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Air Pollution Sources in Libya

Authors:
  • Wadi AlShatti University, Brack, Libya
Article

Air Pollution Sources in Libya

Abstract and Figures

This study aims to identify the quantities of hazardous gases emitted from different sources of air pollution in Libya, attempting to meet the lack of information, to provide the decision makers with the information and guidelines related to the environmental situation of the country, to fulfill the role assigned to us to mitigate the global warming and to put the polices and strategies of the development in line world policies direction. This study presents a frame work for any steps addressing air pollution abatement. The present research shows that the annual total air emissions is about 61.1 million tonnes. The largest share of emissions was for carbon dioxide CO2 (96.76%), followed by carbon monoxide CO (2.13%), then particulate matters PM (0.55%), then sulfuric dioxide SO2 (0.21%), nitrogen oxides NOX (0.18%), then methane gas CH4 (0.089%), voltaic organism component VOC (0.061%) and in the last ranking was nitrous oxide N2O with (0.028%). The annual total equivalent carbon dioxide is around 64.6 million tonnes eCO2, which represents about 9.7 ton/year/capita. Accordingly, Libya is ranking 53 from 225 in the list of countries by emissions of carbon dioxide with a contribution up to 0.22% and ranking 41 from 225 in the list of countries by emissions of carbon dioxide per capita. The present research reveals that most pollutants are emitted from the electricity industry with share of 33.9% followed by the transportation sector with 30.7% then the residential and commercial sector with 14.2% then the cement manufacturing industry with 10.9%. It was possible to mitigate these emissions by using the market available capture technologies. But unfortunately, they did not, which led to the excessive of harmful emissions to humans and the already fragile environment. Estimation of quantities of pollutants in units of mass of pollutant per unit mass of manufacturing product or fuel consumption, is necessary in order to figure out the socio-economic effect of the environment damage and to estimate the carbon price or tax of the industrial activities, similar to the countries which preceded us in this field. There is no work considered this topic in Libya and most of the little available works are in the measurements field, which measured the concentrations of the pollutants for comparison purposes with international standards and it is not possible to find out the quantities of emissions, due to the lack of data in these reports (such as productivity, fuel consumption, fluent gas flows through the chimneys, etc...), which makes these measurements in their present figures useless economically. This presents the novelty of this work. The present paper paved the way for more detailed survey on the air pollution sources and to draw the strategies for mitigation in Libya.
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Res. Rev. J Ecol. Environ. Sci.| Volume 6 | Issue 1 | January - March, 2018
e-ISSN:2347-7830
p-ISSN:2347-7822
Research & Reviews: Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
Air Pollution Sources in Libya
Yasser F Nassar1*, Kaiss R Aissa1 and Samer Y Alsadi2
1Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebha University, Brack, Libya
2Electrical Engineering Department, Palestine Technical University, Kadoorie, Tulkarm, Palestine
Review Article
INTRODUCTION
Air pollution is a concentration of foreign matter in the air that adversely affects the health and welfare of people. Air
pollutants are the liquid, solid, gaseous, radioactive, or microbial chemicals suspended in the air, that are caused by different
Received: 05/11/2017
Accepted: 27/11/2017
Published: 04/12/2017
*For Correspondence
Yasser F Nassar, Faculty of Engineering
and Technology, Mechanical Engineering
Department, Sebha University, Brack, Libya,
Tel: 01223332900.
E-mail: yasser_nassar68@ymail.com
Keywords: Environment, Air pollution, Glob-
al warming, Libya, climate change, GHG
ABSTRACT
This study aims to identify the quantities of hazardous gases emitted
from different sources of air pollution in Libya, attempting to meet the lack of
information, to provide the decision makers with the information and guidelines
related to the environmental situation of the country, to fulll the role assigned
to us to mitigate the global warming and to put the polices and strategies of
the development in line world policies direction. This study presents a frame
work for any steps addressing air pollution abatement. The present research
shows that the annual total air emissions is about 61.1 million tonnes. The
largest share of emissions was for carbon dioxide CO2 (96.76%), followed
by carbon monoxide CO (2.13%), then particulate matters PM (0.55%), then
sulfuric dioxide SO2 (0.21%), nitrogen oxides NOX (0.18%), then methane gas
CH4 (0.089%), voltaic organism component VOC (0.061%) and in the last
ranking was nitrous oxide N2O with (0.028%). The annual total equivalent
carbon dioxide is around 64.6 million tonnes CO2e, which represents about
9.7 ton/year/capita. Accordingly, Libya is ranking 53 from 225 in the list of
countries by emissions of carbon dioxide with a contribution up to 0.22% and
ranking 41 from 225 in the list of countries by emissions of carbon dioxide per
capita. The present research reveals that most pollutants are emitted from
the electricity industry with share of 33.9% followed by the transportation
sector with 30.7% then the residential and commercial sector with 14.2% then
the cement manufacturing industry with 10.9%. It was possible to mitigate
these emissions by using the market available capture technologies. But
unfortunately, they did not, which led to the excessive of harmful emissions
to humans and the already fragile environment. Estimation of quantities of
pollutants in units of mass of pollutant per unit mass of manufacturing product
or fuel consumption, is necessary in order to gure out the socio-economic
effect of the environment damage and to estimate the carbon price or tax of
the industrial activities, similar to the countries which preceded us in this eld.
