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Perceptions of clothing fit from young consumer perspective were explored to develop an understanding of how they think about dimensions that influence clothing fit and how fit relates to psychological and social experience. The qualitative-dominant mixed methods design included focus group interviews and a survey. Participants were 66 female and male college students. In quantitative responses, respondents reported being slightly satisfied with clothing fit in general. Five qualitative themes emerged as important to understanding fit perceptions: (1) physical fit, (2) aesthetic fit, and (3) functional fit that are relative to (4) social context and that have an impact on (5) social comfort. A conceptual model of fit satisfaction in a social context is proposed.
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International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and
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How young consumers think about clothing fit?
Eonyou Shin & Mary Lynn Damhorst
To cite this article: Eonyou Shin & Mary Lynn Damhorst (2018): How young consumers think
about clothing fit?, International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education, DOI:
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How young consumers think about clothing fit?
Eonyou Shin
and Mary Lynn Damhorst
Department of Apparel, Housing, and Resource Management, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA;
Department of Apparel, Events, and
Hospitality Management, Iowa State University, Cambridge, IA, USA
Perceptions of clothing fit from young consumer perspective were explored to develop an
understanding of how they think about dimensions that influence clothing fit and how fit relates
to psychological and social experience. The qualitative-dominant mixed methods design
included focus group interviews and a survey. Participants were 66 female and male college
students. In quantitative responses, respondents reported being slightly satisfied with clothing fit
in general. Five qualitative themes emerged as important to understanding fit perceptions: (1)
physical fit, (2) aesthetic fit, and (3) functional fit that are relative to (4) social context and that
have an impact on (5) social comfort. A conceptual model of fit satisfaction in a social context is
Received 4 September 2017
Accepted 1 March 2018
Fit perception; fit satisfaction;
social context
1. Introduction
Consumers tend to regard clothing fit as the most crucial
factor in determining their overall satisfaction with gar-
ments (Pisut & Connell, 2007). However, individual
body variation coupled with a lack of standardisation
of sizing systems in the apparel industry adds substantial
complexity to getting a good fit. Consumers have con-
tinuously experienced fit problems due to an incongru-
ent relationship between the garment and the body,
which often causes them to return apparel they have pur-
chased (Anderson et al., 2000) or decide against purchas-
ing apparel after trying it on in the store (Eckman,
Damhorst, & Kadolph, 1990).
Numerous studies over the past 30 years in fashion
design and product development have primarily focused
on finding practical ways to improve fit, using experts
opinions to assess clothing fit (e.g. Ashdown & Loker,
2010; Ashdown, Loker, Adelson, Schoenfelder, &
Lyman-Clarke, 2004; Ashdown & OConnell, 2006;
Frost, 1988; Loker, Ashdown, Cowie, & Schoenfelder,
2005). Indeed, only a few studies have examined consu-
mersspecific fit preferences (Alexander, Connell, &
Presley, 2005; Anderson et al., 2000; Chattaraman &
Rudd, 2006) or concerns with fit and size of garments
(Kim & Damhorst, 2010,2013). There has been an
emphasis on expert standards rather than consumer
assessments of factors that shape their preferences or sat-
isfaction with clothing.
Research to date provides limited understanding of
consumersperceptions of clothing fit because of the
complexity of assessing fit; individuals have varied per-
ceptions of fit affected by many factors, including body
image, body cathexis, and personal comfort preference
(LaBat, 1987; Pisut & Connell, 2007), aesthetics (Pisut
& Connell, 2007) and current fashion trends, age, gen-
der, body shape, and lifestyle (Brown & Rice, 2001). In
the process of making a purchase decision, consumers
tend to evaluate fit in terms of multidimensional charac-
teristics functional, aesthetic, and socio-psychological
aspects (Tselepis & Klerk, 2004). In addition, consumers
needs and desires regarding clothing fit may be affected
by the context of use and socio-psychological needs (Tse-
lepis & Klerk, 2004). Therefore, there is a need to further
explore the range of factors that consumers consider in
evaluating fit when shopping for clothing in the variety
of use situations.
Because clothing fit for consumers has both psycho-
logical and social meaning, understanding consumer sat-
isfaction with clothing fit is more complex than simply
finding properly sized and fitted garments. However,
no study to date has attempted to investigate multidi-
mensional aspects of consumersperceptions and evalu-
ations of fit across varied contexts. In addition,
consumers may generalise across their experiences with
fit to consider themselves personally as hard to fitor
easy to fitwith many variations in between. This
study specifically looked into young consumerspercep-
tions of fit because college students have significant buy-
ing power; in 2016, young consumers spent $560 billion
overall and $19 billion on clothing and shoes (Refuel
© The Textile Institute and Informa UK Ltd 2018
CONTACT Eonyou Shin, Department of Apparel, Housing, and Resource Management, Virginia Tech, 103A
Wallace Hall, 295 Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Agency, 2017). Thus, the present study examines how
young consumers talk about fit to understand how they
think about dimensions that influence clothing fit and
how fit relates to psychological and social experience.
2. Literature review
2.1. The concept of clothing fit
Due to the multifaceted characteristics of apparel, many
researchers have defined apparel fit in multiple dimen-
sions. Clothing fit has been defined as the relationship
of clothing to the body (Brown & Rice, 2001; LaBat,
1987), the visual analysis of fit, and the physical evalu-
ation of comfort (LaBat, 1987). Similar to LaBat
(1987), Frost (1988) defined apparel fit as visual as
well as physical satisfaction of the garment and its func-
tion on the body(p. 2). A few studies identified two
dimensions of apparel fit aesthetic fit as the appearance
of the garment in relation to the body and functional fit
as the comfort and performance of the garment on the
body (Eckman et al., 1990; Outling, 2007).
Although a well-fitted garment is difficult to define
because of multiple factors that affect individual prefer-
ence, many researchers have focused on fit from various
designer-mediated perspectives (e.g. Ashdown et al.,
2004; Ashdown & OConnell, 2006; Frost, 1988; Loker
et al., 2005). A few researchers have focused on fit
from the consumer perspective (Alexander et al., 2005;
Anderson et al., 2000; Chattaraman & Rudd, 2006;
Pisut & Connell, 2007). Therefore, this review presents
two perspectives: designer-mediated and consumer.
2.2. Clothing fit from a designer-mediated
The standard of fit is defined as a set of physical charac-
teristics of a fitted garment (Frost, 1988) and is often bro-
ken down into five principles of fit: ease, line, grain,
balance, and set (Erwin & Kinchen, 1974). Ease is
defined as the amount of space between the garment
and the body; a tight-fitting garment has less ease,
while a loose-fitting garment has more ease. Functional
or design considerations can affect ease. Functional
ease refers to the amount of fabric that allows for body
movement, and design ease is the amount of fabric
needed to demonstrate the design of the garment. Line
refers to the structural alignment of a garment. Line is
evaluated often by examining positioning of seams. For
example, vertical seams should be straight and perpen-
dicular to the floor (unless designed to be curvy or
slanted). Grain refers to the relationship between fabric,
pattern, and wearer; the warp yarns of a woven fabric,
when the garment is worn, may be parallel to or perpen-
dicular to the floor or at a 45-degree angle if the fabric is
cut on the bias. Balance is influenced by how a garment is
distributed on the body from left to right and front to
back. For example, a balanced garment should appear
equal in visual weight on the left and right front of the
body. Set is indicated by the smoothness of the fabric
on the body; absence of wrinkling and pulling of the gar-
ment indicates good set (Erwin & Kinchen, 1974).
