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One of the extreme behavioral indicators experienced by children with autism is the difficulty of focusing through the object carefully, especially the objects that cannot attract their attention. To overcome these obstacles, medium or media that can bridge the characteristics of children with autism is needed. Books with pop up augmented reality can be a solution. The purpose of this research is to describe the feasibility of the use of books with pop up augmented reality format to improve the focus and recognition of objects for children with autism. Therefore, the design used in this research is planning design, and the respondents are students of SDLB Laboratorium of Autism UM. Based on the results of the research, the utilization of pop up augmented reality book was able to increase the autistic student appreciation on objects introduced to him. The indicator can be seen from the increased interest in design, the duration of observation, exploration of curiosity, mastery of message content, communication when observing objects or thing introduced to them..
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9
Journal of ICSAR
ISSN (print): 2548-8619; ISSN (online): 2548-8600
Volume 2 Number 1 January 2018
The Book of Pop Up Augmented Reality to Increase Focus and Object Recognition
Capabilities for Children with Autism
Mohammad Arief Nazaruddina, Mohammad Efendib
aBrawijaya University of Malang
bState University of Malang
Email: annajihad@gmail.com
Abstract: One of the extreme behavioral indicators experienced by children with autism is the difculty
of focusing through the object carefully, especially the objects that cannot attract their attention. To
overcome these obstacles, medium or media that can bridge the characteristics of children with autism
is needed. Books with pop up augmented reality can be a solution. The purpose of this research is to
describe the feasibility of the use of books with pop up augmented reality format to improve the focus and
recognition of objects for children with autism. Therefore, the design used in this research is planning
design, and the respondents are students of SDLB Laboratorium of Autism UM. Based on the results of
the research, the utilization of pop up augmented reality book was able to increase the autistic student
appreciation on objects introduced to him. The indicator can be seen from the increased interest in design,
the duration of observation, exploration of curiosity, mastery of message content, communication when
observing objects or thing introduced to them..
Keywords: pop-up augmented reality, autism, object recognition
Looking closely at the physical performance seen in
children with autism and normal children, if we do
not pay attention to the behaviors that the child with
autism show, we may have difculty recognizing the
difference. Some children with mild autism when
performing certain activities are not impressed that
the person concerned is autistic. Children identied
as autistic doesn’t appear to have a fundamental
suspicion that they resemble others and others just
like them. Conditions experienced by children with
autism begin to be identied when the concerned
involved in interaction and social communication.
The apparent differences in children with autism and
normal children, systematically behave in many ways
of interact, and often the behaviors played by children
with autism doesn’t reect the capacity of the child
according to their chronological age or mental age.
Generally, Behaviors of autistic children are identied
differently normally, some of them are: (1) ignoring
others, (2) appearing insensitive to the needs, feelings
and thoughts of others, (3) don’t want to meet or express
facial expressions when speaking, (4) don’t like to touch
(don’t want to hug or hold), (5) can not cooperate, share
or wait their turn, (6) prefer to play alone, and (7) less
interest in games that must use imagination. Similarly,
the inability to communicate and speak, the indications
are: (1) slow speech, (2) having problems in speaking
and understanding of people’s conversation, (3) unable
to communicate well, (4) speaking in strange tones,
such as singing or speaking of robots, (5) difcult to
start a conversation, (6) often repeating the same word
but not understanding what it means. However, it
should be noted that some of them are mentally late in
the same mental age, but not least among those with
above-average mental-intellectual abilities, and can
develop normally.
The American Psychiatric Assocation (APA)
identies on the base appearance, autism children
appear to have social weaknesses shown through their
inability to build social and emotional relationships
with others, the eld of communication is shown in the
development of obstructed language and speech, and the
emergence of a pattern that is maintained and repeated
in behavior, interests and activities (Hildayani, 2007).
This condition occurs because children with autism
are selectively over-stimulated, lacking the motivation
to explore the environment, lack of self-stimulation
responses that interfere with social integration, and
have a unique response to reinforcement, particularly
reinforcements of self-stimulation (Handoyo, 2003),
no empathy, lacking the ability to develop friendships,
his speech is accentuating knowledge / recurring, poor
non-verbal communication, extraordinary absorption
of certain subjects, odd attitudes (Atwood, 2005). The
ability to socialize this indication happens gradually
causing them far behind compared to peers (Martin,
2010).
