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Garcinia in Diabetic and fat control

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Abstract

Garcinia in fat and obesity control
Garcinia in diabetic and fat control
R. R. K. W. Munaweera (BS/2012/096)
Introduction
Obesity, resulting from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, is one of the
leading cause of premature death in the world. Other potential risks of obesity include
cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and hormonal imbalances in women, leading to
infertility. Weight loss drugs that suppress appetite, reduce food intake, increase energy
expenditure and/or affect nutrient partitioning or metabolism have potential efficacy but are
unfortunately frequently accompanied by adverse side effects. Therefore, supplementation with
safe and natural products in addition to a healthy diet may be helpful.
On the other hand, diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and
developing countries. The disease is increasing rapidly in most part of the world. The use of
plants in traditional medical practice has a long drawn history and remains the mainstay of
primary healthcare in most of the third world including Sri Lanka for the diseases such as
diabetes.
Garcinia quaesita, commonly known as Goraka is an endemic fruit in Sri Lanka that can be used
as a natural source of hydroxyl citric acid (HCA) which is a potential weight loss remedy. The
plant is becoming a very popular ingredient of a medicine that curbs the appetite and can be used
to treat obesity. Traditionally, it is harvested from the wild as a local source of food, medicines
and various commodities. Additionally, genus Garcinia is known as an ant-diabetic agent with
potent cardio-protective effect in the traditional medical practices. These effects are attributed to
a variety of phytoconstituents present in these fruits.
Garcinia quaesita and Obesity
The composition of Goraka has not been properly studied yet. But some studies shows that the
rind of Goraka fruit contains 16-30% (dry weight) of hydroxyl citric acid (HCA). HCA has been
reported to cause weight loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. HCA
was found to act in three different ways towards obesity and fat burning.
1. Reduces the conversion of carbohydrates into fat by inhibiting the activity of the enzyme
ATP citratelyase
2. HCA reduces the appetite
3. HCA also enables to burn glucose before it is stored as fat
HCA is a competitive inhibitor of ATP-citratelyase, an extra-mitochondrial enzyme involved in
the initial steps of de novo lipogenesis. Consequently, HCA reduces the transformation of citrate
into acetyl coenzyme A, a step necessary for the formation of fatty acids in the liver. This also
results in an increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity in liver cells that can pull
LDL cholesterol out of circulation. This is a key factor in weight control and reduction of obesity
using Goraka’s HCA as an antagonist to citric acid.
There is increased production of hepatic glycogen in the presence of HCA, which may activate
glucoreceptors leading to a sensation of fullness and reduced appetite. The experimental results
suggest that that a metabolic change brought on by HCA may send an appetite-suppressing
signal to the brain via the amino acid 5-hydroxytryptophan, which is a direct precursor to the
serotonin. Serotonin interacts within the hypothalamus with endogenous orexigenic
(Neuropeptide Y/Agouti related protein) and anorectic (α-melanocyte stimulating hormone)
peptides. In the nucleus of the solitary tract serotonin integrates peripheral satiety signals.
But still, the applicability of Garcinia quaesita is problematic due to the lack of more precise and
targeted researches and clinical trials. Garcinia cambogia is another species which has been
more commonly used for weight loss and obesity which is available as supplements as well. But
still there are some quality concerns and adverse effects are reported with this species as well.
Thus, the use of Garcinia species has been still not has been fully concluded to be effective
towards weight loss and obesity.
Garcinia quaesita and diabetes
Even though the studies about the species Garcinia quaesita is limited, phytochemical analyses
of other Garcinia species reveals that most of the fruits contain flavonoids, tannins, saponins and
cardiac glycosides.
Researches indicate that Garcinia seems to reduce the rate at which glucose is absorbed into the
intestines after eating. It can be helpful to decrease blood-sugar levels. This is an indication that
these phytochemicals can improve glucose metabolism, which is often a goal that is associated
with patients who have diabetes and are attempting to get it under control. The reduction of the
glucose concentration could be that the biflavanoids, which promotes the entry of glucose into
the cells, stimulation of glycolytic enzymes and glycogenic enzymes or inhibiting the glucose 6-
phosphatease in the liver and subsequently reducing the release of glucose in blood.
