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An empirical research on quality of work-life - an employee perspective

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The main purpose of the study is to understand the degree to which the quality of work life of employees at the organisation help in turn reflecting in terms of satisfaction and improving their organisational effectivess. Due to the drastic changes in the technology and intensified global competition has changed the work-pressure of employees at workplace. In the modern times, the topic on quality of work life has received ample attention among the employer perspective. In order to retain the talented and skilled employees at work, organisations need to focus their attention towards in bringing a balance between work life and personal life among the employees. The underlying concept of work life balance will help ultimately in ensuring Quality of Work Life of employees at workplace. Convenient sampling method was adopted for the study. Out of 300 working employees in Kelly Services, India. A proportionate allocation of 10% was chosen as respondents and interviewed in Kelly Services, Hyderabad. The study result shows relationship between variables on satisfaction level of employees.
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34
I
nt. J.
M
anagement Developmen
t
, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2018
Copyright © 2018 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
An empirical research on quality of work-life –
an employee perspective
G. Swarochi*
VIT Business School,
Vellore Institute of Technology,
Vellore – 632014, Tamil Nadu, India
Email: swarochi15.gudimalla@gmail.com
*Corresponding author
A. Seema
Department of Technology Management,
Vellore Institute of Technology,
Vellore – 632014, Tamil Nadu, India
Email: seema.a@vit.ac.in
S. Sujatha
HR & OB Division,
VIT Business School,
Vellore Institute of Technology,
Vellore – 632014, Tamil Nadu, India
Email: sujatha.s@vit.ac.in
Abstract: The main purpose of the study is to understand the degree to which
the quality of work-life of employees at the organisation helps in turn reflecting
terms of satisfaction and improving their organisational effectiveness. Owing to
the drastic changes in the technology and intensified global competition has
changed the work-pressure of employees at workplace. In the modern times,
the topic on quality of work-life has received ample attention among the
employer perspective. In order to retain the talented and skilled employees at
work, organisations need to focus their attention towards in bringing a balance
between work-life and personal life among the employees. The underlying
concept of work-life balance will help ultimately in ensuring quality of work-
life of employees at workplace. Convenient sampling method was adopted for
the study. Out of 300 working employees in Kelly Services, India, a
proportionate allocation of 10% was chosen as respondents and interviewed in
Kelly Services, Hyderabad. The study result shows a relationship between
variables on satisfaction level of employees.
Keywords: quality of work-life; QWL; work-life balance; employee
satisfaction.
Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Swarochi, G., Seema, A.
and Sujatha, S. (2018) ‘An empirical research on quality of work-life
an employee perspective’, Int. J. Management Development, Vol. 2, No. 1,
pp.34–80.
A
n empirical research on quality of wor
k
-life 35
Biographical notes: G. Swarochi completed her MBA in Marketing and HR
from the VIT Business School, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), Vellore,
Tamil Nadu, India. She was a fourth rank holder in MBA from VIT University,
Vellore. She is currently working as a Senior CRM Executive in eZone
Security Solutions India Pvt Ltd., Hyderabad, Telangana. She has two years of
experience in customer relationship management and sales operations from the
reputed eZone Security Solutions India Pvt Ltd. Her areas of interest include
team management, customer relations, and business development.
A. Seema received her MBA in International Business, and Doctorate of
Philosophy in Management from the Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT),
Vellore. She is currently serving as an Assistant Professor (Senior) in the
Department of Technology Management, Vellore Institute of Technology,
Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Her areas of interests include organisational
behaviour, foundations of management, human resource management, career
management. She has eight years of experience in academic teaching and
research from the reputed VIT. She has to her credit over 15 research
publications in a wide spectrum of journals, includes Scopus, Inderscience, and
EBSCO-based journals. She received VIFA 2017, International Award in the
category of Young Faculty Achiever in Management. She has published case(s)
titled Iron Lady a Political Leader, Abilene Paradox in the Corporate World,
Change Management Strategies in IT Sector, Case Centre, Cranfield, UK, and
a book entitled Career Management Practices in Higher Education,
CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
S. Sujatha completed her BE in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, MTech
in HRD and PhD in Human Resources Management. She is currently serving as
an Associate Professor in VIT Business School, Vellore Institute of
Technology (VIT), Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Her areas of interests includes,
organisational change and development, business ethics, employee relations,
labour laws, ERP-HRM, organisational behaviour, human resource
development, principles of management, human resource management
practices, recruitment and selection, and training and development. She has 11
years of experience in teaching and research from the reputed college and
institution. She has to her credit over 25 research publications in a wide
spectrum of journals, includes Scopus, Inderscience, and EBSCO-based
journals and has successfully produced two PhD students. She is also guiding
four research scholars in the area of management. She has published case(s)
entitled Change Management Strategies in IT Sector, available online at Case
Centre, Cranfield, UK.
1 Introduction
Quality of work-life (QWL) denotes all the organisational inputs which aim at the
employee’s satisfaction and enhancing organisational effectiveness. By the globalisation
the modern employees are experiencing distress. To meet the challenges posed by present
standards, organisations must focus their attention in bringing a balance between
work-life and personal life. The underlying assumption is that work-life balance will
ultimately ensure QWL.
36 G. Swarochi et al.
Sigmund Freud is considered to be the father of psychoanalysis. His prescription for a
healthy person is a combination of ‘Lieben und Arbeteiten’ that is love and work. In
present working environment the workers are looking for quality of life as a superior
human endeavour. Such endeavour calls for a trade-off between work-life and family life.
Today an employee desires work to be more meaningful and challenging because quality
is the acid test. A QWL gives an opportunity for deep sense of fulfilment. Employees
seek a supportive work environment that will enable them to balance work with personal
interests. Such balance contributes to superior human existence in ample measure.
QWL provides a more humanised work environment. It attempts to serve the higher
order needs of workers as well as their basic needs. QWL indicates that the work should
not have excessively negative conditions. It should not put workers under undue stress. It
should not damage or degrade their humanness. It should not be threatening or unduly
dangerous. Finally it should contribute to, or at least leave unimpaired, workers abilities
to perform in other life roles such as citizen, student and parent. That is work should
contribute to general social enhancement.
Employees in several companies that instituted QWL experienced better health and
greater safety on the job. Other benefits included improved employee satisfaction,
morale, job interest, commitment and involvement; increased opportunity for individual
growth; greater sense of ownership and control of the work environment development of
managerial ability for circle leaders, improved communication in the organisation and
greater understanding and respect between management and workers.
The term QWL has been applied to a wide variety of organisational improvement
efforts. The common elements seem to be, has good man indicates, an attempt to
restructure multiple dimensions of the organisation and to institute a mechanism are
usually an increase in problem solving between the union and management.
