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Architectural heritage semantic 3D documentation in multi-scale standard maps

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Abstract

The documentation of cultural heritage is acknowledged as a fundamental instrument to guarantee the monument preservation and promotion, and to educate people towards these aims. The recently evolved potentialities of information technologies and communication (standard data models, ontologies and formats, web technologies) permit the development of digital archives in which the information is also semantically specified in a shared and explicit way, so that it can be universally understood and correctly interpreted. However, some tools are missing for suitably archiving and communicating the architectural heritage information, including the representation potentialities of high-level-of-detail 3D models. A goal of this study is the suitable representation of both the thematic information about architectural heritage and its 3D geometric characteristics in an interoperable and understandable way. For this reason, the existing data models, available for the geometric and cartographic field, and for the cultural heritage domain, were considered. They are distinct standards, and some limits make them incomplete (in the spatial or semantic management). In this study, an extension is proposed of the standard data model CityGML to overcome these limits. CityGML is published by the Open Geospatial Consortium to represent urban objects and permits a multi-scale management of the information useful for the representation of architectural heritage multi-faceted, multi-temporal, complex knowledge. In the paper, the extension is described, and an example of its application on a portion of a highly detailed 3D model of a mediaeval church is presented.

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... At the same time, the diffusion of digital survey techniques and the improvements made in the field of data processing for three-dimensional reconstruction, provided the tools for defying informative models whose usefulness goes beyond visualization (Musialski et al, 2013). With the newly acquired information technology, it is possible to define digital archives where "information is also semantically specified in a shared and explicit way, so that it can be universally understood and correctly interpreted" (Noardo, 2018). ...
... The informative data set includes all the parameters defined by the CityGML scheme, which is integrated with the CHADE (Fig. 7). For a detailed description of the Data Types of each object, please refer to (Noardo, 2018). The procedure for the implementation of the Application Domain Extension followed the best practice suggested by the OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) ( Van den Brink et al, 2012), which involves the automatic generation of ADE from UML (Unified Modelling Language) diagrams. ...
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Historical city centres are called to be witnesses of the past while supporting modern life. The competing needs for conservation and transformation involved in their development introduce a complex and multidisciplinary problem, which can be handled only by using proper tools. In this framework, the definition of shared digital archives able to collect and organize heterogenous data is believed to be the first step for the creation of an effective knowledge base, capable of activating analyses and supporting decision-making processes. The study presented here starts from the discussion of the requirements that an information system on historical centres should meet, and proposes a workflow based on the interoperability between GIS (Geographic Information System) and BIM (Building Information Modeling) aimed at the realization of a spatial relational database founded on CityGML. The OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standard was chosen in view of its capacity of representing the objects with their geometrical, topological and semantic properties, by specifying their relationships in a hierarchical environment. With the idea of introducing a repeatable model, the whole process starts from easily retrievable data on the city and makes use of standard data models, classification systems, programming languages and, as much as possible, of open software and contents. In order to test and validate the process the case study of the historical centre of Pavia (Italy) is presented as an experiment at the urban scale, while a single historical building complex is modelled for the assessment of the compliance to higher Levels of Detail. The workflow used to manage and display the information employs Visual Programming Language (VPL) and follows a four stages process: the retrieval of the input data, the informative modelling (GIS or BIM), the conversion in CityGML and the inclusion in the relational database. As a result, a three-dimensional spatial relational database in a standard data model is defined, capable of harmonizing, storing and organizing building information on historical city centres.
... The Cultural Heritage ADE is defined both by an UML and XSD, and it has been described in multiple publications [21][22][23]42]. Cultural heritage has been a subject of other unrelated ADEs defined by Costamagna and Spanò [43], Noardo [44], and the BCH (Built Cultural Heritage) Management ADE developed by Zalamea et al. [45], indicating particular interest in this application of 3D city models. These ADEs extend the Building module with a class intended for cultural features, allowing modelling monuments including their history, protection status, and condition. ...
Article
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The Application Domain Extension (ADE) is a built-in mechanism of CityGML to augment its data model with additional concepts required by particular use cases. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the ADE mechanism and a literature review of developments since its introduction a decade ago. The discovery of publications found that currently there are 44 ADEs supporting a wide range of applications, but also application-agnostic purposes such as harmonisation with national geographic information standards. We hope this paper to double as a reference material for the developers of new ADEs.
... Creation of 3D spatial features illustrating cultural heritage objects [40] or sites are of high importance, especially in the Arctic [41,42] where data is scarce, and fieldwork assumes very detail planning and high material resources involved. For this reason, a 3D scan of the coastal area where the analysed protected cultural heritage objects are located was done; 3D data were collected using both terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and image acquisition for subsequent image-based modelling (IBM) [43]. ...
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Strong cultural heritage management relies on a thorough evaluation of the threats faced by heritage sites, both in the present and in the future. In this study, we analysed the changes in the position of Hiorthhamn shoreline (Svalbard), which is affecting coastal cultural heritage sites, for a period of 93 years (1927–2020). Shoreline changes were mapped by using maps, ortophotos, drone images, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and topographic surveys. Also, TLS was used to 3D document the endangered coastal cultural heritage sites. Detailed sedimentological and morphological mapping was made in the field and from the newly acquired drone images in order to understand shoreline-landscape interaction and to depict changes occurring from 2019 to 2020. Short-term (2019–2020) and long-term (1927–2020) shoreline erosion/accretion was made with the help of the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) and prompted a subdivision of three sectors, based on change pattern. Compared to a previous long-term analysis (1927–2019), this year’s average erosion rate analysis (expressed by the EPR parameter) for the 93-year period is −0.14 m/yr. This shift in mean development is due to a newly formed spit-bar in Sector 2. Referring strictly to Sector 1, where the protected cultural heritage objects are located, the erosion rate increased from the previous analysis of –0.76 m/yr to −0.77 m/yr. The shoreline forecast analysis highlights that half of the protected cultural heritage objects will likely disappear over the next decade and almost all the cultural heritage objects analysed in this study will disappear in roughly two decades. This shows the great danger the Arctic’s cultural heritage sites is in if no mitigation measures are undertaken by the local authorities.
... It is aimed at the interoperable archiving and representation of 3D city objects in multiple levels of detail. Some application domain extensions of CityGML (Biljecki et al., 2018) for representing more suitably cultural and architectural heritage features and specific connected use cases were proposed (Noardo, 2018;Zalamea Patiño et al., 2016;Egusquiza Ortega , 2015;Costamagna, Spanó, 2013). Most of these extensions add specific building-features, increasing the semantic information foreseen by CityGML for heritage-specific needs. ...
Article
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Historical small urban centres are of increasing interest to different interacting fields such as architectural heritage protection and conservation, urban planning, disaster response, sustainable development and tourism. They are defined at different levels (international, national, regional), by various organizations and standards, incorporate numerous aspects (natural and built environment, infrastructures and open spaces, social, economic, and cultural processes, tangible and intangible heritage) and face various challenges (urbanization, globalization, mass tourism, climate change, etc.). However, their current specification within large-scale geospatial databases is similar to those of urban areas in a broad sense resulting in the loss of many aspects forming this multifaceted concept. The present study considers the available ontologies and data models, coming from various domains and having different granularities and levels of detail, to represent historical small urban centres information. The aim is to define the needs for extension and integration of them in order to develop a multidisciplinary, integrated semantic representation. Relevant conventions and other legislation documents, ontologies and standards for cultural heritage (CIDOC-CRM, CRMgeo, Getty Vocabularies), 3D city models (CityGML), building information models (IFC) and regional landscape plans are analysed to identify concepts, relations, and semantic features that could form a holistic semantic model of historical small urban centres.
... An ontology can serve as a data collector of all the semantics of entity to build a knowledge model, which is generally called a domain representing its primary entities (domain objects), the relations between them, the attributes (called properties) of these entities, and their values [27,[45][46][47]. Previous studies show that ontology can overcome some limitations of the current BIM IFC data model. ...
Article
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Built heritage has been documented by reality-based modeling for geometric description and by ontology for knowledge management. The current challenge still involves the extraction of geometric primitives and the establishment of their connection to heterogeneous knowledge. As a recently developed 3D information modeling environment, building information modeling (BIM) entails both graphical and non-graphical aspects of the entire building, which has been increasingly applied to heritage documentation and generates a new issue of heritage/historic BIM (HBIM). However, HBIM needs to additionally deal with the heterogeneity of geometric shape and semantic knowledge of the heritage object. This paper developed a new mesh-to-HBIM modeling workflow and an integrated BIM management system to connect HBIM elements and historical knowledge. Using the St-Pierre-le-Jeune Church, Strasbourg, France as a case study, this project employs Autodesk Revit as a BIM environment and Dynamo, a built-in visual programming tool of Revit, to extend the new HBIM functions. The mesh-to-HBIM process segments the surface mesh, thickens the triangle mesh to 3D volume, and transfers the primitives to BIM elements. The obtained HBIM is then converted to the ontology model to enrich the heterogeneous knowledge. Finally, HBIM geometric elements and ontology semantic knowledge is joined in a unified BIM environment. By extending the capability of the BIM platform, the HBIM modeling process can be conducted in a time-saving way, and the obtained HBIM is a semantic model with object-oriented knowledge.
... Digital media can provide inter and intrapersonal experiences that will make learning more meaningful and memorable [11]. Learning material in digital form can be presented in 3D so that they are more interesting [12][13][14][15]. ...
... For example, some studies developed a CityGML extension to manage architectural heritage in connection with energy-related information for historical centers retrofitting (Prieto el al., 2012;Egusquiza et al., 2018). Noardo (2018) developed a Cultural Heritage ADE to improve the flexibility of the model, in order to adapt it also to the detailed representation of such complex and unique buildings. In that study, the attribute 'level of specialization' was introduced, in order to represent one further dimension of the model information, that deals with the level of the semantic segmentation hierarchy even when considering one only geometric level of detail (e.g. the objects involved in part-of or subclasses relationships). ...
... However, its modular and extensible configuration allows the introduction of new feature classes and attributes through the design of compliant thematic expansion (Application Domain Extension-ADE) to enrich the scheme, while maintaining its semantic structure [25]. Numerous extensions have already been developed and validated by OGC, and, in particular, two studies have addressed upgrading of the standard with relation to the domain of energy [26] and heritage [27]. The present work considered both of them, in order to define a customized one called ER_ADE (Energy Refurbishment Application Domain Extension), suitable for monitoring and simulating energy behavior of existing buildings with reference to the UNI EN 15603:2008 standard, by taking into account the fundamental features of historic buildings. ...
Article
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In the European framework, there is a strong drive to develop integrated approaches aimed at understanding and improving the energy behavior of public historic buildings within urban contexts. However, the examples already provided tend to address the issue from mono-disciplinary perspectives, losing the opportunity for a coordinated view. The research suggests a methodology to reach the definition of a three-dimensional database, which incorporates spatial models and energy information, with the final goal of merging heterogeneous information that is useful to interpret the overall framework and to design sustainable development scenarios. The platform achieves GIS (Geographic Information System) and BIM (Building Information Modeling) integration by using the CityGML data model, for supporting multi-scale analyses without break of continuity, ranging from urban to building level. The discussion combines the applicative case with the theoretical background, deepening the role of a solid knowledge framework as a basis for sustainable interventions on public historic buildings. To better explain and test the methodology, a case study on the University built heritage of Pavia is presented and three possible outputs deriving from the database are discussed. The example demonstrates the strength of the approach, which is able to provide a variety of results coming from a unique source of information, ensuring coherence and unambiguousness at all levels of investigation.
... To successfully model all these characteristics a CityGML extension cannot be generic but must be specialized. Numerous CityGML extensions have been developed [5,15,20] for modelling the history, status and legal protection of cultural heritage sites. ...
Article
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The scope of this research is to identify the concepts that describe cultural heritage monuments and model them with CityGML. CityGML is the most popular data model for storing and sharing semantic 3D geographic data and there is an increasing interest in its use in the Cultural Heritage field. An Application Domain Extension that covers the most important concepts for describing monuments with special focus on the ancient theatres is developed. The INSPIRE data model is reviewed and its integration with CityGML is discussed. Following the proposed extension, a CityGML model is constructed for the ancient theatre of Hersonissos in Crete. To visualize the model, it is transformed using the Generics approach.
... In addition, it is important to mention the research methods and tools made in the field of geographical and spatial information and modelling to manage and document cultural and architectural heritage. For example, extensions of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) CityGML standard were proposed (Noardo, 2018;Mohd et al., 2017;Egusquiza et al., 2018), as well as of the INSPIRE data model (Chiabrando et al., 2018;Fernández-Freire et al., 2013). Recently, the use of HBIM technology was proposed for boosting the interoperability in the management of preservation plans in cultural heritage: e.g. ...
Article
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Architectural, built heritage and historical buildings embody cultural heritage value and - as known - they need to be studied, documented, persevered and represented. Although there are many fields involved in these activities, none of these considered individually can fully represent the heritage with a complete level of detail and information. The present work aims to investigate the different levels of detail and granularity among different communities involved in historical buildings tasks to semantically define different concepts. In this context, ontologies are considered as an effective solution for the formal conceptualization of the domains involved, providing a common language for knowledge sharing and reuse. The study starts from existing knowledge (standards, vocabularies, thesauri, classifications) and conceptualisations for regional, urban and architectural heritage and geographic information for various tasks (restoration, documentation and heritage studies, risk prevention, heritage asset and facility management, education and tourism, urban planning and energy refurbishment/performance). A specific use case involving historical buildings in fortified centres across different levels of detail is described to show how existing knowledge and standards conceptualisation need to be integrated and extended.
... Setiap perangkat BIM dapat digunakan untuk memodelkan tiga dimensi, menetapkan proyeksi dan visualisasi, serta untuk melakukan analisis (Logothetis et al., n.d.). BIM banyak digunakan untuk memonitor perencanaan pembangunan (Yamamura et al., 2017;Zhang et al., 2015), memonitor aset (Ashton & Hou, 2018;Kassem et al., 2015;Love et al., 2015), dan dokumentasi bangunan cagar budaya (Dore & Murphy, 2012;Noardo, 2018). ...
... Setiap perangkat BIM dapat digunakan untuk memodelkan tiga dimensi, menetapkan proyeksi dan visualisasi, serta untuk melakukan analisis (Logothetis et al., n.d.). BIM banyak digunakan untuk memonitor perencanaan pembangunan (Yamamura et al., 2017;Zhang et al., 2015), memonitor aset (Ashton & Hou, 2018;Kassem et al., 2015;Love et al., 2015), dan dokumentasi bangunan cagar budaya (Dore & Murphy, 2012;Noardo, 2018). ...
Article
ABSTRAK Indonesia adalah negara yang kaya akan warisan budaya sebagai daya tarik wisata seperti bangunan cagar budaya. Arsip bangunan budaya belum dikelola dengan baik. Sebagian besar dari bangunan cagar budaya hanya berisi informasi atribut (nama, alamat, dan sejarah), aspek geospasial seperti alamat ter-geocoding dan peta struktural belum menjadi prioritas. Metode yang paling populer terkait dengan struktur bangunan adalah Building Information Modeling (BIM). BIM telah digunakan secara luas dalam perencanaan bangunan baru dan manajemen aset. Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, BIM mulai digunakan dalam dokumentasi bangunan budaya. Teknik ini dikenal sebagai Heritage Building Information Modeling (HBIM). Tujuan HBIM adalah untuk melestarikan dan memantau bangunan warisan melalui model 3D. Model tersebut memuat unsur arsitektur bangunan cagar budaya dengan informasi semantiknya. Kompleksitas elemen bangunan dapat mempengaruhi Level of Detail (LoD) dari suatu model. LoD model berkorelasi dengan metode perolehan data. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk membuat model 3D bangunan budaya dan menguji LoD model 3D yang berasal dari point cloud bangunan budaya di Yogyakarta. Point cloud untuk membuat model 3D diperoleh dari survei topografi dan survey laser scanner. Atribut informasi diperoleh dengan melakukan dokumen dan penelitian lapangan. ABSTRACT Indonesia is a country rich in cultural heritage turned tourism attraction such as heritage building. The archive of the cultural building still poorly managed. Most of them only contained attribute information (name, address, and history), the geospatial aspect like the high quality of geocoded address and the structural map not yet a priority. The most popular method related to the building structure is Building Information Modeling (BIM). BIM has been used widely in new building planning and asset management. In recent years, BIM starts to use in cultural building documentation. This technique is known as Heritage Building Information Modeling (HBIM). HBIM purposes are to conserve and monitor the heritage building through the 3D model. The model contained the elements of the architecture of heritage buildings. The complexity of the building elements can affect the Level of Detail (LOD) of a model. The LoD of the model correlated with the method of acquiring data. This paper aims to create 3D model of cultural building and examine the LoD of the 3D model derived from the point cloud of a cultural building in Yogyakarta. The point cloud to create the 3D model obtained from a topographic and a laser scanner survey. The attributes information achieved by doing documents and field research.
... For protecting cultural heritage, data collection using digital technology is needed. According to Noardo (2018), digital documentation is a fundamental requirement for the preservation, promotion, and education of cultural heritage buildings. From the intangible side, the existence of the community of Gusjigang has an important role and a unique and incomparable society. ...
Article
This study aims to map the existence of the wooden houses of Omah Pencu and classifies their potencies as heritage buildings in the historic area of Kudus Kulon. Caring for indigenous cultural heritage will contribute to the strengthening of local identity. The traditional houses of Omah Pencu have been developing as the specific architecture since the end of the 17'th century, as a living place of the ‘Gusjigang' community, and artifacts evident of the city heyday. However, the pressure of modernization-capitalization in the city caused several changes in their built environment and decreased the number of Omah Pencu. This research concern with the GIS interpretation methods and the direct observations use the questionnaire, interview, and architectural documentation. The findings provide an important database for preservation in the digital era. The digital mapping, combined with the mapping of tangible and intangible buildings, produces digital information about the Omah Pencu building condition that has never been done before. Through this mapping, found that the participation effort of the community caused the sustainability of preservation. It is a very significant bottom-up participation. However, toward sustainable preservation, a strategy, planning, design, and management that integrated all stakeholders and resources by utilizing digital technology are needed.
