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History Education Research and Practice

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Abstract

This chapter examines history education research and practice in selected European and Asian countries. We draw on research literature from European (United Kingdom, Germany, and Scandinavia) and Asian (China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore) countries to develop broad themes across contexts. The chapter examines the ways history education is shaped and constrained in particular Asian contexts; the international influence of research from the United Kingdom focused on second-order historical concepts and progressions of understanding; and literature on historical consciousness in European contexts. We synthesize current scholarship and theoretical work found in the literature as well as implications for curriculum and classroom practice and point to future areas of development for comparative history education research.

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... Use of history refers to the ways in which people operationalize their historical knowledge within a given context (Nordgren, 2016;Nordgren & Johansson, 2015). The construct has taken root in Scandinavian schools and gained traction as a tool for interrogating the purposes for engaging with specific historical artifacts and narratives (Baildon & Afandi, 2018;Nordgren, 2016). Nordgren (2016) presented the example of a national flag to illustrate the relationships between historical culture, historical consciousness, and use of history. ...
... As such, any "ideas and feelings" about the flag inform historical consciousness. Baildon and Afandi (2018) stressed that meaning typically draws on both notions of individual identity and collective identity. These responses may be internal and described with terms like reverence or disgust. ...
... Preservice teachers may also find the examples of use of history found in the present study compelling. After pre-service teachers examine these student voices, they can generate their own examples of use-of-history-inaction, paying special attention to the many options of historical culture that exist (Baildon & Afandi, 2018) and how they select the specific artifacts (Zanazanian, 2019). Teacher educators should also prepare preservice teachers to address students' heroification or villainification of classmates, source authors, or historical/political figures (van Kessel & Crowley, 2017), particularly if students weaponize history in support of historical oppression or political trauma. ...
Article
This study employs a multiple case study approach to examine the use of history of Mexican American and Muslim middle school students vis-à-vis Donald Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign. The findings suggest the participants used historical examples of discrimination to contextualize candidate Trump’s rhetoric and to bolster their identities as both immigrants and Americans. Their cases provide important evidence of the ways in which marginalized youth can use history as a source of resilience and resistance. The findings add to the literature on use of history as an analytic and pedagogical tool and suggest that social studies educators are uniquely positioned to support students through confronting political trauma.
... It also involves connecting the past to our own lives and society and developing a deep understanding of historical concepts. By honing these skills, we can better appreciate the richness and complexity of our shared history [9,13]. ...
... To acquire or develop their knowledge, they must be able to comprehend and apply key concepts. As a result, history educators and scholars must be attentive to students' conceptions and perceptions of history as both a subject and a discipline [9,10]. ...
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Studying local history can be approached in a modern way that encourages young students to utilize the methods and skills of a historian. This includes collecting, recording, comparing, and interpreting data from primary and secondary resources. Inquiry-based and art-based learning are effective frameworks for exploring local history. Students can gain a deeper understanding of the subject by focusing on inquiry, fieldwork, thorough recording, and constructing historical narratives based on critical interpretation of all information, including opposing and alternative views. Art-based learning allows students to analyze the forms and social aspects of artifacts, constructions, events, and phenomena and then express their knowledge and understanding in various multimodal and symbolic ways. It’s essential for children to take the initiative, and be involved in the learning process, and work in collaborative environments that support their free thinking and exploration. This approach is conducive to critical thinking and encourages creativity in learning history. This chapter outlines the conditions that define inquiry and art-based learning environments and offers a tool with practical suggestions for pre-primary and primary teachers to develop their local history lessons. The tool covers four major dimensions: learning interactions, understanding historical times, art-based learning, and practical strategies specific to local history.
... These findings are reminiscent of several observations that history educators have made about school history in East Asian countries. It has been argued that in East Asian curricula, history is often "not an academic subject but a moral discipline that trains people to become righteous" (Tohmatsu, 2011) in service of developing national identity (Baildon & Afandi, 2018). Learning goals such as the "love for our land" and the "pride in our scientific culture" that were stated in the curricula show how history's moralizing functions can be pursued in the STEAM context. ...
... In the cases of School M, School K, and School C, several aspects of their analytical activities seemed to begin with a predetermined conclusion (e.g., the "excellence" of ancestor's scientific achievements and the "fabrication" in Japan's claim for sovereignty over Dokdo), followed by a recipe-style procedure for interpreting evidence to reach that conclusion, which has long been criticized by science educators (Erduran & Dagher, 2014). This trend shows the tension between different goals of history learning that can manifest in the STEAM context, which possibly is tied to the strong moralizing function of school history in East Asian countries (Baildon & Afandi, 2018;Tohmatsu, 2011). Further considerations will be necessary to balance the identification, moral response and analytic goals in history-infused STEAM curricula. ...
Article
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Although the integration of subjects in the curriculum has been advocated in recent years, there exist limited opportunities for teachers of different subjects to implement integrated curricula in schools collaboratively. In this paper, we consider history as a humanities subject that could be integrated with STEM and explore the diverse history-related learning goals found in teacher-developed STEAM curriculum materials. Using integrated STEAM curricula developed by 13 cross-subject teacher teams in Korea, we analyze the presentation of history-related learning goals in the curricula and report several patterns identified across the curricula. First, the majority of the curricula aimed for the learners to identify themselves in their regional and national histories, but other levels of identification were also aimed for. Second, all the curricula included goals related to historical analysis skills, which were sometimes integrated with scientific inquiry skills. Third, we found several goals related to eliciting students’ moral response to history, particularly when the curriculum topic concerned issues at the national level. Fourth, the integration of subjects allowed for exhibiting learners’ historical understanding through various activities and in explanatory, persuasive, and imaginative manners. Overall, the analysis pointed to several ways in which the goals of history learning can interact with those of STEM learning, which can be useful for future research and practice in integrated curriculum. We discuss some potential challenges of integrating history with STEM, such as issues that can arise from the use of the “nation” as a context for STEAM learning.