Responsiveness to employee concerns. In every organisation, people and their
behaviour assumes vital role in determining the performance and effectiveness. While
many studies concentrated on physical and financial performance of organisation. A
study on behavioural aspects seems to be inadequate. So, the attempts must be made to
understand the human side of the enterprise.
In the present scenario, where the world is moving from traditional to modernisation,
computerisation and globalisation there is an intense competition. The situations are
becoming more complex and the modern employees are experiencing distress. To meet
the challenges posed by present standards, organisation must focus their attention in
bringing a balance between work and family life.
The QWL movement provides a value framework and a philosophy which has a long
term implication for the human development and enrichment. It tries to balance both the
work and family life. Hence integrated approach with regard to QWL is required for the
success of an individual and an organisation. This underlines the necessity of searching
studies on the nature of human relations and the problems of human relations and the
problems of human behaviour in the organisation and suggests measures to cope with the
problems. Hence, an in depth on aspects like QWL can throw light on many non-
identified aspects of human behaviour which may help in understanding the issues
involved and improving the overall performance of these organisations. There it is found
that there is need to study in greater detail about the topic.
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2 Importance of the study
Improved QWL was not considered as important factor in India until recently as there
were important impending factors like resource deficiency, environmental threats and
some services of financial problems. QWL program has become important in work place
for the following reasons:
1 increase demands at work
2 loss of long term employee guarantees
3 the need for enhanced work place skills
4 greater competitions for talent
5 increased women in work force.
Good QWL leads to an atmosphere of good impersonal relations and highly motivated
employees who strive for their development. Though monetary benefits still occupy the
first place in the cost of elements like physical working conditions, job restructuring and
job re-designing, career development, promotional opportunities, etc., are gaining
importance rapidly. As such, workers expect the management to improve all these
facilities which thereby improve QWL. If provided with good QWL, employees
concentrate more on both individual as well as group development which in turn leads to
overall development. Walton (1975) proposed eight conceptual categories. They are as
follows:
adequate and fair compensation
safe and healthy working conditions
immediate opportunity to use and develop human capacities
opportunity for continued growth and security
social integration in the work organisation
constitutionalisation in the work organisation
work and the total life span
the social relevance of work-life.
A study was undertaken to determine the quality of the work-life of the employees in
Kelly Services. QWL leads to improvement in job satisfaction of the employees and
contributes to the overall performance of the company. The absence of QWL leads to the
dissatisfaction in job, lack of motivation and moral. The more satisfied the employees are
with their job in Kelly Services, the easier for the company to plan on new ventures and
undertake challenging client contracts. The greater the dissatisfaction in job faced by
employees greater would be the challenges for the Kelly Services to undertake new
ventures. They may have to face challenges of employee turnover, unhappy employees
voicing protest and spreading messages lowering the image of the industry in the face of
public, refraining from recommending friends for a job to this industry, being negligent at
work which may impact product quality, sales and customer satisfaction. In turn there
would be a very low strength of loyal employees.
38 G. Swarochi et al.
3 Statement of the problem
QWL in an organisation is essential for the smooth running and success of its employees.
QWL helps the employees to feel secure and like they are being thought of and cared for
by the organisation in which they work. This study is conducted to analyse the QWL of
the employees of Kelly Services and titled Quality of Work-life of Employees in Kelly
Services.
4 Objectives of the study
To evaluate and analyse the QWL in Kelly Services.
To identify the factors/determinants of QWL among employees.
To analyse the measures adopted by the organisation to improve the QWL among
employees.
To suggest suitable measures to improve the QWL among workers.
5 Scope of the study
Work is an integral part of our everyday life, be it our livelihood or career or business.
On an average we spend around twelve hours daily in the work place, that is one third of
our entire life; it does influence the overall quality of our life. It should yield job
satisfaction, give peace of mind, a fulfilment of having done a task, as it is expected,
without any flaw and having spent the time fruitfully, constructively and purposefully.
Even if it is a small step towards our lifetime goal, at the end of the day it gives
satisfaction and eagerness to look forward for the next day. A happy and a healthy
employee will give better turnover, make good decisions and positively contribute to the
organisational goal. An assured good QWL will not only attract young and new talent but
also retain the existing experienced talent.
This being the virtual fact, the current study on QWL among employees in Kelly
Services is expected to prove extremely useful for the organisation to improve the QWL
among its employees.
6 Limitations of the study
The study is limited to the employees of Kelly Services in Hyderabad and therefore
the findings of the study cannot be extended to other areas.
Convenient sampling has been used in the study and it has its own limitations.
Personal bias of the respondents might have crept in while answering a few questions
in the structured interview schedule.
Results of the study may not be generalised.
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7 Data collection
The study is based on both primary and secondary data. The study includes sizeable
primary data which was collected by way of canvassing a questionnaire amongst those
available employees, manager with the help of personal interviews during lunch hours,
tea-breaks and observation of workers during their work hours. The secondary data was
collected from organisation records, management reports, various books, journals and
internet to understand the present state of QWL.
Data collection for this research involved use of questionnaire framed referring to
many prior research on this topic and used to measure facets of QWL
like pay, reward, recognition, work defect rate, promotion, employee relations,
supervision, mentoring, guidance and feedback. Some questions are multiple choice
questions, some are dichotomous questions and some of the questions had a five-point
Likert scale wherein the respondent could indicate their choice by marking any one of the
following options: (5) strongly agree (4) agree (3) neutral (2) disagree and (1) strongly
disagree.
8 Research design
Descriptive research shows that there is a relationship or an association between two
variables. The research plan should be very clear and structured properly. Implemented
descriptive research requires a substantial amount of resources. Findings obtained from
descriptive studies are conclusive; the result can be used for decision making. The
researchers already knows which research question should be addressed. Descriptive
study includes issues that the researcher has considerable background knowledge relating
to the problem or concern. This research builds on the previously generated information.
The method of research adopted in this study is descriptive research which describes
attitudes, perceptions, characteristics, activities and situations. The study was designed to
determine QWL of employees of Kelly services.
9 Sampling methods
Sampling is a process of obtaining the information about an entire population by
examining only a part of it. This study is based on convenience sampling method.
Convenient sampling method was employed since all random selection of employees was
restricted in the industries for confidential reasons. The sample to whom the
questionnaire was administered participated in research out of their free will and without
any involvement of the management. There are about 300 employees working in INDIA
and around 30 employees as per their availability and convenience were canvassed to
study the QWL.
40 G. Swarochi et al.
10 Sample and population
Sample selection and size should be representable of the target population. The company
has a total of 300 employees in INDIA. Of these 30 was the size of the sample selected.
10% of the total population were chosen as respondents and interviewed in Kelly
Services, Hyderabad.
11 Statistical tools
The processing of survey questionnaire and percentage analysis of the canvassed data
was done with the help of the computer software Statistical Package for Social Sciences
(SPSS 22.0) for Windows.