... However, the extension will require the adoption of several standards, such as the ones published by the Open Geospatial Consortium regarding the geometric definition of architectures and geographic interoperability (Noardo, 2018). ...
Article
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p class="VARAbstract">The concept of mock-up, which share with the drawing the expressive synthesis for the analysis of the architectural form and evolution, is an invaluable asset for the preservation of the heritage. To mark the 175<sup>th</sup> anniversary of the Práxedes Mateo Sagasta’s secondary school of Logroño (Spain), an exhibition about the history of the institution was organized at the premises of La Rioja Library. The current school building became operational in 1900 and was built on the former site of a Carmelite convent. In fact, the convent rooms were the first location for the school, after the expropriations of religious communities during the mid-19th century. For the benefit of the aforementioned exhibition, it was considered interesting to generate a three-dimensional (3D) virtual reconstruction of the convent buildings to show how it would have looked. However, the lack of sufficient contemporary graphic information was a challenge, so it was decided that an efficient solution would be to generate the virtual reconstruction from a paper craft model, which had been created by the librarian of the secondary school as a result of his research on this matter. This text describes the 3D modelling of that cut-out element by means of monoscopic photogrammetry (perspective drawing) and the use of non-realistic rendering based on the appearance of the paper mock-up (and not trying to recreate the real image of the buildings) so as to provide a suggestive view of the convent and create interactive exhibition items. Moreover, the text deals with the long-term preservation and the improvement of the re-use of the 3D models. The former by resorting to institutional repositories —from which users can download the full detailed versions— and the latter employing versions able to be visualized in 3D warehouses (such as Sketchfab) and augmented reality (AR) applications. Highlights: A significant part of the architectural heritage is represented by mock-ups of different materials (paper, wood, metal and so on). Virtual modelling and augmented reality (AR) can be appropriate tools for materializing, recovering and disseminating scale models to the public. Techniques for geometric documentation and visual representation need to be adapted in order to tackle the peculiar features of these elements (size, materials, fragility, etc.). </ul
... In other words, built heritage has heterogeneity in terms of both geometry and semantics [17]. Recurrent elements and morphological units thus need to be identified and distinguished within this heterogeneity in terms of form [18], [19] and terminology [20]- [22] in order to obtain semantic representations. Consequently, it is common to refer to classical architectural treatises [23]- [25] or to the construction of controlled vocabularies of cultural heritage [26], [27]. ...
Article
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The digitization of Cultural Heritage paves the way for new approaches to surveying and restitution of historical sites. With a view to the management of integrated programs of documentation and conservation, the research is now focusing on the creation of information systems where to link the digital representation of a building to semantic knowledge. With reference to the emblematic case study of the Calci Charterhouse, also known as Pisa Charterhouse, this contribution illustrates an approach to be followed in the transition from 3D survey information, derived from laser scanner and photogrammetric techniques, to the creation of semantically enriched 3D models. The proposed approach is based on the recognition -segmentation and classification- of elements on the original raw point cloud, and on the manual mapping of NURBS elements on it. For this shape recognition process, reference to architectural treatises and vocabularies of classical architecture is a key step. The created building components are finally imported in a H-BIM environment, where they are enriched with semantic information related to historical knowledge, documentary sources and restoration activities.
... Once the database was implemented, it was filled with data from three case studies with different specificities to cover different heritage types and related kinds of hazards ( Figure 4). These are related to three different hazards (Noardo, 2018), were considered. Based on the previous classification results and the parameters derived from the risk and vulnerability analysis, the INSPIRE DM has been extended. ...
Article
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Purpose The study, within the Increasing Resilience of Cultural Heritage (ResCult) project, aims to support civil protection to prevent, lessen and mitigate disasters impacts on cultural heritage using a unique standardised-3D geographical information system (GIS), including both heritage and risk and hazard information. Design/methodology/approach A top-down approach, starting from existing standards (an INSPIRE extension integrated with other parts from the standardised and shared structure), was completed with a bottom-up integration according to current requirements for disaster prevention procedures and risk analyses. The results were validated and tested in case studies (differentiated concerning the hazard and type of protected heritage) and refined during user forums. Findings Besides the ensuing reusable database structure, the filling with case studies data underlined the tough challenges and allowed proposing a sample of workflows and possible guidelines. The interfaces are provided to use the obtained knowledge base. Originality/value The increasing number of natural disasters could severely damage the cultural heritage, causing permanent damage to movable and immovable assets and tangible and intangible heritage. The study provides an original tool properly relating the (spatial) information regarding cultural heritage and the risk factors in a unique archive as a standard-based European tool to cope with these frequent losses, preventing risk.
... To avoid data chaos, 3D models of reconstructions need to be structured. CityGML is a valid exchange format with good data interoperability in 3D city modelling, helpful in historical reconstructions [46]. CityGML also plays a role in the valorisation, conservation and management of the existing cultural heritage but requires additional expertise, which 3D modellers (without knowledge of GIS) do not always have [47]. ...
Article
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More and more digital 3D city models might evolve into spatiotemporal instruments with time as the 4th dimension. For digitizing the current situation, 3D scanning and photography are suitable tools. The spatial future could be integrated using 3D drawings by public space designers and architects. The digital spatial reconstruction of lost historical environments is more complex, expensive and rarely done. Three-dimensional co-creative digital drawing with citizens’ collaboration could be a solution. In 2016, the City of Ghent (Belgium) launched the “3D city game Ghent” project with time as one of the topics, focusing on the reconstruction of disappeared environments. Ghent inhabitants modelled in open-source 3D software and added animated 3D gamification and Transmedia Storytelling, resulting in a 4D web environment and VR/AR/XR applications. This study analyses this low-cost interdisciplinary 3D co-creative process and offers a framework to enable other cities and municipalities to realise a parallel virtual universe (an animated digital twin bringing the past to life). The result of this co-creation is the start of an “Animated Spatial Time Machine” (AniSTMa), a term that was, to the best of our knowledge, never used before. This research ultimately introduces a conceptual 4D space–time diagram with a relation between the current physical situation and a growing number of 3D animated models over time.