10 Journal of ICSAR; Volume 2, Number 1, January 2018: 9-14
Table 1. Assessment Criteria Guidelines
Interest
to the design
Duration of
observation
Exploration of Curios-
ity
Mastery of Message
Contents
Communica-
tion
Score
Very enthusi-
astic
> 30 minutes Observation of the object
is very detailed
The memory of the ob-
ject is very good
Very respon-
sive
4
Quite
Enthusiastic
21-30 minutes Observation of the object
is quite detailed
The memory of the ob-
ject is quite good
Quite
responsive
3
Less enthusi-
astic
11-20 minutes Observation of the object
is less detail
The memory of the ob-
ject is not good
Less respon-
sive
2
Not enthusiastic < 10 minutes Observation of objects is
not detailed
The memory of the ob-
ject is very bad
Not
responsive
1
strategy and media (manual and digital) as a tool for
effective interaction between teachers and students
with autism. By considering its characteristics, the use
of manual and digital combination learning materials
designed in pop up augmented in reality format can
be a means of educative therapy for autistic children.
Because the learning materials in pop up augmented
reality format, viewed from the technical and visual
side can be very revolutionary. This media is able to
make the reader dissolved emotionally and feel when
the interaction with the object of the story, the reader
seems to be part of the amazing thing, because the
reader feels a role when starting to open the book page
(Sabuda, 2005).
Based on these thoughts, this research will
explicitly expose the essence of the presentation
of pop up augmented reality books to ll the gap of
interesting, innovative, and modern learning materials
for children with autism in elementary school level.
The background of the design and testing of books in
pop up augmented reality format is all kinds of book
(story or encyclopedia) in circulation only present a
visual at and provide graphical information only,
without highlighting the interactive side of the reader.
METHOD
The purpose of this research is to analyze prototype
of teaching materials in the form to improve the power
of focus and recognition of objects in children with
autism by utilizing books with pop-up augmented
reality format. The methodology used in this research
is a descriptive procedural design, design model that
outlines the steps to produce a product. Procedural
step design research begins with the identication of
the problems studied through reference-related and
empirical data in the eld.
According to the World Health Organization
(WHO) identication, general behavioral indicators
that often appear in autistic children include: (1)
language or communication is at, speech a little bit or
even not speech, often repeating words, sentences with
weird vowels (2) lack of responsiveness in relationships
with others, (3) relation with the environment shows
rigid routines, exhibits a very inexible interest, (4)
responses to sensory stimuli often seem deaf, frantic
to sound - a particular sound, very sensitive to sound,
playing with light or reection, playing withdrawal
when touched, (5) behavioral gaps that are sometimes
very good or very late, for example clever reading
but not understanding the meaning, clever drawing in
detail but not able to button clothes, good at puzzles but
very difcult to follow orders. However, in fact, not all
of these symptoms are present in autistic individuals,
because the symptoms seen in autistic children are so
varied that no autistic child is really the same in all of
his behavior. Whatever the condition, an attempt to
diagnose early childhood is suspected to have autism,
is the right step toward the effort to autism children can
be handled immediately through the process of learning
intervention in an integrated manner. Thus more
open opportunities change toward normal behavior.
Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies
are indicative of anxiety, severe agitapsychomotor,
extreme sensitivity to environmental stimuli, but they
do not signicantly reduce the symptoms of autism
(Hasdianah, 2013). Treatment is usually tailored to the
needs of the child. Many psychosocial interventions
have some positive evidence. Some forms of treatment
are better, but their clinical outcomes are mostly
tentative. Specially sustained education programs and
early behavioral therapy interventions can help autistic
get personal care, social skills, work skills, reduce
symptoms severity and maladaptive behavior.
One effort to provide an accurate education service
for autistic children for self-development requires
11
M Arief N, M Efendi, The Book of Pop Up Augmented Reality to Increase Focus . . . .