12 Data analysis tools
The SPSS statistical package was used for the statistical analysis of the research data and
for percentage analysis. The following analysis tools were used in the research:
1 percentage analysis
2 Spearman’s rho and Kendall’s Tau_B correlation
3 independent sample t-test.
12.1 Percentage analysis
Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio. Percentages are used in making comparison 
between two or more series of data. Percentage is used to describe relative terms the
distribution of two or more series of data.
Percentage of the respondents
(Number of respondents Total number of respondents) 100=÷ ×
12.2 Correlation
Degree and type of relationship between any two or more variables in which they vary
together over a period; for example, variation in the level of expenditure or savings with
variation in the level of income. A positive correlation exists where the high values of
one variable are associated with the high values of the other variable. A ‘negative
correlation’ means association of high values of one with the low values of the other.
Correlation can vary from +1 to –1. Values close to +1 indicate a high-degree of positive
correlation and values close to –1 indicate a high degree of negative correlation. Values
close to zero indicate poor correlation of either kind. Zero value indicates no correlation
at all.
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13 Review of literature
QWL is described as the favourable working environment that supports and promotes
satisfaction by providing employees with rewards, job security, career growth
opportunities, etc.
Cunningham and Eberle’s (1990) research emphasised that the personal needs are
satisfied when rewards from the organisation, such as compensation, promotion,
recognition and development meet expectations. The elements that are relevant to an
individual’s QWL include the task, the physical work environment, social environment
within the organisation, administrative system and relationship between life on and off
the job.
Chan and Einstein (1990) explained QWL reflects as a concern for people’s
experience at work, their relationship with other people, their work setting and their
effectiveness on the job. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living Conditions
2002 described that the QWL is a multidimensional construct, made up of a number of
interrelated factors that need careful consideration to conceptualise and measure. It is
associated with job satisfaction, job involvement, motivation, productivity, health, safety,
job security, competence development and balance between work and non-work-life.
QWL is a process by which an organisation responds to employee needs for developing
mechanisms to allow them to share fully in making the decisions that design their lives at
work.
Saraji and Dargahi (2006) explained QWL as a comprehensive, department wide
program designated to improve employee satisfaction, strengthening workplace learning
and helping employees had better manage, change and transition by conducting
descriptive and analytical study. QWL programs will benefit both faculty and
management, by mutually solving work related problems, building cooperation,
improving work environments, restructuring tasks carefully and fairly managing human
resource outcomes and payoffs.
Hosseini (2010) concluded that the career satisfaction, career achievement and career
balance are not only the significant variables to achieve good QWL but QWL or the
quality of work system is one of the most interesting methods to create motivation and is
a major way to have job enrichment. This has its roots in staff and managers’ attitude to
motivation category that is more attention to fair pay, growth opportunities and
continuing promotion improves staff’s performance which in turn increases QWL of
social insurance employees in Tehran.
In Rethinam and Ismail (2008), QWL is a multi-dimensional construct, made up of a
number of interrelated factors that need careful consideration to conceptualise and
measure. It is associated with job satisfaction, job involvement, motivation, productivity,
health, safety and well-being, job security, competence development and balance
between work and non-work-life and also he concluded as QWL from the perspective of
IT professionals is challenging both to the individuals and organisations.
Walton (1975) proposed eight major conceptual categories relating to QWL. They
are:
adequate and fair compensation
safe and healthy working conditions
42 G. Swarochi et al.
immediately opportunity for continued growth and security
opportunity to use and develop human capacities
social integration in the work organisation
constitutionalism in the work organisation
work and total life space
social relevance of work-life.
Several published works have addressed the constructs that make up the QWL domain
and key elements of QWL programs. Cherg says in a high QWL there should be a
positive impact on personal life, an opportunity to be involved in decision as well as
acceptable level of physical comfort.
Baba and Jamal (1991) suggested a list of the determinants of quality of working life,
including: job satisfaction, job involvement, work role ambiguity, work role conflict,
work role overload, job stress, organisational commitment and turn-over intentions.
Baba and Jamal (1991) also suggested that monotony in job due to routine work
activities can affect quality of working life negatively. Ellis and Pompli (2002) studied on
nurses identified a numerous factors resulting in job dissatisfaction and quality of
working life, including: poor working environments, resident aggression, workload,
unable to deliver quality of care expected, balance of work and family, shift work, no
involvement in decision making, professional isolation, non-recognition of work,
unhealthy relationships with supervisor/peers, role conflict, absence opportunity to learn
new skills.
Sirgy et al. (2001) examined listed various factors affecting quality of working life as:
need satisfaction based on job requirements, work environment, supervisory behaviour,
ancillary programmes and organisational commitment. They observed quality of working
life as fulfilment of these key needs through resources, activities and outcomes resulting
from participation in the workplace. This model is based at Maslow’s needs theory,
covering health and safety, economic and family, social, esteem, actualisation,
knowledge and aesthetics.
Bearfield (2003) adopted an altogether different approach while examining quality of
working life with the help of 16 questions and the findings were surprising when he
observed that causes of dissatisfaction in professionals, intermediate clerical, sales and
service workers, vary for different groups and suggested that different concerns might
have to be addressed based on different parameters.
Worrall and Cooper (2006) found that in their recent survey that a low level of
well-being at work may cost dear to an organisation resulting in a loss of about 5–10% of
gross national product per annum.
Rapoport and Rapoport (1980) concluded that the family’s psychological support and
the diversion that it entails make it a crucial factor affecting QWL. Studies also support
the facts that a happy family life has a positive impact on the greater job satisfaction and
objective career achievement with a directly proportional relationship.
A
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k
-life 43
QWL is not a unitary concept, but has been seen as incorporating a hierarchy of
perspectives that not only include work-based factors such as job satisfaction, satisfaction
with pay and relationships with work colleagues, but also factors that broadly reflect life
satisfaction and general feelings of well-being (Danna and Griffin, 1999). More recently,
work-related stress and the relationship between work and non-work-life domains
(Loscocco and Roschelle, 1991) have also been identified as factors that should
conceptually be included in quality of working life.
Marjan and Haidari (2012), in his study entitled Relationship between Organisational
Justice and Organisational Citizenship Behavior concluded that organisational justice
and its components are positive and significant relation with organisational citizenship
behaviour of and its components.
Ahmadi (2009), in their research named as Identify the Factors Affecting the
Development of Organisational Citizenship Behavior Pattern for the National Iranian Oil
Company states that structural factors, leadership, personality, values and culture are
among the factors that influence the development of organisational citizenship behaviour.
Waitayangkook (2003) in his study as Quality of Work-life of International Prospects
of the Thai, the author considered quality of working life as one of the applied techniques
used in management training which is benefit in today complex environment of social,
economic and political.