... [Diara,Rinaudo 2020] or an architectural heritage semantic 3D documentation for the reusability of 3D city models[Noardo 2018]. ...
Chapter
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Digital Architectural Representations represent the most fruitful field of research of the last decade. Digital technologies and the use of internet in architectural representation shows how 3D visualization combined with storytelling can help to spread scientific knowledge over the web. These new technologies also affect the way of thinking 3D models, how to design them and how to build their related knowledge with the purpose of future reuse of information and data. The paper is focused on the analysis of current methodologies and workflows for data modelling in Architecture to better understand the potential of using standards in the 3D modelling sector with a focus on cultural and architectural heritage.
... Once the database was implemented, it was filled with data from three case studies with different specificities to cover different heritage types and related kinds of hazards ( Figure 4). These are related to three different hazards (Noardo, 2018), were considered. Based on the previous classification results and the parameters derived from the risk and vulnerability analysis, the INSPIRE DM has been extended. ...
... El proyecto tiene el objetivo de desarrollar una interfaz que puede leer tanto CityGML como IFC y formular pautas de modelado para la integración bidireccional entre GIS y BIM, permitiendo operaciones para manipular y analizar los modelos. Otros estudios proponen ampliar la estructura de CityGML para la inclusión de datos con mayor nivel de detalle al modelo 3D del patrimonio arquitectónico, es el caso de la extensión CHADE (Noardo, 2018). CityGML permite la representación a múltiples escalas (ciudad, paisaje y como objeto 3D de mayor detalle), sin embargo, es necesario extender el esquema para incluir todos los atributos y características que permitan una interpretación inequívoca de la información y facilitar la interoperabilidad de las bases de datos. ...
Conference Paper
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El conocimiento debe poder ser almacenado, procesado y analizado sobre un soporte común que permita contener todos los materiales disponibles de un elemento patrimonial. Uno de los principales problemas del inventario del patrimonio arquitectónico es gestionar y almacenar grandes cantidades de información de distintos formatos. Es por ello que para la documentación completa del patrimonio y poder disponer de inventarios exhaustivos y útiles para todos los usos contemplados, los modelos HBIM aportan todas las funcionalidades requeridas. La solución implica el desarrollo de un modelo geométrico que permita incluir y relacionar información referida a él. El formato es un modelo HBIM capaz de incorporar información sobre un soporte estratificado, con capacidades de visualización, documentación y gestión que permita una visión completa del edificio a catalogar, incorporando información útil para su conservación, restauración, protección y difusión, así como la interoperabilidad entre herramientas y otros sistemas a lo largo de todo el ciclo de vida del objeto. El objeto es estudiar las distintas opciones existentes, para valorar cual es el método más adecuado para realizar una base de datos gráfica, que permita el inventario del patrimonio arquitectónico. Palabras clave: Patrimonio arquitectónico, plataformas web, HBIM, Sistemas de Información, modelos 3D, inventarios.
... The main orientation (sparse cloud) was generated for the entire set of photographs, while the dense clouds were calculated in several patches [20]. This solution solves many memory and computation problems, which often prevent the completion of digital photogrammetry projects characterized by a large number of photos [21]. The orientation of the sparse cloud is actually not a very hard problem in terms of calculation, even with huge sets of photos, it is therefore possible to calculate individual chunks while maintaining the correct referencing. ...
Article
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p class="Abstract">This paper describes the example of an interesting distance visit approach carried out during the COVID-19 emergency, applied to an underground oil-mill in the town of Gallipoli (Puglia, Italy). The limitations of access for people with disabilities and the complete closure of Italian museums during the emergency have suggested the development of an immersive platform, in the broader perspective of using the output in accordance to digital twin perspectives. Then a tool to support an innovative visit method has been realized: a virtual visit assisted by a real remote guide, hereinafter referred to as “Live-Guided Tour” with e-learning functionality. All this has been made possible starting from a three-dimensional model of an underground oil-mill, from which we extracted the stereoscopic scenes. The stereoscopy is very important for the overall success of the project, because this aspect influences the level of interest, the immersion and the ability to generate emotion and wonder. To the best of Author’s knowledge, this is the only system available today for a shared virtual visit for an inaccessible context, which implements many features of a VR visit in a multi-user and multi-platform environment.</p
Article
This present work focuses on the mapping of marbles, decorative patterns and area of the mosaics of the St. Nicola’s Basilica in Bari (Italy) by their photogrammetric survey. The extraordinary importance of these mosaics is due to the stylistic uniqueness and the undisputed workmanship and to the employed materials for tesserae. These mosaics include the white and polychrome marbles, used in the Roman age and reused in medieval artistic production, and imitation stones used as substitutes during the past restorations. The digital survey was realised by the photogrammetric reconstruction of mosaics collecting a photo dataset, after the mosaics redrawing by an image processing software and finally implemented it with lithological identification marbles. It allowed to obtain a punctual mapping of materials, through which to identify original areas and restoration areas, decorative patterns, recurring geometries. The research carried out, supported by the photogrammetric reconstruction as established method for high resolution digital reproduction and mapping, not only ensures the conservation and improvement of the enjoyment of the mosaic floors of the St. Nicola’s Basilica, but allows to conduct studies on materials, decorative patterns and restoration areas directly on the digitized product.
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The management of the built environment directly exposed to the effect of climate change and the assessment of buildings for their participation in such environmental processes are part of the main challenges in scientific, technical and administrative fields. On the other hand, the increasing endorsement of IT expertise and tools in traditional processes offers the opportunity to manage specific knowledge and relations using Digital Models. As unusual parts, historic centers represent unconventional districts of cities in treating mitigation and adaptation strategies, because of their overordered system of preservation normative framework and inherent formal and technical variabilities. Historic centers, as well as Cultural Heritage, require specific plans of actions for their resilient improvement to climate change. In that sense, the paper discusses and tests a simplified Digital Model based on the CityGML standard for the creation of a virtual recovery plan of historic districts, starting from previous results in supporting their management in an energy-resilient perspective. The Model has been conceived as a structured system of technical and scientific knowledge, re-organized according to the IT structure of CityGML to support public administration in managing adaptive and mitigative actions and practitioners in choosing compatible technical solutions.
