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Taxonomical and Pharmacological Status of Typha: A Review


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Cattail or Typha is a genus of plants. It is found in wetland habitats. They are usually found in the Northern Hemisphere, but sometimes found in wetlands elsewhere. These plants recognized in British English as reedmace or bullrush and in American English as punks or cattail. In North America 3 species are well known, T. latifolia (broadleaf cattail), T. angustifolia (narrow leaf cattail), and southern cattail (T. dominensis). Broadleaf and southern cattails are considered native to North America. All three species are early colonizers of wetlands and compete with native wetland herbs because of their seeds dispersed by wind and rapid growth of their underground stems (rhizomes). Cattails were once used to make paper. Cattail paper is very heavy and coarse, and is rarely used today. Toxic chemical such as arsenic from drinking water has been removed by cattail because it serve as water filter. The current review discuss with the origin, distribution, chemical composition, taxonomic status and pharmacological studies.
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Annals of Plant Sciences 7.3 (2018) pp. 2101-2106
*Corresponding Author:
Amit Pandey,
Research Scholar, Dept. Of Botany,
Bundelkhand University, Kanpur Road,
Jhansi, India.
E-mail: Page | 2101
Review Article
Taxonomical and pharmacological status of Typha: A Review
Amit Pandey and R.K. Verma
Dept. of Botany, Bundelkhand University, Kanpur Road, Jhansi, India.
Received: 1/30/2018; Accepted: 2/21/2018
Abstract: Cattail or Typha is a genus of plants. It is found in wetland habitats. They are usually found in the
Northern Hemisphere, but sometimes found in wetlands elsewhere. These plants recognized in British English as
reedmace or bullrush and in American English as punks or cattail. In North America 3 species are well known, T.
latifolia (broadleaf cattail), T. angustifolia (narrow leaf cattail), and southern cattail (T. dominensis). Broadleaf and southern
cattails are considered native to North America. All three species are early colonizers of wetlands and compete with
native wetland herbs because of their seeds dispersed by wind and rapid growth of their underground stems
(rhizomes). Cattails were once used to make paper. Cattail paper is very heavy and coarse, and is rarely used today.
Toxic chemical such as arsenic from drinking water has been removed by cattail because it serve as water filter. The
current review discuss with the origin, distribution, chemical composition, taxonomic status and pharmacological
Key words: Cattail, Typha, T. latifolia, Typha angustifolia.
30 species of genus Typha belongs to family
Typhaceae is known. These plants also known as,
reedmace or bulrush in British English (NRCS,
2015) cattail in American English (Revedin et al.,
2010) punks, or corn dog grass, bulrush or
cumbungi in Australia as, cattail or bulrush in
Canada. The genus is spread in most part of the
Northern Hemisphere, where it is found in a
variety of wetland habitats. Its rhizome is edible.
Evidence of preserving starch grains on grinding
stones indicate that they were eaten 30,000 years ago
in Europe. (Revedin et al., 2010
Cattail or Typha exist in form of different species.
Broad-leaved cattail, common cattail (Typha latifolia
L.) can be found in relatively habitats which are
undisturbed, whereas narrowleaved cattail. (Typha
angustifolia L) and the hybrid, Typha x glauca, usually
found in more unstable and saline habitat (Grace
and Harrison 1986.) Management action are usually
the same for all 3 species. It is one of the most
frequent and simply recognized of our water-loving
plants. Most of the human are well-known with the
long green leaves and hot-dog shaped brown flower
spikes of our cattail, Typha latifolia. Plant is
widespread, occur in most of Europe, Asia, North
America, and Africa.
Narrow leaf cattail or T. angustifolia are other species
which are harbours by Washington. It is an invader
from different parts of the nation, and until now is
only well known from a couple of location.