Barling (2003) in his research as Relationship between Quality of Working Life and
Jobs Arousal Capacity concluded that lacking quality of working life blow damage into
the job and there is there is significant positive relationship between the quality of
working life and increasing the skills, information and motivation.
Donalson (2000) in his research as Relationship between Quality of Work-life and
Organisational Commitment concluded that there is significant relationship between the
quality of working life to organisational commitment, absenteeism from work and the
delay and two components of the partner’s satisfaction and job security have the strongest
impact on organisational commitment.
Kim (2006), in a survey on 1584 of state employees in six countries conclude that
there are significant and direct relationship between organisational commitment and
organisational citizenship behaviour, but there are not found a direct relation between job
satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour.
Cascio (2003) analysed the efforts must be aimed at enhancing the overall quality of
life and shifting the focus from work to life and from balance to quality. As far as the
career balance is concerned, Herriot (1992) suggests that many a times people find
themselves in conflict between family life and work and what actually they perceive as
success in life as compared to what success they get. Family and work are two most
important domains of life and a balance is crucial. Nevertheless, one can hardly find any
compatibility between the role demands of these two domains, thereby resulting in
conflicts between work and non-work-life (Netemeyer et al., 1996). It is observed that
because of the conflicting role demands between job and family and commitment, QWL
is inversely proportional to the work conflict meaning thereby that the higher the work
role conflict, the lower will be the quality of family life and vice versa.
44 G. Swarochi et al.
14 Data analysis and interpretation
14.1 Gender of the respondents
Interpretation: The analysis shows that 73.3% of the respondents are females and only
26.7% of the respondents are males. This shows that most of the employees in the
organisation are women.
Table 1 Gender statistics
Gender
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Male 8 26.7 26.7 26.7
Female 22 73.3 73.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 1 Employee gender (see online version for colours)
Male
Female
Gender
14.2 Age of the respondents
Interpretation: The results of the analysis done above show that 50% of the employees
belong to the age group of 26–35 years and 40% of the employees are above 25 years and
only 10% of the employees belong to the age group 36–45 years.
Table 2 Age statistics
Age
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Less than 25 12 40.0 40.0 40.0
26–35 15 50.0 50.0 90.0
36–45 3 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
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Figure 2 Employee age (see online version for colours)
14.3 Marital status of the respondents
Interpretation: The analysis done above shows that 60% of the employees are single and
only 40% of the employees are married.
Table 3 Marital status statistics
Marital status
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Single 18 60.0 60.0 60.0
Married 12 40.0 40.0 100.
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 3 Employee marital status (see online version for colours)
Single
Married
Marital status
46 G. Swarochi et al.
14.4 Are you a trainee?
Interpretation: The analysis clearly depicts that most of the employees and only few of
them are undergoing training. Nearly 90% of the respondents are employees in the
organisation and only 10% of the respondents are trainees.
Table 4 Designation statistics
Are you a trainee?
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Yes 3 10.0 10.0 10.0
No 27 90.0 90.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 4 Employee designation (see online version for colours)
Yes
No
Are you a trainee?
14.5 What is your monthly income?
Interpretation: The results of the analysis conducted above shows that nearly 70% of the
employees’ monthly income is less than 25,000. 20% of the employees’ income ranges
between 25,001–50,000 and only 10% of the employees income ranges between
50,001–100,000.
Table 5 Monthly income statistics
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Less than 25,000 years 21 70.0 70.0 70.0
25,001–50,000 6 20.0 20.0 90.0
50,001–100,000 3 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
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Figure 5 Employee monthly income (see online version for colours)
14.6 Since how many years have you been working with this organisation?
Interpretation: The analysis done above shows that most of the employees, i.e., nearly
83.3% of them have been working in that organisation from less than five years and only
16.7% of the employees are working in the organisation from a range of 5–10 years. This
shows that the organisation should focus more on retaining the employees in the
organisation.
Figure 6 No. of years of service (see online version for colours)
48 G. Swarochi et al.
Table 6 Years of service with Kelly Services
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Less than five years 25 83.3 23.3 83.3
Five to ten years 5 16.7 16.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
14.7 What do you think about the work load in your organisation?
Interpretation: The analysis done above shows that most of the employees, i.e., nearly
56.7% of them feel that the work load in the organisation is evenly distributed and they
are able to complete the tasks on time. 33.3% of the employees responded in such a way
that they feel the work load in the organisation is very much but due to participative
environment they are able to complete the tasks on time. And only 10% of the employees
feel that the work load in this organisation is less when compared to other companies.
Table 7 Work load statistics
What do you think about the work load in your organisation?
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Work load is very much but
due to participative
environment we are able to
complete the task.
10 33.3 33.3 33.3
Work load is evenly
distributed and we are able to
complete the tasks on time
17 56.7 56.7 90.0
Work load is less as
compared to other companies
3 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 7 Work load (see online version for colours)
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14.8 Do you think that communication and information flow between the
departments is satisfactory?
Interpretation: When the employees are asked about how do they feel about the
communication and information flow between the departments in the organisation is the
following results were obtained. 86.7% of the employees feel that the communication and
information flow in the organisation is good and only 13.3% of the employees feel that
the communication and information flow in the organisation is not good.
Table 8 Communication between departments
Do you think that communication and information flow between the department is satisfactory?
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Yes 26 86.7 86.7 86.7
No 4 13.3 13.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 8 Communication between departments (see online version for colours)
Do you think that communication and information
flow between the departments is satisfactory?
Yes
No
14.9 Does the employees in the organisation share their experiences to help
each other?
Interpretation: The analysis done shows that 76.7% of the employees agreed that other
employees in the organisation will share their experiences with each other and only
23.3% of the employees feel that the other employees in the organisation does not share
their experiences with them.
Table 9 Experience sharing
Does the employees in the organisation share their experiences to help each other?
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Yes 23 76.7 76.7 76.7
No 7 23.3 23.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
50 G. Swarochi et al.
Figure 9 Experience sharing (see online version for colours)
Yes
No
Does the employees in the organisation share
their experiences to help each other?
14.10 Does the company provide training for enriching the skills of employees?
Interpretation: From the results obtained above, 63.3% of the respondents agreed that the
company provides them with training programs for enriching their skills and 36.7% of the
respondents feel that the company does not provide enough training programs for the
employees for enriching and improving their skills and competencies.
Figure 10 Training programs (see online version for colours)
Yes
No
Does the company provides training for enriching
the skills of employees?
Table 10 Training programs
Does the company provide training for enriching the skills of employees?
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Yes 19 63.3 63.3 63.3
No 11 36.7 36.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
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14.11 Do you think proper training improves the productivity of the company
and employees?
Interpretation: From the analysis done above, we conclude that 70% of the respondents
agree that proper training improves the productivity of the company and employees,
26.7% strongly agree in this context and only 3.3% of the respondents are neutral when
they asked does proper training improves the productivity of the company and
employees.