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Stratigraphic analysis, used in principle for study of archaeological excavation, has been adapted and applied to upstanding structures with the same aim to reconstruct a building's history. Stratigraphy, as well as data excavation management, has found a useful and versatile tool in geographic information systems (GISs). Such systems allow support of this kind of analysis, which is mainly related to the reconstruction of the chronological sequence, statistical analysis, and their representation. This paper examines the process that leads to the production of information and storage in a GIS, applicable for the management of the stratigra-phy of an upstanding structure. This process involves data acquisition, processing, 3D modelling, 2D representation , graphical entities, and their topological relationships, determinations, and representations. We also touch on the relationship between 3D GIS and 2D GIS; even if complex 3D archives are currently achievable , from another point of view it can be also useful for carrying out a 2D workflow aiming at achieving sharable guidelines that are valuable for specialists in Cultural Heritage conservation.
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GIS can be effective instruments for managing Architectural Heritage data, in order to query the data for preservation purposes and to realize advanced analysis. These capabilities can be improved using some tools developed by the fields of informatics and internet services such as standards, ontologies and object-oriented programming. The official standards (languages and models) permit the encoding of data so that they can be effectively shared and integrated, concurrent with the knowledge and integration of data in Cultural Heritage (CH). Moreover, an even better interoperability of data can be achieved using open-source management software that normally features more standard data formats and can be used by everyone. These tools have been used in the research presented here for managing different kinds of data (spatial, non-spatial, images) on different views, in a unique database respecting the standards codes. In this way some schemas have been defined, and they can be exported to reach effective data interoperability.
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The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industries have long sought techniques to decrease project cost, increase productivity and quality, and reduce project delivery time. Building Information Modeling (BIM) offers the potential to achieve these objectives. BIM represents the development and use of computer-generated n-dimensional (n-D) models to simulate the planning, design, construction and operation of a facility. It helps architects, engineers and constructors to visualize what is to be built in simulated environment and to identify potential design, construction or operational issues. BIM represents a new paradigm within AEC, one that encourages integration of the roles of all stakeholders on a project. It has the potential to bring about great efficiency as well as harmony among players who all too often in the past saw themselves as adversaries. In this paper, the benefits of Building Information Modeling (BIM) for the AEC industries are discussed with the help of two case studies. These case studies illustrate the various tangible and intangible benefits achieved by all stakeholders by implementing BIM in their projects. At the end, light is thrown on various BIM related risks and future challenges for the AEC industries.
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In order to handle more efficiently projects of restoration, documentation and maintenance of historical buildings, it is essential to rely on a 3D enriched model for the building. Today, the concept of Building Information Modelling (BIM) is widely adopted for the semantization of digital mockups and few research focused on the value of this concept in the field of cultural heritage. In addition historical buildings are already built, so it is necessary to develop a performing approach, based on a first step of building survey, to develop a semantically enriched digital model. For these reasons, this paper focuses on this chain starting with a point cloud and leading to the well-structured final BIM; and proposes an analysis and a survey of existing approaches on the topics of: acquisition, segmentation and BIM creation. It also, presents a critical analysis on the application of this chain in the field of cultural heritage.
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In recent years, the quality of high resolution acquisition platforms for geomatic applications has decidedly increased, especially in the performance of the sensors devoted to image acquisition. The small size of these new sensors combined with the increase in resolution allows them to be easily mounted onto Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs); in particular, calibrated, very-high-resolution digital cameras for photogrammetric purposes such as digital terrain model (DTM) and digital surface model (DSM) extraction, orthophotos, and map realization have been used. In this case, the UAV performance allows a high quality product to be obtained, considering the pixel size and the accuracy of the DTM/DSM which could be obtained with automatic procedures. Several navigation sensors (GPS/GNSS and IMU-MEMS) are embedded into UAVs in order to realize autonomous flight. The quality of these sensors, in terms of accuracy, depends on the model of UAV and its purpose. The navigation solution (position and attitude) is estimated by the internal UAV sensor and can be employed to directly georeference the images, in order to produce an quick and easy description and analysis of the overlooked area. This is a good condition for semi-automatic procedures using a bundle-block photogrammetric approach. But is it possible to realize a direct photogrammetry? And what are the limits? Several tests were carried out over different areas and in different conditions using three different UAVs belonging to the Geomatics group of the Politecnico di Torino. In this paper, an investigation of the limits of some commercial UAVs is reported, defining a dedicated procedure to valuate their performance, especially considering the use of UAVs for direct photogrammetry.
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Deriving from the complex nature of cultural heritage conservation it is the need for enhancing a systematic but flexible organization of expert knowledge in the field. Such organization should address comprehensively the interrelations and complementariness among the different factors that come into play in the understanding of diagnostic and intervention problems. The purpose of MONDIS is to endorse this kind of organization. The approach consists in applying an ontological representation to the field of heritage conservation in order to establish an appropriate processing of data. The system allows replicating in a computer readable form the basic dependence among factors influencing the description, diagnosis and intervention of damages to immovable objects. More specifically MONDIS allows to input and search entries concerning object description, structural evolution, location characteristics and risk, component, material properties, surveys and measurements, damage typology, damage triggering events and possible interventions. The system supports searching features typical of standard databases, as it allows for the digitalization of a wide range of information including professional reports, books, articles and scientific papers. It also allows for computer aided retrieval of information tailored to user's requirements. The foreseen outputs will include a web user interface and a mobile application for visual inspection purposes.
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TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanners) data today represents one of the most attractive ways to face the metric survey of an architectural object. When a restoration project is needed not many restorers are used to managing 3D models and traditional graphic results such as plans and sections are usually required. The paper defines a correct balance between the use of traditional (manual and total station) and TLS techniques in order to satisfy the usual requirements for the metric survey of an architectural object in order to obtain a complete 2D documentation of the San Giovanni Church in Saluzzo (Cn)– Italy that would be used for the restoration both of the decorative apparatus and of the structure of the church. Furthermore using the acquired 3D data some tests on commercial and open-source software for 3D modeling purpose are realised. The paper deals first of all with the followed methodology for the 2D documentation starting from 3D data. Moreover an analysis and a comparison between different software packages for the 3D modeling phase is reported.
