacy so they become motivated to achieve behavioural change. Clients who believe in their ability to learn, perform, or change as a result of effort, persistence and, at times, assistance, are malleable. Within management, coaching approaches focus on the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies to enhance leadership and executive development, job satisfaction, motivation and work performance, and interpersonal and team relationships. This research evidence supports the emergence of coaching as a profession and contributes to a growing body of knowledge and theory into the development of coaching as a discipline.
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This chapter introduces the second, fundamental purpose for individual coaching in community and organisational settings—to facilitate the client’s learning and growth. All coaching is an opportunity for learning. Educational research has identified that adults learn through a cycle of experiential learning, reflecting, and theorising to refine actions. Adult learning principles inform the learning process, that is, adults learn when they are ready to learn, self-motivated and self-directed, the activity builds on their previous experience, and they can integrate new learnings into their knowledge- and skills-base. There are three key elements in the learning process: the environment, the learner’s experience, and the relevance of the instruction. Research has identified that coaching is a highly bespoke form of adult development that places the learner at the centre of the learning experience. It is a developmental process grounded in critical self-reflection and personal transformation. Clients who believe in their ability to learn, perform, or change as a result of effort, persistence, and, at times, assistance are malleable. Contemporary coaching focuses on the use of reflective practice to raise disorienting dilemmas which provoke breakthroughs in thinking. As clients engage in deep-structure learning, they make new meanings which may be transformative. Overall, coaching increases self-directed, lifelong learning which transfers into all aspects of their personal and professional life.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate interrelations between enhanced emotional intelligence, leadership self-efficacy and task-oriented leadership behaviour following participation in leadership coaching. Design/methodology/approach Organisational leaders (coachees) ( N = 70) and their subordinates ( N = 175) completed online questionnaires pre- and post-coaching. To account for pre-coaching scores, construct latent change scores were assessed using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Findings Results indicate a positive association between enhanced emotional intelligence and leadership self-efficacy, however, little support was found for leadership self-efficacy as a mediator explaining an association between enhanced emotional intelligence and task-oriented leadership behaviour. Practical implications Organisations aiming to improve leader performance through enhancing emotional intelligence and leadership self-efficacy may find value in leadership coaching due to the intervention's positive effect on these constructs, and the positive association observed between developmental changes in these constructs. Originality/value Research on the interrelation between emotional intelligence and leadership self-efficacy is scarce. This study extends the literature by investigating the interrelation between developmental changes between these constructs brought about by leadership coaching using latent change scores and PLS-SEM. The study also assesses whether enhanced leadership self-efficacy mediates an association between enhanced emotional intelligence and task-oriented leadership behaviour building on the literature explaining coaching's effect mechanisms.
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Purpose The purpose of this research was to develop a conceptualization and measure of workplace coachability. Design/methodology/approach Using four independent samples of employed adults, we developed a short and long version of the Coachability Scale. We followed standard scale development practices, presenting evidence of the scales’ factor structure, reliability and validity. Findings With the first two samples, we derived an initial three-dimensional version of the Coachability Scale and provided evidence of convergent validity. With Samples 3 and 4, we expanded the scale with additional dimensions related to coaching feedback processes and accumulated additional evidence of the scale's validity, and provided evidence of convergence between the two versions of the Coachability Scale . Research limitations/implications We encourage continued research on the Coachability Scale, as well as research on coachability in formal coaching relationships and with more diverse populations and cultures. It is also important to examine how coachability relates to specific coachee behaviors and outcomes. Although common method bias may be a limitation, we used temporally separated measurements to minimize method bias in Sample 4. Practical implications Knowledge about coachability can inform coaching practice decisions and help tailor the coaching engagement to better fit the coachee's needs. Social implications Measuring how individuals respond to coaching and coaching relationships has important implications for managerial behavior and the quality of work life. Originality/value This is one of the first studies to develop valid scales for assessing workplace coachability.