Diabetes is also often associated with increased dyslipidemia. Lack of insulin in diabetic patients
is known to be associated with increased synthesis of cholesterol and insulin resistance in
diabetic patients could increase the hepatic uptake of fatty acids released by lipolysis of adipose
tissues, the intrahepatic synthesis of triglycerides and the over production and secretion of VLDL
particles that in turn leads to increased plasma levels of TG. For this condition, phytochemicals
in Garcenia fruits found to be effective reducing serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol,
triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol. This reduction is found to be dose related. The underlying
mechanism of lipid lowering effect of these could be by inhibition of lipid absorption due to the
presence of saponins and tannins or inhibition of cholesterol esterase, activation of fatty acid
synthase, acetyl coA carboxylase and production of triglyceride precursors such as acetyl coA
and glycerol phosphate. Flavonoids can also be playing a role in this process. Flavonoids are
used in the reduction of lipids by inhibiting hepatic HMG-CoA reductase. What these
experimental evidences suggest is that Garcenia fruits are effective towards diabetes mellitus in
a dose dependent manner.
There have also been findings in diabetics with controlled blood glucose levels that show that
their blood-sugar levels can actually drop too low when they are treated with Garcinia
supplements along with their treatments. The results of all studies surrounding the relation
between diabetes and Garcinia are inconclusive, making it difficult to conclude the correct dose
for diabetes. Further investigations have to be done for a better medical approach and for clinical
use.
References:
Heymsfield SB, et al. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a
randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1998 Nov 11;280(18):1596-600.
Preuss, HG, et al., Effects of a natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (CHA-SX) and a
combination of HCA-SX plus niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract on weight
loss. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2004 May; 6(3): 171-80
BW, D. and al, et (2005) Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid.
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Onakpoya, I., Hung, S.K., Perry, R., Wider, B. and Ernst, E. (2010) ‘The use of Garcinia extract
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Garcinia quaesita Clusiaceae pierre (2009) Available at:
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/treedb/AFTPDFS/Garcinia_quaesita.PDF (Accessed: 15
December 2016).
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December 2016).
Adaramoye, O.A. and Adeyemi, E.O. (2006) ‘Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of
fractions from kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola in streptozotocin-induced
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Article
Full-text available
The aim of this systematic review is to examine the efficacy of Garcinia extract, hydroxycitric acid (HCA) as a weight reduction agent, using data from randomised clinical trials (RCTs). Electronic and nonelectronic searches were conducted to identify relevant articles, with no restrictions in language or time. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. Twenty-three eligible trials were identified and twelve were included. Nine trials provided data suitable for statistical pooling. The meta-analysis revealed a small, statistically significant difference in weight loss favouring HCA over placebo (MD: -0.88 kg; 95% CI: -1.75, -0.00). Gastrointestinal adverse events were twice as common in the HCA group compared with placebo in one included study. It is concluded that the RCTs suggest that Garcinia extracts/HCA can cause short-term weight loss. The magnitude of the effect is small, and the clinical relevance is uncertain. Future trials should be more rigorous and better reported.
Article
The efficacy of optimal doses of highly bioavailable (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) alone and in combination with niacin-bound chromium (NBC) and a standardized Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) on weight loss in moderately obese subjects was evaluated by monitoring changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), appetite, lipid profiles, serum leptin and excretion of urinary fat metabolites. HCA-SX has been shown to reduce appetite, inhibit fat synthesis and decrease body weight without stimulating the central nervous system. NBC has demonstrated its ability to maintain healthy insulin levels, while GSE has been shown to regulate weight loss and blood sugar levels. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human study was conducted in Elluru, India for 8 weeks in 60 moderately obese subjects (ages 21-50, BMI >26 kg/m(2)). Subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Group A was administered HCA-SX 4667 mg, group B was administered a combination of HCA-SX 4667 mg, NBC 4 mg and GSE 400 mg, while group C was given placebo daily in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before meals. All subjects received a 2000 kcal diet/day and participated in supervised walking. At the end of 8 weeks, body weight and BMI decreased by 5-6% in both groups A and B. Food intake, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides and serum leptin levels were significantly reduced in both groups, while high-density lipoprotein levels and excretion of urinary fat metabolites increased in both groups. A marginal or non-significant effect was observed in all parameters in group C. The present study shows that optimal doses of HCA-SX and, to a greater degree, the combination of HCA-SX, NBC and GSE can serve as an effective and safe weight-loss formula that can facilitate a reduction in excess body weight and BMI, while promoting healthy blood lipid levels.
Article
Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (<50%) and less bioavailable form. Conversely, the structural characteristics of a novel Ca2+/K+ bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca2+ (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K+ (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca2+ ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K+, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions.