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Research has shown that employees who occupy more central positions in their organization’s network have lower turnover. As a result, scholars commonly interpret turnover as the consequence of social networks. Based on Conservation of Resources theory, we propose an alternative coevolution perspective that recognizes the influence of changes in individuals’ social network position on their thoughts of quitting (the consideration of turnover), but also posits that thoughts of quitting shape individuals’ agency in maintaining and changing their social network. Extending previous research, we predict that creation (dissolution) of both friendship ties and advice ties are negatively (positively) related to subsequent thoughts of quitting. We then develop and test the novel hypotheses that for friendship ties, thoughts of quitting are positively related to tie retention and negatively related to tie creation (leading to network stasis), whereas for advice ties thoughts of quitting are negatively related to tie retention and positively related to tie creation (leading to network churn). In a longitudinal network analysis that assessed 121 employees across three time points, we find support for our hypotheses that thoughts of quitting affect network changes, but do not find that network changes affect thoughts of quitting.
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... However, we argue that psychologically detached employees respond to this normative influence with more OCBIs. The core of this argument stems from research that finds that psychological detachment from the organization heightens the need to maintain a sense of belongingness to coworkers (Tröster et al., 2019). One important way that employees maintain this belongingness is by conforming to social norms, such that employees conform to social norms when they feel a sense of belongingness to their coworkers (Terry & Hogg, 1996). ...
... The rationale is that OCBIs are more likely to garner social approval from coworkers compared to OCBOs, which is particularly important for psychologically detached employees who have a strong need to feel a sense of belongingness and connection to their coworkers (Tröster et al., 2019). Data were collected across three time periods using a sample from Prolific (https://www.prolific.co/). ...
... Research on the moderating role of psychological detachment research largely suggests that employees who are psychologically detached from their organization feel a sense of freedom to enact negative behaviors in that there is little concern for organizational consequences (e.g., Bani-Melhem et al., 2020;Christian & Ellis, 2014;Tepper et al., 2009). The dearth of research on the positive side of psychological detachment shows that psychological detachment can lead employees to actively strengthen their interpersonal relationships (Randel & Ranft, 2007;Tröster et al., 2019). Consistent with this positive view of psychological detachment, we highlight how the positive indirect effect of coworker presenteeism on OCBIs can be strengthened when employees are psychologically detached from their organization. ...
Although researchers have started to uncover the positive effects of presenteeism, research has yet to unearth the positive implications of coworker presenteeism. We draw from social information processing theory to hypothesize that coworker presenteeism has a positive indirect effect on organizational citizenship behaviors directed towards the organization (OCBOs) and other individuals (OCBIs) via citizenship pressure. Building on these hypotheses, we further theorize that the indirect effect of coworker presenteeism on OCBOs and OCBIs differ when employees are psychologically detached from their organization. Based on data collected using a time-separated research design (n = 277 employees), the results reveal that coworker presenteeism has a positive indirect effect on both forms of OCBs via citizenship pressure. The results further demonstrate that the indirect effect of coworker presenteeism on OCBIs via citizenship pressure strengthens for employees who are psychologically detached from their organization. Importantly, this research shows that there are positive behavioral implications associated with coworker presenteeism.
... Prior theory and research on the maintenance of informal ties over time has emphasized structural and demographic antecedents (e.g., Dahlander & McFarland, 2013;Kossinets & Watts, 2009;Rivera et al., 2010), with an emerging stream of literature examining the psychological mechanisms underpinning tie maintenance (e.g., Fang et al., 2015;Kilduff & Lee, 2020;Kleinbaum, 2018;Schulte et al., 2012;Tröster et al., 2019;Wrzus et al., 2013). However, investigations of network reconfiguration after exogenous shocks have focused exclusively on the effects of prior network structure and outward features of network actors (Aalbers, 2020;Habinek et al., 2015;Smith, 2020;Withers et al., 2018). ...
... We also incorporated nonrespondents by using the number of respondents' outgoing ties to nonrespondents as a predictor, following the guidance of Robins et al. (2004). And, we controlled for friendship ties in our tests of advice tie maintenance (and vice versa), as these ties could influence each other (Tröster et al., 2019). ...
... We contribute initial theorizing about the psychological mechanisms that change the "logics of attachment" (Corbo et al., 2016, p. 324) when such a shock occurs. We extend an emerging stream of research that focuses on the role of perception, personality, and attitudes as antecedents of network change (e.g., Kilduff & Lee, 2020;Kleinbaum, 2018;Schulte et al., 2012;Tasselli et al., 2015;Tröster et al., 2019) by identifying two new mechanisms that become salient forces following an extreme crisis. ...
... The concept of contagion has long transcended the narrower boundaries of its epidemiological origins (Ugander et al., 2012), to be adopted more generally to examine a wider range of social phenomena involving diffusion through networks of social contacts (Berry et al., 2019). In organizational and management research, the notion of social contagion has found broad application, from studies of how social networks affect individual intentions, perceptions and behavior within organizations (Felps et al., 2009;Kilduff & Krackhardt, 1994;Krackhardt & Porter, 1985;Tröster et al., 2019), to studies on the allocation of attention (Rao et al., 2001), and the role that inter-organizational networks play in the emulation, adoption, diffusion, and abandonment of strategies, technologies, practices, organizational forms, performance, and institutional logics (Fligstein, 1985;Gibbons, 2004;Greve, 1995;Pallotti & Lomi, 2011, Shipilov et al., 2010Strang & Meyer, 1993). However diverse are the empirical guises in which they appear, contagion processes share the same set of conceptual difficulties inherent in the statistical modeling of data characterized by complex dependencies linking the observations (Robins & Pattison, 2005). ...
... Stochastic Actor-Oriented Models (SAOMs) for the coevolution of networks and behavior have been available for at least a decade now (Steglich et al., 2010). These models are now very well established (Snijders, 2017;Snijders et al., 2017), and are becoming increasingly popular in organizational and management research both in studies of intra (Tröster et al., 2019) as well as inter-organizational networks (Amati et al., 2019). ...