Table 2. Recapitulation of prototype trial results as limited
No Respon-
dents
Interest to the
Design
Duration of
observation
Exploration of
Curiosity
Mastery of
Message Con-
tents
Communica-
tion Total
Before After Before After Before After Be-
fore After Be-
fore After Be-
fore After
1Wim 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 4 2 4 9 20
2 Isa 1 4 2 4 3 4 1 4 3 4 10 20
3 Dav 2 4 1 4 2 4 3 4 2 4 10 20
4 Aza 1 3 1 4 1 3 1 3 1 3 5 16
Amount 6 15 6 16 8 15 6 15 8 15 34 76
% 37.5 93.75 37.5 100 50 93.75 37.5 93.75 50 93.75 42.5 95
Difference
(%) 56.25 62.5 43.75 56.25 43.75 52.5
of the indicators used as the basis for the assessment
of the prototype of teaching materials in the form of
pop up augmented reality books include: interest in
design (increased by 56.25%), observation duration
(increased by 62.5%), exploration of interest (43.75%
), mastery of message content (increased by 56.25%),
and communication (43.75% increase).
Qualitative comment after the test of book with
pop up augmented reality format can be interpreted
that prototype of instructional materials in the form
of book with pop up augmented reality format in
general according to the respondent (4 students) can
be a good, unique and fun learning media. This media
can give the impression of experience to the child to
interact directly with the object. In terms of concept
design, some of the indicators used as the basis for the
assessment of prototype book with pop up augmented
reality format are very familiar, funny and adorable
because the background looks original as if the animal
lives in the book naturalye. Similarly, from the content
side, from the students’ responses, the prototype looks
easy to learn and understand because the information
support is quite complete.
The respondents’ (2 teachers) qualitativeassessment
result compilation of the s of the of the prototype
of the book with the format of pop up augmented
reality, in general according to the respondents’ ratings
(Teachers), the book can be categorized very well.
Through this media students are easier and faster
to learn something because it is assisted by a unique
visual. The impact can provide excellent learning
motivation to the students, so they always give priority
to reading as entertainment. From the design side, pop
up augmented reality media already represents the
child’s visual needs in the learning process as this book
accentuates the visual side of the text . The design style
featured in the pop up augmented reality is able to give
a strong stimulus for children to use it because not
only the visual is easily digested by children but also
the surprising element of the book makes the child
Based on these data, then analyzed critically and
synthesized in the form of design concepts relevant to
the needs of the subject. Based on the characteristics
of the media to be produced as well as considering the
goals, strategies, creative programs, then in the concept
of designing a book media with pop up augmented
reality format should pay attention to visual messages
and verbal messages. After the media design is
created, the evaluation of the products that eventually
communicated to the audience. Optimization of the
design is done after the evaluation phase through the
prototype feasibility test.
The subjects of this research were autistic students
SDLB Laboratorium State University of Malang
identied as follows: lightweight autistic students who
have no intellectual barriers, can communicate well,
can understand the command, and can read the book.
The data collection technique was done by recording
the student’s response on a certain period of time, ie
the students before being given the book and after
being given the book with pop up augmented reality
format. To achieve these objectives, the data collection
instrument used in this research was in the form of
observation sheet and interview result. For observation
sheets of assessment criteria and assessed aspects, as
follows table 1.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
Findings
The data was collected through written documents
and direct records, after selection and verication, the
results can be presented in the following description in
table 2.
Based on Table 2, it is known that the result of
prototype feasibility test of instructional materials in
the form of book with pop up augmented reality as
a whole has increased signicantly (52.5%). Some
12 Journal of ICSAR; Volume 2, Number 1, January 2018: 9-14
amazed at his rst sight. While the displayed content is
quite interesting because it already represents the type
of animal that is very popular in the community, easy
to be understood because the language used is also very
familiar.
Discussion
Some efforts to empower autistic children through
education require high cost considering that the autism
spectrum varies and requires different educational
tools. This condition often presents counterproductive
thinking among educational bureaucrats if it touches
on the cost of education for children with autism.
Because the cost incurred for the empowerment of
children with autism or other special needs children
is considered not worth the resulting productivity
contribution (Efendi, 1999).
Whatever the problem, they need qualitative
education services as mandated by Law no. 20 of
2003 on the National Education System article 32.
The implication is that children with special needs
including children with autism as well as the other
normal children need the same opportunities. the .
Based on the result of the experimental analysis,
the design of prototype of learning media in the form
of pop up augmented reality book is overall able to
increase the autism student appreciation signicantly
(Table 2). Some of the indicators used as the basis for
the assessment of the prototype of teaching materials
in the form of pop up augmented reality books include:
interest in design, product observation duration,
curiosity exploration, and mastery of message content
increased above 50% average, while for communicative
value of product below 50%.
