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Abstract

Rosin is a material, which can be obtained from pine resin using a green technology with no waste output. It is a mixture of terpenes with a functionality that make them a rich chemical resource. Rosin is a material which has been available for hundreds of years and has developed many niche applications some old, some new. The authors review the potential of this material for preparing sustainable biopolymers and composites by identifying the reaction paths. The authors conclude that foams and composites may be the most effective route to high volume applications based on rosin.

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The forest sector plays an important role in the circular bioeconomy due to its focus on renewable materials that can substitute fossil or greenhouse gas emissions-intensive materials, store carbon in bio-based products and provide ecosystem services. This study investigates the state of the bioeconomy in Brazil and its forest industry. Specifically, this study presents some examples of novel wood-based products being developed or manufactured in Brazil and discusses possible opportunities for the development of the country's forest sector. The pulp and paper industry plays an important role in the forest sector. It has also been showing advancements in the development of cascading uses of wood invalue-added products, such as nanocrystalline cellulose, wood-based textile fibers, lignin-based products, and chemical derivatives from tall oil. Product and business diversification through the integration of the pulp and paper industry to biorefineries could provide new opportunities. Moreover, biochemicals derived from non-wood forest products, such as resin and tannins could promote diversification and competitiveness of the Brazilian forest industry. Although some engineered wood products are still a novelty in Brazil, the market for such products will likely expand in the future following the global trends in wood construction.
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Natural polymers are primarily attractive because they are biodegradable, inexpensive, and readily available. The most important benefit of natural polymers is that they are capable for chemical modifications. One such biopolymer, rosin, and its derivatives have been pharmaceutically evaluated as microencapsulating materials, film forming agent and as binding agent in formulation of tablets. They are also employed in formulation of chewing gum bases and cosmetics. This review article provides an overview of pharmaceutical use of rosin and its derivatives as excipient in dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems.
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Ester-adduct derivatives of rosin were synthesized by reacting rosin with polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) and maleic anhydride (MA) at elevated temperature. The different concentrations of PEG 200 (7.5%, 15% and 25% w/w of rosin) were used with fixed concentration of MA (7.5%) to obtain derivatives. These derivatives were evaluated for acid number, glass transition temperature (Tg), solubility, FT-IR spectroscopy, molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity. Water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of free and applied (on tablets) derivative films was investigated. The PEG 200 concentration showed proportional increase in the molecular weight and reciprocal relation with the acid number and Tg of the rosin derivatives. The derivatives were soluble in organic solvents; aqueous solubility was pH dependent. The contact angle study revealed higher wettability of derivatives compared to rosin films. WVTR of derivative-coated tablets was much lower than for the free films. Further, the derivatives were investigated as matrix former in tablets and pellets using diclofenac sodium (sparingly soluble in water) and propranolol hydrochloride (soluble in water) as model drugs. While the release of diclofenac sodium was retarded for 8 h in both dosage forms, propranolol hydrochloride was completely released within 2 h. The results support applications of these rosin derivatives in different drug delivery systems.
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Polymerized rosin (PR) a novel film forming polymer is characterized and investigated in the present study for its application in drug delivery. Films were produced by a casting/solvent evaporation method from plasticizer free and plasticizer containing solutions. Films prepared from different formulations were studied for their mechanical (tensile strength, percent elongation and Young's modulus), water vapour transmission and moisture absorption characteristics. Neat PR films were slightly brittle and posed the problem of breaking during handling. Hydrophobic plasticizers, dibutyl sebacate and tributyl citrate, improved the mechanical properties of free films with both the plasticizers showing significant effects on film elongation. Release of diclofenac sodium (model drug) from coated pellets was sustained with high coating levels. Concentration of plasticizer was found to affect the release profile. PR films plasticized with hydrophobic plasticizers could therefore be used in coating processes for the design of oral sustained delivery dosage forms.
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Rosin and Rosin-based polymers have diversified drug delivery applications achieving sustained/controlled release profiles. In this manuscript, two new Rosin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for physicochemical properties, molecular weight, polydispersity and glass transition temperature. Plasticizer-free films prepared by solvent evaporation were tested for surface morphology, water vapour transmission and mechanical properties (tensile strength, percent elongation and modulus of elasticity). The films showed low tensile strength and high percent elongation values achieving smooth and uniform surface. The derivatives were further characterized for film coating by evaluating the release of a model drug (diclofenac sodium) from pellets coated with the rosin derivatives as retarding membrane. Drug release was sustained up to 10 h due to 10% (w/w) coat built up with the new rosin derivatives. Increase in coat-built-up further facilitated sustained release from coated forms. Film coating could be achieved without agglomeration of the pellets within a reasonable operating time. The present study proposes novel film forming materials with potential use in sustained drug delivery.
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The specific aim of the present study was to investigate the biodegradation and biocompatibility characteristics of rosin, a natural film-forming polymer. Both in vitro as well as in vivo methods were used for assessment of the same. The in vitro degradation of rosin films was followed in pH 7.4 phosphate buffered saline at 37 degrees C and in vivo by subdermal implantation in rats for up to 90 days. Initial biocompatibility was followed on postoperative days 7, 14, 21, and 28 by histological observations of the surrounding tissues around the implanted films. Poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (50:50) was used as reference material for biocompatibility. Rate and extent of degradation were followed in terms of dry film weight loss, molecular weight (MW) decline, and surface morphological changes. Although the rate of in vitro degradation was slow, rosin-free films showed complete degradation between 60 and 90 days following subdermal implantation in rats. The films degraded following different rates, in vitro and in vivo, but the mechanism followed was primarily bulk degradation. Rosin films demonstrated inflammatory reactions similar to PLGA, indicative of good biocompatibility. Good biocompatibility comparable to PLGA is demonstrated by the absence of necrosis or abscess formation in the surrounding tissues. The study provides valuable insight, which may lead to new applications of rosin in the field of drug delivery.
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Hydrocortisone (HC)-loaded rosin nanoparticles were prepared by a dispersion and dialysis method without addition of surfactant. They were spherical: 167-332 nm diam. The drug was loaded approximately 50% of initial feeding amount in all formulation. Release of hydrocortisone from the nanoparticles in vitro gradually decreased with increasing initial rosin content at pH 7.4. HC was also released very slowly at pH 1.2. Nanoparticles based on rosin thus are potentially useful as a drug delivery system.
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