There is no work considered this topic in Libya and most of the little available
works are in the measurements eld, which measured the concentrations
of the pollutants for comparison purposes with international standards and
it is not possible to nd out the quantities of emissions, due to the lack of
data in these reports (such as productivity, fuel consumption, uent gas ows
through the chimneys, etc...), which makes these measurements in their
present gures useless economically. This presents the novelty of this work.
The present paper paved the way for more detailed survey on the air pollution
sources and to draw the strategies for mitigation in Libya.
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Res. Rev. J Ecol. Environ. Sci.| Volume 6 | Issue 1 | January - March, 2018
e-ISSN:2347-7830
p-ISSN:2347-7822
Research & Reviews: Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
human activities related to industry, construction, transportation or natural resources. Such pollutants cause harmful effects to
humans, animals and plants. Air pollution is considered one of the main pollution problems around the world. Most countries
consider this problem a threat to national health and enforce strict regulations, among other solutions, trying to reduce it as
much as possible. The main pollutants found in the air, are from combustion. Carbon Monoxide (CO) is produced by incomplete
combustion of hydrocarbon-based fuels and it enters the bloodstream through the lungs and forms carboxyhemoglobin, which
affects both healthy and ill people. Hydrocarbons (CXHY) are emitted by unburned or partially burned fuel and also when fuel
evaporates directly into the atmosphere. Hydrocarbons include many toxic compounds that cause cancer and other adverse
health effects. They also react with nitrogen oxides (NOX) in the presence of sunlight to form ozone (O3). A very signicant portion
of nitrogen oxides comes from cars in urban areas. These highly reactive gases are colorless and odorless, but they can often
be seen combined with particles in the air as a reddish-brown layer of smog over many urban areas. Because their formation is
aided by high temperatures and excess oxygen, motor vehicles are the primary source of nitrogen oxides. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
is a product of complete combustion. As a pollution concern, it doesn’t directly impair human health, but it is a greenhouse gas
(GHG) that traps the earth’s heat and contributes to the potential for global warming. Particulate matter (PM) is produced mainly
from cement manufacturing factories, quarrying and oil renery industries. Melting lead and burning solid wastes are other
major sources of air pollution. Libya has ratied the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), United
Nations Convention to Combat Desertication (UNCCD), signed the Kyoto protocol (1997) and the Paris agreement on climate
change (2015) and created a DNA in 2010. Libya vigorously works toward further international progress in the global warming as
a security issue. Despite this effort there is a crucial lack of data and information on air emissions in general and on mitigation
in particular, as appeared clearly from the Libyan national report which is presented in European Environment Agency in March
2015, where did not set out any indicator for pollution levels in Libya! [1]. Scientists and researchers are suffering from the difcultly
of data collection, because no database exists; signicant difculties are encountered in specic data for end-use sectors. The
main difculties are: Lack of coordination between institutions involved in data collection, data availability, incomplete annual
data set and approximation of unavailable data, conict in available data. The estimation of the quantity of the pollutants in units
of mass of pollutant per unit mass of manufacturing product or fuel consumption, is necessary in order to gure out the socio-
economic effect of the environment damage and to estimate the carbon price or tax of the industrial activities, similar to the
counties which preceded us in this eld. There is no work considered this topic for Libya and most of the little available works are
eld measurements, which measured the concentrations of the pollutants for comparison purposes with another international or
regional standards-even we don’t have our own standards-and it is not possible to nd out the quantities of emissions because
the lack of design data and operation parameters in these reports (such as factory productivity, fuel consumption, uent gas
ows through the chimneys, etc..), which makes these measurements in their present gures useless from socio-economic point
of view.
It is more convenient-in case concentration is available-to formulate the annual pollutants emission in one of the following
expressions:
9
,
10
it i i h d
PE C V N N
ρ
= × ×× × ×

(1)
9
,F
10
ii h d
i
C VN N
PE F
ρ
× ×× × ×
=
(2)
9
,P
10
ii h d
i
C VN N
PE P
ρ
× ×× × ×
=
(3)
Equation (1), presents the annual pollutants in (tons emission/year), equation (2) presents the pollutants per unit of fuel
consumption (tons emissions/ m3 fuel), and equation (3) presents the pollutants per unit of production (tons emission/ton pro-
duction).
Where,
P
Ei,t ,
P
Ei,F and
PE
i,P are the pollutant mass based: on time (tons pollutant/year), unit fuel consumption (tons
pollutant/unit fuel consumption) and unit production (tons pollutant/unit production), respectively,
F
and
P
are the annual fuel
consumption (m3 or ton/year)and the annual production of the factory (m3 or ton/year), respectively, Ci presents the concentration
of the pollutant i (m3 of pollutant/106 m3 of uent gases), pi indicates to the density of the pollutant i (kg/m3), the density of some
pollutants are presented in [2],
is the volumetric ow rate of the uent gases (m3/hr), Nℎ and Nd is the regime of work (hours per
a day) and (days pear a year), respectively. The present paper paved the way for more detailed survey on the air pollution sources
and to draw the strategies for the mitigation in Libya. However, the mitigation potential specially in the energy sector is certainly
very high, due to the high potential of renewable energy resources. Major sources of air pollution in Libya include industries,
power sector, residential (domestic sector) and transportation sector. The growth in urban population and extensive development
activities have further added to the increased levels of air pollution in the country.
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Research & Reviews: Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
Country General Context
Libya, located in North Africa between 25 latitude north and 17 longitude east, extends over 1,759,540 km2 with population of
6,653,210 people (July 2017). It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast,
Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. Both the Mediterranean Sea and the desert affect Libya's
weather. Figure 1 shows a map of Libya, indicating some important economic cities as well as the geographical location of
Libya in the African continent. The climate is Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior, in the winter, the weather
is cold, with some rain on the coast. The Sahara is very dry and hot in the summer and cold and dry in the winter. Libya is an
extensive and a wide-spaced country, the population is distributed along and cross this vast extension, making it difcult for
any planner or executive to deliver services for all, nevertheless, 100% of population has access to drinkable water, electricity
grid and communication facilities, linking the country a large network of paved roads and airports [3]. This situation places a
great deal of pressure on energy demands, food supplies and even the environment by increasing the generation of waste and
residues. Economically, Libya had depended on fossil fuels, petroleum and natural gas for its income energy, industrialization
and development. Although some efforts have been made to diversify the sources of income, to a large extent, fossil fuels have
continued to play a major role in the country's economy [4].
Figure 1. Map of Libya indicating the major sites, those which have economic activities and the geographic location of Libya in the African
continent.
Air Emission Sources
There are two main sources of air pollution in Libya:
1. Natural, such as dust and sandstorms.
2. Anthropogenic activities including stationary sources, such as thermal power generating plants and industrial parks and
mobile sources including vehicles, emissions from various industrial processes.
Natural Air Emission Source
Sand storm
Dust storms are among the most severe environmental problems in certain regions of the World. It has estimated that the
Sahara Desert alone contributes 2 × 108 - 3.3 × 108 tons per year or between 40–66% of the total dust. Dust storms may be
traced as far as 4000 km from their origin. Environmental impacts of dust storms, reported in the literature include reduced
soil fertility and damage to crops, a reduction of solar radiation and in consequence the efciency of solar devices, damage to
telecommunications and mechanical systems, dirt, air pollution, increase of respiratory diseases and so on [5]. On the 16th of
May 2017, a dramatic dust storm moved over Libya which caused a heavy dust load, greatly affected visibility and air quality and
caused a total airport shutdown as well as damage to buildings, vehicles, power poles and trees throughout the center of the
country. This storm was massive enough to be seen clearly from outer space and is considered to be one of the heaviest recorded
dust storms in the last decade as it illustrated in Figure 2.
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Figure 2. Dust storm coming from the South -Western part of Libya source EUMETSAT 16/05/2017 at 05:00:00 UTC.