The eligibility of a pop-up book as a learning bridge
has 3D illustrations, which can give the impression
that pop-up books can stand up and can be driven by
the reader. At that time, pop ups can provide a more
interesting visualization of the story. Starting from the
view of images that look more have dimensions, images
that can move when the page is opened or the part is
shifted, there are parts that can change shape, have a
texture like the original object, even some parts that
can issue sound. Things like this that make the story
presented more fun and interesting to enjoy. Another
fact that makes pop ups interesting and different from
story books with ordinary illustrations, pop ups will
surprise every page and can invite amazement when
the page is loaded. Pop up books have the ability to
reinforce the impression to be conveyed in a story,
so nuance more felt. Dimensional visual appearance
makes the story even more noticeable, especially with
the surprises given in each page. Images presented can
suddenly appear from behind a page or a building can
stand majestically in the middle of the page. By way of
this visualization, the impression you want to display
can be more conveyed (Online; www.robertsabuda.
com).
Augmented reality as a technology combines
two-dimensional and three-dimensional virtual objects
into a real three-dimensional environment. Then, these
virtual objects are projected in real time. Unlike virtual
reality that completely replaces reality, augmented
reality complements reality. This makes augmented
reality appropriate as a tool to help the user’s perception
and interaction with the real world. Information
displayed by virtual objects helps users carry out
activities in the real world. Augmented reality itself
as the work of the development of human thinking in
creating a new technology, it can also give a positive
inuence in its use (Nazaruddin, 2016). In addition,
augmented reality can be accessed and modied in
such a way that can be enjoyed by the general public.
However, in reality there are still many people who
do not understand and know what augmented reality
is. Whereas augmented reality is a technology that can
bridge between people with objects, so it looks more
interactive and help human life with innovations that
are always there.
The suitability of designing book products with
pop up augmented reality format shows that this
product substantially needs to be developed further as
an alternative media to support learning. The existence
of the media in the books form with all kinds of
variations to support learning in children with special
needs, especially children with autism, still remain an
important part. The results of national survey of 14
provinces on the implementation of curriculum 2013
special education eld, the use of textbooks as the most
classied traditional media is still the main menu of
learning support for children with special needs, and in
quantity according to the recognition of new principals
meet 21% of the needs. While in terms of technical
quality according to the stakeholder assessment the
textbooks of children with special needs can meet 66%
of the established standard (Efendi, 2016). On that basis,
it is undeniable that textbooks with pictorial formats are
very effective in improving the understanding of deaf
students, especially in terms of the ability to listen and
understand the meaning of language, the ability to read
and understand the meaning of language, the ability to
write and understand the meaning of language (Efendi,
2017) . In other formats, picture module books are
effective in science subjects in deaf children at SDLB
(Marzuqi & Sihkabuden, 2017).
Based on the experience, book products with
pop-up augmented reality format as an innovation
of two-dimensional media that uctuate into
3-dimensional media, then with the help of digital
technology metamorphose into new media with
13
M Arief N, M Efendi, The Book of Pop Up Augmented Reality to Increase Focus . . . .
multimedia format. With the continuous development
of pop-up and augmented reality media into textbooks,
teachers assume that this media will provide a positive
value for them in digesting information to learn
something new, because that is presented enough
to attract the attention of children. Character design
and color layouts used in this format book, able to
represent visual works that can be enjoyed by children
with special needs. For visual in augmented reality
itself also has been able to distract children’s attention
to the book served (Nazaruddin, 2016).
Multimedia in pop up augmented reality for
teachers, when applied to textbooks is very supportive
in teaching and learning process in autistic children,
because autistic children basically need a lot of
recognition of an object. More and more similar media
applications in autism learning have been found to
stimulate the birth of the conversation among them
(Jusoh & Majid, 2017). Similarly, the use of interactive
multimedia animation in learning has a positive effect,
ie, the resulting effect not only increases students’
interest and motivation, but also indirectly improves
the ability of children with learning disabilities in
reading (Yahya and Tahar, 2017). Departing from the
description, the intervention of pop-up augmented
reality technology in textbook certainly makes it easier
for students to understand and see the proportion of
real formation of the object delivered.