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The increasing move to remote work has raised new questions in the field of workplace wellbeing and engagement with the individual’s emotional health and the quality of working relationships as essential concerns. In particular, loneliness, as a specific form of low-quality connections at work, has also become a key area of concern and research, given it is a discreet disrupter to wellbeing and engagement, not just to the individual but across the broader workplace. Hence there is a pressing need for workplaces and in particular coaches to assist their coachees to create high quality connections at work. Relationships are at the heart of the human experience, with Self-Determination theory having identified “relatedness” as one of three core psychological needs. A fundamental ingredient to fostering quality relationships are emotions, yet within the workplace, emotions have historically been avoided and viewed as the remit of therapists rather than coaches. Hence, specific knowledge and skill development has been lacking in coach training and practice. This chapter explores how the coaching relationship can facilitate the creation of positive relationships, work with emotions and loneliness (as a socio-emotional construct) in the workplace with coaching examples and a case study to illustrate coaching in practice.
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Hinführung: Das Phänomen der Epidemiologischen Transition erfordert eine sich an diesem Krankheitsgeschehen ausrichtende adäquate Adaption von gesundheitlichen Beratungs- und Coaching-Leistungen, was auch konkret für die betrieblichen Lebenswelten gilt.
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Objectives: There is a lack of research on the coaching relationship (O’Broin & Palmer, 2006a). The current paper will present the findings from a qualitative study that explored experiences of workplace coaching including the coaching relationship. Design: The study adopted a qualitative design and the data was analysed by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Smith, Jaraman, & Osborn, 1999). Methods: Nine participants, from two large organisations, were interviewed about their experiences of coaching. Results: ‘The coaching relationship’ was identified as a main theme which, in turn, comprised of three subthemes; valuable coaching relationship; trust; and transparency. These themes highlighted that the coaching relationship was very valuable for the participants and that this relationship was dependent on trust and improved by transparency. Conclusions: It was concluded that it is important that coaches are aware of, and are working with, the coaching relationship. Nevertheless, the participants also highlighted that the relationship was not the only factor that made coaching useful. Working towards goals and improving performance were also valuable components of the coaching. It was, therefore, suggested that coaching may be most beneficial if it incorporates a number of components, including a focus on the relationship. Keywords: the coaching relationship, coaching, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis; valuable coaching relationship; trust; and transparency. Citation: Gyllensten, K., & Palmer, S. (2007). The coaching relationship: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. International Coaching Psychology Review, 2, 2, 168-177.
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Limited research attention has been paid to influences on executive coaching effectiveness. This study explores whether a relationship exists between the Five Factor Model of personality and coachee perceptions of effectiveness of executive coaching. Thirty coachees completed a cross sectional survey measuring personality using scales from the International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). There was a significant positive relationship between extraversion and perceived coaching effectiveness. The findings have implications for organisations when considering whether their employees are suited to the development interventions on offer and whether the intervention will subsequently provide a good return on investment. Our study also contributes to the emerging literature on antecedents of coaching effectiveness by examining core aspects of individual differences.
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This paper presents the main findings from Part I of a study investigating if workplace coaching can reduce stress. Thirty-one participants from a UK finance organisation took part in the quasi-experimental study. Depression, anxiety and stress were measured before and after coaching in a coaching and control group. Levels of anxiety and stress had decreased more in the coaching group compared to the control group, and were lower in the coaching group compared to the control group at the end of the study. However, levels of depression had decreased more in the control group compared to the coaching group. Mixed ANOVAS found no significant interactions between time and coaching for depression, anxiety or stress. Nevertheless, high levels of perceived coaching effectiveness were reported by the participants.
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Purpose There is limited empirical literature on the effectiveness of leadership coaching in healthcare settings. The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of leadership coaching for individuals implementing strategic change in the Australian public health system. Design/methodology/approach Using a within-subjects (pre-post) design, participants ( n=31) undertook six one-hour coaching sessions. Coaching was conducted by professional leadership coaches. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. Findings Participation was associated with significant improvements in goal attainment, solution-focused thinking, leadership self-efficacy, perspective-taking capacity, self-insight and resilience, and ambiguity tolerance. There were significant reductions in stress and anxiety. The benefits of coaching transferred from the workplace to the home. Many participants reported being able to use insights gained in coaching in their personal lives, and reported better work/life balance, less stress and better quality relationships at home. Originality/value Few studies have provided evaluation of leadership coaching in healthcare setting. Leadership coaching in the public health system may be an important methodology for facilitating goal attainment and fostering resilience in this vital social sector, benefiting workers in the health services, their families and ultimately their patients and the broader community.
