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Project-Based Learning to Develop Creative Abilities in Students

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Abstract

This article describes project-based learning as innovative pedagogical technology, able to transform the learning process in order to develop creative abilities in students. A survey among Pedagogical Major students of the Kyrgyz National Agrarian University named after K. I. Skryabin (KNAU), Engineering Department, showed that most of the students are not familiar with technologies facilitating creativity and have not enough abilities for creative activities. Among the instructors working more than 3 years, there is only a small part who considers themselves competent in the creative approach to arranging the learning process. At the social-pedagogical level, this defines the significance of researching the creative ability promotion problem via project-based learning in universities.
43© The Author(s) 2018
J. Drummer et al. (eds.), Vocational Teacher Education in Central Asia,
Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns
and Prospects 28, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73093-6_4
Chapter 4
Project-Based Learning toDevelop
Creative Abilities inStudents
AsylbekIsabekov andGulzatSadyrova
4.1 Introduction andState oftheArt
The Bologna process principles introduced into the Kyrgyz Republic educational
system (Government of Kyrgyz Republic 2011) form an innovative learning sphere
to transform the training process. The new system, oriented at interactive learning,
has replaced post-Soviet educational system. The system aims at developing stu-
dent’s creativity and proactivity as a “groundbreaker”, highly adaptive to changes and
competent in search for evaluation and introduction of innovations. Education faces
new requirements, creative ability being one of the most important for graduates. We
believe that project-based learning may help develop creative abilities in students.
The strategy for education development in the Kyrgyz Republic recognizes edu-
cation as a priority area to accumulate knowledge and the building of skills (Ministry
of Education and Science Kyrgyz Republic), while creating optimal conditions to
reveal and develop the creative abilities in every person. Analysis of current educa-
tional standards and materials (mostly, primary and secondary education) used in
Kyrgyzstan schools revealed that in some study books, only 15% of tasks are rela-
tive to creativity (Kaarman 2009). The creative component in many study books and
methodological guidelines is at a minimum. School children tend not to evolve their
creative abilities.
Students’ creativity requires special attention. The educational impact to create
independent and creative thinking skills cannot be acquired just because of the
learning process. Thus, it needs fostering and cultivation. Project-based learning
shall be integrated into the higher education system, in a well-thought-out manner
to avoid imposing it to students and instructors; it should become a tool to improve
A. Isabekov (*) · G. Sadyrova (*)
Department Applied mechanics, physics and engineering pedagogy, Kyrgyz National
Agrarian University named after K.I. Scriabin, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
e-mail: sgulzat@mail.ru
44
the educational process; to facilitate better learning, skills, and abilities; and to
stimulate educational motivation and general cultural growth.
Many researchers, for example, Adolf (Stepanova and Adolf 2011) and Wolkow
(Wolkow etal. 2008), note the signicance of creative skills for future teachers,
highlighting the importance of identifying students who are the most capable,
inclined to independent creative activity, and the need to create conditions and
encourage them to manifest themselves maximally. It is also considered that future
teachers should enlarge and expand research activities. For example, Krasilnikova
and Bondarenko (2005) analyzed employers’ requirements for the professional
education of future specialists and identied that the rst place among the
requirements took creative potential, a exible approach to work, and fast learner.
The survey of the KNAU students with Engineering and Pedagogics majors
showed that most of them are not familiar with technologies that stimulate creative
ability and did not have enough abilities for creative activities. Instructors working
more than 3 years consider themselves competent in the creative approach to
arranging the learning process (Raimkulova 2016).
The abovementioned case denes an actuality to study the issues on facilitating
the creative abilities in students at the social and pedagogical levels. Creativity plays
a great role for the overall growth and personality of each student. In the process of
creative activity, developing such abilities as cogitativeness, comparison, analysis,
and the combination of all these processes shapes the basis of future conscious and
the demiurgic creative ability of every student. The process of building a creative
attitude toward learning requires undivided attention, pressure on mental abilities,
and great will. In our article we underline the belief that creativity can be taught and
creative personalities developed. This plays a methodological signicance for
pedagogics, as every student has the creativity to foster in the training process as the
basic factor for the development of an active creative position. Our attitude to
creativity to create good results allows us to propose the sculpturing of creative
abilities through various innovative technologies.
For innovative technologies to enhance students’ creative activities, the follow-
ing needs to be taken in to account:
Age specics;
Creative ability execution/translation
Conditions for co-creativeness (id., 2016)
The priority approach to enhance creative abilities, in our opinion, is project-
based learning. Project-based training activity is a component of the project-based
learning related to discovering and meeting students’ needs via projects and creation
of ideal or material outcome with objective or subjective novelty. It is a creativity-
based study activity to solve a practical task, when students decide goals and
objectives to be implemented in theoretical research and practical fulllment under
instructor’s supervision. Here we nd another component of project-based learn-
ing– instructor’s involvement.