Keep in mind, the book Pop Up Augmented
Reality as a product of technology originally produced
to meet the recreative device can be used as a medium
of learning in children with special needs, especially
children with autism. Being viewed technically
and visually the book pop upaugmented reality as
educational material is quite revolutionary, because
in addition to having advantages that highlight the
impression to be conveyed in a story that makes readers
dissolved emotionally. Pop upaugmented reality books
will bring readers to feel they can interact with story
objects, “readers seem to be part of that amazing thing,
because they feel they have a role when they open a
book page” (Sabuda, 2005).
On that basis, the design style shown in pop up
augmented reality can stimulate the child, because in
addition to the visual easily digested by children, also
pop up augmented reality has a surprising element that
makes children amazed at their rst sight. Similarly,
from the content side, the content displayed is quite
interesting because it already represents the type of
animal that is very popular in the community, easy to
understand and understand because the language used
is very familiar.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Conclusion
The impaired communication and interaction
in children with autism with variations often make
teachers difcult do learning intervention. The
presence of prototype of media product in the form of
pop up augmentend reality book with all its advantages
based on the result of feasibility test has gained positive
appreciation. Some of the indicators used as the basis
for the assessment of the feasibility of prototype
teaching materials in the form of book with pop up
augmented reality format include: interest in design,
product observation duration, curiosity exploration,
and mastery of message content and communicative
products.
Suggestion
To obtain maximum results on the utilization of
media in the form of popup augmentend reality book
with all the advantages of the children with special needs,
it is suggested that the implementation needs to assist
teachers of special education trained in the utilization of
information technology and communication, especially
mastery of gadgets. Please note, the implementation of
this technology attention of children more distracted to
object augmented reality than to its reading content. So
the role of accompanying teachers is needed to assist
them in conveying the information contained in the
book.
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... Performance-based measurements (n = 11) encompass reaction time, task completion, and frequency. Fewer papers Social (30) [41], [44], [47], [48], [49], [52], [61], [62], [64], [65] [68]- [71], [73]- [78], [79], [81], [85], [86], [88], [92], [93], [95], [97], [98], [99] Selective (15) [8], [40], [43], [46], [49], [50], [67], [82], [88], [90], [91], [94], [100]- [102] Sustained (16) [39], [40], [44], [46], [49], [63], [66], [67], [72], [88], [89], [91], [96], [100], [101], [103] involved studies relying on qualitative measurements, such as observations and interviews (17.3%). ...
... Performance-based measurements (n = 11) encompass reaction time, task completion, and frequency. Fewer papers Social (30) [41], [44], [47], [48], [49], [52], [61], [62], [64], [65] [68]- [71], [73]- [78], [79], [81], [85], [86], [88], [92], [93], [95], [97], [98], [99] Selective (15) [8], [40], [43], [46], [49], [50], [67], [82], [88], [90], [91], [94], [100]- [102] Sustained (16) [39], [40], [44], [46], [49], [63], [66], [67], [72], [88], [89], [91], [96], [100], [101], [103] involved studies relying on qualitative measurements, such as observations and interviews (17.3%). ...
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Penelitian ini didaarkan pada asumsi bahwa pemanfaatan media pembelajaran yang relevan dengan kebutuhan peserta didik dapat meneguhkan pembentukan perilaku hasil belajar yang positif. Augmented reality sebagai salah satu produk inovasi dalam tekonologi informasi dan komunikasi ketika diadopsi untuk mendukung pembelajaran, maka pembelajaran menjadi lebih hidup dan apresiatif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menghasilkan bahan belajar penunjang mata kuliah Anatomi dan Fisiologi Manusia yang dilengkapi dengan teknologi augmented reality. Untuk itu, rancangan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian pengembangan (Lee dan Owen, 2004). Berdasarkan hasil penilaian yang diberikan oleh ahli media, ahli materi, serta pengguna terhadap bahan ajar anatomi fisiologi manusia, menunjukkan bahwa bahan ajar anatomi fisiologi manusia ini sangat layak untuk digunakan, karena secara teknis dan subtantif bahan ajar anatomi fisiologi manusia dinilai sangat baik. Penyertaan teknologi Augmented reality untuk penguatan pada beberapa materi tertentu dalam bahan belajar anatomi fisiologi memberikan peningkatan pemahaman secara signifikan
... They believed that three main advantages of Augmented Reality in autism education would be helpful in learning engagement, learning interaction and also learning process. Nazaruddin & Efendi (2018) believed that children with autism encounter the difficulty of focusing through the object carefully, especially when the objects are not able to attract their attention. Hence, in their study, they have invented a prototype of an augmented reality pop up book to increase focus and object recognition capabilities for children with autism. ...