In the traditional fit test, judges who have worked as
technical designers in the apparel industry assess the fit
of garments on a fit model by observing a video record-
ing (Ashdown & OConnell, 2006) or the garment on the
body of a moving fit model observed in person. Recently,
fit experts have used digital information to analyse fit by
means of three-dimensional body scanners (Ashdown
et al., 2004; Ashdown & Loker, 2010; Loker et al.,
2005). The body scanner compares measurements of
the body to measurements of the garment. The external
assessor judges static fit (i.e. the relationship between
garment size and body size), dynamic fit (i.e. whether a
garment allows the wearer to perform common tasks
without interference or resistance), and product sty-
ling/design ease (Laing & Sleivert, 2002). However, the
results of fit analyses from wearers and external assessors
are often inconsistent (Ashdown & Loker, 2010).
2.3. Clothing fit from the consumers perspective
2.3.1. Wearer acceptability
Wearers analyse fit based on how they feel in a garment
and how they perceive fit and comfort after completing
various movements (e.g. standing erect, kneeling, etc.).
In some studies, participants rated fit on a wearer accept-
ability scale such as the scale developed by Huck,
Maganga, and Kim (1997). The measure consists of 13
pairs of adjectives with a 9-point scale measuring wear
acceptance, design features, and fit of a specific garment.
2.3.2. Fit preference
Studies of clothing fit from the consumers perspective
often have examined consumerssubjective or preferred
fit using a fit preferencescale (Anderson et al., 2000)
and an aesthetic attribute preference scale(Chattara-
man & Rudd, 2006). Most studies used Anderson et al.s
(2000) fit preference scale to measure consumerspre-
ferred fit (fitted, semi-fitted, or loosely fitted) using line
drawings representing six garment categories (jackets,
skirts, dresses, tops, jeans, and pants) (Alexander et al.,
2005; Anderson et al., 2000). The aesthetic attribute pre-
ference scale (Chattaraman & Rudd, 2006), by contrast,
measures isolated length and width components of fit.
The stimuli consist of two illustrations (the top half of
a womans body and the lower half of a womans body)
with a 7-point semantic differential scale at seven prefer-
ence measurement sites (top length, top silhouette, sleeve
length, neckline, bottom length, bottom silhouette, and
waist). However, it is difficult to capture the full consu-
mer perspective on fit with either scale, because both
scales capture only the visual relationship between the
body and the garment.
2.3.3. Fit satisfaction
Satisfaction with clothing fithas been used to refer to the
degree to which consumers are satisfied with the fit of
specific garments on specific parts of their bodies (thigh,
hip, waist, and bust/chest) (LaBat & DeLong, 1990).
Numerous studies have investigated womens body cathe-
xis and clothing fit satisfaction with respect to different
body parts (e.g. Feather, Ford, & Herr, 1996; Feather,
Herr, & Ford, 1997; LaBat & DeLong, 1990). LaBat and
DeLong (1990) examined 22 body sites commonly associ-
ated with fit dissatisfaction, including pant length, crotch
area, thigh, buttocks, and hip.
A majority of researchers have concentrated on exam-
ining the relationship between female consumersbody
cathexis and fit satisfaction for specific parts of certain
garment types (e.g. sleeves of shirts or legs of trousers)
(Feather et al., 1996,1997; LaBat & DeLong, 1990;
Shim & Bickle, 1993). The studies shared a common
finding that women, regardless of their age, expressed
more dissatisfaction with garment fit in their lower
bodies than with garment fit in the upper body area
(Feather et al., 1996,1997; LaBat & DeLong, 1990;
Shim & Bickle, 1993).
2.3.4. Concerns with clothing fit
The degree that a consumer is concerned about fit may
relate to psychological issues such as body satisfaction
as well as fit satisfaction. Kim and Damhorst (2010,
2013) investigated the relationships between body dissa-
tisfaction and concerns with fit and size of garments,
enduring and situational apparel involvement, and pur-
chase intentions in an online shopping context and
found that female consumersbody dissatisfaction was
related to increased concern with fit and size of
3. Purpose and research questions
Previous research highlights that clothing fit has numer-
ous and complex dimensions (Frost, 1988). Surprisingly,
this important theme is often noted but rarely studied in
the literature on satisfaction with or perceptions of cloth-
ing fit. One study proposed a schematic conceptual fra-
mework showing the relationship between expectations
of fit for functional, social-psychological, and aesthetic
aspects among adolescent girls (Tselepis & Klerk,
2004). The framework alerts us to the potential dimen-
sionality of fit perception in social context.
Limited research on dimensions influencing clothing
fit from the consumers perspective has made it difficult
to fully understand how and why consumers are or are
not satisfied with fit of clothing. We qualitatively
explored young consumersperceptions of fit, through
memories of their experiences when shopping for cloth-
ing as well as use situations in which fit may have differ-
ing requirements and meanings. The qualitative data
provide deeper insights into consumer experience with
clothing fit and identification of factors or dimensions
that consumers may consider when evaluating fit in
social context. The words used by consumers will ulti-
mately increase understanding of consumer satisfaction
and problems with fit and will facilitate practical sol-
utions as well as theoretical aims.
Thus, the purpose of the current study is to increase
understanding of young consumers perceptions of
clothing fit. Three research questions are proposed: (1)
How satisfied overall are young consumers with clothing
fit? (2) How do young consumers perceive clothing fit?
and (3) How do situational factors, i.e. social context,
impact young consumers perceptions of clothing fit?
4. Method
A qualitative-dominant mixed methods design was used
to probe participantsthoughts about fit perceptions, pre-
ferences, and satisfaction. The quantitative phase was con-
ducted using a paper-based survey to measure
demographic characteristics and the level to which partici-
pants were satisfied/dissatisfied with clothing fit in gen-
eral. Then, focus group interviews were conducted to
explore possible dimensions of consumersperceptions
of fit and gain a deeper understanding of consumers
experiences with and thoughts regarding clothing fit.
4.1. Sample
Convenience sampling of female and male students was
conducted from a large class at a US Midwestern univer-
sity. Students volunteered to participate in the study for
class credit; the class had an enrolment of about 300 and
included students from a wide variety of majors and all
class levels, freshman through seniors. A total of eight
focus group sessions were held, four with female students
and four with male students. Convenience sampling was
deemed acceptable because of the exploratory nature of
qualitative research and the inability to statistically gen-
eralise focus group findings. The interaction in focus
groups adds value in that group member input can
increase idea generation among participants as they
build upon other membersinput. The qualitative data
allow access to talk that reveals how consumers think
and act.