Table 11 Training improves productivity
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 8 26.7 26.7 26.7
Agree 21 70.0 70.0 96.7
Neutral 1 3.3 3.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 11 Training improves productivity (see online version for colours)
14.12 Are you comfortable with the working hours of the organisation?
Interpretation: The analysis done shows that 40% of the respondents are comfortable
with the working hours of the organisation, 10% of the respondents are very satisfied,
26.7% of the respondents are not comfortable with the working hours, 26.7% are neutral
in this context and only 3.3% of the employees are not at all comfortable with the
working hours of the company.
52 G. Swarochi et al.
Table 12 Working hours
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 3 10.0 10.0 10.0
Agree 12 40.0 40.0 50.0
Neutral 6 20.0 20.0 70.0
Disagree 0 26.7 26.7 96.7
Strongly disagree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 12 Working hours (see online version for colours)
14.13 Do you think that the job environment and working conditions in the
organisation are fair?
Interpretation: The results of the analysis shows that, 36.7% of the respondents agree that
the job environment and working conditions in the organisation are fair, another 36.7% of
the respondents are neutral, 13.3% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the job
environment and working conditions and the remaining 13.3% of the respondents feel
that the job environment and working conditions are not fair in the organisation.
Table 13 Job environment
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 4 13.3 13.3 13.3
Agree 11 36.7 36.7 50.0
Neutral 11 36.7 36.7 86.7
Disagree 4 13.3 13.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
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Figure 13 Job environment (see online version for colours)
14.14 Do you think that the growth and security opportunities are better in the
organisation?
Interpretation: The analysis done above shows that, 40% of the respondents feel that the
company offers better growth and security opportunities, 30% of the respondents disagree
that there are better growth and security opportunities and remaining 30% of the
respondents are neutral in this context.
Figure 14 Growth and security opportunities (see online version for colours)
54 G. Swarochi et al.
Table 14 Growth and security opportunities
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Agree 12 40.0 40.0 40.0
Neutral 9 30.0 30.0 70.0
Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
14.15 Do you think that the career-planning program followed in the
organisation is helpful for you in attaining the goals?
Interpretation: From the results obtained above, we conclude that 40% of the respondents
are dissatisfied with the career planning program of the company, 6.7% of the
respondents are very dissatisfied with the career planning program followed in the
organisation. 30% of the employees are satisfied with the career planning program and
23.3% of the employees are neutral in this context.
Table 15 Career planning programs
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Agee 9 30.0 30.0 30.0
Neutral 7 23.3 23.3 53.3
Disagree 12 40.0 40.0 93.3
Strongly disagree 2 6.7 6.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 15 Career planning programs (see online version for colours)
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14.16 Do you think that the pay structure followed in the organisation is fair?
Interpretation: 56.7% of the employees are satisfied with the pay structure in the
organisation, 3.3% of the employees are very satisfied with the pay structure. 33.3% of
the employees are neutral in this context and only 6.7% of the employees are not satisfied
with the pay structure followed in the organisation.
Table 16 Pay structure
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 1 3.3 3.3 3.3
Agree 17 56.7 56.7 60.0
Neutral 10 33.3 33.3 93.3
Disagree 2 6.7 6.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 16 Pay structure (see online version for colours)
14.17 Do you think that the promotions are given to the deserved employees in
the organisation?
Interpretation: 50% of the employees agree that the promotions are given to the deserved
ones, 33.3% of the employees are neutral in this context. 13.3% of the employees
disagree that the promotions are given to the deserved employees and only 3.3% of the
employees strongly disagree in this context.
56 G. Swarochi et al.
Table 17 Promotions to employees
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Agree 15 50.0 50.0 50.0
Neutral 10 33.3 33.3 83.3
Disagree 4 13.3 13.3 96.7
Strongly disagree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 17 Promotions to employees (see online version for colours)
14.18 Do you think that the place where you work runs in a smooth and
effective manner?
Interpretation: From the results obtained above we conclude that, 66.7% of the
employees agree that their company works in a smooth and effective manner, 6.7% of the
employees strongly agree. 23.3% of the employees are neutral in this context and only
3.3% of the employees disagree that their company runs in a smooth and effective
manner.
Table 18 Smooth running of organisation
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 2 6.7 6.7 6.7
Agree 20 66.7 66.7 73.3
Neutral 7 23.3 23.3 96.7
Disagree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
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Figure 18 Smooth running of organisation (see online version for colours)
14.19 Are you allowed to change your starting and quitting times on a daily
basis?
Interpretation: The results of the analysis shows that, 40% of the employees feel that
they are not allowed to change their starting and quitting times daily, 10% of the
employees strongly disagree about changing the starting and quitting times, 33.3% of the
employees are neutral in this context. 13.3% of the employees agree that they are allowed
to change their starting and quitting times and only 3.3% strongly agree in this context.
Figure 19 Starting and quitting times (see online version for colours)
58 G. Swarochi et al.
Table 19 Starting and quitting times
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 3 10.0 10.0 10.0
Agree 12 40.0 40.0 50.0
Neutral 6 20.0 20.0 70.0
Disagree 0 26.7 26.7 96.7
Strongly disagree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
14.20 At the place where you work, are you treated with respect?
Interpretation: The analysis shows that, 66.7% of the employees agree that they are
treated with respect in the organisation, 20% of the employees strongly agree in this
context and only 13.3% of the employees are neutral in this context.
Figure 20 Are employees treated with respect (see online version for colours)
Table 20 Are employees treated with respect
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 6 20.0 20.0 20.0
Agree 20 66.7 66.7 86.7
Disagree 4 13.3 13.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
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14.21 Do you think that the organisation provides better health measures for
its employees and their dependents?
Interpretation: The results obtained determine that, 43.3% of the employees are
dissatisfied about the health measures provided by the organisation, 6.7% of the
employees are very dissatisfied in this context. 13.3% of the employees are neutral in this
context. 30% of the employees are satisfied with the health measures provided by the
organisation and the remaining employees are very satisfied with the health measures
provided by the company.
Table 21 Health measures for employees
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 2 6.7 6.7 6.7
Agree 9 30.0 30. 36.7
Neutral 4 13.3 13.3 50.0
Disagree 13 43.3 43.3 93.3
Strongly disagree 2 6.7 6.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0 100.0
Figure 21 Health measures for employees (see online version for colours)
14.22 Do you think that the organisation is providing better transportation
facilities for its employees?
Interpretation: From the results obtained above, 56.7% of the employees are very
dissatisfied with the transportation facilities provided by the organisation, 13.3% of the
employees are dissatisfied with the transportation facilities. 26.7% of the employees are
neutral in this context and only 3.3% of the employees are very satisfied with the
transportation facilities provided by the company.