... Taylor and Young (2003) put forward 12 knowledge-and skills-based dimensions that make up the concept of historical literacy (Table 1). (Taylor & Young, 2003, p. 33) Historical literacy means cultivating active historical consciousness and implies a more integrated perspective on the components of history teaching that have been the principal focus of the contemporary scholarship, such as narrative structures that shape historical understanding, development of historical reasoning competencies, and the ability to contextualise (Baildon & Afandi, 2018). Historical literacy skills enable individuals to address historical situations from a critical and creative perspective and detect contradictory expressions by comparing different sources of information found in the search phase (Uluçay, 2019). ...
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This research aimed to present reasons and solutions that soon-to-graduate preservice social studies teachers expressed in relation to middle school students’ low level of historical literacy as reported in the literature. To this end, we used a basic qualitative research design. The sample consisted of 30 soon-to-graduate preservice teachers (17 women and 13 men) who were studying social studies teaching at the faculty of education of a state university in the 2019-2020 academic year and already served their teaching internship. The data were collected using the semi-structured “Interview form” developed by Keçe (2013). The data were analysed using descriptive analysis. According to the analysis results, the preservice social studies teachers stated that middle school students’ low level of historical literacy was generally due to the methods and techniques used by teachers in teaching historical topics, students’ lack of interest in historical topics, and the lack of parental encouragement. The preservice teachers also highlighted that students should be encouraged to use social media tools properly and the content of historical series, films, documentaries, and television shows should be adjusted to students.
... Historical literacy involves understanding what history is, realizing importance of historical events and recognizing rules of history, and organizing concepts such as the past, event, cause and effect that is emphasized in the method of the discipline of history (Ata & Keç e, 2014). Historical literacy proposes a more integrated perspective regarding the elements of history education (narrative structures that shape historical understanding, development of historical reasoning competencies, contextualization ability, textbooks, etc.), which are main areas of interest in contemporary sciences, and it develops historical awareness (Baildon & Afandi, 2018). Students should develop historical literacy skills, which are a set of skills that provide them with tools to understand a text from a historical period. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to determine the historical literacy perception levels of social studies preservice teachers and to examine them in terms of various variables. In this framework, the survey model, one of the quantitative research methods, was used in the research. The sample of this study consisted of 134 social studies preservice teachers studying at the faculty of education of a state university in the 2019-2020 academic year. The data in the study were collected with the "Historical Literacy Perception Scale" developed by Uluçay (2019), after obtaining the necessary permissions. The data obtained from the scale were analyzed using the statistical package program. Considering the results obtained from the study, it was concluded that the social studies preservice teachers in the sample had high levels of historical literacy perception. In addition, their perception levels increased according to the variables of mother's education level and frequency of watching historical movies. On the other hand, their perceptions did not change / differ according to the variables such as grade level, gender, father's education level, tendency to read history books, to follow historical publications and competence of the teachers. Considering the results of the research in general, it can be said that the preservice teachers benefited sufficiently from their university and pre-university education in terms of historical literacy skills.
... Sabemos que las ideas previas del alumnado en relación al pasado y a la historia como disciplina es uno de los elementos más importantes a los que el docente debe prestar atención para favorecer un adecuado desarrollo del pensamiento histórico. Igualmente, es conocido que los estudiantes son capaces de construir ideas más complejas, en relación a la historia, de las que aparentemente puede considerar el profesorado; que un adecuado diseño e implementación del currículo puede ayudar a una mejor comprensión y enjuiciamiento de determinados hechos; y que, finalmente, el alumnado necesita unos determinados criterios metodológicos que les ayuden a evaluar razonablemente los hechos históricos, a comprobar sus ideas y a elaborar su razonamiento (Baildon y Afandi, 2018). ...
Article
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Este artículo analiza la evolución de la investigación sobre pensamiento histórico a partir de las tesis doctorales nacionales e internacionales de los últimos veinticinco años. Para ello, se ha seguido un proceso sistemático de búsqueda en las principales bases de datos a nivel mundial, que ha reportado un total de 163 tesis doctorales. Estos trabajos se han analizado desde un enfoque metodológico cuantitativo descriptivo, con el programa de análisis estadístico SPSS y la herramienta Voyant Tools. Los resultados nos ofrecen información acerca del número de investigaciones realizadas, su evolución en el tiempo, los países, idiomas y universidades de mayor producción, y las principales temáticas trabajadas. Concluimos que, pese al aumento de las tesis doctorales sobre pensamiento histórico en los últimos años, continúan existiendo vacíos en la investigación apenas abordados. In this article the evolution of research on Historical Thinking is analyzed based on national and international dissertations defended in the last twenty-five years. For this, we have followed a systematic search process in the main databases worldwide, which has reported a total of 163 dissertations. These works have been analyzed from a descriptive quantitative methodological approach, with the SPSS statistical analysis program and the Voyant Tools tool. The results offer us information about the number of researches carried out, their evolution over time, the countries, languages and universities with the highest production, and the main topics studied. We conclude that, despite the increase in doctoral thesis on Historical Thinking in recent years, there are still research gaps that have hardly been studied.
... Sabemos que las ideas previas del alumnado en relación al pasado y a la historia como disciplina es uno de los elementos más importantes a los que el docente debe prestar atención para favorecer un adecuado desarrollo del pensamiento histórico. Igualmente, es conocido que los estudiantes son capaces de construir ideas más complejas, en relación a la historia, de las que aparentemente puede considerar el profesorado; que un adecuado diseño e implementación del currículo puede ayudar a una mejor comprensión y enjuiciamiento de determinados hechos; y que, finalmente, el alumnado necesita unos determinados criterios metodológicos que les ayuden a evaluar razonablemente los hechos históricos, a comprobar sus ideas y a elaborar su razonamiento (Baildon y Afandi, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Este artículo analiza la evolución de la investigación sobre pensamiento histórico a partir de las tesis doctorales nacionales e internacionales de los últimos veinticinco años. Para ello, se ha seguido un proceso sistemático de búsqueda en las principales bases de datos a nivel mundial, que ha reportado un total de 163 tesis doctorales. Estos trabajos se han analizado desde un enfoque metodológico cuantitativo descriptivo, con el programa de análisis estadístico SPSS y la herramienta Voyant Tools. Los resultados nos ofrecen información acerca del número de investigaciones realizadas, su evolución en el tiempo, los países, idiomas y universidades de mayor producción, y las principales temáticas trabajadas. Concluimos que, pese al aumento de las tesis doctorales sobre pensamiento histórico en los últimos años, continúan existiendovacíos en la investigación apenas abordados.
... Sabemos que las ideas previas del alumnado en relación al pasado y a la historia como disciplina es uno de los elementos más importantes a los que el docente debe prestar atención para favorecer un adecuado desarrollo del pensamiento histórico. Igualmente, es conocido que los estudiantes son capaces de construir ideas más complejas, en relación a la historia, de las que aparentemente puede considerar el profesorado; que un adecuado diseño e implementación del currículo puede ayudar a una mejor comprensión y enjuiciamiento de determinados hechos; y que, finalmente, el alumnado necesita unos determinados criterios metodológicos que les ayuden a evaluar razonablemente los hechos históricos, a comprobar sus ideas y a elaborar su razonamiento (Baildon y Afandi, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Este artículo analiza la evolución de la investigación sobre pensamiento histórico a partir de las tesis doctorales nacionales e internacionales de los últimos veinticinco años. Para ello, se ha seguido un proceso sistemático de búsqueda en las principales bases de datos a nivel mundial, que ha reportado un total de 163 tesis doctorales. Estos trabajos se han analizado desde un enfoque metodológico cuantitativo descriptivo, con el programa de análisis estadístico SPSS y la herramienta Voyant Tools. Los resultados nos ofrecen información acerca del número de investigaciones realizadas, su evolución en el tiempo, los países, idiomas y universidades de mayor producción, y las principales temáticas trabajadas. Concluimos que, pese al aumento de las tesis doctorales sobre pensamiento histórico en los últimos años, continúan existiendo vacíos en la investigación apenas abordados. Abstract In this article the evolution of research on Historical Thinking is analyzed based on national and international dissertations defended in the last twenty-five years. For this, we have followed a systematic search process in the main databases worldwide, which has reported a total of 163 dissertations. These works have been analyzed from a descriptive quantitative methodological approach, with the SPSS statistical analysis program and the Voyant Tools tool. The results offer us information about the number of researches carried out, their evolution over time, the countries, languages and universities with the highest production, and the main topics studied. We conclude that, despite the increase in doctoral thesis on Historical Thinking in recent years, there are still research gaps that have hardly been studied.
Chapter
This handbook is currently in development, with individual articles publishing online in advance of print publication. At this time, we cannot add information about unpublished articles in this handbook, however the table of contents will continue to grow as additional articles pass through the review process and are added to the site. Please note that the online publication date for this handbook is the date that the first article in the title was published online. For more information, please read the site FAQs.
Article
The storming of the US Capitol on January 6th, 2021 shocked the world and challenged democratic norms. Considerations on how to teach the events of January 6th remains an open question, not just for the United States but for other democratic nations, including Germany. This comparative case study explored the similarities and differences in how US and German social studies/history teachers made meaning of the January 6th attack and their rationale for teaching (or in some cases not teaching) the event. The international comparison sheds light on how threats to democracy are perceived by educators and their pedagogical rationales for teaching them. Findings suggest that teachers’ analysis of media credibility and instructional decision-making were complicated by their social and cultural connections to the event. German participants expressed a greater willingness to teach the events of the insurrection compared to their US counterparts. This study offers recommendations beyond teaching January 6th for teacher educators and education stakeholders supportive of teaching difficult and controversial histories. Exploring these international comparisons also calls into question how events are remembered and taught, potentially impacting democratic education.
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Twenty-first century education is firmly committed to training young people in new competencies that are transferable to a variety of life situations. Historical thinking as a methodological theory is emerging in a large number of countries. In thinking historically, the skills of the historians are used, so that the sources of the past can be interpreted and the generation of effective historical narratives can be enhanced. This study aims to compare the general perception of the teaching of history between two groups of baccalaureate students, with respect to the effectiveness and transferability of learning historical thinking. Specifically, the existing perception of the implementation of historical thinking competencies is collected after the pre- and post-evaluation of a unit plan developed with 93 students. A quantitative method was used, namely a quasi-experimental design with a non-equivalent control group. The results indicate a substantial improvement in the responses observed in the experimental group, compared to those obtained in the control group. This impact is associated with the didactic methodology implemented with both groups, which showed notable changes in the perception of the theory of historical thinking, as well as in the use of other digital resources and active methods. For the future, it is imperative to transfer these first indications to controlled evaluations of academic outcomes to consolidate the academic status of competency-based teaching in secondary education levels.
Article
In recent decades, Historical Thinking and Historical Consciousness have been two fundamental axes of re- search in history education. The first approach combines the use of historical sources and the work of the historian. The second includes the social function of history, identity, memory and civic and moral education. These two approaches attempt to provide students with the necessary intellectual tools for analysing the past and relating it to an understanding of problems in the present time. This article reviews the development and shaping of the knowledge domain of history education between 2000 and 2019 in the WoS (Web of Science). To this end, several techniques and tools were used, including R- package Bibliometrix and VOSviewer. Our analysis identifies five clusters of topics underpinning history education as a specific field of knowledge. This review highlights the fact that research topics associated with Historical Thinking and Historical Consciousness have gradually acquired a more central role to the detriment of History Textbooks or topics gener- ally related to History. Finally, we describe how the term History Educationfunctions as a marker for this knowledge domain.
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This is small scale, empirical, qualitative research which explores the historical consciousness of 15-year-old students in Greece. The main research question is to what extent and under what circumstances students refer to the past while addressing current problems. The present study aims at discerning different students' stances towards the past and draws on Rüsen's theory and typology of historical consciousness as an initial basis for the analysis of the Greek data. The research findings suggest that the sixty students interviewed throughout the main data collection tended to refer to the past selectively: the students of this study selected either their 'learnt' cultural past, whenever their identity was contested, or the recent past on the basis of the recent past's similarity to the present. When students chose not to refer to the past, they did so by citing the "changes" that have taken place in history, changes that made the present so "different" from the past. Finally students were found to make an unconscious use of the past, or to make use of an 'implicit' past: in the latter case students made use of an extended present as a recent past in order to be able to predict the future. In all the cases above students seem to have made use of a "practical" "consulted" past in order to serve their "current practical engagements" (Oakeshott, 1983: 15). The latter finding suggests that history education should focus on the development of students' "historical" awareness. In this way students would not deal with a "fixed", "consulted" past which would be either completely different or exactly the same as their present. On the contrary, students would understand the past in a dynamic way, as continuously changing and being transformed into present forms of understanding, into "more positive modern configurations" (Rüsen, 1993: 75). In this way students would create present-past frameworks more easily in order to face their current concerns, frameworks which at the same time would be "historically" informed.
Article
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This article centers on a theoretical discussion of how use of history can be addressed as a distinct concept, analytically and pedagogically. The point of departure is the field of history education research in the Nordic countries where the concept has become a term to denote the space of action between historical consciousness and historical culture. The concept is introduced and the relationship between “history” and “use” is investigated further from a phenomenological perspective. Use of history is conceptualized as how people actively use the historical culture available to them. Through communication, they explain, build, and transform identities and societies. It is also suggested that use of history is a 3rd aim for history education. In addition to supporting students’ content knowledge and abilities to think historically, this article advocates the need to identify and analyze the role and function of history in contemporary life as an aspect of learning history.
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This qualitative, comparative case study examined global civic education (GCE) in the Asian global cities of Hong Kong and Singapore. Guided by theories that position curriculum at the intersection of discourse, context, and personal meaning-making, we sought to describe the ways in which intentions for GCE reflect broader societal discourses of citizenship and how curricula allow students to tackle tensions surrounding national and global citizenship. We found that Singapore and Hong Kong have adopted depoliticized forms of citizenship as a means of inoculation against global ills. These types of citizenship are more nationalistic than global in nature; moral rather than political; and focused mainly on utilitarian goals to produce adaptable workers able to support national economic projects in the global economy. Although critical, transnational, and other emergent civic perspectives are apparent in both cities, the data yielded little evidence of curricular opportunities for students to become exposed to alternative discourses and reconcile discursive contradictions. The findings inform current literature by illuminating the nexus of local and global discursive practices, implicating the ability of curricula to accommodate both novel and established civic identities, and forwarding suggestions to bridge disconnections between theoretical and local curricular definitions of global citizenship. </p
Book
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How is history represented? As just a record of the past, as a part of a present identity or as future goals? This book explores how historical contents and narratives are presented in school textbooks and other cultural productions (museums, monuments, etc) and also how they are understood by students, in the context of increasing globalization. In these contemporary conditions, the relation between history learning processes, in and out of school, and the construction of national identities presents an ever more important topic. It is being studied by looking at the appropriation of historical narratives, which are frequently based on the official history of a nation state. Most of the chapters in this volume are educational studies about how the learning of history takes place in school settings of different countries such as Canada, France, Germany, Latin America, Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. Covering such a broad sample of cultural and national contexts, they provide a rich reflection on history as a subject related to patriotism, cosmopolitanism, both or neither.
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This paper argues that popular history magazines may be a welcome complement to other forms of historical media in history teaching. By outlining a theoretical framework that captures uses of history, the paper analyses popular history magazine articles from five European countries all dealing with the outbreak of World War I. The study finds that while the studied articles provide a rather heterogeneous view of the causes of the Great War, they can be used to discuss and analyse the importance of perspective in history, thus offering an opportunity to further a more disciplinary historical understanding.
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Life stories and experiences are shaped within a broad range of uses of heavily institutionalized identity politics, mediated narratives and situational bodily experiences. Acting upon individual desires is a necessity for formation of collective identities and identification, communicatively constructing society. Examples from a variety of contexts will be used to argue that meaning is created through exchange between spheres of different logics: existential, political, market and institutional logics might openly oppose and contradict each other and crave for autonomy. When successful in establishing a powerful historical culture they do nevertheless more often reinforce each other when life experiences and new utopias are being shaped through narrating and negotiating memories to deal with contemporary challenges.
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Excerpts available on Google Books. For more info, go to publisher's website : http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780195117530.do
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History education has often been associated with the inculcation of citizenship values, especially in the forging of national identity. In instilling a sense of pride in the common past, the teaching of a nation’s history contributes to the creation and strengthening of nationalism and national identity. This article examines the politics and policies concerning the formulation, implementation and changes regarding the teaching of Singapore’s history between 1984 and 2001, focusing on the lower secondary history curriculum. The Singapore state initially regarded the teaching of the recent national past to be divisive, which resulted in a near neglect and de-emphasis of Singapore’s past in the first decade or so following its independence. However, the state did an about face and started to emphasize history education in the 1980s. This intensified towards the end of the 1990s with the introduction of the ‘National Education’ programme in schools. With that, the role of history in nation building and citizenship education in Singapore found its fullest expression. Thus, the Singapore case is unique compared to the newly independent states after World War II in that history education was used for nation building much later – two decades after its independence.
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This article reports on a phenomenological study of 18 Greek-Cypriot teachers' perceptions and emotions in relation to the teaching of controversial issues during elementary-level history instruction. Findings indicate that although participating teachers see the general value of this approach at the elementary school level, they become less assured when the discussion shifts to the implementation of this approach in the context of ethnically divided Cyprus. The authors provide an analysis of (a) the emotional complexities involved in the teaching of controversial historical issues in the elementary grades, and (b) how elementary school teachers reflect on the consequences of these complexities for history instruction in a divided society.
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The dynamics of collective remembering are examined by analyzing what happens when a “blank spot” in history is filled with information that had previously not been available or publicly acknowledged. Taking Russian accounts of the secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of 1939 as a case study, it is argued that “schematic narrative templates” that shape deep collective memory give rise to a tendency to maintain this memory and help it overcome the “narrative rift” that occurs when embarrassing episodes from the past are publicly acknowledged. Schematic narrative templates are set forth as underlying strong conservative forces that resist change in collective memory at a deep level. It is suggested that debates grounded in formal history may help overcome this resistance to change but that such efforts will be limited as long as the forces of deep collective memory are not recognized.
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The memory wave in the humanities has contributed to the impressive revival of cultural history, but the success of memory studies has not been accompanied by significant conceptual and methodological advances in the research of collective memory processes. Most studies on memory focus on the representation of specific events within particular chronological, geographical, and media settings without reflecting on the audiences of the representations in question. As a result, the wealth of new insights into past and present historical cultures cannot be linked conclusively to specific social collectives and their historical consciousness. This methodological problem is even enhanced by the metaphorical use of psychological and neurological terminology, which misrepresents the social dynamics of collective memory as an effect and extension of individual, autobiographical memory. Some of these shortcomings can be addressed through the extensive contextualization of specific strategies of representation, which links facts of representation with facts of reception. As a result, the history of collective memory would be recast as a complex process of cultural production and consumption that acknowledges the persistence of cultural traditions as well as the ingenuity of memory makers and the subversive interests of memory consumers. The negotiations among these three different historical agents create the rules of engagement in the competitive arena of memory politics, and the reconstruction of these negotiations helps us distinguish among the abundance of failed collective memory initiatives on the one hand and the few cases of successful collective memory construction on the other. For this purpose, collective memory studies should adopt the methods of communication and media studies, especially with regard to media reception, and continue to use a wide range of interpretive tools from traditional historiography to poststructural approaches. From the perspective of collective memory studies, these two traditions are closely related and mutually beneficial, rather than mutually exclusive, ways of analyzing historical cultures.
Thesis
This thesis is an exploratory study of students' understandings about the nature of accounts in history, and teachers' assumptions about those ideas. The study was designed to achieve two related objectives: first, to explore and map out the range of ideas students in Singapore may hold about the nature of historical accounts, and second, to examine the assumptions teachers in Singapore may have about their students' understandings. Sixty-nine students (fifty in Year 9 and nineteen in Year 12) across nine institutions completed two written task-sets designed to generate data on students' ideas about accounts. Group interviews were conducted with all students. 93 teachers responded to a questionnaire survey designed to explore teachers' ideas about students' understanding of accounts. In-depth interviews with nine teachers were carried out to supplement questionnaire data. Data analysis of students' ideas pointed to a broad range of student conceptions about accounts, and to the possibility of viewing these conceptions progressively across a 'factual-multiple-criterial' continuum. Analysis of data that focused on teachers' assumptions about students' ideas revealed the possibility of viewing students' conceptions in 'simple' to 'complex' terms, ranging progressively from (i) static and binary, to (ii) subjective and perspectiveful, and to (iii) dynamic and multi-dimensional. This thesis makes the argument that approaching the teaching of school history in a responsive way requires that Singapore teachers recognize the range of preconceptions that students hold about accounts. Specifically, this is done by engaging students' ideas to help them make sense of new knowledge and develop their disciplinary understandings about history. The implications these findings have on planning, research, assessment and practice are discussed in the context of a history pedagogy that is both receptive to an understanding of the methodological underpinnings of the discipline, and responsive to the notion of developing students' understandings of historical knowledge.
Book
It is a great pleasure to present this book, edited by a distinguished team at the Hong Kong Institute of Education and with excellent contributors from nine countries in the region and beyond. The book is a truly comparative work which significantly advances conceptual understanding. The comparisons undertaken are at many levels and with different units for analysis. One chapter undertakes comparison in two cities (Hong Kong and Guangzhou), three chapters make comparisons between two eountries (South Korea and Singapore; Solomon Islands and Vanuatu; South Korea and China); and five chapters undertake eomparisons across the whole region. Other on individual countries or, in one case, on a single schoo!. In addition, ehapters foeus several chapters examine the attitudes and roles played by individuals and groups within societies. The book is thus an admirable example of the vitality of the field of comparative education in selecting different units for analysis and in examination of issues from diverse angles. Within the book, moreover, readers will find a fascinating array of settings and environments. On the one hand, for example, is Japan with its relatively homogenous eulture, a population of 126 million, and a strong national identity based on language and history. On the other hand is Solomon Islands, which has a population of just 400,000 scattered over 1,000 islands, approximately 90 indigenous languages, and major social problems arising from culture c\ashes, econornic forces, political dyna­ mies and legacies of colonialism.
Chapter
In the field of history education, the terms “historical thinking” and “historical consciousness” draw from two different pedagogical traditions, Anglo-American and German, respectively. In this chapter, Seixas compares the two, asks where they overlap and explores the theoretical and practical benefits attained by clarifying their differences at a moment when history educators are increasingly involved in international dialogue and exchange. Examples are drawn from Quebecois research, the Swedish national curriculum, the German “FUER” model, Dutch heritage education and the Canadian Historical Thinking Project. The chapter concludes with questions and challenges currently facing both traditions.
Chapter
In the Soviet Union history is taught in schools on the basis of a standard syllabus and standard series of textbooks in each of the fifteen republics. ‘Fifty million pupils are being taught’, an educationalist complained, ‘and for every group and every year there is one single textbook’.1 In higher education establishments, the main courses also follow standard textbooks on general and Soviet history and the history of the Communist Party.
Article
Without denying the importance of the postmodernist approach to the narrative form and rhetorical strategies of historiography, the author, one of Germany's most prominent cultural historians, argues here in favor of reason and methodical rationality in history. He presents a broad variety of aspects, factors and developments of historical thinking from the 18th century to the present, thus continuing, in exemplary fashion, the tradition of critical self-reflection in the humanities and looking at historical studies as an important factor of cultural orientation in practical life.
Article
The Idea of Conducting Research into History Curriculum development originally occurred to me while I was a history teacher at a secondary school in Hong Kong's New Territories, in the four years immediately preceding the territory's retrocession to China. It struck me then as particularly odd firstly that there were two completely separate 'history' subjects in the curriculum-one, 'History', taught (like most subjects at that school) in English, and the other, 'Chinese History', taught in Chinese-and, secondly, that there was absolutely no coverage of local history in either of these subjects. The 'History' subject instead consisted almost exclusively of topics in modern European and East Asian topics while, from what I could gather from my students, 'Chinese History' purveyed a highly triumphalist and ethno-centric narrative of the ancient Chinese past. In 1996-7 there were a number of reports in the local media concerning the pressing 'need' (usually expressed by pro-Beijing elements either locally or on the mainland) to purge the local history curriculum of 'colonialist' interpretations of the past. However, it was not immediately apparent to me, as a practising history teacher, precisely what these 'colonial' elements consisted of, nor how 'colonialism' might explain the undoubted peculiarities of the history curriculum for local schools. I decided to investigate, and the result, in 2000, was the PhD dissertation upon which this book is based.
Book
This book is an extended argument on the "coloniality" of power by one of the most innovative scholars of Latin American studies. In a shrinking world where sharp dichotomies, such as East/West and developing/developed, blur and shift, Walter Mignolo points to the inadequacy of current practice in the social sciences and area studies. He introduces the crucial notion of "colonial difference" into study of the modern colonial world. He also traces the emergence of new forms of knowledge, which he calls "border thinking." Further, he expands the horizons of those debates already under way in postcolonial studies of Asia and Africa by dwelling in the genealogy of thoughts of South/Central America, the Caribbean, and Latino/as in the United States. His concept of "border gnosis," or what is known from the perspective of an empire's borderlands, counters the tendency of occidentalist perspectives to dominate, and thus limit, understanding. The book is divided into three parts: the first chapter deals with epistemology and postcoloniality; the next three chapters deal with the geopolitics of knowledge; the last three deal with the languages and cultures of scholarship. Here the author reintroduces the analysis of civilization from the perspective of globalization and argues that, rather than one "civilizing" process dominated by the West, the continually emerging subaltern voices break down the dichotomies characteristic of any cultural imperialism. By underscoring the fractures between globalization and mundializacion, Mignolo shows the locations of emerging border epistemologies, and of post-occidental reason.