... There have been many past literature that agreed on the use of augmented reality technology in autism education. Nazaruddin & Efendi (2018) believed that since autistic children find it hard to focus through objects especially if the objects are not able to capture their attention, an augmented reality or pop up book is very beneficial in increasing focus within the children with autism. Jain, Patil, Nawal & Chakraborty (2018) in the same year also developed ARWAK, an application that stands for Augmented Reality Wordbook which they believed that the application has helped kindergarteners to learn a slightly more number of words rather than from a printed wordbook. ...
... Hay estudios que constatan la efectividad del uso RA en este alumnado (Arief y Efendi, 2018;Chen et al., 2016;Kolomoiets y Kassim, 2018;Sahin et al., 2018a;Taryadi y Kurniawan, 2018). Algunos resaltan la utilidad para facilitar su autonomía (McMahon et al., 2012) Concretamente, la gamificación -en tanto técnica que extrapola las mecánicas y dinámicas del juego a contextos no lúdicos (Zichermann y Cunningham, 2011)-, incrementa la motivación hacia el aprendizaje en el contexto escolar (Prieto et al., 2014). ...
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Los Entornos Gamificados Aumentados (EGA) constituyen escenarios inmersivos que involucran a los sujetos en su proceso de aprendizaje a partir de una narrativa gamificada que integra mecánicas y dinámicas de juego, favoreciendo una experiencia multisensorial al interactuar con recursos de realidad aumentada utilizando dispositivos digitales. El objetivo del presente estudio es describir el sistema de gamificación que sustenta un EGA como recurso didáctico diseñado para estimular las habilidades comunicativas del alumnado con TEA. Se adopta una metodología cualitativa centrada en el estudio de caso para describir su diseño, atendiendo a tres dimensiones: narrativa, proceso de gamificación y realidad aumentada. El entorno resultante incorpora una narrativa que recrea una aventura pirata con personajes animados en un ambiente marinero, cuyo proceso de gamificación incluye: a) dinámicas como fórmulas de avance en el juego, adopción de roles y promoción de status; y, b) mecánicas cifradas en la visibilización del progreso y evolución, escalado de niveles, acumulación y colección de puntos e items, expresión y avance. Todo ello se apoya en recursos que incorporan varios niveles de realidad aumentada, los cuales proporcionan distintos tipos de interacción e inmersión. Finalmente, hay que resaltar que el carácter lúdico-inmersivo de este prototipo, apoyado en realidad aumentada y centrado en la superación de misiones enmarcadas en una aventura pirata, le dota de gran potencial para estimular las habilidades comunicativas de este alumnado con TEA.
... Our results coincide with that of Bai et al. (2015) because students with ASD show an increase in the frequency and development of symbolic play. The reason for this improvement is explained, according to Arief and Efendi (2018), by the fact that RA awakens in these students a greater interest in the use of objects. However, there are other research such as Lorenzo et al. (2019) diverge from the results obtained in our study. ...
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In today's society, technology plays a fundamental role. More and more activities of daily life are being developed with the help of technology. One of the emerging technologies in recent years is augmented reality, (AR) which generate great benefits por people with disability. These visual technologies provide safe and controlled environments in learning to solve social situations for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). For this reason, it is proposed as an objective to analyse the effect of AR as a tool for learning the handwashing process. This research was developed using AR leaving from a quantitative approach, quasi-experimental methodology and pretest–posttest design. The Denver questionnaire was employed to collect data before the intervention and after the end of the intervention. In addition to this, the Onirix application was worked to create the AR environments. In this sense, the experimental group was composed of 6 students diagnosed with ASD (Level I, II, III) who developed activities with the AR application. While the control group was composed of 6 students diagnosed with ASD (level I, II, III) who performed similar activities in the handwashing process with traditional methodologies. The sessions had a duration of 20–30 min over 12 weeks to complete 10 sessions. In addition, a field record was used to leave proof of the children’s behaviour throughout the different sessions. In this way, it was possible to study how the child's behaviour had evolved from the pretest to the end of the intervention (post-test). The results show that there have been improvements in the post-test caused by working with augmented reality in several areas, such as, for example, in eye contact. This is reflected for example in item 3 which has a value of p = 0.005 and which is manifested in that the students due to AR turn towards the therapist when they hear his voice. If the study by Bakhtiarvand (2020) is followed, an improvement in the children's motivation for develop social interaction skills has been found. This is reflected in the fact that a value of p = 0.006 was reached after the intervention with the children who used the AR, having a greater interest in interacting socially. Likewise, Ferreira et al. (2020) note that AR has led to progress in the reaction time of students with ASD. For example, they identify a number or letter faster due to AR. In the opposite direction, are the investigations of Lorenzo et al. (2019) where there have been no improvements due to AR. The possibility of designing an application adapted in real time to the children's needs is considered as a future line of research.