60 G. Swarochi et al.
Table 22 Transportation facilities for employees
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Agree 1 3.3 3.3 3.3
Neutral 8 26.7 26.7 30.0
Disagree 4 13.3 13.3 43.3
Strongly disagree 17 56.7 56.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 22 Transportation facilities for employees (see online version for colours)
14.23 Do you think that the organisation focuses on improving the skills of the
employees through various interactive programs?
Interpretation: The analysis done above shows that, 33.3% of the respondents agrees that
the company focuses on improving the skills of the employees through various interactive
programs, 6.7% of the respondents strongly agree in this circumstance. 26.7% of the
respondents are neutral in this context, 23.3% of the respondents disagree in this
circumstance and 10% of the respondents strongly disagree in this circumstance.
Table 23 Interactive programs for employees
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 2 6.7 6.7 6.7
Agree 10 33.3 33.3 40.0
Neutral 8 26.7 26.7 66.7
Disagree 7 23.3 23.3 90.0
Strongly disagree 3 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
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Figure 23 Interactive programs for employees (see online version for colours)
14.24 Do you think that the safety of workers is given high priority in the
organisation?
Interpretation: The results of the analysis show that, 60% of the employees agree that the
safety of the workers is given priority in the organisation, 6.7% of the employees strongly
agree in this perspective. 23.3% of the employees are neutral in this perspective and only
10% of the employees disagree regarding the safety of workers in the organisation.
Figure 24 Safety of workers (see online version for colours)
62 G. Swarochi et al.
Table 24 Safety of workers
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 2 6.7 6.7 6.7
Agree 18 60.0 60.0 66.7
Neutral 7 23.3 23.3 90.0
Disagree 3 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
14.25 Do you receive enough help and equipment from the organisation for
completing your tasks?
Interpretation: When the respondents were asked do they receive enough help and
equipment from the organisation the following results were obtained. 43.3% of the
respondents agreed in this context, 10% of the respondents strongly agreed, 16.7% of the
respondents are neutral in this context and 30% of the respondents disagree in this
context.
Figure 25 Enough help and equipment from organisation (see online version for colours)
Table 25 Enough help and equipment from organisation
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 3 10.0 10.0 10.0
Agree 13 43.3 43.3 53.3
Neutral 5 16.7 16.7 70.0
Disagree 9 30.0 30.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
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14.26 Do you have access to stress management or stress reduction programs
at your current workplace?
Interpretation: From the results obtained above, 33.3% of the employees are dissatisfied
with the stress management and stress reduction programs provided by the company,
23.3% of the employees are very dissatisfied about this situation. 23.3% of the employees
are neutral in this situation, 16.7% of the employees are satisfied with the stress
management programs and only 3.3% of the employees are very satisfied with the stress
management programs followed by the company.
Table 26 Stress reduction programs
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 1 3.3 3.3 3.3
Agree 5 16.7 16.7 20.0
Neutral 7 23.3 23.3 43.3
Disagree 10 33.3 33.3 76.7
Strongly disagree 7 23.3 23.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 26 Stress reduction programs (see online version for colours)
14.27 Do you feel that the management maintains good relations with the
employees?
Interpretation: The analysis done above shows that, 63.3% of the employees agrees that
the management maintains good relations with the employees, 6.7% of the employees
strongly agree in this context. 26.7% of the employees are neutral in this context and only
3.3% of the employees disagree about the management maintaining good relations with
the employees.
64 G. Swarochi et al.
Table 27 Relation with management
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 2 6.7 6.7 6.7
Agree 19 63.3 63.3 70.0
Neutral 8 26.7 26.7 96.7
Disagree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 27 Relation with management (see online version for colours)
14.28 Does your organisation give you freedom in deciding how your work can
be done?
Interpretation: From the analysis done above we conclude that, 30% of the employees
agree that they are given freedom in deciding how their work can be done and another
30% of the employees disagree in this context. 26.7% of the employees are neutral and
6.7% of the employees strongly agree and the remaining 6.7% of the employees strongly
disagree in this context.
Table 28 Freedom in doing work
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 2 6.7 6.7 6.7
Agree 9 30.0 30.0 36.7
Neutral 9 26.7 26.7 63.3
Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 93.3
Strongly disagree 2 6.7 6.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
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Figure 28 Freedom in doing work (see online version for colours)
14.29 Do you think that the job security provided by the organisation is good?
Interpretation: The results show that, 43.3% of the respondents agree that the job security
provided by the company is good and 6.7% of the employees strongly agree in this
situation, 33.3% of the employees are neutral in this context and the remaining 16.7% of
the employees disagree with the job security provided by the company.
Figure 29 Job security of employees (see online version for colours)
66 G. Swarochi et al.
Table 29 Job security of employees
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Strongly agree 2 6.7 6.7 6.7
Agree 13 43.3 43.3 50.0
Neutral 10 33.3 33.3 83.3
Disagree 5 16.7 16.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
14.30 Relation between monthly income of the employees and how satisfied are
they with their job?
Interpretation: The results of the correlation done between the variables monthly income
and how satisfied they are with the job are shown above. The analysis shows that there is
a positive correlation between these variables. This tells that if the monthly income of the
employees increases then the satisfaction of the employees also increases.
Table 30 Correlation between monthly income and satisfaction of employees
What is your
monthly income
All in all, how satisfied
would you say you are
with you job?
What is your monthly
income?
Pearson correlation 1 .379*
Sig. (two-tailed) 0.39
N 30 30
All in all, how satisfied
would you say you are
with you job?
Pearson correlation .379* 1
Sig. (two-tailed) .039
N 30 30
Note: *Correlation is significant at the level (two-tailed).
14.31 Relation between the variables, how often do they work from home as a
part of their job and does their organisation gives them freedom in
deciding how their work can be done?
Correlation: Spearman’s rho and Kendall’s tau_B correlation coefficients.
Interpretation: Kendall’s tau_b correlation and Spearman’s rho correlation has been
carried out between the variables such as how often the employees work from home as
part of their job and Does their organisation gives them freedom in deciding how their
work can be done. The results of this analysis are as following. There is a positive
correlation between these variables both as per Kendall’s tau_b correlation and
Spearman’s rho correlation. Kendall’s correlation coefficient is around 0.188 which
shows that there is a positive correlation between the variables, i.e., if the organisation
gives freedom in deciding the employees how work can be done then the employees will
work from home more often.
Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient is around 0.239 which shows that there is a
positive correlation between these variables. Hence from all the analysis that has been
carried out using these non-parametric correlations, if the organisation gives the freedom
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for the employees in deciding how their work can be done then the employees’ chances
of working from home will be increased and therefore they will feel comfortable on how
their work can be done and increase the productivity of the organisation and decreases the
absenteeism among the employees.
Table 31 Correlation between employees work from home and freedom given to them
How often
you work at
home as part
of your job?
Does your
organisation give
you freedom in
deciding how your
work can be done?