Cattails are frequently a thought as an aggravation
along lake side. However, they what's more
different shoreline plants could worth of effort
critical work which keeps a lake solid. Person such
playing point will be they strain overflow Likewise it
streams under the lake. This aides lessen
supplements and also mud which enter lakes
starting with encompassing area. They also
assistance prevent shoreline disintegration starting
with waves made by air. A solid plant group along
the shoreline camwood fill in wonders for keeping
lakefront property soundness. Clinched alongside
addition, cattails furnish critical habitat for
numerous species about untamed life and winged
creatures. Redwing blackbirds and huge numbers
ducks also geese home previously them,
furthermore some animals for example, muskrats,
consume them. Significantly upland songbirds will
utilize cushion from those blooms will offering their
A standout amongst those mossycup oak in triguing
viewpoints over cattails may be how people need
utilized this plant through those hundreds of years.
Should quote an punctual advocate about regular
foods, 'most of the parts are edible. On spring the
root stocks also rhizomes were a critical
nourishment sourball for local people groups At
different nourishment might have been rare. These
foundations need aid exactly nutritious, holding
more starch over potatoes. Furthermore more
protein over rice. The junior shoots need aid
appeared for make wonderful Likewise cooked
vegetables, and the pollen might a chance to be
utilized within heated merchandise. Furthermore
Amit Pandey and Verma Annals of Plant Sciences 7.3 (2018) pp. 2101-2106 Page | 2102
with food, cattails bring likewise give people with
building materials. The dried abandons were
frequently woven under furniture what's more mats,
furthermore their mash & also fibers could make
constructed under paper and string. Considerably
that cushion starting with the seed heads need been
utilized for padding, padding what's more encasing.
Cattails also have medicinal value, numerous
societies have utilized those foundations on treat
intestinal maladies and smolders.
Fig. 1: T. latifolia
Fig. 2: T. angustata
Fig. 3: Typha x glauca
Typha need aid frequently all around those to begin
with wetland plants on colonize zones from
claiming recently uncovered wet mud, for their
plentiful seeds dispersed by air. Covered seeds
might survive in the dirt to in length periods of time
(Van der Valk et al., 1976). They germinate best with
daylight what's more fluctuating temperatures,
which will be ordinary about huge numbers wetland
plants toward recover for mud flats (Shipley et al.,
1989). The plants also spread Eventually Tom's
perusing rhizomes, framing large, inter
connectedness stands.
Typha would recognized to a chance to be prevailing
contenders previously, wetlands in numerous
region, also they usually avoid different plants with
their shade (Keddy, 2010). Different species of
cattaili would adjusted will different water depths.
(Grace and Wetzel, 1981). Proper progressed
aerenchyma makes the plants acceptable of
submersion. Even the non-living stalks are able of
transmit O2 to the rooting area.
In spite of typha are local wetland plants, they could
a chance to be Combative clinched alongside their
rival for different local species (Oudhia, 1999). They
have been problematic in numerous areas on N.
America, from the great Lakes of the everglades
(Keddy, 2010). Local sedges are displaced also wet
meadows shrink, liable similarly as an light of
modified hydrology of the wetlands, furthermore
expanded supplement levels. An acquainted or
mixture species might be helping of the issue
(Boers, 2007). Control is challenging. The greater
part effective technique gives the idea with he
mowing alternately smoldering with uproot those
aerenchymous stalks, trailed by prolonged flooding
(Kaminski. et al., 1985). It might be more significant
on keep attack by preserving water level
fluctuations, including periods of drought, what's
more on support fruitless states (Keddy, 2010).
Typha need aid habitually consumed toward wetland
mammals for example, muskrats, that also use them
on develop bolstering platforms and dens, giving
nesting what's more resting spots for waterfowl.
(Global Invasive Species Databace, 2017).
Edible parts: Flowers, Stem, Leaves. Root, Pollen,
Kingdom : Plantae
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta
Superdivision : Spermatophyta
Division : Magnoliophyta
Class : Liliopsida
Subclass : Commelinidae
Order : Typhales
Family : Typhaceae
Genus : Typha L.