Autologistic Actor Attribute Models (ALAAMs) provide new analytical opportunities to advance research on how individual attitudes, cognitions, behaviors, and outcomes diffuse through networks of social relations in which individuals in organizations are embedded. ALAAMs add to available statistical models of social contagion the possibility of formulating and testing competing hypotheses about the specific mechanisms that shape patterns of adoption/diffusion. The main objective of this paper is to provide an introduction and a guide to the specification, estimation, interpretation and evaluation of ALAAMs. Using original data, we demonstrate the value of ALAAMs in an analysis of academic performance and social networks in a class of graduate management students. We find evidence that both high and low performance are contagious, i.e., diffuse through social contact. However, the contagion mechanisms that contribute to the diffusion of high performance and low performance differ subtly and systematically. Our results help us identify new questions that ALAAMs allow us to ask, new answers they may be able to provide, and the constraints that need to be relaxed to facilitate their more general adoption in organizational research. Forthcoming in: Organizational Research Methods Keywords: autologistic actor attribute model (ALAAM), individual performance, diffusion, exponential-family random graph models (ERGMs), social contagion, social influence, social networks, statistical models ° We are grateful to Garry Robins for his insightful comments offered on an earlier draft, and to Jüergen Lerner for his expert help and advice on the figures. 2
... Overall, given that it requires a significant investment of time and resources to develop social capital (Hancock et al., 2017;Leana & Van Buren, 1999), employees may have been frustrated for quite a while under such incohesive and inharmonious situations that have not been restored promptly after CVT. According to network-based turnover literature, where turnover is interpreted as the consequence of social networks 22 -(e.g., Tröster et al., 2019), such difficult relationships emanating from CVT may engender employees to quit their job, which is likely to induce subsequent CVT (Dess & Shaw, 2001). Thus: ...
This study examines a moderated mediation model that delineates how collective voluntary turnover (CVT) impedes firms and when this organisational phenomenon is altered. Based on a social capital perspective, we propose that CVT can decrease firm performance over a long period through subsequent CVT, and communication practices weaken this negative mediational process. Analysing a three‐wave longitudinal dataset collected from 207 firms in South Korea, our work revealed that CVT decreased firm performance after 4 years via subsequent CVT, and such a contagion effect of CVT is mitigated among firms that extensively implemented communication practices. The results of this study provide insights into how, why, and when CVT damages firms by indicating its contagion effect over time and the buffer of communication practices. Also, our findings from South Korean firms broaden our understanding of the CVT‐consequence linkage in a non‐Western context.
... Analyzing the genesis and dynamics of organizational networks is important for many reasons, such as understanding the distribution of network outcomes, the role of agency, and the institutional and governance benefits of networks (Ahuja et al., 2012). While organizations have both instrumental and affective networks (e.g., Lincoln and Miller 1979), most studies of organizational network evolution focus on instrumental micro-mechanisms-where unemotional "goal-directedness" is assumed to drive micro-dynamics and network trajectories (Kilduff and Tsai 2003)-and underplay or ignore affective micro-mechanisms (although researchers are beginning to reveal more about these mechanisms: see Casciaro and Lobo, 2015;Sasovova et al., 2010or Troester et al., 2019. Here, we propose a model that includes both affective and instrumental micro-mechanisms. ...
In the workplace, people seek positive emotional experiences as well as instrumental resources while doing their work. Yet we know little about how affective micro-dynamics drive the evolution of organizational networks, influence network trajectories, and determine macro outcomes such as collective affect and overall network structure. Given the lack of theory on affective micro-dynamics and network evolution, we propose a model that includes both affective and instrumental micro-mechanisms and use simulation methods to explore evolutionary dynamics and develop new theory. The core of our model is the empirically observed tendency for people to forego the acquisition of instrumental resources to avoid a decrease in positive emotion when choosing interaction partners. We conduct “experiments” with the simulation, considering the effects of the tradeoff, dispositional affect, resource inequality, and ingroup favoritism. The results show that dispositional affect and the tradeoff have considerable effects on network trajectories, collective affect, and resource transfer. We provide new theoretical propositions about affect in organizations.
... First, a corporate volunteering climate can improve employees' positive emotions because it can trigger the resource-building process. COR theory indicates that resources are matters that people value, for example, positive feelings, feeling valuable to others and meaningful existence (Halbesleben et al., 2014;Hobfoll, 2001;Troester et al., 2019). According to COR theory (Bono et al., 2013;Hobfoll, 1989), positive work events or organizational environments can trigger the resources-building (e.g. ...
Conventional wisdom is that a corporate volunteering climate should be beneficial to employees. We challenge this perspective by integrating person–environment fit and conservation of resources theories and providing an integrative model that examines how and when corporate volunteering climate produces positive and negative consequences for employees. Using a two‐wave time‐lagged study of 283 employees in 42 companies, our multilevel model shows that positive emotions mediate the relationship between corporate volunteering climate and work engagement, and perceived role overload mediates the relationship between corporate volunteering climate and work–family conflict. Employees’ communal orientation moderates the positive relationship between corporate volunteering climate and positive emotions, whereas competitive orientation moderates the positive relationship between corporate volunteering climate and perceived role overload. Communal orientation moderates the indirect effect between corporate volunteering climate and work engagement via positive emotions, but competitive orientation moderates the indirect effect between corporate volunteering climate and work–family conflict via perceived role overload. Our study provides balanced insights to help understand the benefits and costs of corporate volunteering climate in work and non‐work domains.
... Although the name generator questions are well-known and well-validated in empirical social network research (Burt 1984;Marsden 1990) we wanted to be sure that in our data the networks did not substantially overlap. To see the overlap and the difference between the two networks we calculated the Jaccard Similarity index (see e.g., Tröster et al. 2019). This index can have values between 0 and 1, in the neighbourhood of 0 both networks are highly dissimilar, in the neighbourhood of 1 they are highly similar. ...
Innovation is about individuals collaborating to share existing knowledge and create new knowledge. Increasingly these collaborations cross organisational boundaries, like in R&D alliances. Many of these alliances are coopetitive, partners cooperate, but also compete with each other. Although knowledge sharing in coopetitive settings has been studied on the firm and the unit level, the micro (individual) level is underresearched. We consider individual alliance-related work performance of alliance members in a (moderately) coopetitive R&D alliance, drawing on social network theory and the organisational coordination perspective. We examine the influence of individual alliance members’ position and level of activity in the alliance advice network on their work performance. We also examine the substitutive role of the alliance formal network, representing the official channels of knowledge sharing. We suggest that individuals’ work performance is better explained by their position in the formal network, rather than in the advice network.
... In addition, a group of studies have explicitly examined the dynamics of advice networks over time and identified factors driving the emergence and evolution of advice relations in organizations (Agneessens and Wittek, 2012;Lazega et al., 2006;. Lazega et al., 2012;Snijders et al., 2013;Tröster et al., 2019). ...