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Until recently, there has been little published systematic empirical research into business coaching. This article reports on a systematic, critical review of 111 published empirical papers investigating business coaching theory, processes, and outcomes. The present article identifies a significantly larger body of empirical research than covered in previous reviews and uses a Systematic Review methodology (SRm) to conduct a comprehensive review of the available empirical evidence into business coaching effectiveness focusing on implications for theoretical development, practice (within human resource development) and further research in this area. This review identifies convergence around factors that contribute to perceived effective coaching practice but nevertheless highlights a number of issues to be resolved in further research. These include determining the primary beneficiaries of coaching, the factors that contribute to coach credibility, and how the organizational and social context impacts on coaching. Weaknesses in coaching research methodology and research gaps are also noted.
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Managerial coaching is currently seen as an effective leadership practice facilitating learning process of the employees for performing better and being more effective in organizations. This article builds on recent research on the importance of the managerial coaching by empirically investigating the effects of a cognitive-behavioral coaching programme over mid-level managers. Due to the similarities between managerial coaching behaviors and transformational leadership behaviors, we have adopted the transformational leadership model as theoretical framework for evaluating management behaviors. The study used a pre-posttest approach to test the effects of the coaching program especially designed for 23 mid-level managers having as responsibility the supervision of production teams in a multinational organization. The major aims of the program consisted of: developing managerial coaching skills, assertive communication skills, motivation of subordinates. Overall, the analysis of results elicited an increase of scores in the leadership behavior dimensions measured by multifactor leadership questionnaire that are part of the managerial coaching skills. Besides, the effectiveness perceived as an indicator of performance was significantly higher upon completion of the coaching program. Findings suggest that coaching, as a professional development method, has great potential to contribute to the managerial behaviors that facilitate development at subordinate level, as they are captured by some transformational and transactional scales. Such knowledge can be informative for practitioners as well in developing effective managers and leaders and understanding and managing employee attitudes and behaviors in organizations.
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This large-scale study of executive coaching explores the perceived effectiveness of coaching from the perspectives of coach, coachee, and sponsor, and potential active ingredients including the coach–coachee working alliance, coachee self-efficacy, personality, and “personality match” between coach and coachee. Using a retrospective design, data was collected from 1,895 client–coach pairs (366 different coaches) from 34 countries, and 92 sponsors, for a total of 3,882 matching surveys. Results indicate that coachee perceptions of coaching effectiveness (CE) were significantly related to both coach- and coachee-rated strength of the working alliance and to coachee self-efficacy but unrelated to coachee or coach personality and to personality matching. The coachee–coach working alliance mediated the impact of self-efficacy on CE, suggesting that the strength of this working alliance—particularly as seen through the eyes of the coachee—is a key ingredient in CE. In addition, a strong emphasis on goals in the working alliance can partially compensate for low coachee self-efficacy. The task and goal aspects of the working alliance were stronger predictors of positive CE than the bond aspects, highlighting the importance of a task and goal focus in the coach–coachee relationship.
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This paper suggests how the 'grey literature', the diverse and heterogeneous body of material that is made public outside, and not subject to, traditional academic peer-review processes, can be used to increase the relevance and impact of management and organization studies (MOS). The authors clarify the possibilities by reviewing 140 systematic reviews published in academic and practitioner outlets to answer the following three questions: (i) Why is grey literature excluded from/included in systematic reviews in MOS? (ii) What types of grey material have been included in systematic reviews since guidelines for practice were first established in this discipline? (iii) How is the grey literature treated currently to advance management and organization scholarship and knowledge? This investigation updates previous guidelines for more inclusive systematic reviews that respond to criticisms of current review practices and the needs of evidence-based management. © 2016 British Academy of Management and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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The literature base regarding the development of sporting talent is extensive, and includes empirical articles, reviews, position papers, academic books, governing body documents, popular books, unpublished theses and anecdotal evidence, and contains numerous models of talent development. With such a varied body of work, the task for researchers, practitioners and policy makers of generating a clear understanding of what is known and what is thought to be true regarding the development of sporting talent is particularly challenging. Drawing on a wide array of expertise, we address this challenge by avoiding adherence to any specific model or area and by providing a reasoned review across three key overarching topics: (a) the performer; (b) the environment; and (c) practice and training. Within each topic sub-section, we review and calibrate evidence by performance level of the samples. We then conclude each sub-section with a brief summary, a rating of the quality of evidence, a recommendation for practice and suggestions for future research. These serve to highlight both our current level of understanding and our level of confidence in providing practice recommendations, but also point to a need for future studies that could offer evidence regarding the complex interactions that almost certainly exist across domains.