Amit Pandey and Verma Annals of Plant Sciences 7.3 (2018) pp. 2101-2106 Page | 2103
This lasting plant is something like 4-9' tall and
unbranchcd, comprising about 6 or additional
abandons also blooming stalk. This stalk is lip,
should green, glabrous, stiff, and round clinched
alongside cross- segment (terete). The abandons
need aid up to 7m in length. They need aid linear,
green to pale blue ash (often the latter), hairless,
what's more rather smoothed. The moment flowers,
grouped together under spikes, manifestation. An
barrel shaped inflorescence with those staminate
(Male) blossoms placed over the pistillate (Female)
blossoms (Stevens & Hoag, 2000). Those rosy
should blackish-brown staminate blossoms
camwood make 7 to 13 cm long, inasmuch as the
dim tan pistillate blooms develop between 2.5-20
cm in length (Mitich, 2000). Relative of the
blooming stalk, the abandons need aid erect with
marginally spreading; they begin from the base of
the plant. A few abandons have an propensity to
flop descending at their tips. Leaf beet venation
may be parallel. There may be an sheath at the base
of every leaf beet. Those blooming stalk terminates
done a spike from claiming staminate blooms
furthermore an spike of pistillate blossoms. The
staminate spike is over those pistillate spike; they
are contiguous alternately divided eventually Tom's
perusing 1/2" or lesquerella. The staminate spike is
dependent upon 1m in length. It may be narrowly
barrel in shape, light yellow should light brown,
(Mitich 2000; Grace and harrison 1986: Motivans
and Apfelbaum 1987). Also thickly stuffed for
staminate blossoms what's more abundant hairs.
Every staminate bloom bears 4 grains of pollen; its
petals Furthermore sepals are diminished with
bristles. Following those pollen is released, the
staminate spikequickly withers far. Thepistillate
spike may be may be up to 1/2' long; it may be
barrel shaped Previously, shape, greenish will
blackish brown, Also thickly stuffed for pistillate
blossoms Also abundant hairs. Each rich pistillate
bloom need An stipe no less than 1 mm. Long, a
solitary ovary, and, an single style with an leveled
shame. Fruitless pistillate blooms absence achenes,
generally they need aid comparable of the rich
pistillate blooms.
Habitat and Distribution
Cattail population might a chance to be found all
around those world, commencing tropical to calm
/ones. Furthermore, from muggy to dry
atmospheres. Their tolerance will changing climatic
states Furthermore natural transforms serves them
attain broad predominance done an assortment
about oceanic plant communities (Mitich 2000;
Murkin & Ward 1980). Cattails could happen to
whatever put the place the soil left overs wet
alternately saturated: roadside ditches, wet
meadows, reservoirs, lakeshores, marshes, bogs, etc,
(Grace & Harrison, 1986). In spite of, cattail will be
a freshwater oceanic plant, it might endure exactly
level from claiming saltiness and acridity (Grace &
Harrison 1986). It may be likewise tolerant for
lasting flooding, poor soil states (Stevens
Furthermore Hoag 2000), Also secondary focuses
of Pb, Zn, Cu, furthermore Ni. (Motivans and
Apfelbaum, 1987).
Tvpha latifolia camwood make discovered previously,
moderately undisturbed habitats, as much as Typha
angustifolia regularly happens to additional flimsy
what's more saline situations (Grace & Harrison,
1986). As stated by Wilcox et al., (1984), Typha
angustifolia will be recognized a pioneer on auxiliary
progression about exasperates bogs. At those two
species happen together, Typha angustifolia will be by
confined on deeper waters Furthermore All the
more saline states. Typha lantifolia thrives for shallow
water. Their mixture species, typha x glauca, need
comparable habitat necessities will T. angustifolia
(Motivans and Apfelbaum, 1987). T. latifolia
camwood be discovered in oceanic groups in the
least stages, starting with promptly with late
successional, while T. angustifolia also Typha x glauca
regularly happen clinched alongside early should
mid successional groups furthermore are habitually
discovered in exasperates wetland destinations
(Grace and Harrison, 1986).