... Hasil kegiatan pendampingan sebanyak tujuh kegiatan pokok menunjukkan peningkatan pengetahuan peserta dengan rata-rata peningkatan sebesar 65%. Sependapat dengan (Nazaruddin & Efendi, 2018) bahwa Pop Up Book dapat memberikan visualisasi yang menarik, dengan media Pop Up Book penyampaian cerita akan lebih mudah dimengerti dengan kejutan setiap halamannya. Budaya literasi juga diharapkan akan menjadi pembiasaan khsuusnya bagi siswa berkebutuhan khusus di SLB. ...
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Kegiatan pengabdian ini berupa pendampingan membuat pop up book yang terintegrasi dengan budaya lokal papua yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan literasi anak autisme di SLB Negeri Anim Ha. Metode kegiatan meliputi empat tahapan yaitu tahap persiapan, tahap pengenalan, tahap pengkapasitasan, dan tahap penerapan. Tahap persiapan meliputi pembuatan sampel, video tutorial dan pendataan peserta pendampingan. Tahap pengenalan meliputi pengenalan alat dan bahan serta perangkat lunak yang digunakan. Tahap pengkapasitasan meliputi pemilihan konten pop up book Mace, mendesain sketsa pop up book Mace pada kertas, menyusun dan mempresentasikan pop up book Mace. Tahap penerapan yaitu menerapkan pop up book Mace yang telah dibuat ke anak autis. Hasil capaian peserta pendampingan adalah meningkatnya pengetahuan peserta dengan rata-rata lebih dari 60% pada setiap kegiatan pokok. Manfaat yang dirasakan oleh peserta diantaranya peserta mampu dan terampil dalam membuat media pembelajaran berupa pop up book Mace yang sesuai untuk melatih fokus anak berkebutuhan khusus yaitu autisme. Dari pelaksanaan kegiatan dapat disimpulkan bahwa pendampingan dalam membuat media pembelajaran perlu dikembangkan media yang inovatif dan memiliki visualisasi yang menarik khususnya bagi anak berkebutuhan khusus autisme. Olehkarena itu peran guru khususnya keterampilan dalam menyusun media tersebut sangat diperlukan.
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The purpose of this chapter is to provide readers with a literature review of the latest research with regard to augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) technologies, as well as assistive and humanoid robots, for especially differently abled students, who have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). While introducing and describing the general perspective of the chapter as specifically focusing on objectives in terms of students with ASDs, background that summarizes the content of this chapter as also consisting of significant results from certain earlier work and/or with regard to young children, adolescents, adults, and/or older people, as well as references in terms of research related to other connected conditions, will also be offered where applicable. Problems and challenges in this regard are presented, together with possible solutions and recommendations, future research directions, and concluding remarks.
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For people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), using technological tools, such as augmented reality (AR) and serious games remain a new and unexplored option. To attract people with ASD who have communicative, social, emotional and attention deficit disorders to behavioral treatments , an attractive environment is needed that ensures continuity during treatment. The aim of the current work is to efficiently examine systematic reviews and relevant primary studies on ASD solutions from 2015 to 2020, particularly those using the traditional Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), the application of augmented reality and those that propose serious games, thereby providing an overview of existing evidence and to identify strategies for future research. Five databases were searched for keywords that may be included within the broad Autism Spectrum Disorder 'ASD' umbrella term, alongside 'augmented reality', 'serious games' and 'PECS'. We screened 1799 titles and abstracts, read, and retained 12 reviews and 43 studies. The studies scrutinized in our systematic review were examined to answer four primary and four sub-research questions , which we formulated to better understand general trends in the use of approaches for attracting people with ASD to behavioral therapies. Additionally, our systematic review also presents ongoing issues in this area of research and suggests promising future research directions. Our review is useful to researchers in this field as it facilitates the comparison of existing studies with work currently being conducted, based on the availability of a wide range of studies in three different areas (AR, SG and PECS).