Kendall’s
tau_b
How often do you
work at home as part
of your job?
Correlation 1.000 .188
Sig. (two-tailed) . .219
N 30 30
Does you
organisation gives
you freedom in
deciding how your
work can be done?
Correlation
coefficient
.188 1.000
Sig. (two-tailed) .219 .
N 30 30
Spearman’s
rho
How often do you
work at home as part
of your job?
Correlation 1.000 .239
Sig. (two-tailed) . .204
N 30 30
Does you
organisation gives
you freedom in
deciding how your
work can be done?
Correlation
coefficient
.239 1.000
Sig. (two-tailed) .204 .
N 30 30
15 Independent sample T-test
15.1 Independent sample t-test conducted between the variables gender and
how satisfied the employees are with their current job
Interpretation: The results of the independent sample t-test are as follows. The null
hypothesis is that there are equal variances between the two variables Gender and
Satisfaction level of the employees. The significance value is 0.751 which is greater than
0.05, hence we accept the null hypothesis.
15.2 Independent sample t-test conducted between the variables gender and
does the employees intend to leave the current job in that company
Interpretation: The results of the independent sample t-test are the null hypothesis is that
there are equal variances between the two variables gender and intention of the
employees to leave the organisation. The significance value is 0.361 which is greater than
0.05, hence we accept the null hypothesis.
68 G. Swarochi et al.
Table 32 T-test between gender and satisfaction of employees statistics
Group statistics
Gender N Mean Std. deviation Std. error
Male 9 3.44 1.014 .338 All in all, how satisfied would you say you
are with you job? Female 21 3.38 .921 .201
Independent samples test
Levene’s test for
equality of variances t-test for equality of means
95% confidence interval
of the difference
F Sig.
t df
Sig.
(two-tailed)
Mean
difference
Std. error
difference Lowe Upper
Equal variances
assumed
.103 .751 .168 28 .868 .063 .378 –.710 .837 All in all, how
satisfied would you
say yo u are with
you job? Equal variances not
assumed
.161 13.957 .874 .063 .393 –.780 .907
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Table 33 T-test between gender and intention to quit job statistics
Group statistics
Gender N mean Std. deviation Std. error
Male 9 2.11 .928 .309 Do you intend to leave the current job in
this company? Female 21 2.95 .921 .201
Independent samples test
Levene’s test for
equality of variances t-test for equality of means
95% confidence interval
of the difference
F Sig. t df
Sig. (two-
tailed)
Mean
difference
Std. error
difference Lowe Upper
Equal variances
assumed
.864 .361 –2.288 28 .030 –.841 .368 –1.594 –.088 Do you intend to
leave the current
job in this
company? Equal variances not
assumed
–2.281 15.099 .037 –.841 .369 –1.627 –.056
70 G. Swarochi et al.
15.3 Which factor among these motivates you the most?
Interpretation: The following results were obtained when the employees are asked which
factor motivates them to the most. Almost equal preference was given by the employees
to the options salary hike, promotion and recognition. 36.7% of the employees felt that
promotion motivates them the most, 33.3% of the employees felt that salary hike
motivates them and nearly 30% of the employees felt that they are mostly motivated by
the recognition given to them.
Table 34 Factor for motivation
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Salary hike 10 33.3 33.3 33.3
Promotion 11 36.7 36.7 70.0
Recognition 9 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 30 Factor for motivation (see online version for colours)
15.4 What are the steps taken by the organisation for the job enrichment of
employees?
Interpretation: The results of the analysis done shows that 40% of the employees believe
that setting the challenges in work help in the job enrichment of employees. 36.7% of the
employees believe that widening the scope of activities is better, 16.7% of the employees
believe that giving exposure to variety of jobs will create job enrichment and only 6.7%
of the employees feel that deliberate upgrading of responsibility should be done for the
job enrichment of the employees.
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Table 35 Steps for job enrichment
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Deliberate
upgrading of
responsibility
2 6.7 6.7 6.7
Widening the scope
of activities
11 36.7 36.7 43.3
Setting the
challenges in work
12 40.0 40.0 83.3
Giving exposure to
variety of jobs
5 16.7 16.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 31 Steps for job enrichment (see online version for colours)
15.5 What is the purpose of job design and goal setting in your organisation?
Interpretation: 53.3% of the respondents define that the purpose of job design and goal
setting in their company is to facilitate the work flow, bring effective coordination and
integration and has a positive impact on employee satisfaction. 23.3% of the respondents
agreed that it creates a positive impact on employee satisfaction, 16.7% of the
respondents agreed that it is helpful for effective coordination and integration and only
6.7% of them believe that it facilitates work flow in the organisation.
72 G. Swarochi et al.
Table 36 Purpose of job design
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid It facilitates work
flow
2 6.7 6.7 6.7
Effective
coordination and
integration
5 16.7 16.7 23.3
Positive impact on
employee
satisfaction
7 23.3 23.3 46.7
All of the above 16 53.3 53.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 32 Purpose of job design (see online version for colours)
15.6 How often do you work at home as part of your job?
Interpretation: Of all the respondents 33.3% of the employees responded that they work
from home only once in a month. 26.7% of them said that they will work 2–3 times a
month from home. 13.3% of the respondents said that they never from home and another
13.3% of the respondents said that they work from home once in a week. 6.7% of the
employees responded that they work from home a few times in a year and another 6.7%
of the employees said that they work from home 2–3 times a week.
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Table 37 How often employees work at home
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Never 4 13.3 13.3 13.3
A few times a year 2 6.7 6.7 20.0
Once a month 10 33.3 33.3 53.3
2–3 times a month 8 26.7 26.7 80.0
Once a week 4 13.3 13.3 93.3
2–3 times a week 2 6.7 6.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 33 How often employees work at home (see online version for colours)
15.7 Do you supervise others at work as a part of your job?
Interpretation: When all the respondents are asked if they supervise other employees as
part of their work the following results were obtained. 70% of the employees responded
that they do not supervise other employees and only 30% of the employees supervise
other employees as part of their work in the organisation.
Table 38 Does employees supervise others
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Yes 9 30 30 30.0
No 21 70 70 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
74 G. Swarochi et al.
Figure 34 Does employees supervise others (see online version for colours)
Do you supervise others at work as a part of your job?
Yes
No
15.8 Do you intend to leave the current job in this company?
Interpretation: When the respondents are asked do they intend to leave the current job the
following results were obtained. 60% of the employees responded that they cannot say.
Only 16.7% of the employees responded that they do not want to leave their current job.
13.3% of the employees agreed that they want to leave the current job. 6.7% of the
employees responded that may leave the current company and 3.3% of the employees
said that they do not know whether they will leave the job or not.