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Although the use of executive coaching as a developmental intervention for managers has increased dramatically during the past decades, rigorous empirical research on executive coaching impact remains scarce. My research aims to address this shortage by investigating the impact of a specific coaching intervention with a rigorous experimental design. A longitudinal study was conducted in a large telecom company on 48 executives. They were randomly assigned to the intervention group and to the control group. All 48 participants underwent a 360-degree assessment (involving 541 peer-assessors) on management skills. The participants of the intervention group then received six individual coaching sessions, spread over a year. One year later, all participants passed again the same assessments (involving 499 peer-assessors). The coaching sessions were conducted by a single coach – the author of the study – in order to control the coaching methodology used with the various participants. Quantitative analyses indicate a positive and significant impact of coaching on management skills and goal attainment. These results provide rigorous support to the use of coaching as a developmental tool for the executives’ managerial competencies. Other practical and theoretical implications of these results are then discussed.
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Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can facilitate the understanding and appraisal of the review methods, as well as the detection of modifications to methods and selective reporting in completed reviews. We describe the development of a reporting guideline, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015). PRISMA-P consists of a 17-item checklist intended to facilitate the preparation and reporting of a robust protocol for the systematic review. Funders and those commissioning reviews might consider mandating the use of the checklist to facilitate the submission of relevant protocol information in funding applications. Similarly, peer reviewers and editors can use the guidance to gauge the completeness and transparency of a systematic review protocol submitted for publication in a journal or other medium.
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This study investigates the impact of a one year executive coaching experiment on self-efficacy in reference to important leadership tasks. The results showed that executive coaching had significant positive effect on self-efficacy. The findings are discussed from the perspective of the effect of coadhing on the executives' self-consciousness and their abilities to analyse tasks to evaluate their own capacities regarding these tasks, to setting better goals for themselves, and being aware of and able to better use strategies regarding these tasks.
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Managerial coaching is a process of feedback provision, behavioral modeling, and goal setting with subordinates to improve their performance and address their personal challenges. Despite the popularity of coaching as a management practice, the impact of coaching on objective measures of performance remains unclear. To this end, we tested a multilevel model linking managerial coaching frequency and skill to the sales goal attainment of 1,246 sales representatives in 136 teams within a pharmaceuticals organization over a year. Managers' coaching skill, which was evaluated in the context of a training exercise, was directly related to the annual sales goal attainment of the sales representatives that they supervised. This effect was partially mediated by team-level role clarity, as predicted by feedback intervention theory and goal setting theory. In addition, coaching skill had a cross-level moderating effect on the relationship between coaching frequency and sales goal attainment; coaching frequency had a negative effect on goal attainment when coaching skill was low. We discuss the implications of this finding for coaching research and practice. Overall, our results demonstrate the clear theoretical and practical importance of effective managerial coaching by drawing on multisource and multilevel measurements with a predictive design.
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Reviews of existing research evidence have the potential to inform both practice and scholarship. This opportunity is currently not being fully realized in management and organization studies due to the limitations of traditional methods of review, which fail to identify clearly what is known and not known about a given topic. For practitioners, systematic review can help address managerial problems by producing a reliable knowledge base through accumulating findings from a range of studies. For scholars, systematic review can enhance methodological rigor as well as highlight opportunities for further research. Systematic reviews are guided by a set of principles rather than a specific, inflexible, and restricted protocol. By revealing these principles, outlining a systematic review methodology, and offering examples, we hope that this chapter helps both practitioners and scholars to use systematic review to inform their practice.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors impacting successful coaching of expatriates. Design/methodology/approach – Data were gathered from 25 semi-structured interviews of coached expatriates, coaches and HR professionals. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to analyze and interpret the data. Findings – Altogether, 16 factors impacting expatriate coaching success were identified. They were categorized with respect to the four-quadrant framework of Wilber. The findings suggest, for example, that coaching success is impacted by: from the coach and coachee as individuals perspective, international experience of the coach; from the coaching relationship perspective, coaching language and managerial leadership style; from the behaviors, processes, models and techniques perspective, a clear contract with objectives and evaluation, and challenging behavior of the coach; and from the systems perspective, organizational support. Practical implications – Coaching processes, tools and techniques should be adapted to the needs and situation of the assignee. It would be beneficial if organizations ensured that their coaches are internationally experienced and that their managerial leadership style supports coaching. Coaching should be clearly defined and contracted with goals and evaluation. Coaching tools and techniques suitable for international coaching should be added to coach-training programs. Originality/value – Given the paucity of expatriate coaching research, and the fact that expatriation continues to be a key component of the international management field, this paper contributes to coaching and expatriate research by identifying factors that give expatriate coaching success and by analyzing and presenting them using Wilber’s systemic four-quadrant framework.