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Recognizing the various advantages offered by 3D new metric survey technologies in the Cultural Heritage documentation phase, this paper presents some tests of 3D model generation, using different methods, and their possible fusion. With the aim to define potentialities and problems deriving from integration or fusion of metric data acquired with different survey techniques, the elected test case is an outstanding Cultural Heritage item, presenting both widespread and specific complexities connected to the conservation of historical buildings. The site is the Staffarda Abbey, the most relevant evidence of medieval architecture in Piedmont. This application faced one of the most topical architectural issues consisting in the opportunity to study and analyze an object as a whole, from twice location of acquisition sensors, both the terrestrial and the aerial one. In particular, the work consists in the evaluation of chances deriving from a simple union or from the fusion of different 3D cloud-models of the abbey, achieved by multi-sensor techniques. The aerial survey is based on a photogrammetric RPAS (Remotely piloted aircraft system) flight while the terrestrial acquisition have been fulfilled by laser scanning survey. Both techniques allowed to extract and process different point clouds and to generate consequent 3D continuous models which are characterized by different scale, that is to say different resolutions and diverse contents of details and precisions. Starting from these models, the proposed process, applied to a sample area of the building, aimed to test the generation of a unique 3Dmodel thorough a fusion of different sensor point clouds. Surely, the describing potential and the metric and thematic gains feasible by the final model exceeded those offered by the two detached models.
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Interoperability between building information models (BIM) and geographic information models has a strong potential to bring benefit to different demands in construction analysis, urban planning, homeland security and other applications. Therefore, different research and commercial efforts have been initiated to integrate the most prominent semantic models in BIM and geospatial applications. These semantic models are the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) and City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) respectively. However, these efforts mainly: a) use a unidirectional approach (mostly from IFC to CityGML) for converting data, or b) Extending CityGML by conceptual requirements for converting CityGML to IFC models. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential of unidirectional conversion between IFC and CityGML. The different IFC concepts and its corresponding concepts in CityGML is studied and evaluated. The investigation goes beyond building objects, also including other concepts that are represented implicitly in building schemas such as building objects relations, hierarchies of building objects, appearance and other building characteristics. Due to the large semantic differences between IFC and CityGML standards, the schema mapping is based on a manual pragmatic approach without automatic procedures. The mappings are classified into three categories, namely ‘full matching’, ‘partial matching’ and ‘no matching’. The result of the study shows that only a few concepts are classified as ‘direct matching’, a few as well as ‘no matching’ while most of the building concepts are classified as ‘partial matching’. It is concluded that unidirectional approaches cannot translate all the needed concepts from both IFC and CityGML standards. Instead, we propose a meta-based unified building model, based on both standards, which shows a high potential for overcoming the shortages of the unidirectional conversion approaches.
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3D detailed models derived from digital survey techniques has increasingly developed and focused in many field of application, ranging from the land and urban areas survey, using remote sensed data, to landscape assets and finally to Cultural Heritage items. The high detailed content and accuracy of such models makes them so attractive and usable for large sets of purposes. The present paper is focused on a test aimed to point clouds generation fulfilled by archaeological data; active and passive sensors techniques and related image matching systems have been used in order to evaluate and compare the accuracy of results, achievable using proper TLS and low cost image-matching software and techniques. After a short review of approachable methods some attained results will be discussed; the test area consists of a set of mosaic floorings in a late roman domus located in Aquileia (UD-Italy) requesting a very high level of details and high scale and precision. The experimental section provides the descriptions of the applied tests in order to compare the different software and the employed methods.
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There is a rising interest to enrich cultural heritage data with precise and well identified descriptions of location and geometry of sites of historical events or remains, objects and natural features. The "geospatial community" and the "cultural heritage community" have developed standards reflecting different foci – the OGC/ISO Standards for Geographic Information and the ontology of the CIDOC CRM which is the ISO standard for representing cultural heritage information. This report introduces the CRMgeo extension for the CIDOC CRM to provide an "articulation" (linkage) between the standards of the geospatial and the cultural heritage community in particular between GeoSPARQL and CIDOC CRM. The model was developed from the analysis of the epistemological processes of defining, using and determining places. This means that we analyzed how a question, such as "is this the place of the Varus Battle" or "is this the place where Lord Nelson died", can be verified or falsified, including geometric specifications. Consequently, we reached at a detailed model which seems to give a complete account of all practical components necessary to verify such a question, in agreement with the laws of physics, the practice of geometric measurement and archaeological reasoning. This model indeed appears to have the capability to link both ontologies and shows the way how to correctly reconcile data at any scale and time – not by inventing precision or truth that cannot be acquired, but by quantifying or delimiting the inherent indeterminacies, as it is good practice in natural sciences. This model aims at being a comprehensive theory from which mutually compatible simplification can be derived for implementations in more constraint environment, such at those lacking moving frames.
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The importance of cultural and natural heritage documentation is well recognized at international level, and there is an increasing pressure to document and preserve heritage also digitally. The continuous development of new sensors, data capture methodologies, and multi-resolution 3D representations and the improvement of existing ones can contribute significantly to the 3D documentation, conservation, and digital presentation of heritages and to the growth of the research in this field. The article reviews some important documentation requirements and specifications, the actual 3D surveying and modeling techniques and methodologies with their limitations and potentialities as well some visualization issues involved in the heritage field. Some examples of world heritage sites 3D documentation are reported and discussed. KeywordsPhotogrammetry-Laser scanning-Multi-resolution-Multi-sensor-Heritage sites
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This essay focuses on the fields of architectural documentation and digital representation. We present a research paper concerning the development of an information system at the scale of architecture, taking into account the relationships that can be established between the representation of buildings (shape, dimension, state of conservation, hypothetical restitution) and heterogeneous information about various fields (such as the technical, the documentary or still the historical one). The proposed approach aims to organize multiple representations (and associated information) around a semantic description model with the goal of defining a system for the multi-field analysis of buildings.