Figure 35 Intention to quit the job (see online version for colours)
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Table 39 Intention to quit the job
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Yes 4 13.3 13.3 13.3
No 5 16.7 16.7 30.0
Cannot say 18 60.0 60.0 90.0
Do not know 1 3.3 3.3 93.3
Maybe 2 6.7 6.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
15.9 All in all, how satisfied would you say you are with your job?
Interpretation: 43.3% of the employees are satisfied with their current job, 30% of the
employees said that they are neutral regarding how satisfied they are with the job. 20% of
the employees are dissatisfied with the job. And only 6.7% of the employees are Very
Satisfied with their job.
Table 40 Satisfaction of employees
Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Dissatisfied 6 20.0 20.0 20.0
Neutral 9 30.0 30.0 50.0
Satisfied 13 43.3 43.3 93.3
Very satisfied 2 6.7 6.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
Figure 36 Satisfaction of employees (see online version for colours)
76 G. Swarochi et al.
16 Findings
In Kelly Services almost all the employees are satisfied with their job. Only a few of
the employees are very satisfied with their job and some of the employees are
dissatisfied with their job in the company.
Most of the employees felt that promotion motivates them, some of them said that
salary hike is the most motivating factor and some of them said that recognition
motivates them the most.
The study shows that there is a positive correlation between monthly income and
how satisfied are they with their job.
Most of the employees responded that they cannot say whether they intend to leave
the organisation or not. Only some of the employees responded that they do not want
to leave the job and only a few responded that they intend to leave the current job.
Almost all the employees in the company are dissatisfied with the transportation
facilities provided by the company.
Most of the employees felt that they are not satisfied with the health measures taken
by the company.
Most of the employees felt that they are satisfied with the job security provided by
the company.
Almost all the employees are satisfied with the environmental conditions in the
company.
Most of the employees responded that they work from home rarely.
Most of the employees do not supervise other employees as part of their work.
Almost all the employees in Kelly Services are satisfied with the job security
provided by the organisation.
Most of the employees feel that the management maintains good relations with the
employees
Most of the employees are satisfied with the interactive programs conducted by the
organisation for improving the skills of the employees.
Employees of Kelly Services are not satisfied with the stress reduction programs
conducted by the organisation in order to reduce the stress.
Mostly all the employees are satisfied with the pay structure followed in the
organisation.
Almost all the employees feel that the safety of the workers is given more
importance in the organisation.
Most of the employees are not given freedom to change their starting and quitting
time in a daily basis.
A
n empirical research on quality of wor
k
-life 77
17 Suggestions
Safety measures could be improved in the organisation so that worker safety could
be ensured and accidents could be minimised.
Workers may be encouraged to offer suggestions for making improvements in the
organisation. This makes them feel their importance in the company.
Sufficient training programs can be arranged so that the worker productivity could be
improved.
Appropriate pay strategies could be evolved to give fair and adequate compensation
to the employees. Performance-based increments would improve the performance of
the workers.
Medical expenses of the workers could be reimbursed.
Providing adequate casual leave or permission may be considered.
Information flow within the organisation could be improved.
Stress management programs could be improved so that the employees will be
working more effectively and efficiently.
Transportation facilities for the employees could be improved.
Measures could be taken to retain the employees in the organisation.
Improving the job security provided to the employees could be done.
The employees could be given more freedom in deciding how their work can be
done.
The company could give freedom for the employees in deciding the starting and
quitting times of their work.
18 Conclusions
QWL plays a vital role in human resource management. QWL in India can be improved
through a variety of instrumentalities like education and training, employee
communication, union participation, research projects and appreciation of changing
environment. A good human resources practice would encourage all employees to be
more productive while enjoying work. Therefore, QWL is becoming an important human
resources issue in all organisations. QWL is intended to develop enhance and utilise
human resource effectively, to improve quality of products, services, productivity and
reduce cost of production per unit of output and to satisfy the workers psychological
needs for self-esteem, participation, recognition, etc., improved QWL leads to improved
performance. Performance means not only physical output but also the behaviour of the
worker in helping his colleagues in solving job related problems, team spirit and
accepting temporary unfavourable work conditions without complaints. An assured good
QWL will not only attract young and new talent but also retain the existing experience
talent. The research shows that QWL has multidimensional constructs, these constructs
78 G. Swarochi et al.
have to be considered during the job design process. The study also reveals the
contribution of components of QWL which are positively associated with the employee
satisfaction and employees’ opinion on QWL in different sectors.
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Appendix
Questionnaire on quality of work life of employees in Kelly Services
1 Name
2 Gender
a Male b Female
3 Age
a Less than 25 b 26–35 c 36–45 d 46–55 e greater than 56
4 Marital status
a Single b Married
5 Are you a trainee?
a Yes b No
If yes skip the below two questions
6 What is your monthly income?
a Less than 25,000 b 25,001–50,000 c 50,001–1 Lakh d Greater than 1 Lakh
7 Since how many years have you been working with this organization?
a Less than 5 years b 5–10 years c 11 to 15 years d More than 15 years
8 What do you think about the work load in your organization?
a Work load is very much and tasks are not finished at appropriate time
b Work load is very much but due to participative environment we are able to complete the tasks
c Work load is evenly distributed and we are able to complete the tasks on time
d Work load is less as compared to other companies
9 Do you think that communication and information flow between the departments is satisfactory?
a Yes b No
10 Does the employees in the organization share their experiences to help each other?
a Yes b No
11 Does the company provides training for enriching the skills of employees?
a Yes b No
12 Do you think proper training improves the productivity of the company and employees?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
80 G. Swarochi et al.
13 Are you comfortable with the working hours of the organization?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
14 Do you think that the job environment and working conditions in the organization are fair?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
15 Do you think that the growth and security opportunities are better in the organization?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
16 Do you think that the career- planning program followed in the organization is helpful for you in attaining
the goals?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
17 Do you think that the pay structure followed in the organization is fair?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
18 Do you think that the promotions are given to the deserved employees in the organization?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
19 Do you think that the place where you work runs in a smooth and effective manner?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
20 Are you allowed to change your starting and quitting times on a daily basis?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
21 At the place where you work, are you treated with respect?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
22 Do you think that the organization provides better health measures for its employees and their dependents?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
23 Do you think that the organization is providing better transportation facilities for its employees?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
24 Do you think that the organization focuses on improving the skills of the employees through various
interactive programs?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
25 Do you think that the safety of workers is given high priority in the organization?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
26 Do you receive enough help and equipment from the organization for completing your tasks?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
27 Do you have access to stress management or stress reduction programs at your current workplace?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
28 Do you feel that the management maintains good relations with the employees?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
29 Does your organization gives you freedom in deciding how your work can be done?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
30 Do you think that the job security provided by the organization is good?
a Strongly agree b Agree c Neutral d Disagree e Strongly disagree
31 Which factor among these motivates you the most?
a Salary hike b Promotion c Leave d Motivational talk e Recognition
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