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Rosin is a material, which can be obtained from pine resin using a green technology with no waste output. It is a mixture of terpenes with a functionality that make them a rich chemical resource. Rosin is a material which has been available for hundreds of years and has developed many niche applications some old, some new. The authors review the potential of this material for preparing sustainable biopolymers and composites by identifying the reaction paths. The authors conclude that foams and composites may be the most effective route to high volume applications based on rosin.

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The forest sector plays an important role in the circular bioeconomy due to its focus on renewable materials that can substitute fossil or greenhouse gas emissions-intensive materials, store carbon in bio-based products and provide ecosystem services. This study investigates the state of the bioeconomy in Brazil and its forest industry. Specifically, this study presents some examples of novel wood-based products being developed or manufactured in Brazil and discusses possible opportunities for the development of the country's forest sector. The pulp and paper industry plays an important role in the forest sector. It has also been showing advancements in the development of cascading uses of wood invalue-added products, such as nanocrystalline cellulose, wood-based textile fibers, lignin-based products, and chemical derivatives from tall oil. Product and business diversification through the integration of the pulp and paper industry to biorefineries could provide new opportunities. Moreover, biochemicals derived from non-wood forest products, such as resin and tannins could promote diversification and competitiveness of the Brazilian forest industry. Although some engineered wood products are still a novelty in Brazil, the market for such products will likely expand in the future following the global trends in wood construction.
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Mater-Bi® NF866 (MB) was blended with gum rosin and two pentaerythritol esters of gum rosin (labeled as LF and UT), as additives, to produce biobased and compostable films for food packaging or agricultural mulch films. The films were prepared by blending MB with 5, 10, and 15 wt.% of each additive. The obtained films were characterized by optical, colorimetric, wettability, and oxygen barrier properties. Moreover, the additives and the MB-based films were disintegrated under composting conditions and the effect of each additive on the biodegradation rate was studied. All films were homogeneous and optically transparent. The color of the films tended to yellow tones due to the addition of pine resin derivatives. All the formulated films presented a complete UV-transmittance blocking effect in the UVA and UVB region, and those with 5 wt.% of pine resin derivatives increased the MB hydrophobicity. Low amounts of resins tend to maintain the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) values of the neat MB, due to its good solubilizing and compatibilizing effects. The disintegration under composting conditions test revealed that gum rosin completely disintegrates in about 90 days, while UT degrades 80% and LF degrades 5%, over 180 days of incubation. As expected, the same tendency was obtained for the disintegration of the studied films, although Mater-Bi® reach 28% of disintegrability over the 180 days of the composting test.
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In this work, different materials for three-dimensional (3D)-printing were studied, which based on polycaprolactone with two natural additives, gum rosin, and beeswax. During the 3D-printing process, the bed and extrusion temperatures of each formulation were established. After, the obtained materials were characterized by mechanical, thermal, and structural properties. The results showed that the formulation containing polycaprolactone with a mixture of gum rosin and beeswax as additive behaved better during the 3D-printing process. Moreover, the miscibility and compatibility between the additives and the matrix were concluded through the thermal assessment. The mechanical characterization established that the addition of the mixture of gum rosin and beeswax provides greater tensile strength than those additives separately, facilitating 3D-printing. In contrast, the addition of beeswax increased the ductility of the material, which makes the 3D-printing processing difficult. Despite the fact that both natural additives had a plasticizing effect, the formulations containing gum rosin showed greater elongation at break. Finally, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy assessment deduced that polycaprolactone interacts with the functional groups of the additives.
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Due to the possibility that petroleum supplies will be exhausted in the next decades to come, more and more attention has been paid to the production of bacterial pl- tics including polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), polylactic acid (PLA), poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), biopolyethylene (PE), poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT), and poly(p-phenylene) (PPP). These are well-studied polymers containing at least one monomer synthesized via bacterial transformation. Among them, PHA, PLA and PBS are well known for their biodegradability, whereas PE, PTT and PPP are probably less biodegradable or are less studied in terms of their biodegradability. Over the past years, their properties and appli- tions have been studied in detail and products have been developed. Physical and chemical modifications to reduce their cost or to improve their properties have been conducted. PHA is the only biopolyester family completely synthesized by biological means. They have been investigated by microbiologists, molecular biologists, b- chemists, chemical engineers, chemists, polymer experts, and medical researchers for many years. PHA applications as bioplastics, fine chemicals, implant biomate- als, medicines, and biofuels have been developed. Companies have been est- lished for or involved in PHA related R&D as well as large scale production. It has become clear that PHA and its related technologies form an industrial value chain in fermentation, materials, feeds, and energy to medical fields.