In this study we develop a model to explain the dynamics of advice seeking after an acquisition. We build on a theory of advice seeking that draws from prospect theory and expectancy theory. We theorize that immediately after an acquisition there is uncertainty about who knows what, but over time individuals become more aware of the expertise within the organization and they change their advice networks based upon this increased awareness. Our model examines four micro-processes of advice seeking: reciprocity, preferential attachment, transitivity, and legacy-firm tie preferences. To test our hypotheses we use post-acquisition data over four time periods in a recruitment consulting firm. Our longitudinal analysis uses a stochastic actor-orientated model and our results indicate that immediately after the acquisition individuals have a tendency to seek advice based upon reciprocity and preferential attachment. However, over time these tendencies diminish. Surprisingly, transitivity does not play a significant role, which suggests that other micro-processes such as reciprocity are dominant. In addition, individuals in the acquired firm have a tendency to make more ties and there is a preference for same firm ties in both legacy firms, with the tendency being higher in the acquired firm. Our findings add to theories on the process of advice seeking under conditions of uncertainty, on knowledge transfer processes in mergers and acquisitions, and the knowledge based view of the firm.
The extant literature has long focused on the causality between the research performance of organisations and their network positions in an inter-organisational research collaboration network. However, we still do not know much about the simultaneous bidirectional relationship between network positions and research performance, or how this bidirectional relationship varies with the difference in the intrinsic cognitive characteristics of network nodes. This paper attempts to fill these research gaps, which helps to reveal the network growth dynamics of an inter-organisational research collaboration system by incorporating the concept of cognitive proximity into a systemic analytical framework where network positions and research performance are considered to be mutually correlated with each other. Based on the research sample of an inter-organisational research collaboration ego-network composed of research institutes subordinated to the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), firms, and universities, the simultaneous bidirectional relationship between network positions and research performance of CAS research institutes is examined by using a simultaneous equation approach, and the moderating effect of cognitive proximity between CAS research institutes and firms (or universities) is further tested. Our results confirm that the collaborative organisations’ network positions and their research performance mutually affect each other in a co-evolutionary process, providing continuous development momentum of an inter-organisational research collaboration system. The simultaneous bidirectional relationship is significantly enhanced by the cognitive proximity between collaborative organisations.
In this article, we build upon the buffering hypothesis within the job demands–resources framework to develop a coevolutionary explanation to untangle the process by which emotional job demands, work-based social networks, and employee performance are associated over time. We integrate ideas from the social contagion and social network dynamics literatures to support our coevolutionary theory. To test our theory, we collected longitudinal data at three time points from 135 employees in a customer-facing research-and-development department. We employ a stochastic actor-oriented model that allows the simultaneous modeling of changes in work-based social network ties, emotional job demands, and employee performance. We find a social contagion effect whereby employees are more at risk of an increase in their emotional job demands, the more reciprocal work-based social relationships they have with colleagues who have high emotional job demands. In addition, individuals with high emotional job demands change their networks in two notable ways: They have a positive tendency for having work-based social ties, that is, sociability, and for having ties with others with high emotional job demands, that is, homophily. However, despite the unintended consequence of these network tendencies making employees more susceptible to the contagion effect of emotional job demands, we also find support for the buffering hypothesis. The negative effect of high emotional job demands on performance is lower for employees who have more work-based social ties.
Supply chain relationships—both within and between firms—can have significant implications on the firm’s ability to successfully compete. Thus, it is increasingly important for supply chain managers to skillfully navigate multiplex relationships to coordinate and manage resources across functions and firms in today’s competitive environment. In this work, we describe, in a supply chain context, how the prevalence of multiplex relationships, which exist when multiple, potentially incongruous relationships are present between firms and among individuals within these firms, is an important basis for individual behaviors that influence firm competitiveness. Drawing on recent advances in the relational multiplexity theoretical perspective, we identify and discuss several research opportunities for enriching our understanding of interpersonal level antecedents of firm competitiveness. Specifically, we present research opportunities related to supply chain behavioral implications of individual differences and socio‐structural adaptation, informal relationship capitalization and creation, temporal orientation and transience, contemporary multi‐team structures, and cross‐level relational valence (a)symmetries. Throughout, we emphasize the importance of the informal, interpersonal relationships that overlay formally specified roles and develop representative research questions to spur further exploration in each area.
This paper reviews the growing body of work on network dynamics in organizational research, focusing on a corpus of 187 articles -- both “micro” (i.e., interpersonal) and “macro” (i.e., interorganizational) -- published between 2007 and 2020. We do not see “network dynamics” as a single construct; rather, it is an umbrella term covering a wide territory. In the first phase of our two-phase review, we present a taxonomy that organizes this territory into three categories: network change (i.e., the emergence, evolution, and transformation of network ties and structures); the occurrence of relational events (i.e., modeling the sequence of discrete actions generated by one actor and directed towards one or more other actors); and coevolution (i.e., the process whereby network and actor attributes influence each other over time). Our review highlights differences between network dynamics based on relational states (e.g., a friendship) and relational events (e.g., an email message); examines the drivers and effects of network dynamics; and, in a methodological appendix, clarifies the assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses of different analytical approaches for studying network dynamics. In the second phase of our review, we critically reflect on the findings from the first phase and sketch out a rough agenda for future research, organized in terms of four overarching themes: the interplay between the dynamics of social networks conceived as relational states and relational events; mechanisms underlying network dynamics; outcomes of network dynamics; and the role of cognition.
The purpose of this paper is to elucidate how the advice-giving affects innovative capability by involving knowledge exchange and combination as a mediator and contextual ambidexterity as an important contingency.
Based on a survey of 96 Chinese teams, a set of hypotheses was tested using regression analyzes.
The findings showed that contextual ambidexterity moderates the indirect effect of advice-giving on innovative capability through knowledge exchange and combination. When contextual ambidexterity is high, workers engage in more knowledge exchange and combination for the team at intermediate levels of advice-giving, the indirect effect of advice-giving at low levels and at high levels exist. When contextual ambidexterity is low, there is no indirect effect of advice-giving at any level.
Managers should be aware of the inverted U-shaped relationship between advice-giving and innovative capability and strengthen the construction of contextual ambidexterity.
This paper makes up for the theoretical gap between advice-giving and innovative capability. Furthermore, it provides a theoretical reference for practitioners to improve their innovative capability.