Article
Informed by recurring international controversies, this study explores representations of the Second World War as official history in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean secondary-level textbooks and theorizes about how they influence and function as collective memories about this time period. Using grounded theory, it finds that the examined Japanese textbooks tend to present the Second World War in chronological order with a passive voice and avoid discussing why the war occurred and how it ended. The examined Chinese textbooks develop narratives in chronological order as well, but thematic units are structured to highlight the coalition of Mao’s Communist Party and Chang Kai-Shek’s Nationalists as the decisive factor in the victory against Japanese imperialists contributing to the worldwide fight against fascism. The examined Korean textbooks tend toward a single, patriotic perspective of a people that overcame Japanese colonialism and developed as an independent nation, often ignoring issues that complicated the relationship between the two nations.
Article
Focuses on the need to understand ways of defining progression models in history. Definition of students' historical understanding of history as a discipline; Changes in students' ideas about history; Discussion of the fundamental flaws in the current system of National Curriculum assessment.
Article
Presents the second part in a series of articles on concepts of history and teaching approaches. Question on the wisdom of using the National Curriculum attainment target as a model of progression; Characterization of historical accounts to enhance pupil understanding; Development of a model of progression for ideas about history.
Article
What do we know about progression in historical understanding? In Teaching History 113, Lee and Shemilt discussed what progression models can and cannot do to help us think about measuring and developing pupils' understanding and illustrated their discussion with reflections on what is known about progression in the understanding of evidence. In Teaching History 117, Lee and Shemilt explored what is known about progression in the understanding of accounts and interpretations. In this article they apply their formidable knowledge and experience to historical explanation and causal reasoning. What does meaningful progression in historical explanation look like? [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Conference Paper
Ercikan and Seixas are currently editing an international collection of chapters on assessing historical thinking (Routledge, 2015), with contributions from the U.S., Canada, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Germany. Despite differing national contexts, common challenges have emerged across the studies, as various jurisdictions attempt to move beyond the simple testing of factual recall. Their paper discusses several approaches to these challenges, setting the demands of the Common Core State Standards in international context.
Article
This research examines the extent to which specific forms of historical representation in Northern Ireland and the United States serve as “cultural tools” that shape understanding of change over time. On the basis of classroom observations and interviews with children in Northern Ireland, and using comparisons with previous U.S. research, this study found that children in the two locations differed in their explanations of how and why social and material life has changed over time. These distinctions correspond to differing historical representations; children in Northern Ireland are less likely, for both political and pedagogical reasons, to encounter the kinds of national narratives common in the United States. These findings suggest that educators should consider how reliance on a single format for presenting historical information influences and limits children’s historical thinking.
Article
This article situates the emergence of the field of memory studies in relation to several areas of study: cultural studies, media studies, communication and visual culture. It considers key concepts of those fields — memory practices, technologies of memory, mediation and consumerism — in relation to memory studies. Finally, it reflects on some cautionary aspects of memory studies as it moves forward as a field of study.
Article
In this article I revisit and extend arguments made in 1996 and 1997 about the relationship between globalisation, the state and education policy. I was particularly concerned then to see how a small but strong state, Singapore, was responding in the education arena to globalisation. I also wished to draw attention to the literature on the high rates of economic growth achieved by the East Asian ‘tigers’ in which education, training and capital–labour accommodation played a large part; in all these countries the state was strong, being in the market as well as managing it. But with globalisation and neo‐liberal economic policies growing in strength, the havoc caused by the 1997 Asian economic crisis and the new geopolitical and security environment following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the US, there is a need to reconsider some of the arguments and to review the policy responses, especially in education. Is there evidence of the state weakening? Are more pro‐market policies changing governance and funding of education thereby altering the nature and purposes of schooling? I begin with a consideration of the broader phenomena of globalisation and then review the claims that call into question the continued relevance of the East Asian developmental state model and its education and training infrastructures.
Article
This paper offers an analysis of the development of citizenship curriculum in a number of Asian countries, namely China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Pakistan. Experts in citizenship education from these Asian countries were invited to participate in a project on citizenship curriculum, following the publication of Citizenship Education in Asia and the Pacific: Concepts and Issues (Lee, Grossman, Kennedy & Fairbrother, 2004). This analysis shows that although curriculum development is centrally directed in Asian countries, the development of citizenship curriculum has been contentious during the last few decades. We have found tensions and contentions in relation to what should be taught, how it is to be taught, whether the curriculum should be state-oriented or individual-oriented, and whether the citizenship curriculum should remain unchanged in the midst of rapid social change or should move towards the forefront of change, etc. The tensions in defining citizenship curriculum reveal uncertainties in defining what should be taught in terms of citizenship, an area which is expected to provide certainties for the students in developing national identity and support of their political systems in order to bring about consensus, harmony, and social cohesion.
Article
Summarizes a Canadian study that attempted to determine how a diverse group of high school students identified and understood events of historical significance. The students' responses ranged from generally objective and analytical to wildly subjective. Includes a recommended exercise for establishing students approaches to and definitions of historical significance. (MJP)
Article
In this study, we investigated middle graders' understanding of significance in U.S. history through open-ended interviews with forty-eight students in grades five through eight. Students pointed to steadily expanding rights and opportunities as a central theme in U.S. history, but they also had difficulty incorporating some historical patterns and events into their image of progress. This study suggests that students need experience with the complexities of the past within a context that provides some framework for making critical sense out of both legitimating stories and alternative, vernacular histories.