Of the 94 volunteers, 66 (70%) participated in the
study. A total of eight interview sessions were conducted
over four weeks. Participation was limited to students
who could attend scheduled sessions. Only 15 students
were invited to attend each session, resulting in 511
participants at each session. The sessions took about 50
minutes for completion of the survey and the focus
group interview.
About half of the participants were male (52%) and half
female (48%). A majority (83%) of the respondents were
1822 years old with a mean age of 21; the remaining
17% were older than 22. The students were evenly distrib-
uted across undergraduate classification levels (freshmen
through seniors). Most of the participants were Asian eth-
nicity (50%) or European American (47%). The number
of international students (52%) was slightly greater than
the number of domestic students (48%).
4.2. Data collection procedure
After obtaining approval from the Institutional Review
Board, students were recruited with announcements in
class. Participants were randomly selected from the list
of volunteers and were emailed information about the
time and place of the scheduled session. Students who
were not selected or who did not want to participate
were offered alternative opportunities for class credit.
Participants completed the survey in the focus group
meeting place before taking part in the focus group inter-
view. During the interviews, questions were asked to
explore fit perceptions of garments. The conversations
from all group interviews were captured via digital
audio recorder and later transcribed.
4.3. Instruments and interview protocol
4.3.1. Quantitative and multiple choice measures
The questionnaire contained four overall fit satisfaction
items, including four items borrowed from earlier consu-
mer satisfaction studies and adapted to the concept of fit
(Maloles, 1997; Mano & Oliver, 1993; Oliver, 1980; Ryan
et al., 1995 ). The four items included: Overall, the
experience that I have had with clothing fit has been sat-
isfactory;Overall, in purchasing clothing, my experi-
ence with apparel fit is positive;Overall, I am satisfied
with apparel fit;Overall, I am pleased with how the
clothing I find in stores fits. The items were rated on a
7-point Likert-type scale with endpoints of strongly
disagree(1) and strongly agree(7). Demographic
items included gender, age, ethnic background, national-
ity, class standing, and academic major.
4.3.2. Qualitative interview protocol
Semi-structured questions were asked to explore consu-
mersfit perceptions and to explore the factors that affect
their satisfaction with clothing fit. The questions moved
from general (e.g. overall concerns with fit when they go
shopping for clothing) to specific questions (e.g. experi-
ence with clothing fit, what factors make them personally
satisfied and dissatisfied when they evaluate clothing fit)
in congruence with recommendations by Stewart and
Shamdasani (1990).
4.4. Data analysis
4.4.1. Quantitative
Descriptive statistics for overall clothing fit satisfaction
and demographic information were calculated from the
survey data, including means and standard deviations
of item scores. For quality assessment of the satisfaction
measure, items were considered as sufficiently reliable if
Cronbachsalpha was .70 or higher (Nunnally & Bern-
stein, 1994). Reliable items were summed into a single
score of overall satisfaction with fit and used to assess
group differences via t-tests. Further indication that
summing of items was allowable was found in t-tests
comparing various groups.
4.4.2. Qualitative
The audio-recorded and transcribed interviews were
searched for themes and patterns in the focus group
interviews. Line-by-line analysis was performed to
apply open, axial, and selective coding to the transcripts
to analyse themes and subthemes (Strauss & Corbin,
1998). The constant comparison approach was employed
to compare data until sufficient themes were developed
to cover the entire dataset (Esterberg, 2002).
Trustworthiness of qualitative data was established by
enlisting a second coder to apply theme categories to all
interview transcripts. The two attempts at coding were
compared, and an agreement of 93.8% was achieved.
Disagreements were then negotiated between the two
5. Results
5.1. Research question 1: overall satisfaction with
clothing fit in general
Cronbachsalpha for overall clothing fit satisfaction was
.912, indicating a high internal consistency for this factor
(Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). Mean score of partici-
pantsoverall satisfaction with fit in general (M= 5.08,
SD = .99) was about 5 on a scale of 7, indicating that
participants were slightly satisfied with fit in general.
We tested the differences between genders (t=.39,
df = 64, p= .70), citizenship (international vs. non-inter-
national) (t=.14, df = 64, p= .89), ethnic groups (Asian
vs. European Americans) (t=.39, df = 64, p= .81) and
class standing (t=.14, df = 64, p= .89), but no signifi-
cant differences were found.
5.2. Research questions 2 and 3: fit perception
Four key themes emerged from the focus group inter-
views: (1) physical fit, (2) aesthetic fit, (3) functional
fit, and (4) social context.
5.2.1. Physical fit
Physical fit issues of concern to participants related to
tightness and length of clothing. Participants unani-
mously mentioned garment length and tightness when
asked what good/bad fit in clothing meant to them.
Participantsphysical fit preferences may vary to some
extent depending on individual body characteristics
(i.e. height and body build) and clothing type. Numerous
participants reported having problems when clothing
failed to fit proportionally on their body in terms of
the tightness-to-length ratio. Tightness
A majority of participants reported that they considered
the level of tightness of a garment in determining
whether it was well fitting depending on individual pre-
ferences relating to body part and type of clothing. Par-
ticipantspreferences regarding the level of tightness
seemed to vary based on a body part (i.e. shoulder,
bust, back, waist, abdomen, arms, hips, thigh, legs) as
well as on the type of clothing (i.e. tops, shirts, jackets,
pants, jeans). (Note: In all following examples, quotes
are identified by gender followed by the participants
group and identification number.)
Pants, Id like them tighter fitting at the hips and
looser at the bottom Bad fit would be I guess shirts
that are too baggy or too tight. When the main part of
the shirt fits but then the sleeves are tight thats some-
times a problem [F21]
The response from F21 is typical, in that F21 prefers a
tighter t on the hips but a looser t for pants. Shirts
should not be too baggy or too tight; a bad t for
shirts was described as when parts, such as sleeves,
were tight. Length
Participants described the appropriate length of clothing
depending on the type of clothing and its fit on specific
body areas. The majority of participants reported that
the right length of sleeves for their arms and the right
length of pants/jeans for their legs were required for
good fit.
Some participants tended to mention their height
when talking about their previous experience with gar-
ment length. Taller consumers were concerned about
whether clothing was long enough for their arms and
legs, while shorter consumers preferred clothing that
was not too long. For example: its hard to find, if
youre tall and thin, jeans that fit that are hard because
sometimes theyre too short [F42]and Im kind of tall
too, and a lot of times, shirts wont be long enough
The length-width ratio was also reported when asked
about problems with fit, but was different across clothing
types and by gender. Female participants were likely to
report problems with various garments (i.e. pants,
jeans, dresses, skirts, jackets, shirts, and tops) and body
areas (e.g. shoulders, chests, armpits, waist, legs, knees,
thighs). A majority of the female participants stated
that jeans were the most difficult to fit properly because
the waist size and leg length were not usually both cor-
rect. Male participants reported having the same types
of length-to-width ratio problems. However, shirts
were more frequently mentioned by the male partici-
pants who cited difficulty in finding the desired tightness
on torso (back, shoulder) with the preferred length of
5.2.2. Aesthetic fit
Aesthetic fit involves self-evaluations regarding a gar-
ments overall appearance related to body proportions,
which affect perceptions of attractiveness. Participant
responses indicated that good fit in clothing was related
to whether the clothing looked good in general or
showed their body in a positive way to look attractive.