As stated by Grace & Harrison, 1986, constantly on
species for Typha spp. Camwood happen previously,
dense, monospecific stands, alternately similarly as
spread individuals, alternately clumps for stands of
blended vegetation Spp. Is often encompassed by
alternately intermixed for other plants for example,
Phragmites australlis, Lythrum salicaria, Spartina sp.,
Acorns calamus, Scripus sp., what's more Sagittaria
latifolia (Motivans and Apfelbaum, 1987). Those
dissemination of the three-different species varies
over North America. Dependent upon until the
conclusion of the nineteenth century, T. angustifolia
might have been restricted to the eastern drift from
claiming northern N. america. Since then, T.
angustifolia need spread inland and westward getting
to be broad all around canachites canadensis and
the northern United States, bringing about
expanded blending for T. Latifolia, and the resulting
processing what's more spread for hybrids. (Grace
and Harrison, 1986).
Molecular and Supermolecular Structure:
The rhizome of basic cattail might have been
reaped in the spring from an common pond. Those
starch might have been disconnected toward
grinding and washing_away those fiber portion.
Sonication might have been used to crumble those
Mobile dividers. Those structure of starch granules
might have been examined utilizing those filtering
electron microscopy (SEM) also totally point X-
beam dissipating system (WAXS). Those sub-
atomic impostor dissemination of the starch
macromolecules might have been analysed with gel
penetrating chromatography utilizing triple,
identification Also contrasted with effects from
Amit Pandey and Verma Annals of Plant Sciences 7.3 (2018) pp. 2101-2106 Page | 2104
claiming corn also potato starches. The pantiles of
the cattail starch were round formed and needed an
ordinary gaussian appropriation from claiming size
described by a mode esteem about those WAXS
examination demonstrated that the granules
required an kind precious stone structure, which
might have been a consolidation of a what's more
be polymorphs helping 18.3% & 71.7% resp. Those
cattilstarch held 32% amylase. Its sub-atomic
impostor might have been essentially higher over
potato starch be that marginally easier over corn
starch. The sub-atomic impostor for cattil
amylopectin might have been the middle of corn
what's more potato starch. Its structure might have
been the greater part ranched contrasted with every
last one of starches investigated. (Kurzawska et al.,
Antimicrobial Activity:
Antimicrobial activity was done by using disc
diffusion method by using Mueller Hinton Agar.
The Methanolic extract shows remarkably good
activity against against E.coil and moderate
antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.
The methanolic extract also showed moderate
antimicrobial activity against A. flavus (Varghese et
al., 2009).
Anti-Inelaniniatory Activity:
The abandons for Typha angustifolia (100, 200, 400
mg/kg p.o.) altogether (i) <- 0.05) repressed
carrageenan prompted paw edema. Yet the
methanol extricate indicated the greatest restraint of
carrageenan prompted rodent paw edema when
contrasted with those control bunch. The
Methanolic extricate likewise demonstrated
noteworthy inhibiton for histamine prompted
rodent paw edema at contrasted with control
aggregation. Subsequently greatest mitigating impact
about abandons for Typha angustifolia might a chance
to be attributed of the vicinity about falvonoids.
(Pawar et al., 2011).
Pharmacognostical Evaluation:
Typha angustifolia might have been concentrated on
fix its quantitative measures such as dampness
content, downright ash, extractive values and its
microscopical investigations once abandons and
powder qualities were likewise directed on the aerial
parts of the plants. The results are shown in the
table below (Varghese et al., 2009).
Parameters (%)
Loss on drying
Total Ash
Water soluble value
Alcohol value
Acid insoluble Ash
The examination for Typha latifolia's absorption limit
if that, in the event that of Nickel, Chromium,
Copper also Arsenic, a low ability of overwhelming
metals absorption might have been distinguished.
Those test qualities got were a great part bring
down concerning illustration contrasted with the
individuals distinguished in the soil tests. To the
same plant, a acceptable absorption (capacity might
have been identifier in the event from claiming
overwhelming metals for example, such that
Cadmium, Lead, Zinc also Mercury. Typha latilofolia
as tounding absorption ability for overwhelming
metals starting with the soil might have been
recorded in the event for Cadmium Typha latilofolia
might a chance to be utilized within dirt
phytoremediation courses especially in
phyloextraction procedures (a system utilized to
those evacuation from claiming overwhelming
metals starting with defiled sods). Since it is a sery
handy gatherer about overwhelming metals on the
harvestable side, ahead waterway banks, taking
under record those extension of the domain where
they place these plants. (Chijimus et al., 2011).
a) Seating chair: The rushes are reaped and the
abandons regularly dry for after the fact use over
seat. Re-wetted, those abandons need aid turned.