The relational event model (REM) solves a problem for organizational researchers who have access to sequences of time-stamped interactions. It enables them to estimate statistical models without collapsing the data into cross-sectional panels, which removes timing and sequence information. However, there is little guidance in the extant literature regarding issues that may affect REM’s power, precision, and accuracy: How many events or actors are needed? How large should the risk set be? How should statistics be scaled? To gain insights into these issues, we conduct a series of experiments using simulated sequences of relational events under different conditions and using different sampling and scaling strategies. We also provide an empirical example using email communications in a real-life context. Our results indicate that, in most cases, the power and precision levels of REMs are good, making it a strong explanatory model. However, REM suffers from issues of accuracy that can be severe in certain cases, making it a poor predictive model. We provide a set of practical recommendations to guide researchers’ use of REMs in organizational research.
The Relational Event Model (REM) solves a problem for organizational researchers who have access to sequences of time stamped interactions. It enables them to estimate statistical models without collapsing the data into cross-sectional panels, which removes timing and sequence information. However, there is little guidance in the extant literature regarding issues that may affect REM’s power, precision and accuracy: How many events or actors are needed? How large should the risk set be? How should statistics be scaled? To gain insights into these issues, we conduct a series of experiments using simulated sequences of relational events under different conditions and using different sampling and scaling strategies. We also provide an empirical example using email communications in a real-life context. Our results indicate that, in most cases, the power and precision levels of REMs are good, making it a strong explanatory model. However, REM suffers from issues of accuracy that can be severe in certain cases, making it a poor predictive model. We provide a set of practical recommendations to guide researcher’s use of REMs in organizational research.
At least two thousand articles on voluntary employee turnover have been published in the last one hundred years. In turn, numerous authors have reviewed the theory and research on employee turnover. Our intent with this paper is therefore not to provide a comprehensive literature review as excellent ones are available elsewhere. Instead, the purpose of this article is to summarize major contributions in the present and provide our perspectives on the future directions of turnover research. Following a relatively terse review of the turnover literature, we elaborate on how organizational scholars can further enhance the understanding of turnover by (a) probing into the turnover process with a better consideration of time, (b) studying the role of volitional control on employees' leaving/staying, (c) further investigating how the context in which employees reside influences leaving, and (d) opening up the "black box" of the collective turnover process.
We present a theory of social capital dynamics. In particular, we examine how individuals in organizations respond to events such as performance evaluations by changing whom they interact with and the extent to which they utilize their contacts. We argue that positive performance feedback from supervisors increases levels of self-efficacy and results in the creation of new social capital as well as the increased utilization of existing social capital (i.e., forming new ties with sources of information and aid, and increasing interactions with existing contacts). In addition, negative feedback decreases self-efficacy, resulting in reallocation of social capital utilization to concentrate on a small number of existing frequently-accessed contacts (i.e., decreasing interactions with some contacts while increasing interactions with others). Our arguments highlight the role of individual agency in social capital dynamics and clarify the role that individual performance evaluations can play in the evolving structure of social networks. To test our hypotheses, we use a longitudinal social network data-set collected over a six-year period in the IT department of a global engineering firm. Using fixed-effects panel regression models, we find support for our hypotheses, suggesting that performance feedback is a determinant factor in social capital dynamics.
Proposed as a theory of motivation, the basic tenet of conservation of resources (COR) theory is that humans are motivated to protect their current resources and acquire new resources. Despite its recent popularity in the organizational behavior literature, several criticisms of the theory have emerged, primarily related to the central concept of resources. In this review, we address concerns regarding the conceptualization, conservation, acquisition, fluctuation, and measurement of resources. We highlight gaps in the COR literature that can be addressed by integrating research from other areas of psychology and management. In this manner, we hope to push the COR literature forward by resolving several concerns and providing suggestions for future research that might address other concerns.
This paper focuses on an emergent debate about the microfoundations of organizational social networks. We consider three theoretical positions: an individual agency perspective suggesting that people, through their individual characteristics and cognitions, shape networks; a network patterning perspective suggesting that networks, through their structural configuration, form people; and a coevolution perspective suggesting that people, in their idiosyncrasies, and networks, in their differentiated structures, coevolve. We conclude that individual attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes cannot be fully understood without considering the structuring of organizational contexts in which people are embedded, and that social network structuring and change in organizations cannot be fully understood without considering the psychology of purposive individuals. To guide future research, we identify key questions from each of the three theoretical perspectives and, particularly, encourage more research on how individual actions and network structure coevolve in a dynamic process of reciprocal influence.
This study of perceived stress and communication networks fills 2 theoretical gaps in the literature: First, drawing predominantly on conservation of resource theory and faultline theory, we demonstrate the role of stress as an "engine of action" in network evolution. Second, we extend the stress literature to the interpersonal domain by arguing that others' levels of stress influence the individual's communication network, and this, in turn, changes his or her stress level. At 3 time points, we evaluated the communication ties and perceived stress in a unique field setting comprising 115 male participants (in 6 groups) performing group-based tasks. We introduce stochastic actor-based models for the coevolution of network ties and actor attributes, statistical models that enable causal inferences to be drawn regarding the interplay between dynamic networks and individual attributes. Using these models, we find that over time, individuals experiencing higher levels of perceived stress were less likely to create new communication ties and were more likely to maintain existing ties to others. Participants also tended to communicate with similarly stressed others. Such communication network dynamics further increased individuals' levels of perceived stress over time, leading to stress-related vicious cycles. We discuss organizational implications that relate to stress and network-related interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Network analysis is one of the most promising currents, in sociological research, and yet it has never been subjected to a theoretically informed assessment and critique. This article outlines the theoretical presuppositions of network analysis. It also distinguishes between three different (implicit) models in the network literature of the interrelations of social structure, culture, and human agency. It concludes that only a strategy for historical explanation that synthesizes social structural and cultural analysis can adequately explain the formation, reproduction, and transformation of networks themselves. The article sketches the broad contours of such a theoretical synthesis in the conclusion.
This longitudinal study used data from 91 self-managed teams (456 individuals, 60 nationalities)
to examine the interactive effects of a team’s task (“workflow”) network structure and its cultural
diversity (as indexed by nationality) on the team’s “potency” (i.e., the team’s confidence in its
ability to perform) and its performance (as rated by expert judges). We found that whereas the
emergence of dense task networks enhanced team potency it was the emergence of (moderately)
centralized task networks that facilitated team performance. These varied structural effects,
moreover, were themselves contingent on team composition: the more culturally diverse a team,
the more pronounced were the positive effects of network density on team potency and the
higher the level of network centralization required for optimal team performance. The success of
a team appears to hinge on the interplay between network structure and team composition.
Keywords: Networks; diversity; team performance; team potency
Which comes first—team social networks or emergent team states (e.g., team climate)? We argue that team members' social network ties and team members' climate perceptions coevolve over time as a function of six reciprocal and co-occurring processes. We test our conceptual framework in a 10-month longitudinal study of perceptions of team psychological safety and social network ties in 69 work teams and find considerable support for our hypotheses. Our main results suggest that perceptions of psychological safety predict network ties. The more psychologically safe team members perceive their team to be, the mòre likely they are to ask their teammates for advice and to see them as friends, and the less likely they are to report difficult relationships with them. At the same time, network ties predict psychological safety. Team members adopt their friends' and advisors' perceptions of the team's psychological safety and reject the perceptions of those with whom they report a difficult relationship. Our framework and findings suggest that conceptual models and tests of unidirectional or team-level effects are likely to substantially misrepresent the mechanisms by which network ties and emergent team states coevolve.
This article examines how different personality types create and benefit from social networks in organizations. Using data from a 116-member high-technology firm, we tested how self-monitoring orientation and network position related to work performance. First, chameleon-like high self-monitors were more likely than true-to-themselves low self-monitors to occupy central positions in social networks. Second, for high (but not for low) self-monitors, longer service in the organization related to the occupancy of strategically advantageous network positions. Third, self-monitoring and centrality in social networks independently predicted individuals' workplace performance. The results paint a picture of people shaping the networks that constrain and enable performance.
We give a non-technical introduction into recently developed methods for analyzing the co-evolution of social networks and behavior(s) of the network actors. This co-evolution is crucial for a variety of research topics that currently receive a lot of attention, such as the role of peer groups in adolescent development. A family of dynamic actor-driven models for the co-evolution process is sketched, and it is shown how the SIENA software can be used for estimating these models. We illustrate the method by analyzing the co-evolution of friendship networks, taste in music, and alcohol consumption of teenagers.
A deeper understanding of the relation between individual behavior and individual actions on one hand and the embeddedness of individ- uals in social structures on the other hand can be obtained by em- pirically studying the dynamics of individual outcomes and network structure, and how these mutually aect each other. In methodolog- ical terms, this means that behavior of individuals - indicators of performance and success, attitudes and other cognitions, behavioral tendencies - and the ties between them are studied as a social process evolving over time, where behavior and network ties mutually influ- ence each other. We propose a statistical methodology for this type of investigation and illustrate it by an example.
Employees (n=40) at a fast-food restaurant were surveyed about characteristics of their position and their level of satisfaction. Employees were then asked to report with whom they regularly communicated inside and outside the workplace and to indicate how close they were to employees with whom they were linked. Employee turnover was measured after three months had elapsed. A goal of the research was to replicate a model of employee turnover that predicts employees more central in their social network to be less likely to leave, and to test a social support explanation of the centrality model. The results indicated that employees who reported a greater number of out-degree links with friends were less likely to leave. The number of in-degree links with friends did not significantly predict turnover, and neither did network links with peers. Friendship prestige, measured by the number of in-degree links, was strongly correlated with relational closeness and amount of time spent with employees outside the workplace.
An Erosion Model (EM) of employee turnover is introduced to explain the previously observed negative relationship between network centrality and employee turnover. The EM hypothesizes that social support moderates the centrality-turnover relation as those more active in the organization's social network experience less job strain due to esteem provided by work peers. Three EM hypotheses were supported using meta-analytic procedures with significant relations identified between centrality and turnover (k=5, r=.29), social support and centrality (k=7, r=.23), and social support and turnover intentions (k=17, r=.35). Future research for EM expansion and practical applications are proposed.
This paper examines the role of a person's generalized positive or negative feelings toward someone (interpersonal affect) in task-related networks in organizations. We theorize that negative interpersonal affect renders task competence virtually irrelevant in a person's choice of a partner for task interactions but that positive interpersonal affect increases a person's reliance on competence as a criterion for choosing task partners, facilitating access to organizational resources relevant to the task. Using social psychological models of interpersonal perception and hierarchical Bayesian models, we find support for this theory in social network data from employees in three organizations: an entrepreneurial computer technology company, staff personnel at an academic institution, and employees in a large information technology corporation. The results suggest that competence may be irrelevant not just when outright dislike colors a relationship. Across organizational contexts and types of task-related interaction, people appear to need active liking to seek out the task resources of potential work partners and fully tap into the knowledge that resides in organizations. We discuss contributions of our study to research on the interplay of psychological and structural dimensions of organizational life.
The apparent stability of social network structures may mask considerable change and adjustment in the ties that make up the structures. In this study, we theorize and test—using longitudinal data on friendship relations from a radiology department located in the Netherlands—the idea that the characteristics of this “network churn” and the resultant brokerage dynamics are traceable to individual differences in self-monitoring personality. High self-monitors were more likely than low self-monitors to attract new friends and to occupy new bridging positions over time. In comparison to low self-monitors, the new friends that high self-monitors attracted tended to be relative strangers, in the sense that they were unconnected with previous friends, came from different functions, and more efficiently increased the number of structural holes in the resultant network. Our study suggests that dispositional forces help shape the dynamic structuring of networks: individuals help (re)create the social network structures they inhabit.
In this paper we develop and test a theory of the dynamic behavior of voluntary groups. The theory combines an image of social network structure with the concept of natural selection to model changes in group composition over time. We consider the group to be a population of members subject to natural selection in sociodemographic space. According to the theory, the probability that members will enter or leave the group depends upon the number and strength of social network ties that connect group members to each other and to nonmembers. We analyze an event history dataset constructed from interviews using Life History Calendar method and information on ego-centered social networks developed from the General Social Survey Network Module. We test the hypothesis that network connections inside a group are associated with reduced membership turnover, while connections outside the group increase turnover. We find that weak ties and network connections that span greater distances in sociodemographic space are positively correlated with leaving current groups and joining new ones. We conclude that weak ties are a major source of change in group composition.
In 1973, Mark Granovetter proposed that weak ties are often more important than strong ties in understanding certain network-based phenomena. His argument rests on the assumption that strong ties tend to bond similar people to each other and these similar people tend to cluster together such that they are all mutually connected. The information obtained through such a network tie is more likely to be redundant, and the network is therefore not a channel for innovation. By contrast, a weak tie more often constitutes a “local bridge” to parts of the social system that are otherwise disconnected, and therefore a weak tie is likely to provide new information from disparate parts of the system. Thus, this theory argues, tie strength is curvilinear with a host of dependent variables: no tie (or an extremely weak tie) is of little consequence; a weak tie provides maximum impact, and a strong tie provides diminished impact. Subsequent research has generally supported Granovetter’s theory (Granovetter 1982), but two issues have been neglected in the research stream. First, there is considerable ambiguity as to what constitutes a strong tie and what constitutes a weak tie. Granovetter laid out four identifying properties of a strong tie: “The strength of a tie is a (probably linear) combination of the amount of time, the emotional intensity, the intimacy (mutual confiding), and the reciprocal services which characterize the tie” (1973:1361). This makes tie strength a linear function of four quasi-independent indicators. At what point is a tie to be considered weak? This is not simply a question for the methodologically curious. It is an important part of the theory itself, since the theory makes a curvilinear prediction. If we happen to be on the very left side of the continuum of tie strength, then increasing the strength of the tie (going from no tie to weak tie) will increase the relevant information access. On the other hand, at some point making the ties stronger will theoretically decrease their impact. How do we know where we are on this theoretical curve? Do all four indicators count equally toward tie strength? In practice, tie strength has been measured many different ways.