The impact of a dust storm on national and regional economies can't be overestimated. Due to the complexity of how the
dust storms impact various socio-economic sectors in to different extents, few data regarding budgetary losses is available. A
2009 study suggests that increased dust-storms would result in annual losses of 12.7 bio USD in GDP per annum in the MEN
A regional one. Considering that North Africa as a sub-region are more heavily affected by the dust storms than the MENA, the
amount of annual GDP losses must be signicantly higher [6].
• Negative socio-economic impact across all sectors (house hold level, labour productivity, loss of raw materials and
perishable goods, spiking energy expenditures, damages to infrastructures, disruption of supply chains, telecommunications etc.).
• Reduced visibility affects transport: airports, border crossing points, ports remain closed.
• Increased cloud formation increases surface heat and further aggravates drought effects.
• Dust storms damage crops, cause soil loss and remove organic matter and nutrient-rich lightest particles, thereby reducing
agricultural productivity. Large parts of Libya’s fertile soil have already been “blown” away.
• Intensication of desertication, drought and reduction of water supplies (drinking water, irrigation) and signicant
increase in soil salinity.
• Signicant strains on the public health sector. Hospitals are over whelmed in dealing with acute and chronic respiratory
affections caused by SDS.
Anthropogenic Air Emission Sources
The main sources of air pollution in Libya are the electrical power plants, the various means of transportation, the smoke
rising from the chimneys of factories, the heavy dust from quarries, the burning of solid wastes and the effects of water treatment
projects.
Electricity generation
Unfortunately, most of the electricity in Libya is made from polluting, non-renewable sources such as fossil fuel and natural
gas, in spite of the country has high potential of renewable energies. In fact, making electricity is the 1st industrial cause of air
pollution in Libya and it creates more carbon dioxide (CO2) into the air than any other sector. Emissions of Electric power plants
are factors in three major environmental issues: Acid rain, urban air quality and global climate change. Libya electrical generation
is based on 13 power plant stations, most of them are located along the coastal side of Libya, as it is presented in Figure 2.
The total capacity is 8051 MW with the contribution of the steam stations of 20%, while 43% for gas plants and the share of the
combined cycle plants is 37%. The energy produced from Libyan stations comes from combustion of heavy oil (20%), light oil
(40%) and natural gas (40%) (Figure 3). The total electricity generated in 2012 is 33,980 MWh with average efciency of 27%.
Figure 2 shows the location, characteristics of the electricity generation power plants and the electricity consumption by sectors
in Libya. The fossil fuel and natural gas consumption during the year 2012 is presented in following Table 1. The emission factors
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Research & Reviews: Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
for several types of fossil fuel and natural gas that red in the boilers of steam generators or burned in the combustion chambers
of the gas and combined power plants are tabulated in Table 2 [7].
Table 1. Annual fuel consumption in the electrical generation plants (m3/year).
Natural Gas Heavy fuel oil Light fuel oil
6,013,482,065 805,472 2,388,932
Table 2. The emission factor for many types of fossil fuel and natural gas for electric ulity (unit mass emission/m3 red fuel) [7].
i
Air emission j=1 j=2 j=3
Natural gas (gram/m3) Heavy Fuel Oil Electric Utility (kg/m3) Light Fuel Oil Electric Utilities (kg/m3)
1
CO21,900.46 3,155.24 2,752.25
2
CH40.49 0.034 0.18
3
N2O 0.049 0.064 0.031
4
PM 0.04 0.905a 0.24
5
SO20.0096 7.98b 34.6
6
NO22.24 6.6 2.40
7
VOC 0.044 0.034 0.024
8
CO 0.56 0.6 0.6
Note: (a) Heavy Oil, Particles K𝑔/m3=1.25𝑆 + 0.38, (b) Heavy Oil, Sulfur dioxide (K𝑔/m3=19𝑆). S is the sulfur content of the fuel expressed as
a percent (%) by mass, the Libyan Oil contains 0.420% [8]
Figure 3. Locations and statistics of produced energy during the year 2012 according to technology, fuel consumption and the consumption in
Libya [9].
Accordingly, one can calculate the emissions (ton/year) from equation (4). The results are tabulated in Table 3.
( )
,
n
i ij j
ji
PE EF V
=
= ×

(4)
Where
i
PE
is the mass rate emission of type i of pollutant (unit mass per unit time); EFi, is the emission factor emission of
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Research & Reviews: Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
pollutant i for the fuel type j (unit mass of pollutant per unit mass or volume of fuel);
j
V
is the ow rate of the fuel type j (unit mass
or volume per unit time) and n is the number of types of combustion fuel.