Also wrapped around the seat rungs to structure an
thickly woven seat that is then stuffed. (Usually with
the left-over rush).
b) Culinary uses: Mostly parts of the Typha plant
are edible to humans.
Rhizomes is starchy with an protein content
around to that of maize or rice (Morton, 1975).
They camwood make transformed under a
flour with 266 kcal / 100 grams. They need aid
mossycup oak regularly reaped starting with
late harvest time with promptly spring. They
are fibrous, and the starch must a chance to be
scratched alternately sucked starting with the
intense fibers.
Plants developing done dirtied water
accumulate a mass lead what's more pesticide
residues on their rhizomes, furthermore these
bolstering not make consumed. (Gore, 2007).
The external parcel from claiming adolescent
plants could a chance to be peeled and the
heart camwood a chance to be consumed crude
alternately bubbled Furthermore consumed
such as Asparagus. This sustenance need been
well known Around the Cossacks to Russia,
also called "Cossack asparagus"(Marsh, 1959).
Those leaf beet bases could a chance to be
consumed crude alternately cooked, particularly
done late spring the point when they are junior
furthermore youthful.
Clinched alongside promptly Spring those
sheaths could be uprooted starting with those
Creating green bloom spike, which might
afterward be bubbled and consumed in corn on
the cob (Elias & Dykeman, 2009).
Amit Pandey and Verma Annals of Plant Sciences 7.3 (2018) pp. 2101-2106 Page | 2105
On mid-summer at those male blooms need
aid mature, the pollen might a chance to be
gathered what's more utilized. Similarly, as an
flour supplement alternately thickener (Raupo
& Bulrush, 2011).
Those establishes might additionally a chance
to be boiled, steamed, fried, alternately mashed
for spread or sharp cherry tree a great part such
as potatoes.
c) Agriculture: The Seeds bring an helter skelter
linoleic acid content, furthermore have a chance to
be used to bolster cows and chickens (Reed &
Marsh, 1955). They can also be occur in Ghana.
d) Building material: To nearby tribes around
Lake Titicaca on Bolivia and Peru, Typha were
around those practically vital plants and all aspects
of the plant needed various employments. For
example, they were used to develop pontoons
what's more other boats (Morton, 1975).
Throughout universe War II, the United States war
fleet utilized those down for typha likewise an
substitute for kapok in life vests Furthermore
aeronautics jackets. Tests indicated that
considerably following 100 hours about submersion
the buoyancy might have been still powerful (Miller,
1999). Typha would utilized Concerning illustration
warm encasing done structures. Similarly as an
natural elective should customary insulating
materials for example, glass wool or stone wool.
e) Paper: Tvpha stems what's more abandons could
a chance to be used to aggravate paper. It will be
solid for a overwhelming composition and it is
difficult to bleach, something like that it may be not
suitableness for modern handling from claiming
graphical paper. Previously, 1853, significant sums
of cattail paper were prepared over New York,
because of a lack for crude materials. (National
investigate board. Books to benefits of the business,
1976) clinched alongside 1948, french researchers
tried strategies for twelve-month collecting of the
abandons. Due to the helter skelter expense these
routines were deserted and no further Scrutinize
might have been carried out (Morton, 1975). Today
Typha is used to settle on enlivening paper.
f) Fiber: Fibers dependent upon 4m in length could
be acquired from the stems when they need aid
mechanically or synthetically approached for
sodium hydroxide. Those originate fibers look like
jute what's more could be used to prepare crude
materials. Those leaf beet fibers might make utilized
as an elective with cotton. The yield for leaf beet
fiber may be 30 to 40 percent and Typha x glauca
might transform 7 to 10 tonsil for every hectare
yearly (Morton, 1975).
g) Biofuel: Typha might make utilized concerning
illustration an wellspring for starch to prepare
ethanol. Due to their helter skelter profit for
northern plains latitudes, typha would acknowledged
will make an bioenergy crop. (Dubbe, 1998).
h) Other Uses: Those seed hairs were utilized by
exactly indigenous kin of the Americas concerning
illustration tinder to beginning blazes. Exactly tribes
likewise utilized Typha down on accordance slippers
what's more utilized for bedding, diapers, infant
powder also support sheets. One local American
expression Typha intended “fruit for papoose’s
bed”. Typha down is still utilized within a few
territories should stuff apparel things Also pillows.