A. Isabekov and G. Sadyrova
45
Professional education major students (group PO-1-14in 2015–2016) used the
individual project-based learning method. The “Rhetoric” discipline is introduced
for students of vocational training on the fourth course in the spring semester, as a
variable course. And this discipline, designed to teach how to effectively inuence
the audience using speech, how to achieve success, and how to speaking publicly,
met the requirements that were set by the project itself.
The stages of individual student projects were as follows:
1. Organizational and preparatory stage:
During this stage, there was collaborative work of a teacher with each individual
student. The student, under the guidance of the teacher, was engaged in problem-
solving, chose and substantiated the project theme, planned his forthcoming
activities, and identied the main goal and tasks arising from the project theme.
At this stage of the project activity, the main task of the teacher was to promote
interest, rst of all, to the technology of design training as innovative. It should
be explained that students were not familiar with the project technology. After
consideration and analysis of the “project concepts”, “project technology”,
“project training”, etc., students, as mentioned above, decided to engage the indi-
vidual projects on the discipline “Rhetoric”.
Every student had to conduct one lesson (120min) on “Rhetoric” applying inno-
vative methods and creative approaches. The instructor suggested topics from
the discipline training materials. Students had to design a lesson with creative
elements and prepare all necessary teaching aids (select reference materials,
determine lesson format, design presentation slide sand posters, prepare hand-
outs, write questions to enhance interest, etc.).
Thus, at this stage, the students together with the teacher actively participated in
the problematization of their projects.
2. Planning of the future project activities:
This stage was practical and responded to such questions as “What to do?”,
“Reason to do it?”, “How to do?”, “What are the expenses?” and “What are the
terms?”. Each student under the guidance of the teacher began to determine the
character of the upcoming works, which included denition the lesson type,
methodology, handouts, and organizational/time division of the lesson; terms
and schedule of works; development of the stages contents; and selection the
materials on the project topic.
3. Project development:
This stage was characterized by the independent conducting of an individual task
in accordance with plan and a schedule of lessons. Such work was carried out as
preparing materials for presentation, preparation of illustrative material, prepara-
tion of video presentation, preparation of handouts, development of didactic
games targeted to the project theme, etc.
4. Final stage (defense presentation of the project) and evaluation of the results:
This important stage of the project activity of students was held publicly in the
form of each individual student’s practical lesson. A listening public who acted
4 Project-Based Learning toDevelop Creative Abilities inStudents
46
as students was organized. Only 10 of 16 students were able to implement their
projects. The project defense presentation included a video demonstration, pub-
lic defense, games with students, guessing a crossword puzzle, staging the his-
torical events, reporting new information, etc.
4.2 Project Presentation
Project presentation was organized as a practical lesson. In the educational system
of a higher educational institution in Kyrgyzstan, all classroom activities are divided
into lecture, practical, and laboratory. In our case, too, when we say a practical
lesson, we mean a theoretical lesson that is held within the walls of the university.
The details of this practical lesson are described below:
At the end of every lesson, participants had extended discussion to analyze results
together with Project team.
Example: Practical Lesson Extract
PRACTICAL EXERCISE No.6
Topic: Components of Communication: Speaker
Duration– 2 academic hours (2 × 60min)
Goal: assess speaker’s posture, image, and its elements
Educational– to explain to students the goals of the speaker, to show his
types and forms, and to form an idea about the communication of people
and his role in life. Explain the essence of the following concepts:
communication, verbal and nonverbal communication, and ofcial,
everyday, persuasive, ritual, and intercultural communication.
Developing– to include students in the work at all stages of the lesson and
to promote the development of their professional, operational, social, and
communicative competences.
Educational – to cultivate a respectful attitude toward the speaker,
Observance of the culture of speaking and listening and its constituent
elements, such as the ability to listen and understand and politely and
correctly behave when expressing one’s point of view.
Plan:
I. Learn about “First Teacher” story by Dshingis Aitmatov (1975)
II. Brainstorming
Questions:
Why has the story protagonist appeared in an embarrassing situation?
Why is knowledge an action in a relevant area?
What did he have to do to avoid a scandal?
(continued)
A. Isabekov and G. Sadyrova
47
Students themselves, sharing their impressions, noted positive points. Basically,
they learned to explain their thoughts more reasonably and noted the improvement
of thinking activity, such as analysis and evaluation of their learning activity. If
before the project activity the students noted the absence of their “soft skills”, then
in the process of defense presentation, they started talking about increasing their
self-evaluation and self-assertion and developing public self-presentation and
reection.
In evaluation of the completed projects, the following criteria were used: actual-
ity and practical focus of the topic, the volume and completeness of the develop-
ment, individuality, independence, completeness, preparation for the lesson defense
presentation, creativity level, originality, speech culture, using of demonstrative
features, appropriateness/inappropriateness of the material applicable for the les-
son, the audience’s activism/immersiveness, the innovativeness of the methodology,
capacity amount, and depth of students’ knowledge on the project topic.