Most participants tended to use the word look(s)pre-
ceded or followed by an adjective, such as nice,good/
better,flattering,ortrim/thinner/skinny, to express
good fit in clothing. Conversely, bad fit in clothing was
defined as when the clothing showed the body in a nega-
tive way. For bad fit in clothing, participants also tended
to use look(s)followed by one or more negative adjec-
tives, such as chubby/bigger/ginormous, short/shorter/
smaller, dumb, not good, weird, or goofy. The aesthetic
aspects of tightness/looseness closely relate to the fit
theme of tightness/looseness, but incorporate an empha-
sis on look and aesthetic proportions rather than the
emphasis of feel on the body.
A number of the participants stated that they con-
sidered overall appearance as a factor of aesthetic fit,
which is often related to tightness and often an optical
illusion of slenderness. As expressed by M11, aesthetic
fit was demonstrated by looking good and looking trim:
something thats loose but still looks good on you and
makes you look trim and fit, so not skin-tight where
your muscles are popping out or your belly is hanging
out, but definitely loose enough so you can still see
your body definition [M11].
For M11, good tisdened as clothes that were some-
what loose and not too tight. He described inappropriate
tightness (skin-tight) as causing unwanted emphasis of
certain body parts or contours. Similarly, other partici-
pants expressed the opinion that too-tight clothing
could look bad if it caused body exposure such as show-
ing their stomach. Conversely, if the clothing was too
loose, it could also look bad on ones body by making
the individual look large or shapeless and not slender
or trim.
Attractiveness was also considered when consumers
thought about aesthetic fit whether the garment was
flattering or looked good to others. Attractiveness in
this study was defined by participants as a visually pleas-
ing fit that gives a good impression to others. A few
female participants mentioned good fit when clothing
flattered them. According to F48, a good fit is one that
makes her attractive by fitting correctly on her body: If
its flattering on you, it has to fit your body right, or
its just not cute.
Fashion trends were a factor affecting aesthetic fit. For
example, F46 stated And even if its a trend, like boxy
blazers, Ill put it on and my shoulders will look really
broad in it its fitting correctly but it makes me look
wide. F46 was indicating that she does not adopt all
fashion trends if the style increases the appearance of
body width. Other participants reported that their
desired fit was clothing that reflected current styles in
fashion. For example, M16 mentioned ‘…whenever I
grab my old clothes from the closet from like three
years ago and try them on, if it looks bad because of
the fit and its not in the trend now, then I feel bad
about it.
5.2.3. Functional fit
Numerous participants defined good fit in clothing as
when their movement or activities would not be
restricted and they would feel physically comfortable
moving about while wearing the clothing, i.e. while sit-
ting, standing, walking, and exercising. When studying
or working out, participants preferred functionally fitting
clothing. Good fit means clothes can help you do daily
activities more comfortably and more easily [M37],
and I like them [flowy clothing] because its less con-
fined so I feel like I can like do more things and be com-
fortable, and its more versatile for throughout the day
and night [F32]. The responses indicated that the defi-
nition of good/bad fit is closely related to whether the
wearer feels physically comfortable and unconfined.
For some participants, the tightness of clothing was
related to the functional aspects of fit. To move comfor-
tably, clothing has to be neither too loose nor too tight.
F38 expressed her preference for tightness in pants in
terms of what happens when sitting down:
I think [a good fit is] pants that arent too tight when
you sit down, because when you sit down, usually
pants feel tighter. And then I have like the problem
where on your back, the pants, theres always a gap, so
I always have to keep pulling up my pants, so any
pants that you dont have to do that is good [F38].
In this case, exible movement of clothing with the body
for various postures and positions was seen as functional.
5.2.4. Social context
In addition to the three dimensions of fit, social context
served as a crucial determinant of fit success. Social con-
text included consideration of the type of social situation
as well as receiving social feedback from others. Social situation. The majority of respondents
mentioned that fit performance in a social situation
incorporated all three dimensions of fit into the social
context. In other words, most participants reported
that the desired physical, aesthetic, and functional fit dif-
fered based on the social situation or occasion they were
in. Negative experiences with fit were mentioned in
relation to a class, a job interview, and a sporting
event; most of this dissatisfaction arose from comparing
themselves with other people present at the time and
assessing the self as not fitting in with expectations for
the situation. Lack of fit with social context may be per-
ceived as a faux pas and may slightly to greatly damage
the image of self-presented to others (Goffman, 1959).
Most participants felt that comfortable clothing that
looked good was appropriate for class, and that not
being too dressed up or down compared to other stu-
dents in the class was important. M15 indicated that
physical and aesthetic fit were subject to change based
on the social situation:
I think you just have to wear the right thing in the right
moment. It has to physically fit well, but also you have to
be in the right situation, like I dont want to wear a very
nice fitting suit to this interview, for example. I would
definitely stand out. You dont want to be wearing
your nice fitting, comfortable pajamas to a job interview,
so I think its not all about finding whats physically fit-
ting, but also whats socially fitting in that situation
The data indicated that physical t, aesthetic t, and
functional t tended to be weighted differently depend-
ing on the social situation. Social feedback from others. A few participants
were concerned about social feedback or what others
said and thought (e.g. verbal feedback and the imagined
judgment of others). One form of social feedback was
verbal comments from others regarding physical fit
(e.g. tightness) and aesthetic fit (e.g. overall appearance),
the two most frequently mentioned dimensions. In
addition to verbal social feedback, participants also men-
tioned the imagined judgment of others when assessing
physical fit. F21 cited explicit comments by others
about the tightness of clothing:
Tightness. People can look at you and say, Those pants
are way too tight,then youre not comfortable in them.
Usually I dont like them too tight, like to the point
where people can notice theyre too tight. [F21]
Social feedback and comparison to others are apparently
a contributor to the process of t assessment and satis-
faction. Real and imagined reviews from others are
involved in a process of symbolic interaction (Stone,
5.2.5. Social comfort
A feeling of social comfort or lack of comfort was
expressed as a consequence of actual or imagined social
feedback about clothing fit. A few participants specifi-
cally identified a relationship between fit and social com-
fort as dependent on the social situation. For example,
F32 and M37 stated that certain clothing is appropriate
for a job interview or presentation because it bestows
confidence in the situation; they tended to consider con-
fidence and social comfort as the deciding factor, even
though the fit might be less functionally comfortable
for other situations: I would feel more uncomfortable
walking in a suit or being in it all day, but professionally,
it can increase your confidence going into an interview
[F32]. Similarly, M37 recognised that high degree of
physical fit may be less socially comfortable in certain
social situations:
I think comfort is the feeling about wearing the clothes,
whereas fit is more focused on the situation. If you have
a presentation or job interview, you will wear shoes that
might not be comfortable but it fits the situation.
For aesthetic fit, participants often stated that their
comfort level with clothing fit is affected by others
comments about their overall appearance. A few partici-
pants stated that they felt socially comfortable when they
received compliments from other people, even when
they themselves did not feel that the clothing had the
right fit or was physically comfortable. According to
M15 and M22, positive comments from others referred
to looking good, which is related to aesthetic aspects
of fit.
M15: I have some clothes that dont give me the right
comfort or fit, but if people tell me it looks good, I
dont care if its uncomfortable; I just forget about it
and I just feel good. Even if its not comfortable, if people
tell me it looks good, Ill feel good for those 30 minutes.
M22: If the clothing fits, it gives you physical comfort.
But if it doesnt really fit, but people say you look pretty
good, you feel comfortable about yourself.
6. Discussion and implications
Young adult consumers in this study were on average
slightly satisfied with their overall experiences with fit
and clothing fit in general. No differences in overall fit
satisfaction scores were found based on gender, national-
ity, ethnic groups, and class standing. In previous studies,
many researchers have investigated female fit satisfaction
on particular body areas or with particular garments, and
have found that most women were dissatisfied with
apparel fit in their lower body area (Feather et al.,
1996,1997; LaBat & DeLong, 1990). The results of the
present study are not consistent with the results of pre-
vious studies because both female and male consumers
were slightly satisfied with fit in general. This lack of con-
sistency may be due to the younger sample in this study
or their tendency to generalise across the entire body for
the measure.
In addition, not once in the focus groups did consu-
mers use the formal terminology of fit evaluation (ease,
line, balance, grain, and set) developed and used by
researchers and designers (Erwin & Kinchen, 1974).
This implies that there are gaps between researchers/
designers and consumers in talking about fit. These con-
cepts may shape consumer perceptions and assessment,
but are not part of the language used by consumers.
Terms in previous and researcher-created questionnaires
and terminology used by our sample were compared in a
table in Appendix. An implication of this study is that
designers, experts, and researchers should be aware of
the terms that consumers use and apply them into the
product development process and research on fit evalu-
ations from consumer perspectives. This does not imply
that designers and researchers should abandon their
more theoretical terminology, but should carefully use
more common language when collecting data or getting
feedback from consumers. Some companies and educa-
tors may also want to inform consumers about the
more complex components of fit that consumers may
not grasp to help consumers make garment choices
that will be more satisfying ultimately. Our data indicate
that consumers generally understood ease in relation to
comfort and functionality, but more research is needed
to assess whether consumers understand concepts such
as balance, grain, and set.
6.1. Model building
Results of the focus group interviews generated evidence
that has theoretical implications for understanding the
three dimensions that young consumers consider in eval-
uating fit in social context and that influence social com-
fort with fit (see Figure 1). Figure 1 shows the
dimensions and their relationships: Physical, aesthetic,
and functional fit are shaped by social context. The
three dimensions or factors of fit are grounded in the
social context in that the importance of each dimension
of fit may vary across social situations or as a result of
feedback from others. The grounding of dimensions of
fit in social context results in the overall level of social
comfort experienced by the wearer. In other words,
social comfort can be achieved when any of the three
aspects of fit are satisfied within a given social context.
In this model, social context factors surround and influ-
ence perceptions of and experience of fit. Social comfort
is an outcome of the contextual grounding of fit.
As shown in Figure 1, the physical fit is related to aes-
thetic and functional fit. The interrelationships of these
three dimensions of fit from the consumers perspective
supports and validates previous conceptual definitions of
clothing fit, which contend that clothing fit is the
relationship of clothing to the body, combining the visual
analysis of fit and physical comfort and performance of
the garment in relation to fit (Brown & Rice, 2001;
Frost, 1988; LaBat, 1987; Outling, 2007). The social con-
text and social comfort findings highlight intriguing
areas that require much more research. Most valuable
is our model that suggests interrelationships of all
dimensions and factors and that can guide further efforts
at research.
Identifying the three dimensions of young consumers
fit perceptions in relation to social context and comfort
has useful implications for product developers and
designers interested in increasing consumer satisfaction.
For example, product developers and designers can bet-
ter satisfy consumersfit desires by asking target consu-
mers which dimensions of fit they consider more
important when shopping for a particular brand and
for particular end uses. If target consumers are satisfied
with the physical fit but dissatisfied with the functional
fit, marketers can focus more on designing clothing
that makes consumers more comfortable in relevant
activities and can display clothing in retail stores or
online that highlights functional fit for various activities.
Information about target consumersfit preferences in
certain social situations could also be applied in new
marketing strategies, such as categorising clothing
according to social contexts and offering recommen-
dations for fit. As mentioned early in the paper, college
students and young people are significant apparel
purchasers whose perspectives are valuable to many
apparel companies targeting young consumers. Thus,
the findings of this study are useful from a business
Although the quantitative measure was not sensitive
to contextual and dimensional differences of fit, the
qualitative results from the focus group interviews may
explain why participants, regardless of gender, national-
ity, or class standing, were only slightly satisfied with fit
in spite of difficulties in getting an individually perfect fit:
Consumers perceive fit in four dimensions: not only
physically, but also aesthetically, functionally, and
socially when evaluating fit.
7. Limitations and future studies
The present study has several limitations. The sample
consisted of male and female undergraduate students
from a wide array of majors, class standings, and citizen-
ships; however, a representative sample of all these
characteristics was not attempted nor feasible. In
addition, about half of the students were international
students but are a significant part of many US university
campuses. International students do make purchases of
clothing in the US. They also may somewhat reflect
emerging diversity in the US population. The lack of
differences in findings between the international and
Figure 1. Proposed conceptual model of factors affecting fit
US students lends confidence that there is some generali-
sability across ethnicities. There may be differences in
style and fit preferences across ethnicities, but the con-
cepts consumers in this study used to talk about fit did
not differ. The convenience sampling allowed us to
begin to understand how a variety of college students
think about fit.
Nevertheless, caution is needed when generalising the
findings to other consumer groups due to this limited
sample of participants. As fit preference has been
found to vary based on age, ethnicity, and personal pre-
ference (Ashdown & Loker, 2010), future research might
further investigate the differences in fit perceptions, atti-
tudes, and fit satisfaction among consumers of different
ethnicities, ages, and body types. Such studies would
increase understanding of how to ensure that diverse
consumers, who define the emerging US market, will
be satisfied with fit.
The current study showed that many previous
studies examining physical aspects of fit alone are not
sufficient to fully understand perceived fit from the
consumersperspective. Each consumers subjective
preferred fit may be individually different, dependent
not only on physical relationship to the body but also
on how garment fit is perceived visually, functionally,
and socially on the body. Although Ashdown and
Loker (2010) examined fit evaluation based on the
physical relationship between body and clothing at var-
ious locations on the body by using various measure-
ments of appearance, comfort, and ease of movement,
no studies to date have specifically measured consu-
mersperceived fit in multiple dimensions, including
physical and functional with aesthetic and social
aspects. Thus, future research might develop a quanti-
tative scale for measuring the degree of consumers
multidimensional fit perceptions in order to test the
proposed conceptual model that emerged from the
qualitative phase of this study.
Finally, the present research examined how consu-
mers talk about fit satisfaction. Although incidence
within a population can rarely be measured in qualitative
research, the words that people use are the value of quali-
tative research. Talk provides deeper understanding of
how consumers think and experience products in real
world use contexts, understanding that may ultimately
facilitate the product development process. We noted
that consumers were not using the terminology of fit
that experts use. They appeared to refer to the concept
of ease, but what about set, line, grain, and balance? It
would be of value to explore whether these four concepts
are relevant to and influence consumer satisfaction with
clothing. It is likely that most consumers will not under-
stand the terms, but they may (or may not) inherently
use the concepts in assessing fit. Thus, researchers in
consumer behaviour need to consider using the multiple
dimensions of fit in future research and develop ways to
assess whether consumers use the concepts of fit that
experts use.
Disclosure statement
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
Eonyou Shin
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Terms to describe fit in current research findings and previous
studies. Complex sentences and phrases describing context are
not included here.
Current research findings Previous studies
Physical fit
Positive: somewhat tight, not too
tight, not too loose, not loose,
somewhat loose, loose, not too
tight, and not too loose
Fitted, semi-fitted, or loosely fitted
Fitted-unfitted silhouette
Negative: Too tight, skin tight, too
loose/baggy, small, big
Positive: as long as body parts, long
enough, short, not too long
Negative: too long, too short
Aesthetic fit
Positive: Look nice, good/better,
flattering, trim/thinner/skinny
Negative: Look chubby/bigger/
ginormous, short/shorter/smaller,
dumb, not good, weird, goofy
Functional fit
Positive: Does not restrict
movement in activities, feel
physically comfortable when
moving (i.e.,i.e. sitting, standing,
walking, exercising)
move easily when engaging in daily
Negative: restrictive, uncomfortable
to move, cant move or sit down in
Feel comfortable-uncomfortable
Easy to move in-hard to move in
Freedom of movement of arms-
restricted movement of arms
Freedom of movement of legs-
restricted movement of legs
Acceptance of fit
The terms were implied in
questions and discussion content
Satisfactory fit-unsatisfactory fit
Other terms
Other terms were not reflected in
current data
Easy to put on-hard to put on
Crotch overall right distance from
body Crotch overall too close or
too far from body
Terms used in Huck et al. (1997) to measure wearers acceptability.
Terms used in Anderson et al. (2000) to measure fit preference.
Terms used in Chattaraman and Rudd (2006) to measure aesthetic attribute
... Fit is an important concept in the apparel industry and is a key component in purchase decisions made by consumers (Eckman et al., 1990;Hsu and Burns, 2002;Rosa et al., 2006). As reported by Shin and Damhorst (2018), consumers are likely to evaluate fit not solely based upon a garment's physical relationship to the body but also based on how garment fit is perceived visually and functionally on the body. Although researchers have qualitatively and quantitatively investigated fit and confirmed that consumers evaluate fit in multiple aspects, many previous studies have only measured perception of physical aspects of fit (e.g. ...
... These three aspects of fit have been confirmed by McKinney and Shin (2016) and Shin and McKinney (2017) in a content analysis of online reviews. They found that female consumers tended to evaluate and report whether online rented formal wear fit well or not in terms of the three aspects of fit; Shin and Damhorst (2018) also found that young adult consumers considered each of the three dimensions when discussing problems with fit. ...
... Although the studies of fit satisfaction, fit preference and fit problems have primarily focused on physical aspects of fit, consumers have been found to consider fit in physical, aesthetic and functional aspects based on their previous experiences of apparel shopping in general (e.g. Shin and Damhorst, 2018). Investigating only physical fit restricts an understanding of consumers' fit perception because such perceptions are affected by many factors, including personal style, current fashion trends and body image (Alexander et al., 2005). ...
Purpose The purposes of this study were twofold: (1) to develop a scale for measuring consumers’ perceived problems of finding a good fit (PFGF) and (2) to provide evidence of several types of scale validities including nomological validity through examining the relationship between PFGF and body esteem based on attribution theory. Design/methodology/approach Scale development took place in three steps: (1) An initial pool of items was generated based on a previous study; (2) preliminary quantitative tests of reliability and validity of items were performed, including confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs); and (3) final scale validation through a discriminant and nomological validity test was conducted using CFA and the structural equation model (SEM). CFAs and SEM with the mediation effect were performed using Preacher and Hayes’ (2008) bootstrap procedure in Mplus. Findings Of the 20 items (four items for physical, eight items for aesthetic and eight items for functional) generated in Step 1, a total of 14 items (four items for physical, five items for aesthetic and five items for functional) were remained through preliminary tests of reliability and validity of the scale in Step 2. In Step 3, the 14 items were finalized and validated through testing the hypothesized mediating effect of internal attribution of fit problems between the PFGF scale and the measures of body esteem. The results of consumers’ internal causal attribution process of fit problems supported attribution theory. Originality/value The study contributes to understanding consumer fit perceptions by developing a scale to assess PFGF that may be a key factor influencing multiple apparel shopping behaviors. The multidimensional scale of perceived PFGF should be useful to provide solutions to PFGF based on information from customers. Better understanding of perceived PFGF will ultimately increase consumer satisfaction with apparel.
... Consumers are most likely attracted to garment items which satisfy all their intended requirements. However, according to various consumer and designer-mediated perspectives, inappropriate sizing and fitting system often result in return of the garment that they have been purchased (Connell, et al.,, 2006;Otieno, et al.,, 2016;Shin and Damhorst, 2018). ...
... Many research studies have suggested that standardized garment sizes do not satisfy consumers and cannot provide a good fit regardless of race or age group [5]. Experts agree that fit issues are the top reason customers return online purchases [6,7,8]. ...
Full-text available
This research explored using personal avatars (from body scanning) as fit models. Also, this project is to explore fitting accuracy through the use of personal avatars and examining outcomes. Researchers who had 2D/3D computer-aided design skills developed two basic garments and virtually draped the garments on two avatars, one was the software program's default avatar, and the second was a personal avatar captured through a 3D body scan. The garments were also assembled in muslin and fit during a live session. Photographs of the three scenarios documented the static fit of the garments. Overall, the participants were satisfied with evaluating the virtual garment on their avatar, though disappointed that the avatar itself was not a cleaner image. There was some difference in the fit results between the personal avatar and the live session due to fabric appearance and differences in draping. Further research, and advancement in virtual textile rendering, need to take place as this affects the visual fit of the avatar. Virtual fit has the potential to be a time-and cost-saving practice for the industry.
This study determines the fit of racket sportswear for women’s interlock knitted top in different body zones of sports personnel by altering the pattern shapes and fabric yield by using a virtual CAD platform. The fabrics with areal densities of 120, 160, and 200 Grams / Sq.m were chosen, and twenty-seven virtual patterns were developed by altering the patterns in armhole shapes and dart positions based on the measurements taken by female sports personnel. A parametric avatar was created, and all the patterns were simulated to check the fit of the avatar by virtual simulation techniques using Lectra - Modaris software. Ease and strain were determined in critical fit zones and optimized using design expert statistical software to get the perfect fit on the customized avatar. Sportswear has been constructed using optimized parameters, and subjective evaluation is done to compare the virtual and real fit.
Clothing fit is the most important consideration during the consumer's garment appraisal process but is the primary reason for the extensive number of online returns generated in the fashion industry. This suggests that when shopping online, consumers are not provided with sufficient information about the fit of a garment. This issue is even more imperative now as COVID‐19 has accentuated the shift to shopping for clothing online. Thus, how fashion retailers communicate clothing online is a critical challenge requiring immediate attention. Underpinned by the Stimulus–Organism–Response (S‐O‐R) framework, this research undertakes a between‐subjects factorial web‐experiment to investigate how different types of fit information affect the consumers' online garment evaluations and purchasing decisions. The results from 400 UK female responses show that whilst the presence of diverse body shapes (vs. one body shape) enhances the consumers' garment fit evaluations, it does not increase purchase intentions. Alternatively, verbal fit information in the form of clothing fit reviews (vs. absence) increased product fit diagnosticity but had no significant effect on concerns with fit online or purchase intentions. The results provide novel insights into how fashion retailers can enhance the communication of clothing fit on their product pages.
The association between clothing fit and body shape is vital to purchasing satisfaction. However, scant research is available on female consumers’ use of this criterion to determine whether an apparel item will suit their body shape. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between female consumers’ perceived body shape and the evaluative criteria they frequently use when making casual clothing purchasing decisions. A group-administered questionnaire was used to collect purposeful and convenient data from 316 female respondents, aged 18–60 plus years, in Gauteng, South Africa. Respondents identified their perceived body shape using Style-Makeover body shape illustrations. They then indicated the importance/unimportance of pre-selected evaluative criteria relating to fit/sizing, style/design, colour/pattern, appearance, appropriateness/acceptability, comfort and fibre content/material when considering a casual blouse/top, skirt/trousers or a dress based on their body shape. Across all three clothing categories, fit/sizing and comfort were the most important evaluative criteria, statistically equally important and differ significantly from the proportions of other evaluative criteria for a casual blouse, skirt/trousers and dress. Women with a diamond body shape attach significantly more importance to the colour/pattern of a casual blouse/top, and women with an oval body shape found the styling/design of a casual skirt/trousers to be important. For a dress, significant associations were found between fit/sizing and women with an hourglass body shape, comfort and the triangle body shape, and colour/patterns and the rectangular body shape. These associations were small but significant, and South African fashion designers may need to consider that women with these body shapes may be less satisfied with current casual retail clothing designs, subsequently emphasizing where clothing fit needs to improve for certain prominent body shapes in South Africa.
The purpose of this article is to examine male consumers’ functional expectations, aesthetic expectations and socio-psychological expectations of the fit of ready-to-wear business apparel as potential antecedents of the purchase decision among a sample of male consumers in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Data were collected from 216 respondents using anonymously completed online questionnaires. Research scales were operationalized based on previous work, and modifications were made to match the current research context and purpose. ‘Functional expectations’, ‘aesthetic expectations’ and ‘socio-psychological expectations’ all used eight-item scale measures. All the measurement items were on a five-point Likert scale anchored by 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = undecided, 4 = agree and 5 = strongly agree to express the degree of agreement. The three posited hypotheses were empirically tested. The results significantly supported all the hypotheses, except for H1. The study findings indicate that a robust relationship exists between socio-psychological expectations and purchase decisions, suggesting that socio-psychological expectations can have a strong, direct influence on male consumers’ decision to purchase business apparel. This could be indicative that when consumers evaluate garments, they do not only consider styles that fit comfortably, but also its aesthetic and cognitive impact. Both practitioners and academics may benefit from the implications of this study. A significant contribution is made to the fashion apparel marketing literature by systematically exploring South African male consumers’ functional expectations, aesthetic expectations and socio-psychological expectations of ready-to-wear business apparel, and its effect on their purchase decision. Empirically, an understanding of consumers’ motivation to purchase ready-to-wear business apparel can assist retailers in developing more effective marketing strategies. While existing literature claims male consumers focus on the functional expectations of apparel, this study found that socio-psychological and aesthetic expectations have a significantly greater impact on South African male consumers’ business apparel purchase decisions. Overall, the current study’s findings support the proposition that there is a need to acknowledge aesthetic and socio-psychological expectations of business apparel as significant antecedents of male consumers’ purchase decisions in South Africa. This study, therefore, stands to contribute new knowledge to the existing body of consumer decision-making literature and male apparel shopping behaviour.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore fit problems, satisfaction and preferences of Ethiopian male consumers of ready-made garments (shirt, polo shirt, sweater and khaki and jeans trousers) and highlight the need for a domestic standard garment size chart. Design/methodology/approach Using a structured questionnaire, 405 usable responses were collected from consumers in four cities (Bahir Dar, Kombolcha, Dessie and Addis Ababa) based on convenience sampling. Moreover, the pattern-making methods of 12 domestic garment manufacturing companies were investigated. One-way analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance were used to examine differences in fit satisfaction with age, body size and shape. Multiple regression was used to test hypotheses. Findings The participants were mostly neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with the fit of the garments irrespective of their age, body size and shape. While age was found to be insignificant, apparel sizes worn and body shape were found to be significant predictors of fit type in most garments. It was also found that most of the domestic garment manufacturing companies use the knock-off method for pattern making, which results in a bad fit as the basic garment for the knock-off is constructed based on other countries’ standards. Originality/value This study investigates the fit problems and preferences of ready-made garments in the context of consumers in a developing country. Moreover, it has a contribution in considering men’s body shape in the analysis of fit preferences. The results have implications for developing domestic standard garment size charts to improve fit satisfaction.
A model is proposed which expresses consumer satisfaction as a function of expectation and expectancy disconfirmation. Satisfaction, in turn, is believed to influence attitude change and purchase intention. Results from a two-stage field study support the scheme for consumers and nonconsumers of a flu inoculation.
The purpose of this study was to develop scales to quantitatively measure the domain of concerns with fit and size of garments among young consumers (college students) in online shopping. Using an initial pool of items created through focus group interviews, a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to finalize the pool of items and to establish the construct, discriminant, and criterion validity of the finalized measures and reliability of the dimensions. Consumers' concerns with fit and size of garments included multiple interrelated dimensions; five factors with 21 items were identified as the final sets of the scale. The dimensions include concerns with overall appearance, concerns with unavailability of size, concerns with projecting a correct impression, concerns with the inability to try on in online shopping, and concerns with imagining fit/size in online shopping. The scale developed in this study covers concerns with fit and size of garments among young female consumers. Therefore, the findings of this study may not be generalized to other consumer groups. Fit and size of garments is one of the main issues in apparel purchase decisions and the most important concern in online apparel shopping. Therefore, the findings of this study provide online apparel retailers with valuable insights into consumers' concerns with fit and size of garments, which will lead retailers to better merchandising and marketing strategies and allow them to influence consumers' perceptions and behaviors in online shopping environments.