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Objectives: The objective of this research was to investigate the use of multi-source feedback in assessing the effectiveness of a strength-based coaching methodology in enhancing elements of the full range leadership model. It also investigated the effects of self-other rater alignment on leadership outcomes after coaching. Design: A between-subject non-equivalent control group design was used to explore the impact of strength- based coaching on transformational leadership behaviours measured in a 360-degree feedback process. Thirty-one executives and senior managers from a large not-for-profit organisation were non-randomly assigned to either a coaching or waitlist cohort. Methods: The coaching cohort received six sessions of leadership coaching involving feedback on leadership and strengths, goal setting and strengths development. After six sessions of coaching over three months, cohorts then switched roles. Results: The results showed that participants experienced statistically significant increases in their transformational leadership behaviour after coaching and this difference was perceived differentially at all levels within the organisation but not by the participants themselves. Raters at higher levels in the organisation were the most sensitive to change. The results also showed that self-other rater alignment was a significant factor in self-ratings of change over time with those participants who initially over-rated themselves, reducing their ratings over time as a consequence. Conclusion: The results suggest that changes in coachee transformational leadership behaviour after leadership coaching are perceived differentially by rater level within an organisation and that self-other rater alignment is an important moderator of self-ratings over time. Keywords: leadership coaching; strength-based; rater level; multi-source feedback; self-other alignment.
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Although previous research has shown that teacher coaching can improve teaching practices and student achievement, little is known about specific features of effective coaching programs. We estimate the impact of MATCH Teacher Coaching (MTC) on a range of teacher practices using a blocked randomized trial and explore how changes in the coaching model across two cohorts are related to program effects. Findings indicate large positive effects in Cohort 1 but no effects in Cohort 2. After ruling out explanations related to the research design, a set of exploratory analyses suggest that differential treatment effects may be attributable to differences in coach effectiveness, coaching dosage, and the focus of coaching across cohorts.
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Although executive coaching has been shown to be effective, few research initiatives have attempted to understand the importance of the emergent relationship between a coach and coachee. This article explores the factors that influence coaching outcomes from both the coach and coachee's perspective and presents the results of the mediating effect that working alliance and information sharing have on coachee goal attainment and coachee insight outcomes. The authors explored these factors in both an academic coachee sample as well as an executive field sample. Results showed that coachee motivation was significantly positively related with coachee goal attainment and coachee insight in an academic sample but not in a field sample. Moreover, working alliance and information sharing partially mediated the relationship between a coach's psychological mindedness and coachee insight in an academic, but not field, sample. Another notable result was that the difficulty of the coaching goal did not impact how successful the coaching engagement was in terms of goal attainment. Implications of these findings for both research and practice are discussed.
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Although executive coaching has become increasingly popular in the corporate world for the last 2 decades, there have been few empirical studies on how the match between coach and coachee affects the coaching relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gender similarity and perceived similarity on executive-coaching effectiveness, as reflected in the improvement in attitudinal and behavioral outcomes (i.e., self-awareness, career satisfaction, organizational commitment, and supervisor-rated task performance). Study participants (68 coach-coachee dyads) were drawn from the clients of 4 Israel-based firms that provide executive coaching. Overall, the coach-coachee match had little significant effect on coaching outcomes. More specifically, gender similarity and perceived similarity had no significant effect at all on career satisfaction and organizational commitment. However, we found gender similarity had a significant relationship with the change of coachee’s self-awareness. That is, male executives with female coaches responded that their self-awareness was not improved as a result of coaching. Additionally, the more coaches perceived similarity with coachees, the higher their supervisor-rated task performance. Since, unlike a mentoring relationship, executive coaching has more specific goals and a highly structured process, it appears to be unnecessary for HR/OD practitioners to be concerned about coach-coachee matching based on similarity (gender or overall perception).