Typha could a chance to be dipped on wax
alternately fat et cetera lit Likewise a candle, the
originate serving as a wick. Without the utilization
about wax alternately fat it will seething slowly, to
some degree similar to incense Also might repellant
insects. Person casual test need shown that Typha
have the capacity will uproot arsenic from drinking
water. The bubbled rootstocks bring been utilized
Likewise an diuretic to expanding pee alternately
mashed and formed an jelly-like pasta sauce for
sores, boils, wounds, burns, scabs, and smallpox
pustules. (Maiden, 1889).
i) Use of Cattil Rhizome: The greater part notable
sustenance that hails from the cattail may be its
rhizome, an root-like, underground stem that is a
standout amongst those wealthiest wild sources
about eatable carbohydrates in the northeast. The
centre of the thick expanding rootstock, which
grows horizontally in the mud, is starchy. It
camwood make cooked furthermore consumed as
potatoes, alternately dried and ground under flour
utilized within heating. Also as a substitute for corn
starch. This flour could make aged to process ethyl
liquor important as anti-freeze. Similarly, as an
Shabby streamlined solvent, what's more for
medicinal purposes. It contains more fat but slightly
less protein than potato or wheat flours, and only
potato flour has more minerals
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Cite this article as:
Amit Pandey and R.K. Verma. Taxonomical and
Pharmacological Status of Typha: A Review. Annals of
Plant Sciences 7.3 (2018) pp. 2101-2106.
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Conflict of interest: Nil
... The taxonomic tree of Typha is related to the Kingdom of Planate-Plants, the Sub-kingdom of Spermatopsida, the Phylum of Trachephytina, the Class of Spermatopsida, the Sub-class of Aridae, the Superorder of Typhanae, the Family of Typhaceae, and the Genus of Typha (Kumar et al. 2013). Typha is also called cattail, reedmace, candlewick, punks, corn dog grass, elephant grass and bulrush (Morton 1975;Pandey and Verma 2018). It exists in the form of Thirty species (Pandey and Verma 2018); T. Latifolia (broad-leaved cattail) and T. Angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail) are the widespread species in the world. ...
... Typha is also called cattail, reedmace, candlewick, punks, corn dog grass, elephant grass and bulrush (Morton 1975;Pandey and Verma 2018). It exists in the form of Thirty species (Pandey and Verma 2018); T. Latifolia (broad-leaved cattail) and T. Angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail) are the widespread species in the world. Typha has erect, nearly flat, rhizomatous, grass-like leaves; it is a perennial aquatic growing to reach 2.5-5 m height (Apfelbaum, 1985). ...
Typha is a semi-aquatic plant and an important member of wetlands around all over the world. This plant can be considered as a source of long leaf fibers. In this review, the works done in the last decade on the Typha leaf fiber extraction and its characteristics have been reviewed. Furthermore, the applications of the Typha fiber as a reinforcing material in the composite have been addressed. The Typha fiber properties are shown to be dependent on the extraction methods. The long cellulose fibers can be extracted from the Typha leaves using water retting and chemical treatments. The water-extracted Typha leaf fiber shows poor interlocking with the polymer matrix due to the high presence of waxy and non-cellulosic on the fiber surface. However, the alkali treatments of fibers could improve the composite properties. Typha fibers with low density (1.26 g/cm³), 47–67% cellulose content and 60–65% crystallinity, as well as 8.5–10% moisture regain and 25–40 cN/tex tensile strength, could be developed. In addition to these good properties, high thermal stability and low thermal conductivities (0.137 W/m. K) could lead to considering Typha fibers as a suitable alternative to expensive natural fibers and synthetic fibers in various polymer composites.