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In this thesis, we aim at contributing to the theory of conceptual modeling and ontology representation. Our main objective here is to provide ontological foundations for the most fundamental concepts in conceptual modeling. These foundations comprise a number of ontological theories, which are built on established work on philosophical ontology, cognitive psychology, philosophy of language and linguistics. Together these theories amount to a system of categories and formal relations known as a foundational ontology
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Exploring the connections between successive phases and overlapping layers from different ages in an ancient building is paramount for its understanding and study. Archaeologists and cultural heritage experts are always eager to unveil the hidden relations of an archaeological building to reconstruct its history and for its interpretation. This paper presents CRMba, a CIDOC CRM extension developed to facilitate the discovery and the interpretation of archaeological resources through the definition of new concepts required to describe the complexity of historic buildings. The CRMba contributes to solving the datasets interoperability issue by exploiting the use of the CIDOC CRM to overcome data fragmentation, to investigate the semantics of building components, of functional spaces and of the construction phases of historic buildings and complexes, making explicit their physical and topological relations through time and space. The approach used for the development of the CRMba makes the model valid for the documentation of different kinds of buildings, across periods, styles and conservation state.
Article
Currently, networks for real-time Global Navigation Satellite System positioning (Continuously Operating Reference Stations) are formed by stations with inter-station distances of about 50–60 km. In addition, their products are used for post-processing, particularly where there is no coverage, for the transmission of differential corrections in real time. The purpose of this study is to determine whether Network Real-Time Kinematic networks with larger inter-station distances (of about 100 and 150 km) can improve post-processing positioning. Many experiments were performed over several months using two geodetic and two GIS receivers and a rover placed in a centroid position with respect to the networks considered. The data were post-processed using the nearest station (called Nearest) or a virtual station created from the network software located near the receiver (Virtual RINEX) as a master receiver. The brief title of the work is intended to emphasise the limitations of the results obtained in post-processing when the inter-station distance between the permanent stations is increased and not the limitations related to network products.
Article
This paper discusses research on gypsum decorated ceilings of Piemonte. They are a precious architectural and rural cultural heritage and are extremely delicate and fragile due to the material characteristics. Some examples of these ceilings date as far back as the late16th century and the earliest examples were made near the end of the 19th century. Apparently similar to wooden coffered ceilings, the gypsum panels in these ceilings have a bearing function together with the wooden framework and they present a very rich collection of decorations derived from the wood carving tradition. The issues on which this paper focuses are the analyses carried out by GIS data management, intended to improve our knowledge of the value of these ceilings. New information about their presence, state of conservation and reasons for their widespread occurrence are the basic pillars for planning possible conservation strategies. A first step in the analysis addresses the comparison of the similarities between ceiling decoration and certain traditional works of wood crafts found in the same area. The collection of data concerning the carved decoration of wooden doors between the 16th and the 19th centuries, together with the organization of a geo-referenced spatial database, has provided the opportunity to identify the presence of gypsum ceilings and carved doors in the same places and belonging to the same period. A second step deals with the meaning of these different kinds of spatial distributions. The generation of different kinds of data clusters, based on the repeated elements on the decorations has been researched. Spatial analyses based on average distances, weighted overlay analysis and involving the digital terrain model of the general area have been performed in order to compare ceiling distributions based on decoration similarities and the historical road network.
Changing the heritage inventory paradigm, the ARCHES open source system
  • D Myers
  • Y Avramides
  • A Dalgity
D. Myers, Y. Avramides, A. Dalgity, Changing the heritage inventory paradigm, the ARCHES open source system, Conserv. Perspect. GCI Newsl. 28 (2) (2013).
Modelling an application domain extension of CityGML in UML
  • L Van Den
  • J E Brink
  • S Stoter
  • Zlatanova
L. Van den Brink, J.E. Stoter, S. Zlatanova, Modelling an application domain extension of CityGML in UML, in: ISPRS Conference 7th International Conference on 3D Geoinformation, The International Archives on the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, ISPRS, XXXVIII-4, part C26, 16-17 May 2012, Québec, Canada, 2012.
A spatial ontology for architectural heritage information
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F. Noardo, A spatial ontology for architectural heritage information, in: C. Grueau, J. Gustavo Rocha, R. Laurini (Eds.), GISTAM 2016 -Revised Selected Best Papers, CCIS Book Series, Springer Verlag, 2017, pp. 143-163, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62618-5 9, ISBN: 978-3-319-62617-8.
Semantic Models for Architectural Heritage Documentation
  • E Costamagna
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E. Costamagna, A. Spanò, Semantic Models for Architectural Heritage Documentation. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 2012, pp. 241-250.
Developing a toolkit for mapping and displaying stone alteration on a web-based documentation platform
  • C Stefani
  • S Badosa
  • K Beck
  • L De Luca
  • X Brunetaux
  • M Al-Muktar
C. Stefani, S. Badosa, K. Beck, L. De Luca, X. Brunetaux, M. Al-Muktar, Developing a toolkit for mapping and displaying stone alteration on a web-based documentation platform, Int. J. Cult. Herit. (2013).
Automatic derivation of different levels of detail for 3D buildings modelled by CityGML
  • H C Fan
  • L Q Meng
H.C. Fan, L.Q. Meng, Automatic derivation of different levels of detail for 3D buildings modelled by CityGML, in: 24th International Cartography Conference, Santiago, Chile, 2009, pp. 15-21.
The methodology of documenting cultural heritage sites using photogrammetry, UAV, and 3D printing techniques: the case study of Asinou Church in Cyprus
  • K Themistocleous
  • M Ioannides
  • A Agapiou
  • D G Hadjimitsis
K. Themistocleous, M. Ioannides, A. Agapiou, D.G. Hadjimitsis, The methodology of documenting cultural heritage sites using photogrammetry, UAV, and 3D printing techniques: the case study of Asinou Church in Cyprus, in: Third International Conference on Remote Sensing and Geoinformation of the Environment, International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2015, p. 953510.
Cutting-Decelle, Towards Semantically Enriched 3D City Models: An Ontology-based Approach
  • C Métral
  • G Falquet
C. Métral, G. Falquet, A.F. Cutting-Decelle, Towards Semantically Enriched 3D City Models: An Ontology-based Approach, 2009, Academic Track of GeoWeb.