Article
Contends that empathy is a powerful tool for understanding history. Discusses theories and meanings of historical empathy drawing from previous research on these concepts. Believes that historical empathy engages students in historical inquiry and interpretation and encourages them to think critically about the past. (CMK)
Article
This study examined fourth and fifth graders' ideas about historical evidence through a year–long qualitative study of two classrooms. It identifies significant strengths in students' understanding of the reliability of sources but also points to drawbacks in their use of evidence to reach conclusions. Although students could examine sources critically, they rarely did so spontaneously, and when developing historical accounts they either ignored explicit consideration of the reliability of sources or treated all sources equally. These findings suggest that the use of evidence should be a continual and explicit focus of instruction, and that teachers should help students clarify the connection between their conclusions and the evidence which supports them. This study also suggests that students would benefit from a more cautious presentation of historical narratives, and that their interest in evidence might be increased by focusing on historical issues that continue to be significant in society.
Article
This article explores the relationship between students' ethnic identities and their ascriptions of historical significance to moments in Canada's past. Twenty-six grade 12 students living in an ethnically diverse urban centre in British Columbia, Canada participated. Phenomenographic research methods were followed, with a range of data informing the findings. In groups, students completed a “picture-selection task” during which they were asked to make decisions about the historical significance of particular events and themes in Canadian history. Students were asked to describe their ethnic identity and then reflect on the ways in which their ethnic identity may have influenced the decisions they made during the picture-selection task. Analysis determined that students employed five types of historical significance and three narrative templates to construct the history of Canada. Students used specific types of historical significance depending on the narrative(s) they used. The students' ethnic identities played a central role in determining which narrative template(s) they employed and the criteria they used to select the events for their narratives. Many students articulated complicated notions of their identities, with some perceiving that particular “sides” of their identity were at play, or in use, during the research task. Students were able to engage in metacognitive thinking because of a research design that pushed them to articulate their beliefs about the relationship between identity (self-ascribed) and the narrative they constructed. Implications for teaching and further research are explored.
Article
Textbooks play a central role in Taiwanese education. In the wake of the political reform and social protest movements of the 1970s and 1980s that led to Taiwanese educational reform, critics assert that traditional textbooks reinforce the dominant national Chinese cultural identity without considering the specific perspectives and voices of different gender, cultural, and ethnic groups. The study's purpose is to examine how political and ideological issues were represented in nationally standardized grade-four social studies textbooks from 1978 to 1995; how the textbook portrayed the history of cultural and ethnic groups as well as both genders in Taiwan; and whether the ideology changed because of political and socioeconomic pressures. In order to explore this question, two series of textbooks were examined. The first series was published between 1978 and 1989, the second between 1989 and 1995. Two social studies textbooks from each series were examined. The study's theoretic framework centers on the relationship between legitimated knowledge and the textbooks, employing the methodology of textbook analysis. Three themes were examined: (1) Taiwan's historical development, (2) national identity and nationalism, and (3) ethnic and gender studies. Two analyses were applied in each theme: (1) story-line analysis and (2) language analysis.
Article
This manuscript explores the state’s political use of the past and the function of history education in political transition and foreign relations. Modern historical consciousness in China is largely characterized by the “one hundred years of humiliation” from mid-1800s to mid-1900s when China was attacked, bullied, and torn asunder by imperialists. This research focuses initially on how such historical memory has been reinforced by the current regime’s educational socialization through the national “Patriotic Education Campaign” after 1991. It then explores the impact of this institutionalized historical consciousness on the formation of national identity and foreign relations. This study suggests that, even though existing theories and literature illuminate certain aspects of China’s political transition and foreign affairs behavior, a full explanatory picture emerges only after these phenomena and actions are analyzed through the “lenses” of history and memory.
Article
This paper reports part of an investigation of children's ideas about explanation and enquiry in history carried out by project CHATA in 3 primary and 6 secondary schools in England. Three sets of tasks were administered on three separate occasions to children aged from 7 to 14 years of age (N=320). Responses to one task exploring children's ideas about the explanation of action in history are discussed. Almost all children (including the 7 year olds) could offer plausible reasons for individual action in history, and there was a progression from emphasis on personal desires to an awareness of the need to explain action by relating purposes to the agent's situation.
Book
From the Publisher: This ambitious book is an account of the economic and social dynamics of the new age of information. Based on research in the USA, Asia, Latin America, and Europe, it aims to formulate a systematic theory of the information society which takes account of the fundamental effects of information technology on the contemporary world. The global economy is now characterized by the almost instantaneous flow and exchange of information, capital and cultural communication. These flows order and condition both consumption and production. The networks themselves reflect and create distinctive cultures. Both they and the traffic they carry are largely outside national regulation. Our dependence on the new modes of informational flow gives enormous power to those in a position to control them to control us. The main political arena is now the media, and the media are not politically answerable. Manuel Castells describes the accelerating pace of innovation and application. He examines the processes of globalization that have marginalized and now threaten to make redundant whole countries and peoples excluded from informational networks. He investigates the culture, institutions and organizations of the network enterprise and the concomitant transformation of work and employment. He points out that in the advanced economies production is now concentrated on an educated section of the population aged between 25 and 40: many economies can do without a third or more of their people. He suggests that the effect of this accelerating trend may be less mass unemployment than the extreme flexibilization of work and individualization of labor, and, in consequence, a highly segmented socialstructure. The author concludes by examining the effects and implications of technological change on mass media culture ("the culture of real virtuality"), on urban life, global politics, and the nature of time and history. Written by one of the worlds leading social thinkers and researchers The Rise of the Network Society is the first of three linked investigations of contemporary global, economic, political and social change. It is a work of outstanding penetration, originality, and importance.