The central argument of network research is that actors are embedded in networks of interconnected social relationships that offer opportunities for and constraints on behavior. We review research on the antecedents and consequences of networks at the interpersonal, interunit, and interorganizational levels of analysis, evaluate recent theoretical and empirical trends, and give directions for future research, highlighting the importance of investigating cross-level network phenomena.
This research examined the relationships between structural positions and influence at the individual level of analysis. The structure of the organization was conceptualized from a social network perspective. Measures of the relative positions of employees within workflow, communication, and friendship networks were strongly related to perceptions of influence by both supervisors and non-supervisors and to promotions to the supervisory level. Measures included criticality, transaction alternatives, and centrality (access and control) in the networks and in such reference groups as the dominant coalition. A comparison of boundary-spanning and technical-core personnel indicated that contacts beyond the normal work requirements are particularly important for technical core personnel to acquire influence. Overall, the results provide support for a structural perspective on intraorganizational influence.
Given the growing popularity of the social network perspective across diverse organizational subject areas, this review examines the coherence of the research tradition (in terms of leading ideas from which the diversity of new research derives) and appraises current directions and controversies. The leading ideas at the heart of the organizational social network research program include: an emphasis on relations between actors; the embeddedness of exchange in social relations; the assumption that dyadic relationships do not occur in isolation, but rather form a complex structural pattern of connectivity and cleavage beyond the dyad; and the belief that social network connections matter in terms of outcomes to both actors and groups of actors across a range of indicators. These leading ideas are articulated in current debates that center on issues of actor characteristics, agency, cognition, cooperation versus competition, and boundary specification. To complement the review, we provide a glossary of social network terms.
Given the extensive research on the topic of voluntary employee turnover in the past decade as well as new managerial approaches to employee retention, labor market dynamism, and evolution in research methodology and technology, it is important that researchers evaluate the current state of the field. In this chapter, we critically review prior research to provide a solid foundation and clear perspective to guide future research. Some of the major trends of the past decade include: (1) new individual difference predictions of turnover (e.g., personality, motivating forces); (2) increased emphasis on contextual variables with an emphasis on interpersonal relationships (e.g., leader–member exchange, interpersonal citizenship behaviors); (3) enhanced focus on factors looking specifically at staying (e.g., organizational commitment and job embeddedness); and (4) dynamic modeling of turnover processes with the consideration of time (e.g., changes in job satisfaction). We believe these trends point to a number of important issues to consider in the next decade, including the influence of social networks, differences across cultures, temporal aspects (e.g., early vs. late turnover), consequences of turnover, multi‐level investigations of turnover and other types of withdrawal (e.g., retirement).
This article argues that individual performance in knowledge intensive work is impacted by both relational and structural network characteristics. Egocentric and bounded network data from 101 engineers within a petrochemical company and 125 consultants within a strategy-consulting firm support the contention that both relational and structural network characteristics matter for individual performance in knowledge intensive work. Implications for a relational view of social capital as well as the integration of information processing and social network literatures are discussed. It is found that characteristics of relationships in networks are correlates of performance in models that control for structure. In this sense, not all relationships are equal--who one is connected to can matter for performance beyond a given relationship's contribution to network structure. Second, it is found that position in both information and awareness networks are uniquely predictive of individual performance. While position in an information network might allow one to learn of opportunities early, position in an awareness network might allow one to take action on opportunities by leveraging others' expertise.
In this paper we build from the theory of energetic activation to highlight the role energizing interactions play in relation to performance and turnover. We theorize that the association between energizing interactions within organizations and turnover is mediated by individual performance. We test our hypotheses using longitudinal network data collected annually within the IT department of a global engineering consulting firm over a fouryear period. Our study shows that when an individual perceives their interactions with others inside the organization as increasing their level of energetic activation, they have a reduced likelihood of voluntary turnover, but that this relationship is mediated by individual performance. Perceiving interactions as increasing energetic activation results in higher performance, which in turn actually increases voluntary turnover. In contrast, when others perceive interactions with the focal actor as increasing their level of energetic activation it reduces the focal actor's risk of involuntary turnover. This relationship is also mediated by performance. When others within the organization perceive interactions with the focal actor as increasing their level of energetic activation, it results in the focal actor having higher performance, which in turn reduces the focal actor's involuntary turnover. In conclusion, we note that our findings are specific to knowledge workers with IT skills and may not be generalizable to all employees. We also suggest implications for managers and potential areas for future research.
Scholars of the theory of the firm have begun to emphasize the sources and conditions of what has been described as “the organizational advantage,” rather than focus on the causes and consequences of market failure. Typically, researchers see such organizational advantage as accruing from the particular capabilities organizations have for creating and sharing knowledge. In this article we seek to contribute to this body of work by developing the following arguments: (1) social capital facilitates the creation of new intellectual capital; (2) organizations, as institutional settings, are conducive to the development of high levels of social capital; and (3) it is because of their more dense social capital that firms, within certain limits, have an advantage over markets in creating and sharing intellectual capital. We present a model that incorporates this overall argument in the form of a series of hypothesized relationships between different dimensions of social capital and the main mechanisms and processes necessary for the creation of intellectual capital.
Systems as diverse as genetic networks or the World Wide Web are best described as networks with complex topology. A common property of many large networks is that the vertex connectivities follow a scale-free power-law distribution. This feature was found to be a consequence of two generic mech-anisms: (i) networks expand continuously by the addition of new vertices, and (ii) new vertices attach preferentially to sites that are already well connected. A model based on these two ingredients reproduces the observed stationary scale-free distributions, which indicates that the development of large networks is governed by robust self-organizing phenomena that go beyond the particulars of the individual systems.
Hom, Griffeth, and Sellaro's (1984) theoretical alternative to Mobley's (1977) turnover model was investigated in two studies. In Study 1, conceptual distinctions among model constructs and operationalizations of those constructs were validated. 206 nurses were surveyed, and constructs were assessed with multiple indicators. Although discriminating most constructs, structural equation modeling (SEM) identified a more parsimonious conceptualization in which a general construct underlies withdrawal cognitions. Other SEM analyses supported the indicators' construct validity and Hom et al.'s structural network. In Study 2, a longitudinal analogue of Hom et al.'s model was tested. A survey of 129 new nurses measured model constructs on three occasions. SEM disclosed that some causal effects in this model materialized contemporaneously, whereas others emerged after a lengthy time. Moreover, these causal effects systematically changed during newcomer assimilation. Implications for future research of turnover models are discussed.
This study began with the premise that people can use varying degrees of their selves. physically. cognitively. and emotionally. in work role performances. which has implications for both their work and experi ences. Two qualitative. theory-generating studies of summer camp counselors and members of an architecture firm were conducted to explore the conditions at work in which people personally engage. or express and employ their personal selves. and disengage. or withdraw and defend their personal selves. This article describes and illustrates three psychological conditions-meaningfulness. safety. and availabil ity-and their individual and contextual sources. These psychological conditions are linked to existing theoretical concepts. and directions for future research are described. People occupy roles at work; they are the occupants of the houses that roles provide. These events are relatively well understood; researchers have focused on "role sending" and "receiving" (Katz & Kahn. 1978). role sets (Merton. 1957). role taking and socialization (Van Maanen. 1976), and on how people and their roles shape each other (Graen. 1976). Researchers have given less attention to how people occupy roles to varying degrees-to how fully they are psychologically present during particular moments of role performances. People can use varying degrees of their selves. physically, cognitively, and emotionally. in the roles they perform. even as they main tain the integrity of the boundaries between who they are and the roles they occupy. Presumably, the more people draw on their selves to perform their roles within those boundaries. the more stirring are their performances and the more content they are with the fit of the costumes they don. The research reported here was designed to generate a theoretical frame work within which to understand these "self-in-role" processes and to sug gest directions for future research. My specific concern was the moments in which people bring themselves into or remove themselves from particular task behaviors, My guiding assumption was that people are constantly bring ing in and leaving out various depths of their selves during the course of The guidance and support of David Berg, Richard Hackman, and Seymour Sarason in the research described here are gratefully acknowledged. I also greatly appreciated the personal engagements of this journal's two anonymous reviewers in their roles, as well as the comments on an earlier draft of Tim Hall, Kathy Kram, and Vicky Parker.
American sociology has been dominated by an individualist, psychologistic perspective. This dominance has been so pervasive that American sociologists are generally unfamiliar with a sociological apprehension of social phenomena. That is, American sociologists are largely unfamiliar with the structuralist (sociological) view of social phenomena. The two approaches are so far apart and employ such different terminologies and definitions that they would be more accurately conceived as two entirely different fields of study. This essay attempts to draw out some of the differences between the structuralist and the individualist perspectives and to offer a criticism of the individualist position. The critical aspects of the essay are intended to clarify for individualist sociologists just why structuralists regard individualism not only as a dead end, but, indeed, not even as sociology.
This study examines the effects of five attributes - authority, education, sex, race, and branch assignment - on the proximities among the members of five professional organizations in networks of instrumental and primary relations. Sex and race are found to have greater influence on primary ties than instrumental ties. While there is some evidence in two organizations that authority and education affect instrumental ties more than primary ties, the data as a whole favor the hypothesis that these two attributes, which are associated with position in the formal division of labor, give rise to both instrumental and primary ties. These attributes generally serve to place high status persons in central network positions. In one organization where these attributes prove to have little predictive power, we examine the effects on network form of a conflict which led to the disintegration of the organization shortly after it was surveyed. The factions into which the organization was divided are readily apparent in a spatial representation of the network. In conclusion we review the implications for organizational theory and research of the attribute analysis in conjunction with the case study findings.
This paper reports the success of the Davis-Leinhardt graph theoretical model in predicting structural trends in a data bank of 742 sociograms from diverse small groups. The model has an over-all success rate of 70%, but two key predictions are not supported. An alternative model is then tested. Its prediction that the sums of pair relations tend toward cluster-ability is supported in 77% of the tests, and its prediction that differences of pair relations tend toward a transitive tournament is supported in 90% of the tests.
Organizations are increasingly concerned about retaining human talent, particularly within knowledge-based industries where turnover is expensive. Our study employs a social network perspective to explore the influence of employees' formal and informal workplace relationships on their turnover intentions. We do this in a life sciences organization experiencing employee turnover at over twice the rate of the industry average. Drawing on extant work on the effects of distributive justice at work, we argue that employees who are heavily sought out for advice see themselves as being under-rewarded for the time and effort that goes into providing advice, thus increasing turnover intentions. Additionally, we argue that employees see the ability to seek out advice as a form of social support that embeds them into the organization and decreases intention to quit. By exploring the network positions of individuals in the workflow and advice networks, we demonstrate that when employees are either providing advice to someone they are obligated to work with or are able to seek out advice from others who are not required to work with them, the relationship with turnover intentions is most intense. We conclude by discussing contributions to the theory and practice of human resource management.
Increased workforce mobility imposes a significant cost on many organizations because of the negative impact departing employees have on informal networks. The turnover of well-connected employees disrupts networks important to innovation, best practice transfer, and project execution. Yet while network losses can be quite costly, they are typically invisible to most organizations' financial and performance management systems. Using network data, this article shows how managers formulate three different kinds of strategies, namely, identifying flight risks in advance of departure, investing in key people in the network to improve retention, and improving network connectivity to enable it to be maintained in the face of turnover.
The present study was an empirical analysis designed to measure the social networks of master of business administration (M.B.A.) students and the networks' relationships to attitudinal and performance outcomes. Results from 250 students indicated that centrality in friendship, communication, and adversarial networks affected both student attitudes and grades. Moreover, an analysis of 62 assigned teams showed that relationships within and between teams also had significant effects on student perceptions of team effectiveness and objective team performance. Implications for student networks and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Nine studies examined the construct validity of the Need to Belong Scale. The desire for acceptance and belonging correlated with, but was distinct from, variables that involve a desire for social contact, such as extraversion and affiliation motivation. Furthermore, need to belong scores were not related to insecure attachment or unfulfilled needs for acceptance. Need to belong was positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism and with having an identity that is defined in terms of social attributes. Need to belong was associated with emotional reactions to rejection, values involving interpersonal relationships, and subclinical manifestations of certain personality disorders.
Social status and social capital frameworks are used to derive competing hypotheses about the emergence and structure of advice relations in organizations. Although both approaches build on a social exchange framework, they differ in their behavioral micro-foundations. From a status perspective, advice giving is a means to generate prestige, whereas asking advice decreases one's relative standing. At a structural level these motivations are expected to result in an overrepresentation of non-reciprocal dyads and non-cyclical triadic structures in the advice network, as well as in active advice seekers being unlikely to be approached for advice, especially by active advice givers. From a social capital perspective, advice seeking creates obligations for the advice seeker. At the structural level, this results in an overrepresentation of reciprocal dyads and cyclical triads, and active advice seekers to be unpopular as targets of advice seeking, especially for active advice givers. Analyses of four waves of a longitudinal sociometric study of 57 employees of a Dutch Housing Corporation provide partial support for both approaches. In line with the social capital perspective, we find reciprocal advice relations to be overrepresented at the dyad level. Results at the triad level support the social status arguments, according to which high status individuals will avoid asking advice from low status individuals. The implications for macro-structural properties of intra-organizational advice network are discussed.
Exchange theory has the virtue of bringing both power and equity together in a single analytic framework. However, exchange theory has focused largely upon analysis of the dyad, while power and justice are fundamentally social structural phenomena. First, we contrast economic with sociological analysis of dyadic exchange. We conclude that (a) power and equity from social exchange theory carry us beyond economic theory of dyadic exchange; yet (b) for power and equity to be studied effectively, analysis of systems larger than the dyad is needed. Second, we introduce exchange networks to extend power and equity analysis into more macroscopic n-person social structures. Third, a laboratory method is reported for controlled study of exchange networks as bargaining structures. Finally, we present findings which show that (a) power is an attribute of position in a network structure observable in the occupant's behavior, even though the occupant does not know what position or what amount of power s/he possesses; (b) equity or justice concerns constrain the use of that power; (c) emergent interpersonal commitments impede the use of power; and (d) when power is unequally distributed among actors in a network, females form stronger commitments to their exchange partners than do males. In conclusion, we discuss the importance of commitment in distinguishing between economic and social exchange theory.
Sociologists today are faced with a fundamental dilemma: whether to conceive of the social world as consisting primarily in substances or processes, in static ''things'' or in dynamic, unfolding relations. Rational-actor and norm-based models, diverse holisms and structuralisms, and statistical ''variable'' analyses continue implicitly or explicitly to prefer the former point of view. By contrast, this ''manifesto'' presents an alternative, ''relational'' perspective, first in broad, philosophical outlines, then by exploring its implications for both theory and empirical research. In the closing pages, it ponders some of the difficulties and challenges now facing relational analysis, taking up in turn the issues of boundaries and entities, network dynamics, causality, and normative implications.
This paper argues that two network mechanisms operate to create and reinforce gender inequalities in the organizational distribution of power: sex differences in homophily (i.e., tendency to form same-sex network relationships) and in the ability to convert individual attributes and positional resources into network advantages. These arguments were tested in a network analytic study of men's and women's interaction patterns in an advertising firm. Men were more likely to form homophilous ties across multiple networks and to have stronger homophilous ties, while women evidenced a differentiated network pattern in which they obtained social support and friendship from women and instrumental access through network ties to men. Although centrality in organization-wide networks did not vary by sex once controls were instituted, relative to women, men appeared to reap greater network returns from similar individual and positional resources, as well as from homophilous relationships.
In this chapter, a comprehensive approach to understanding voluntary employee turnover and retention is described. First, the literature on employee turnover is briefly reviewed because many of our ideas are grounded in existing theory and research. Second, our recent theory on why and how people leave the organization (called the Unfolding Model of Voluntary Turnover) is detailed. In particular, two empirical studies that confirm and refine the model's major propositions are summarized. Third, our analysis of why people stay is explained. This approach to understanding employee retention is grounded in the development, measurement and test of a construct called job embeddedness. In addition, two empirical studies that competitively test and refine the embeddedness construct are summarized. Fourth, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of organizational attachment, our preliminary ideas about the integration of the unfolding model and job embeddedness are offered. In our last section, the implications of this work are discussed. More specifically, we identify a number of ways that our theoretical constructs and empirical research fundamentally change or challenge many basic assumptions about traditional theory and research on employee turnover and retention. Finally, our concluding comments focus on how an organization can apply these ideas to increase attachment through embeddedness and/or to reduce turnover by understanding the tenets of the unfolding model.
Data on social networks may be gathered for all ties linking elements of a closed population (“complete” network data) or for the sets of ties surrounding sampled individual units (“egocentric” network data). Network data have been obtained via surveys and questionnaires, archives, observation, diaries, electronic traces, and experiments. Most methodological research on data quality concerns surveys and questionnaires. The question of the accuracy with which informants can provide data on their network ties is nontrivial, but survey methods can make some claim to reliability. Unresolved issues include whether to measure perceived social ties or actual exchanges, how to treat temporal elements in the definition of relationships, and whether to seek accurate descriptions or reliable indicators. Continued research on data quality is needed; beyond improved samples and further investigation of the informant accuracy/reliability issue, this should cover common indices of network structure, address the conseque...
This article outlines the mechanism by which brokerage provides social capital. Opinion and behavior are more homogeneous within than between groups, so people connected across groups are more familiar with alternative ways of thinking and behaving. Brokerage across the structural holes between groups provides a vision of options otherwise unseen, which is the mechanism by which brokerage becomes social capital. I review evidence consistent with the hypothesis, then look at the networks around managers in a large American electronics company. The organization is rife with structural holes, and brokerage has its expected correlates. Compensation, positive performance evaluations, promotions, and good ideas are disproportionately in the hands of people whose networks span structural holes. The between-group brokers are more likely to express ideas, less likely to have ideas dismissed, and more likely to have ideas evaluated as valuable. I close with implications for creativity and structural change.
Investigated the relation between turnover and communication networks in 3 fast-food restaurants. Although most research assumes an independent, stochastic quality to turnover, it was hypothesized that turnover occurs in clusters that would be significantly related to the degree to which employees occupied similar informal roles as defined by perceived communication patterns. 53 employees (average age 19 yrs) completed a communication network questionnaire. Over the next month, 12 Ss left the restaurants. A social network concept called regular equivalance was used to measure the degree to which Ss were perceived similar to each other in these communication roles. Three separate analyses were conducted, each based on different assumptions about the data. A meta-analysis across the 3 sites in all 3 analytical approaches confirmed the hypothesized relation between turnover clusters and perceived roles. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)