Conference Paper
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The eco-foams have been designed to utilise considerable amount of biodegradable material incorporated in a suitable foaming agent as a means of potential replacement for the urea formaldehyde foam making. Rosins also known as gum rosins are of sustainable nature, encourage its locally driven industry and its cheaper economic viability for optimum productivity. Non-volatile diterpene acids in pines constitute what is commercially known as rosin or more accurately rosin acids as it contains the organically useful carboxylic acid functional group, which has plentiful uses in terms of altering the structure thus function as a principal material for number of applications. Isocyanate (industrially available H12-MDI (4,4’-methylene di(cyclohexyl isocyanate)) has been employed as a foaming agent in a range of tests with quantitative modifications for rosins as the former acts similarly for the urethane linkage (polyurethane type structure) in an open cell foam. Rosins primarily contain a fused ring cyclo-aliphatic structure,abietic acid which upon treatment with an isocyanate liberates carbon dioxide leading to building up of foam.The reactions of rosins in isocyanates were carried out in the absence of a catalyst albeit the presence of alcohol and water greatly enhances the kinetics of foaming behaviour. The micro-computerised tomographs have been obtained for porosity.The infra-red spectroscopic data provide confirmation of reactions. Thermal degradations of the rosin foams have also been studied using the simultaneous thermal analyser and compared with urea formaldehyde found former are slightly better.
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Biopolymers provide a plethora of applications in the pharmaceutical and medical applications. A material that can be used for biomedical applications like wound healing, drug delivery and tissue engineering should possess certain properties like biocompatibility, biodegradation to non-toxic products, low antigenicity, high bio-activity, processability to complicated shapes with appropriate porosity, ability to support cell growth and proliferation and appropriate mechanical properties, as well as maintaining mechanical strength. This paper reviews biodegradable biopolymers focusing on their potential in biomedical applications. Biopolymers most commonly used and most abundantly available have been described with focus on the properties relevant to biomedical importance.
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This study evaluated the sustainability of bio-based plastics including all the stages of their life cycles (cradle to grave) to assist in decision making about selection of these materials. Plastics are considered essential materials in today’s society, but throughout their life cycles they contribute to pollution and depletion of non-renewable natural resources. Bio-based plastics appear to be more environmentally friendly materials than their petroleum-based counterparts when their origin and biodegradability are compared. But which of the bio-based plastics currently on the market or soon to be on the market are preferable from an environmental, health, and safety perspective? Results of this qualitative study were displayed in two Bioplastics Spectrums that provide a visual summary of the data gathered on bio-based plastics according to sustainability criteria. This analysis found that none of bio-based plastics currently in commercial use or under development are fully sustainable. Each of the bio-based plastics reviewed utilizes: genetically modified organisms for feedstock manufacture and/or toxic chemicals in the production process or generates these as byproducts, and/or co-polymers from non-renewable resources. When deciding to substitute conventional petroleum-based plastics with bio-based plastics it is important to understand the flow of these materials and their adverse impacts in all parts of their life cycles in order to select a material that is more sustainable.
Microcapsules of diltiazem hydrochloride with rosin were prepared by an emulsion-solvent-evaporation technique. Different amounts of drugs were added in order to obtain various drug to polymer ratios. The physical properties, loading efficiency and release rate depended on the drug to polymer ratio. The low drug content of microcapsules may be due to the interaction between the hydrochloride form of diltiazem and rosin in acetone, where as non-hydrochloride drug like sulphamethoxpyridazine showed complete loading efficiency. Span 80 was used to prevent aggregation. The mean size of the microcapsules decreased as the drug/polymer ratio increased. Since microcapsules were very small they were embedded into a tablet. The microcapsules produced a typical 24 h sustained release pattern. In vitro dissolution studies showed that first-order release characteristics were exhibited.
In addition to fracture of polymers in the bulk or virgin state, a number of important polymer interface issues must be addressed by researchers of bio-based products. These involve welding of thermoplastics, lamination of composites, coalescence of latex particles in coatings and elastomers, blends of incompatible polymers, reinforcement of incompatible interfaces with compatibilizers, polymer solid interface (such as fiber-reinforced composites), and adhesion of polymers to substrates. These issues are critical for the successful advance of new bio-based plastics, adhesives, and resins and are discussed in this chapter. Computer simulations are used to make predictions for thermosets derived from plant oils and explore the utility of the fundamental theories. This chapter presents the basic theory of strength of polymers and interfaces based on the vector percolation model, with general examples for linear and cross-linked polymers, such as thermoplastics, elastomers, and cross-linked materials. The percolation theory is applied successfully to fracture of thermosets, carbon nanotubes, and fracture of polymer–solid interfaces.
Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncaptured waste available to become plastic marine debris. Without waste management infrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste available to enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Natural polymers are primarily attractive because they are biodegradable, inexpensive, and readily available. The most important benefit of natural polymers is that they are capable for chemical modifications. One such biopolymer, rosin, and its derivatives have been pharmaceutically evaluated as microencapsulating materials, film forming agent and as binding agent in formulation of tablets. They are also employed in formulation of chewing gum bases and cosmetics. This review article provides an overview of pharmaceutical use of rosin and its derivatives as excipient in dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems.