The study of preparation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose from the Lembang / narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) has been carried out. Alkalinization was done to remove lignin and hemicellulose compounds. The bleaching process was done by adding 4 M HCl at 65 oC for 3 hours and then sonicated for 10 minutes. The cellulose yield obtained was 32.2%. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated the appearance of some specific functional groups (O-H, -C-H, =C-H and C-O, and C-O-C). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed that the structure of cellulose is a long crystalline with a diameter of 3.1 µm. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed decomposition at higher temperatures of 349.13, 366.66 and 353.24 oC for cellulose after hydrolysis, cellulose before hydrolysis, and TaL powder. Crystalline index and crystalline size of microcrystalline cellulose analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) were 71.1% and 2.4 nm, respectively.
Fruit, leaf, fruit stalk, and rhizome of Typha angustifolia , which is abundantly available in Thailand, were investigated for antimicrobial activities. The results showed that fruit ethanolic extract had high activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis similar to the fruit stalk and rhizome extracts whereas the lowest antibacterial activities was found in the leaf extract. Only rhizome extract had antifungal activity against Candida albicans . The fruit extract was chosen for furthur study because of its antibacterial action, ease of collecting, and preparation before usage. This fruit ethanolic extract was semi-purified by partition with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethylacetate, respectively and subsequently tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion against S. aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis, Sarcina lutea, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus cereus , Bacillus pumillus , B. subtilis, Shigella somnei , Proteus mirabilis , Proteus valgalis , Alcaligenes fecalis, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella paratyphi A, Salmonella typhi, Escherechia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The inhibitory zone against gram-positive bacteria was broader in all partitioned fractions than in gram-negative bacteria and yeast. Furthermore, none of the fractions were able to prevent the development of S. marcescens , P. aeruginosa , or E. coli . The inhibition zone of the ethyl acetate fraction was larger than that of chloroform and petroleum ether. In comparison to the other fractions, the chloroform fraction demonstrated the broadest inhibition zone against B. subtilis . Based on the bioautography investigation, it was reasonable to conclude that there were at least five antibacterial chemicals against B. subtilis . Therefore, fruit of T. angustifolia has the potential for use in the discovery of new antibacterial agents.
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Typha latifolia L., common cattail, Typha angustifolia L., narrow-leaved cattail, and Typha xglauca (T. angustifolia × T. latifolia), hybrid cattail, are herbaceous perennials found in wet or saturated soils and aquatic sediments in marshes, wet meadows, lakeshores, pond margins, seacoast estuaries, roadside ditches, bogs, and fens in Canada and the U.S.A. Typha latifolia is a cosmopolitan species found in all provinces of Canada while T. angustifolia and T. xglauca have spread within this century from the coastal areas, largely on the Atlantic coast, through the southern portions of the eastern and central provinces to south-central Manitoba. Considerable variation in T. xglauca exists and our understanding of this taxon is presently limited. Ecotypic variation has been described for the species. Typha is considered to be a weed under certain circumstances though it has beneficial value for waterfowl and wildlife. Typha can be found in a very broad range of habitat types ranging from early to late successional. Typically, T. angustifolia and T. xglauca are more limited in their ecological range than T. latifolia, being associated with saline or disturbed areas. Within habitats, T. latifolia is typically upslope of T. angustifolia with T. xglauca characteristic of more intermediate water depths though much more work is needed on the ecological relations of these taxa. An extensive literature exists on the germination, growth, and abundance of these highly productive taxa.Key words: Cattail, Typha, Typha angustifolia, Typha angustifolia × Typha latifolia, Typha xglauca, Typha latifolia
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A conspicuous feature of many plant communities that is often considered evidence of competitive displacement is the segregation of species along a habitat gradient. The extent of competitive displacement is examined in a recently established association of cattails (Typha latifolia L. and T. angustifolia L.). To accomplish this, potential and realized distributions of these two species were compared along a gradient of water depth in a small pond. These two species together comprised more than 95% of the plant biomass along the gradient and as such constituted a natural two-species association. Comparisons between potential and realized distributions permit a direct estimate of the reductions in abundance of each species by the presence of the other species and the reduction in potential niche overlap along the habitat gradient. In addition, the study of competitive interactions between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia provides us with an opportunity to evaluate the classification of these two species as respectively r-selected and K-selected (McNaughton 1975).
