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PVC is a common food contact material that is usually plasticized to increase its flexibility. Phthalates are one class of chemical compounds that are often used as plasticizers in PVC in a wide range of industries. They may be used in packaging materials for foods and can also be found in components of certain food processing equipment such as conveyor belts and tubing. Transfer of plasticizers from packaging to foods can occur. In recent years, there has been increased interest in understanding the health effects of phthalates, as well as the possible human exposure levels. However, there is limited information available about the routes of exposure to phthalates. In July 2014, the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) produced a report for the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) detailing the potential health hazards of phthalates and phthalate alternatives. This report listed diet as one factor contributing greater than or equal to 10% of total phthalate exposure. As a result of this report, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is interested in determining the types of the primary plasticizer present in food packaging and processing materials as well as their concentrations. An investigation was conducted of fifty-six different samples of PVC food packaging and food processing materials available in the U.S. market using a solvent extraction and GC-MS analysis. Nine different plasticizers including three phthalates, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), were identified in the products tested. The plasticizer concentrations ranged from 1- 53% depending on the types of food contact materials and the type of plasticizer. Overall, it appears that manufacturers are switching away from phthalates as their primary plasticizer to alternate compounds such as ESBO, ATBC, DEHT, DINCH, DEHA and DINA.
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... The normal and log-normal distributions were truncated to include 90% of the distribution to avoid sampling from implausible values. (Carlos et al., 2018) Mean: 1-20 c CV: 30-100% 3-30% occurrence a (Estimated) a Inputs with uncertainty that are shared among general population (S). See detailed descriptions in Simon et al. (2014). ...
... Because manufacturers around the world are switching from the use of phthalates to alternative compounds (Fasano et al. 2012), the change of product phthalate concentration is rapid. The trend is particularly noticeable for DEP and DEHP, with a significant decline by one order of magnitude over the past two decades (Carlos et al., 2018;Koniecki et al., 2011;Petersen and Jensen, 2010;Sekizawa and Dobson, 2003). Using product phthalate concentration data reported in the early 2000s would have resulted in a higher predicted range of exposures. ...
Article
To effectively incorporate in vitro-in silico-based methods into the regulation of consumer product safety, a quantitative connection between product phthalate concentrations and in vitro bioactivity data must be established for the general population. We developed, evaluated, and demonstrated a modeling framework that integrates exposure and pharmacokinetic models to convert product phthalate concentrations into population-scale risks for phthalates and their substitutes. A probabilistic exposure model was developed to generate the distribution of multi-route exposures based on product phthalate concentrations, chemical properties, and human activities. Pharmacokinetic models were developed to simulate population toxicokinetics using Bayesian analysis via the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Both exposure and pharmacokinetic models demonstrated good predictive capability when compared with worldwide studies. The distributions of exposures and pharmacokinetics were integrated to predict the population distributions of internal dosimetry. The predicted distributions showed reasonable agreement with the U.S. biomonitoring surveys of urinary metabolites. The “source-to-outcome” local sensitivity analysis revealed that food contact materials had the greatest impact on body burden for di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di(isononyl) cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH), and di(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), whereas the body burden of diethyl phthalate (DEP) was most sensitive to the concentration in personal care products. The upper bounds of predicted plasma concentrations showed no overlap with ToxCast in vitro bioactivity values. Compared with the in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approach, the integrated modeling framework has significant advantages in mapping product phthalate concentrations to multi-route risks, and thus is of great significance for regulatory use with a relatively low input requirement. Further integration with new approach methodologies will facilitate these in vitro-in silico-based risk assessments for a broad range of products containing an equally broad range of chemicals.
... However, DEHP, DnBP, BBzP, and DiNP were detected in food packaging samples from fries, hamburgers, pizza, and chicken; similar foods were also included in our study. Another study by the same group analyzed PVC food contact and food processing materials for ortho-and non-phthalate plasticizers and reported detectable concentrations of DEHP in tubing and DiNP in conveyor belts [34]. By focusing exclusively on specific food contact materials, the authors are characterizing chemical exposure at particular parts of the food supply chain, and simultaneously, neglecting the combined contribution of all potential sources of plasticizer exposure. ...