The total air emissions are calculated as:
1
m
i
i
PE PE
=
=

(5)
Where,
PE
is the total air emissions for n number of pollutants (unit mass per unit time) and
M
is the number of pollutants
that are under consideration. The equivalent dioxide carbon eCO2 is calculated according to the following equation [10].
22 4 2
25 298
eCO CO CH N O
PE PE PE PE= + ×
 
(6)
Table 3. Annual pollutants emitted from the electricity generation industry corresponding to the red fuel in (tons/year).
i
Air emission j=1 j=2 j=3
Natural gas Heavy Fuel Oil Light Fuel Oil Total(ton/year)
1
CO21.1428E07 2.5415E06 6.5749E06 2.054440E07
2
CH42.9466E03 2.7386E01 4.3001E02 3.403996E03
3
N2O 2.9466E02 5.155E01 7.4057E01 4.202670E02
4
PM 2.4054E02 7.2895E02 5.7334E02 1.542830E03
5
SO25.7729E00 6.4277E03 8.2657E04 8.909047E04
6
NO2
1.347E04
5.3161E03 5.7334E03 2.451950E04
7
VOC 2.6459E02 2.7386E01 5.7334E01 3.493100E02
8
CO 3.6081E03 4.8328E02 1.4334E03 5.524780E03
Total emissions
2.0669251E07
Total emissions of eCO2
2.0755E07
Cement industry
Cement is indispensable for building and construction work and cement industry is considered to be an important
infrastructure core industry. It is one of the most advanced industries of Libya. Libya at the present time has eight factories for
cement production with total productivity 7.5 million ton per year. The cement industry can play a signicant role in the overall
economic growth. As with many other industries, greenhouse gases are produced directly from the burning of fossil fuel sand
indirectly from the generation of electricity used. In addition, the cement production process itself releases carbon dioxide when the
calcium carbonate in limestone is converted to calcium oxide during the production of clinker in the kiln. As this chemical reaction
is an essential step in the cement production process, cement manufacture emits relatively greater volumes of greenhouse gases
than other industrial processes. The manufacture of cement involves heating these materials to high temperatures (typically 1400
-1500°C) for long periods to produce clinker, which is then ground with gypsum to produce cement. Cement manufacturing is a
capital intensive and energy intensive process, relying on heavy fuel oil and gas as primary sources of thermal energy. Generally,
NOX emissions are generated during fuel combustion by oxidation of chemically-bound nitrogen in the fuel and by thermal xation
of nitrogen in the combustion air. The amount of thermally generated NOx increases as ame temperature increases. Emissions
of SO2 are generated from sulfur compounds in the raw materials and, to a lesser extent, from sulfur in the fuel. Okasha et al.
had conducted an extensive study regarding the air emissions from cement factories in the north- west Libya and reported their
investigation by Okasha A [11]. Unfortunately, many other cement manufactories, especially in eastern side left unstudied. The
results of these manufactories was performed by analogy between those of fuel type of the studied factories. Accordingly, the air
pollutants in ton per year has been calculated and tabulated in Table 4.
Table 4. List of the cement manufactories, productivity (M ton/year) and the amount of air emission (ton/year).
Cement plant Productivity Mton/year Fuel type Air pollutants ton/year
NOXSO2CO2Dust
Lebda [11]
1
N.G
1,495.8
827.52 752,796 71,535
Mergheb [10] 0.3 N.G 698.8 210.94 701,730 9,814
Zleten [12]
1
N.G
1,347.4
230.52 785,420 40,163
Souk alkhamies
1
N.G 1,036 279.2 752,796 34,200
Alhouary
1
H.F.O 913 80.1 793,409 34,200
Benghazi 0.8 H.F.O 730 64.1 634,728 27,360
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Alfataeh
1
H.F.O 913 80.1 793,409 34,200
Alborj [12] 1.4 H.F.O
1,332.4
112.2 1,158,900 10.395*
Total 7.5
8,466.4
1,884.68 6,373,188
251,482.4
Total emissions (ton/year)
6,635,000
Total emissions of eCO2 (ton/year)
6,373,188
Note: *There are electrostatic precipitator and lters
Agriculture and livestock sector
Libya is deeply dependent on imports for domestic food demand. Climatic conditions and poor soils limit farm domestic food
production. Domestic conditions limit output, while income and population growth have increased food consumption. Compared
to its North African neighbours, the agriculture sector contribution to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Libya is a
lot lower and has been declining ever since oil discovery in 1958, the situation gets worst as the county plunged into civil war
since 2011 the agriculture productions declined by -6.7% with GDP=1.9 in 2016 [12].The contribution of the sector in the GDP is
less and less important. The agriculture sector is quite difcult to analyze and no data on energy consumption is available. Many
information and surveys are needed to identify the air emission from this sector In contrast, for livestock it is less complicated so
that they can inventory types and counting the animals in the country as well as the emission factors of every kind, therefore
the emissions can be estimated from the livestock. The main sources of emissions are: feed production and processing (45% of
the total), outputs of GHG during digestion by cows (39%) and manure decomposition (10%). The remainder is attributable to the
processing and transportation of animal products. To arrive at its estimates, FAO conducted a detailed analysis of GHG emissions
at multiple stages of various livestock supply chains, including the production and transport of animal feed, on-farm energy use,
emissions from animal digestion and manure decay, as well as post-slaughter transport, refrigeration and packaging of animal
products (Table 5). About 44% of livestock emissions are in the form of methane (CH4). The remaining part is almost equally
shared between Nitrous Dioxide (N2O, 29%) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2, 27%) [13,14]. The emission factors have been taken from and
the number of livestock in Libya from [15,16].