Ester-adduct derivatives of rosin were synthesized by reacting rosin with polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) and maleic anhydride (MA) at elevated temperature. The different concentrations of PEG 200 (7.5%, 15% and 25% w/w of rosin) were used with fixed concentration of MA (7.5%) to obtain derivatives. These derivatives were evaluated for acid number, glass transition temperature (Tg), solubility, FT-IR spectroscopy, molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity. Water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of free and applied (on tablets) derivative films was investigated. The PEG 200 concentration showed proportional increase in the molecular weight and reciprocal relation with the acid number and Tg of the rosin derivatives. The derivatives were soluble in organic solvents; aqueous solubility was pH dependent. The contact angle study revealed higher wettability of derivatives compared to rosin films. WVTR of derivative-coated tablets was much lower than for the free films. Further, the derivatives were investigated as matrix former in tablets and pellets using diclofenac sodium (sparingly soluble in water) and propranolol hydrochloride (soluble in water) as model drugs. While the release of diclofenac sodium was retarded for 8 h in both dosage forms, propranolol hydrochloride was completely released within 2 h. The results support applications of these rosin derivatives in different drug delivery systems.
Two new rosin derivatives (RD-1 and RD-2) were synthesized in the laboratory and evaluated for physicochemical properties, molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity (Mw/Mn) and glass transition temperature (Tg). Plasticizer free films of the derivatives were produced by casting/solvent evaporation method. The surface morphology (SEM), water vapour transmission and mechanical properties (tensile strength, percent elongation and modulus of elasticity) of the films were investigated. The derivatives were further evaluated for pharmaceutical film coating by characterizing the release of a model drug (diclofenac sodium) from non-pariel seeds (pellets) coated with the derivatives. Pellet film coating could be achieved without agglomeration of the pellets within a reasonable operation time. Drug release from the coated pellets was sustained up to 10 h with the two rosin derivatives. These findings suggest the possible application of rosin derivatives (RD-1 and RD-2) for film coating.
Polymerized rosin (PR) a novel film forming polymer is characterized and investigated in the present study for its application in drug delivery. Films were produced by a casting/solvent evaporation method from plasticizer free and plasticizer containing solutions. Films prepared from different formulations were studied for their mechanical (tensile strength, percent elongation and Young's modulus), water vapour transmission and moisture absorption characteristics. Neat PR films were slightly brittle and posed the problem of breaking during handling. Hydrophobic plasticizers, dibutyl sebacate and tributyl citrate, improved the mechanical properties of free films with both the plasticizers showing significant effects on film elongation. Release of diclofenac sodium (model drug) from coated pellets was sustained with high coating levels. Concentration of plasticizer was found to affect the release profile. PR films plasticized with hydrophobic plasticizers could therefore be used in coating processes for the design of oral sustained delivery dosage forms.
Rosin and Rosin-based polymers have diversified drug delivery applications achieving sustained/controlled release profiles. In this manuscript, two new Rosin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for physicochemical properties, molecular weight, polydispersity and glass transition temperature. Plasticizer-free films prepared by solvent evaporation were tested for surface morphology, water vapour transmission and mechanical properties (tensile strength, percent elongation and modulus of elasticity). The films showed low tensile strength and high percent elongation values achieving smooth and uniform surface. The derivatives were further characterized for film coating by evaluating the release of a model drug (diclofenac sodium) from pellets coated with the rosin derivatives as retarding membrane. Drug release was sustained up to 10 h due to 10% (w/w) coat built up with the new rosin derivatives. Increase in coat-built-up further facilitated sustained release from coated forms. Film coating could be achieved without agglomeration of the pellets within a reasonable operating time. The present study proposes novel film forming materials with potential use in sustained drug delivery.
The specific aim of the present study was to investigate the biodegradation and biocompatibility characteristics of rosin, a natural film-forming polymer. Both in vitro as well as in vivo methods were used for assessment of the same. The in vitro degradation of rosin films was followed in pH 7.4 phosphate buffered saline at 37 degrees C and in vivo by subdermal implantation in rats for up to 90 days. Initial biocompatibility was followed on postoperative days 7, 14, 21, and 28 by histological observations of the surrounding tissues around the implanted films. Poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (50:50) was used as reference material for biocompatibility. Rate and extent of degradation were followed in terms of dry film weight loss, molecular weight (MW) decline, and surface morphological changes. Although the rate of in vitro degradation was slow, rosin-free films showed complete degradation between 60 and 90 days following subdermal implantation in rats. The films degraded following different rates, in vitro and in vivo, but the mechanism followed was primarily bulk degradation. Rosin films demonstrated inflammatory reactions similar to PLGA, indicative of good biocompatibility. Good biocompatibility comparable to PLGA is demonstrated by the absence of necrosis or abscess formation in the surrounding tissues. The study provides valuable insight, which may lead to new applications of rosin in the field of drug delivery.
Hydrocortisone (HC)-loaded rosin nanoparticles were prepared by a dispersion and dialysis method without addition of surfactant. They were spherical: 167-332 nm diam. The drug was loaded approximately 50% of initial feeding amount in all formulation. Release of hydrocortisone from the nanoparticles in vitro gradually decreased with increasing initial rosin content at pH 7.4. HC was also released very slowly at pH 1.2. Nanoparticles based on rosin thus are potentially useful as a drug delivery system.
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