OPSOMMING Met in agneming van die probleme wat die SuidAfrikaanse kledingindustrie en veral kleinhandelaars tans in die oog staar, is dit duidelik dat, ten einde te kan oorleef, kleinhandelaars gefokus moet kompeteer met ander wat saam met hulle in die mark werk. Vir meeste kleinhandelaars is dit ‘n prioriteit om verbruikerstevredenheid te bewerkstellig. ‘n Beter begrip van die verbruiker se probleme, behoeftes en verwagtinge, in hierdie geval die vroeeadolessent s’n met betrekking tot die pas van haar klere, kan die kleinhandelaar in staat stel om die verbruiker beter te bevredig. Die doel van die studie is die ontwikkeling van ‘n konseptuele raamwerk wat in navorsing na die vroee-adolessent se verwagtinge met betrekking tot die pas van haar klere, gebruik kan word. Vanuit die literatuur en vorige navorsing het dit duidelik geword dat fisieke, psigososiale en kognitiewe ontwikkeling tydens vroeeadolessensie ‘n rol mag speel in die verbruiker se verwagtinge en die probleme wat sy met die pas van haar klere mag ondervind. Verder dat haar begrip van die pas van klere asook haar spesifieke kognitiewe redenasie ‘n invloed mag he op haar verwagtinge met betrekking tot die pas van haar klere asook die wyse waarop sy pas as deel van die kwaliteit van klere evalueer. Dit was verder duidelik dat dit vir haar moontlik nie net gaan om die funksionele dimensies van pas as deel van die kwaliteit van klere nie, maar veral ook om die estetiese dimensie van pas en wel dat die klere sensories mooi moet pas, haar emosioneel moet bevredig en vir haar bepaalde kognitiewe betekenis moet he. Genoemde konsepte behoort deeglik in gedagte gehou te word in navorsing omtrent die vroeeadolessente dogter se verwagtinge met betrekking tot die pas van haar klere.
The purposes of this study was to examine the relationships among body-related self-discrepancy, body dissatisfaction, apparel involvement, concerns with fit and size of garments, and purchase intentions based on self-discrepancy theory. A random sample of college female students (n = 348) was drawn from a Midwestern university. The data was collected using a web-based survey. A hypothesized model was tested using the SEM technique. The results indicated that consumers’ perceived body-related self-discrepancy from online models had a direct relationship with body dissatisfaction. Consumers with higher enduring apparel involvement tended to feel a higher degree of body dissatisfaction. Body dissatisfaction was positively related to five concerns with fit and size of garment dimensions. Enduring apparel involvement was negatively related to concerns with overall appearance and concerns with imagining fit/size in online shopping. Finally, two of the concerns with fit and size of garment dimensions (concerns with overall appearance and concerns with imagining fit/size in online shopping) were negatively related to purchase intentions.
The purposes of this study were to investigate if there were differences between black and white female athletes' satisfaction with their bodies and fit of their clothing and to examine the relationship between body satisfaction and clothing fit. The responses of 290 female collegiate basketball players, 168 white and 122 black, were analyzed. MANOVA, Hotelling's T2, ANOVAs and Pearson Product Moment correlations were used in data analyses. Black and white females' perceptions of their overall bodies differed, black females were more positive about their bodies than white females. Female athletes in this sample did not differ in satisfaction of garment fit. Correlations for perceptions of body cathexis and garment fit were positive and significant. Results have implications for scholars studying racial differences related to dress.
The purpose of this study was to compare reliability and validity of trained paraprofessional judges' responses and expert judges' responses in a garmentfit test. The study addressed the relationships amongparticipants' body and garment measurements, participants'perceptions of garmentfit, and fit assessments of the trained and expert judges. Paraprofessional judges participated in fit training sessions. Judges assessedfitfrom videotapes ofparticipants in testjackets, and made second assessments one to two weeks later. T-testsfor paired samples were runfor reliability between judges'first and second evaluations. The trained paraprofessionals' judgments were equally reliable as the expert assessments. Validity was measured by comparing the differences ofparticipants' body measurements and test jacket measurements, and the judges' and participants'fit assessments of the test jacket. None of the measures (judges' responses, subjects' responses, measurements) showed a very high level of agreement infit assessment.
Designing basketball uniforms for female athletes is a challenge for soft goods manufacturers. Data were collected from 503 female collegiate basketball players concerning body cathexis, body form, garment fit satisfaction, uniform design preferences and demographic characteristics. Of the three areas of the body (upper, lower and total), players indicated they were most dissatisfied with parts of the lower body. Being in uniform did improve their perception of their bodies. Satisfaction with garment fit parallels satisfactionldissatisfaction with the body; the lower body area creates the greatest garment fit problems. The type of body form had a significant effect on both uniform fit satisfaction and uniform body cathexis. Fit satisfaction is the highest with the ectomorph body form. The differences were inverse: as the body increased in size, the lower the degree of satisfaction with garment fit and the body. Uniform preferences for the jersey were a deep V-neckline, sleeveless, and hip length with straight hemline and side vents. For the shorts, a baggy style with side v-vents at the hem, and a 1 1/2 or 2 inch wide, elastic drawstring waistband were selected. Implications for soft goods manufacturers are discussed.
Apparel as the product of standard sizing is reflected in female evaluation of self and body, i.e., body cathexis. This study focused upon body cathexis and the perceptions offit of clothing of 107 female consumers. Responses were measured on three scales: (1) satisfaction with fit of apparel at upper, lower, and total body; (2) satisfaction with fit at specific body sites; and (3) a body cathexis scale developed by Rosen and Ross. Analysis of data indicated satisfaction with overall fit at lower body was less satisfying than at upper body and total body. Satisfaction with fit at specific sites below the waist (hip and thigh) was also generally less satisfying than at sites above the waist (neck and arm). Fashion at the time, close fit at lower body, reflected in blue jeans and slim skirts, no doubt influenced more stringent evaluation of fit at lower body. The body cathexis scores were slightly lower for lower body and lower body sites. Correlation for lower body fit satisfaction and lower body cathexis was statistically significant, confirming a relationship between the respondents' satisfaction with fit and feelings towards personal body.
To identify criteria considered by consumers while making garment purchase decisions, free response interviews of 80 female customers were conducted at point of purchase in two specialty apparel stores. Subjects described the criteria they used to evaluate a garment they had tried on. The most important criteria for apparel assessment were related to aesthetics. Comparison of responses of customers who purchased and customers who did not purchase their garments revealed that different criteria had primary effects in two stages of the purchase process. During the Interest phase, color/pattern, styling, and fabric were most critical in influencing selection of garments from the display racks. Fit, styling, and appearance on the body were more important in determining rejection or adoption of the garments during the Trial phase in the dressing rooms. The research begins to fulfill a need for store intercept data collection, study of free responses minimally shaped by the researcher, and development of theoretical models of the apparel purchase process.