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A modification of the method of Castle et al. (J. Chromatogr. 1988: 437:274-280) for the analysis of epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) is proposed to simplify the analysis and reduce the time and consumption of reagents. The proposed modifications, particularly the elimination of the internal standard, resulted in a simpler, faster and more economical method. A complete analytical validation, including evaluation of the main analytical parameters, such as detection and quantification limits, linearity, working range, precision, accuracy and selectivity, was carried out. The data demonstrated the suitability of the proposed method for the determination of ESBO in polymer matrices. A specific migration study for ESBO in different food simulants (fat and aqueous) was carried out by applying the method to poly(vinyl chloride) materials prepared with known amounts of ESBO, as well as some commercial lids. High levels of migration of ESBO into fat simulants were found. In the case of commercial lids, in addition to ESBO, some other plasticizers such as citrates, adipates and sebacates were found and quantified to establish their migration under different conditions of use.
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Previous studies have shown that a large number of polyvinylchloride (PVC) lid gaskets exceed the existing migration limits for epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) and correct prediction of ESBO release into food therefore appears to be a difficult issue. ESBO migration from PVC gaskets of metal closures into food simulants and food products from the Czech market is evaluated during a survey in 2009 and subsequently one in 2012 to assess progress in lid manufacturing and official testing conditions. ESBO migration from lids into various food simulants was studied at various temperatures (25, 40 and 60°C) during storage times up to 12 months. ESBO released into food simulants or food products was transmethylated, derivatised and analysed by GC-MS. The levels of ESBO migration in foodstuffs in 2012 exceeded the specific migration limit (SML) in fewer products in comparison with the previous survey. However, most of the products were analysed at a time far from the expiry date and exceedance of the SML at the end of the product shelf life is not therefore excluded. More severe test conditions (60°C for 10 days) for specific migration given by the current European Union legislation (Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011) still seem to be insufficient for the simulation of ESBO migration during long-term storage.
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Epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) is widely used as a plasticiser and stabiliser mainly in food contact materials on the base of polyvinylchloride (PVC), especially in the gaskets of jar lids. PVC gaskets containing 10-37% of ESBO were prepared by the baking of PVC plastisols at various process temperatures (180-240°C) in the laboratory. ESBO migration into olive oil and 3% acetic acid was studied at various temperatures (4°C, 25°C, 40°C and 60°C) during a storage time up to 12 months. ESBO released into food simulants was transmethylated, derivatised and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The effect of food processing, i.e. pasteurisation (80°C and 100°C) and sterilisation (125°C) on ESBO migration was also evaluated. The results were critically assessed with respect to the test conditions of specific migration in accordance with the current European Union legislation (Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011). The levels of ESBO migration found confirmed that the test conditions (i.e. 40°C or 60°C, 10 days) representing contact in the worst foreseeable use scenario seem to be insufficient for the simulation of ESBO migration during long-term storage and thus do not provide satisfactory objective results.
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Foods with at least a few percent of free oil packed in glass jars with metal closures were analyzed for migration of additives, primarily plasticizers, from the gasket of the lid. One hundred and fifty-eight samples were collected in June 2005, i.e., some 10 months after the problem of excessive migration into oily food was communicated to the industry. In a first step, the composition of the additives in the gaskets was determined. Then the compounds found in the lid were measured in the jar content. Sixty-four percent of the gaskets contained epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) as principal plasticizer, 22% a phthalate, and 6% substantial amounts of di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA). Concentrations in the food reached 1,170mg/kg for ESBO, 270mg/kg for diisononyl phthalate (DINP), 740mg/kg for diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), 825mg/kg for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and 180mg/kg for DEHA. Further, elevated concentrations of plasticizers not authorized by the EU were found: diisononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH), 2-ethylhexyl palmitate and stearate, as well as epoxidized linseed oil (ELO). The few samples complying with the European rules contained little or well emulsified oil; some others were probably of very recent production (beginning of shelf life). It is concluded that there was still no lid reliably complying with the European rules (EU and national legislation).
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Phthalates are organic lipophilic compounds that are principally used as plasticiser to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Other applications are a.o. the use of phthalates in printing inks and lacquers. Human exposure to phthalates mainly occurs via food ingestion and can induce adverse health effects. In this study, the presence of eight phthalate compounds--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)--was investigated in 400 food products, divided over eleven groups, and packages sold on the Belgian market. For this purpose, suitable extraction techniques were developed and validated for four different matrices, namely high-fat foods, low-fat food products, aqueous-based beverages and packaging materials. The instrumental analysis was performed by means of gas chromatography-low resolution-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). A wide variety of phthalate concentrations was observed in the different groups. DEHP was found in the highest concentration in almost every group. Moreover, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate compound, followed by DiBP, DnBP and BBP. This survey is part of the PHTAL project, which is the first project that discusses phthalate contamination on the Belgian food market.