4.3 Conclusion
Analytical work to develop students’ creative abilities included several stages:
research, technology, nal, and result. All these stages helped to improve logical
thinking, widely enhance creative abilities, and encourage students to undertake
scientic research work. Project-based learning may be applied as pedagogical
technique implying not only knowledge integration but also the application of
up-to-date knowledge and further growth.
Through dialog-based learning, students learn to cogitate, address complex prob-
lems based on situation analysis and relevant data, compare opinions, take balanced
decisions, take part in discussions, and communicate with people. Working in
groups and in pairs, micro-research projects, role-playing games, discussions, etc.
help a student stimulate and enhance creative activity as his/her own experience
becomes a source of learning.
Evaluate a story’s mood.
Why was the protagonist no longer afraid of public speaking?
What are the ways to struggle with stress?
III. Practical task:
Watch a short clip from the “First Teacher” movie (teacher’s speech) and
prepare a 5min speech on “Image of ideal teacher.
Game “Instructor– Group of Students”: Simulate communication sce-
narios, while the instructor speaks and students listen/do not listen/are
disturbed/show interest, etc.
Difculties at speaking: carry out exercise and discuss results.
4 Project-Based Learning toDevelop Creative Abilities inStudents
48
In this real experiment with professional education major students, the advanced
were able to perform in-depth study, offer more different ideas, and develop a more
complex solution. Less capable students were actively supported and assisted by
teacher educators.
Thus, the articleis directed to the applicationof the education project method in
order to trigger the development of the creative abilities of teachers of professional
education majors. Based on the studies of Krasilnikova and Bondarenko (2005),
Raimkulova (2016), Kaarman (2009), authors considered the issues on activation
and formation the creative capacity of secondary schools’ future teachers.
Summing up, we came to the conclusion that project training should be consid-
ered as a didactic system in the preparation of future teachers of vocational training.
It should be noted that it is not advisable to translate the whole educational process
completely into project teaching.
It should be noted that the success of the students’ project work depends on the
following factors:
1. Acquaintance/non-acquaintance with the project activity methodology
2. Students’ motivation for the project activities
3. Knowledge level of students on the topic of project activities
4. The teacher’s qualication level– the organizer of the student’s project activity
5. Psychological and social status of the training group
6. Material-technical, educational-methodological, and informational support of
the project activities
7. Communicative and verbal competence of students
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Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not
included in the book’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statu-
tory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the
copyright holder.
4 Project-Based Learning toDevelop Creative Abilities inStudents
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan keterampilan berpikir kreatif pada materi biota laut menuju pembangunan berkelanjutan melalui pembelajaran berbasis proyek pada mahasiswa calon guru biologi. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode quasi eksperimen dengan one group pretest postest design. Subyek terdiri dari 31 mahasiswa yang memprogramkan mata kuliah ekologi laut pada semester 5 di salah satu universitas Kalimantan Tengah. Instrument tes yang digunakan berupa soal test pilihan ganda (PG) beralasan dan soal test uraian. Kegiatan pembelajaran dilaksanakan empat tahap yaitu (1) mahasiswa diminta untuk mendesain proyek yang dilakukan, (2) mempresentasikan teori dan rancangan terkait proyek yang akan dilakukan, (3) melakukan implementasi proyek yang sudah dirancang dan pengamatannya, (4) melaporkan hasil implementasi proyek sekaligus mengevaluasi untuk kegaiatan proyek selanjtnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa setiap indikator keterampilan berpikir kreatif yang diamati yaitu flexibility, originality dan elaboration menunjukkan adanya perbedaan signifikan antara pretes dan postest. Hasil ini dapat dikatakan bahwa pembelajaran berbasis proyek pada konsep biota laut menuju pembangunan berkelanjutan dapat meningkatkan keterampilan berpikir kreatif.
Article
Due to its open-ended nature, project-based learning (PBL) is a suitable methodology to achieve student motivation and enrich creativity skills. This article describes the design of PBL activities in two undergraduate courses on digital signal processing techniques. The academic context is a bachelor's degree in telecommunication engineering at the Universidad de Extremadura in Spain. Full specifications for five project proposals that other instructors could use are explained, including an in-depth analysis of one of them in relation to the learning outcomes. The results of a survey designed to gain insight into students' perceptions of the PBL process are provided. All of the participants agree or strongly agree that PBL improves the long-term retention of knowledge and provides learning with a more practical orientation toward real goals than conventional learning. Also, 91% of them consider that PBL motivates them more than traditional methodologies. The instructor's conclusions after the project development and assessment are that PBL considerably helped the students to think more creatively and increased their motivation in comparison to other activities.
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