The research aimed to determine Typha latifolia’s (bulrush) absorption capacity of heavy metals from the soil in the industrial area of Piatra Neamt city, Romania. Heavy metals present in ecological systems are available to the absorption process only partially, depending on the type of pH of the environment, their chemical composition, and the quantity of heavy metals in the soil, plants, sediments, water, or air. The choice of sampling points (the industrial area of Piatra Neamt city) took into consideration the areas where the pollution sources are located and where the sediment layer is thick and the granularity level is lower than 63 μm. The investigation of Typha latifolia’s absorption capacity showed that, in case of nickel, chromium, copper and arsenic, a very low capacity of heavy metals absorption was detected. Typha latifolia’s highest absorption capacity of heavy metals from the soil was recorded in case of cadmium. © 2016 ALMA MATER Publishing House, “VASILE ALECSANDRI” University of Bacău. All rights reserved.
Common cattail (Typha latifolia) is a wetland plant that is widespread all over the world. All of its morphological parts are edible, but the rhizome is the most valuable. Its starch content can be up to 70% of the dry mass; however, its structure and functionality have not yet been described. The aim of this study was to characterise the structure of cattail rhizome starch. The rhizome of common cattail was harvested in the spring from a natural pond. The starch was isolated by grinding and washing away the fibre fraction. Sonication was used to disintegrate the cell walls. The structure of starch granules was studied using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and wide angle X-ray scattering method (WAXS). The molecular mass distribution of the starch macromolecules was analysed with gel permeation chromatography using triple detection and compared to results of corn and potato starches. The granules of the cattail starch were predominantly round shaped and had a typical Gaussian distribution of size characterised by a mode value of 9 mm. The WAXS investigation proved that the granules had a C type crystal structure, which was a combination of A and B polymorphs contributing 28.3 and 71.7%, respectively. The cattail starch contained 32% amylose. Its molecular mass was significantly higher than potato starch but slightly lower than corn starch. The molecular mass of cattail amylopectin was between corn and potato starch. Its structure was the most branched compared to all the starches investigated.
There was very little similarity in the floristic composition of seed banks from the same or different vegetation types in different marshes: the average Sørensen's similarity index values ranged from 24 to 28%. The floristic composition of seed banks from different vegetation types within a given marsh was more similar: the average Sørensen's similarity index value was 41%. The results also suggested that allelopathic interactions in substrate samples with high amounts of organic matter resulted in either the inhibition of seed germination or the death of seedlings of several species.
The covariation within, and the relationship between 7 juvenile (seed/seedling) and 13 adult traits of 25 species of emergent macrophytes occurring along the Ottawa River, Canada, is described. Contrary to r-K selection, but in accordance with C-S-R theory, there was no association between these 2 sets of traits. The major axis of variation within the juvenile traits consisted, at one end, of large, slowly germinating seeds with seedlings possessing a low relative growth rate, and at the other end of small, rapidly germinating seeds with seedlings possessing a high relative growth rate. The regeneration strategies of these species are interpreted as consisting of fugitive vs. stress-tolerant juveniles. Adult traits showed 2 major trends. The largest was associated with the ability to occupy space and consisted of correlated variation in above-ground biomass, canopy diameter, rhizome thickness and rhizome or stolon length; this trend is interpreted as consisting of fugitive vs. competitive adults. A subordinate trend consisted of an uncoupling of height from above-ground biomass and was associated with the "leafless' morphology of a subset of species; this trend was related to environments in deeper water but having infertile soil and was interpreted as a stress-tolerant strategy. These trends in trait variation were related to environmental gradients of soil fertility and water depth. -Author