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Communication skills training has proven to be an effective means to enhance communication of health care professionals in oncology. These effects are well studied in standardized settings. The question of transferring these skills into clinical consultations remains open. We build up on a previous developed training concept consisting of a workshop and coaching. This training achieved a medium effect size in two studies with standardized patients. In the current study, we expanded and manualized the coaching concept, and we will evaluate effects of a varied number of coaching sessions on real clinical consultations. Our aim is to determine how much coaching oncologists need to transfer communication skills into clinical practice. Physicians of two German medical centers will participate in a workshop for communication skills and will be randomized to either a group with one coaching session or a group with four coaching sessions following the workshop. The participation is voluntary and the physicians will receive medical education points. Consultations held by the participating physicians with actual patients who gave their informed consent will be filmed at three time points. These consultations will be evaluated by blinded raters using a checklist based on the training content (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes will be the self-evaluated communication competence by physicians and an evaluation of the consultations by both physicians and patients. We will evaluate our communication training concept on three levels - rater, physician and patient - and concentrate on the transfer of communication skills into real life situations. As we emphasize the external validity in this study design, limitations will be expected due to heterogeneity of data. With this study we aim to gain data on how to improve communication skills training that will result in better patient outcomes. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004385 .
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This action research is the first reported attempt to examine the effects of executive coaching in a public sector municipal agency. Thirty-one managers underwent a conventional managerial training program, which was followed by eight weeks of one-on-one executive coaching. Training increased productivity by 22.4 percent. The coaching, which included: goal setting, collaborative problem solving, practice, feedback, supervisory involvement, evaluation of end-results, and a public presentation, increased productivity by 88.0 percent, a significantly greater gain compared to training alone. Descriptions of procedures, explanations for the results obtained, and suggestions for future research and practice are offered.
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Understanding CoachingSkills, Performance and developmental CoachingExecutive and Workplace CoachingThe Professional Status of Coaching: Accreditations and Industry OrganizationsCoaching Professionalization Parallels development in Other FieldsCoaching Psychology as an Emerging Psychological SubdisciplineCoaching ResearchOutcome StudiesRandomized Controlled StudiesLongitudinal StudiesMeasuring Outcomes of CoachingCompetencies of Effective Coaches and CoacheesResearch DirectionsA Positive Future?A Well-Being and Engagement Framework for Organizational CoachingCoaching and Coaching Psychology: A Shared Path Forward?References
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Examined the development of organizational commitment, academic self-efficacy, physical self-efficacy, and motivation in a socialization-type training context with data collected from 666 military trainees. The hypotheses were that (1) training fulfillment, or the extent to which training meets or fulfills a trainee's expectations and desires, (2) trainee reactions, and (3) training performance would be related to the development of posttraining attitudes. Support was obtained for each hypothesis. Training fulfillment was positively related to posttraining organizational commitment, physical self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, and training motivation, even after pretraining attitudes and a set of individual variables were controlled. Pretraining motivation, trainee reactions, and training performance were also related to the development of posttraining attitudes.
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Whereas coaching is very popular as a management tool, research on coaching effectiveness is lagging behind. Moreover, the studies on coaching that are currently available have focused on a large variety of processes and outcome measures and generally lack a firm theoretical foundation. With the meta-analysis presented in this article, we aim to shed light on the effectiveness of coaching within an organizational context. We address the question whether coaching has an effect on five both theoretically and practically relevant individual-level outcome categories: performance/skills, well-being, coping, work attitudes, and goal-directed self-regulation. The results show that coaching has significant positive effects on all outcomes with effect sizes ranging from g = 0.43 (coping) to g = 0.74 (goal-directed self-regulation). These findings indicate that coaching is, overall, an effective intervention in organizations.