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With the rising prevalence of autism diagnoses, it is essential for research to understand how to leverage technology to support the diverse nature of autistic traits. While traditional interventions focused on technology for medical cure and rehabilitation, recent research aims to understand how technology can accommodate each unique situation in an efficient and engaging way. Extended reality (XR) technology has been shown to be effective in improving attention in autistic users given that it is more engaging and motivating than other traditional mediums. Here, we conducted a systematic review of 59 research articles that explored the role of attention in XR interventions for autistic users. We systematically analyzed demographics, study design and findings, including autism screening and attention measurement methods. Furthermore, given methodological inconsistencies in the literature, we systematically synthesize methods and protocols including screening tools, physiological and behavioral cues of autism and XR tasks. While there is substantial evidence for the effectiveness of using XR in attention-based interventions for autism to support autistic traits, we have identified three principal research gaps that provide promising research directions to examine how autistic populations interact with XR. First, our findings highlight the disproportionate geographic locations of autism studies and underrepresentation of autistic adults, evidence of gender disparity, and presence of individuals diagnosed with co-occurring conditions across studies. Second, many studies used an assortment of standardized and novel tasks and self-report assessments with limited tested reliability. Lastly, the research lacks evidence of performance maintenance and transferability. Based on these challenges, this paper discusses inclusive future research directions considering greater diversification of participant recruitment, robust objective evaluations using physiological measurements (e.g., eye-tracking), and follow-up maintenance sessions that promote transferrable skills. Pursuing these opportunities would lead to more effective therapy solutions, improved accessible interfaces, and engaging interactions.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı alanyazında Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu (OSB) ve Zihin Yetersizliği (ZY) olan bireylerle gerçekleştirilmiş artırılmış gerçeklik uygulamalarını betimsel olarak incelemektir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda OSB’li ve ZY’li bireylerle gerçekleştirilmiş artırılmış gerçeklik uygulamalarının etkililiklerini değerlendiren hakemli dergilerde yayımlanmış makaleler taranmıştır. Tarama sonucunda dâhil edilme kriterlerini karşılayan toplam 27 makale çalışmaya dahil edilmiştir. Ele alınan araştırmaların konu, katılımcı, yaş, yöntem, model, ortam, izleme, genelleme, uygulama güvenirliği, gözlemciler arası güvenirlik, sosyal geçerlik ve bulgular bölümleri incelenerek oluşturulan tabloda ilgili başlıklar altında verilmiştir. Araştırma sonunda ele alınan çalışmaların büyük çoğunluğu artırılmış gerçeklik uygulamalarının OSB’li ve ZY’li bireylerde kullanımının etkili olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Araştırma sonuçlarının ülkemizde özel gereksinimli bireylerle artırılmış gerçeklik konusuyla ilgili çalışma yapmayı planlayan araştırmacılara yol göstermesi beklenmektedir.
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Delay in language development and communication of deaf children is a major problem for themselves and other people. Therefore, management of the education and habilitation needs to be prepared early with hoping that can increase language and communication skills through systematic learning and utilization of appropriate learning material (textbook). The purpose of this study is to describe the feasibility prototype of learning material to improve understanding about nature and the environment for deaf children in the elementary school. The results of the data analysis of this study concluded that the prototype of the pictorial book has contributed significantly to improving deaf children’s understanding of nature and its surroundings, particularly, through the ability to listen and understand meaning of language, ability to read and understand the meaning of language, the ability to write and understand the meaning of language, as well as a functional knowledge of the language.
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Picture Exchange Communication System is a common augmentative communication system used on children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), which is one of the categories of developmental problems in social interaction, communication and behavior patterns. The aim of this study is to see an increase in the utterance of the word by students with autism using PECS. This study is an action research using quantitative descriptive on data collection. Observations were implemented over a period of four weeks to see the effectiveness of PECS using cartoon picture cards and cards real pictures to enhance the utterance of two primary school autism students. From the result shown, the application of PECS successfully stimulates utterance among the students. This study is expected to enhance the communication and social interaction development of children with autism and other children who have difficulty mastering the language.
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