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Purpose – Team coaching (TC) is a popular new addition to the team learning and development toolkit. However, the conceptualization of TC and the distinction between TC, team training, team development and team building interventions remains unclear. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – The authors address this significant gap by abductively exploring how TC is conceptualised in practice (n¼410). The authors survey practitioners engaged in delivering TC to ask how they would define TC and distinguish it from other team interventions. Findings – A thematic analysis of the data reveals eight themes, which can be used to define TC and illustrate areas of overlap and distinctiveness with other team interventions. Research limitations/implications – The absence of a clearly defined construct is hindering the development of a rigorous theory of TC. The contribution of the paper is, therefore, a clear and comprehensive definition of TC, which can be used by researchers and practitioners alike when working within the domain of TC. Originality/value – The paper provides the first systematic exploration of a definition of TC in relation to alternative team interventions. By utilising an abductive approach in the research, the authors are able to capitalise on practitioner experience in this practice-led field.
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Purpose In order to address the need for greater understanding about the occupational and practice determinants of effective workplace coaching, the purpose of this paper is to examine the associations of two coaching practice factors (coaching format and external vs internal coaching provision), and coachees’ job complexity with perceived outcomes from coaching. Design/methodology/approach A survey of 161 individuals who had received workplace coaching was conducted. Participants provided data on two outcome criteria (self-reported work well-being and personal effectiveness at work). Findings Analysis indicated that external coaches and blended format coaching were most strongly associated with work well-being outcomes. The examination of interaction effects showed that coaching provided by external coaches was more strongly associated with outcomes for individuals working in the most complex job roles. Originality/value The original contribution of the authors’ findings is in terms of the implications for coaches, managers and HR practitioners by showing how coaching can be implemented differentially and most effectively based on desired outcome criteria and features of coachees’ job situations.
Article
Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
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Studies on coaching have largely explored effectiveness from the perspective of a coach or employing organization rather than that of the employee or coachee. There has also been a focus on ‘successful’ coaching, but little is known about unsuccessful coaching or the hindrances to achieving coaching success. Many empirical studies on training interventions have found that support and help for employees from managers and others within the workplace enhances training effectiveness and there is an assumption in coaching studies that this will also be true for coaching interventions. This study addresses the gap in academic literature by exploring survey responses from 296 industry professionals in 34 countries who had been, or were currently being, coached. The study found that facing barriers during the period of coaching engagements was common and we present a categorization framework of six barrier categories. Our analysis suggests that three of these barrier categories may be predictive of coachee perceptions of limited coaching effectiveness: difficulties with a coach; coaching relationships and overall coaching experience. The study also provides empirical evidence that suggests a lack of support from within an employing organization is not predictive of limited coaching effectiveness.
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This study examines some factors that influence the effectiveness of multisource feedback that has been facilitated by an executive coach. Participants were 89 senior managers from a globally operating investment bank. The study was a longitudinal in which the raters at Time 1 and Time 2 were matched. Results indicated that the quality of the relationship between executive coaches and their coachees had positive impact on individual change. The gender similarity of the coaching dyad (coach and coachee) was positively related to the improvement of senior manager's feedback ratings at Time 2. None of the Big-Five personality traits were related to positive individual change, but results indicate that this may require further investigation.
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Performance feedback is an important part of many organizational interventions. Managers typically assume that providing employees with feedback about their performance makes it more likely that performance on the job will be improved. Despite the prevalence of feedback mechanisms in management interventions, however, feedback is not always as effective as is typically assumed. In this article, we present specific conditions under which feedback might be less effective, or even harmful. We then discuss the implications of our results and model for designing of interventions aimed at improving performance, and focus more narrowly on 360-degree appraisal systems. After arguing that these systems typically have design characteristics that reduce effectiveness, we conclude with recommendations for improving their effectiveness. We also emphasize the need for systematic evaluations of feedback interventions.
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In this study, the authors explored the effects from an executive coaching program on need satisfaction at work. One hundred and twenty-seven executives and middle managers from a Fortune high-tech 500 company participated in the experiment over one year. Of these, 19 executives participated in an external executive coaching programme and 108 middle managers participated in a coaching-based leadership program. Findings indicate that external executive coaching affects need satisfaction at work, especially autonomy and relatedness. Coaching-based leadership also seems to impact need satisfaction at work, especially the needs of autonomy and competence. The findings show that the effects are greater among the executives receiving external coaching than for the middle managers who received coaching-based leadership.