The emissions (ton/year) has been calculated using equaon (7). The results are tabulated in Table 4.
( )
5
,
1
i ij j
j
PE EF N
=
= ×
(7)
Where,
P
Ei : is the mass rate emission of type i of pollutant (unit mass per unit time); EFij : is the emission factor for type i
of pollutant for animals type j (unit mass of pollutant per unit time per hoof); Nj : is the number of animals of type j (hoof) the total
air emissions.
Table 5. Methane CH4, nitrous oxide N2O, carbon dioxide CO2 and equivalent CO2e emissions from domestic livestock fermentation.
i
Animals type j=1 j=2 j=3 j=4 j=5 Total
Sheep Goats Camels Cattle Horses&
donkeys
Number of animals (hoof) 3,987,651 1,080,420 109,397 102,506 11,399 5,291,373
1
Emissions CO2 (ton/year) 5,916 1,605 1,494 1,401 63 10,479
2
Emission CH4 (ton/year) 9,641 2,613 2,434 25,652 100 40,430
3
Emission N2O (ton/year) 6,355 1,722 1,604 1,503 66 11,250
Total emissions (ton/year) 62,159
Total emissions of eCO2 (ton/year) 4,373,800
Solid waste generation
Classications of solid wastes are proposed here according to the origin wastes: municipal solid waste (MSW), industrial solid
waste (ISW) and healthcare solid waste (HSW). According to The weight of garbage resulting from the people in Lybia is ranging
between 0.35-2.00 kg/day with average of 0.78 kg of waste per capita daily; however, waste production rates and composition
vary widely depending on the region [17]. Accordingly, the amount of waste from all Libya householders 1,894,200tons/year, these
wastes contain from: organic matter represents 59% of waste, followed by paper–cardboard 12%, plastic 8%, miscellaneous 8%,
metals 7%, glass 4% and wood 2%. The overall generation of ISW, including non-hazardous wastes, industrial wastes, demolition
and construction, is 1,248,000 tons/year. The hazardous waste generated is 106,200 tons/ year; HSW reaches 87,000 tons/
year. The quantity of MSW generated in Libya is estimated at 3.3354 million tons/year, this quantity is quite biger than what
Tarek et al. provided in which was 3.2 Mton/year [18]. The increase in solid waste production has been attributed to the population
growth, the expansion of trade and the increased number of industries in Libya. Elimination is the solution applied to 97% of
waste produced in Libya. These wastes are either thrown in to open dumps (67%) or burned in the open air in either public
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dumps or municipal, uncontrolled dump (30%) [19]. Quantities destined for recovery are quite low: only 1% for recycling and 2%
for composting [20]. According to author’s observation and in the absence of the municipal purgation workers and the Ministry of
environment, 100% of waste is burned in the uncontrolled dumps and in some times in urban zones causing black dark cloud over
the zone and unbearable smells, for this reason, we have adopted a value of 70% for the burned waste. Wiedinmyer and etc. in
provided a long list of the emission factors of pollutants emitted from the burning of waste, the list contained GHGs, reactive trace
gases, particulate matter and toxic compounds [21]. The IPCC suggests only 60% of the total waste available to be burned (70% of
MSW generated) that is actually burned. So the mass of air pollutants will be the yield of the product of the emission factor by the
MSW by 60% by 70%. The results were tabulated in Table 6.
The emissions (ton/year) has been calculated using equation (8). The results are tabulated in Table 6.
0.60 0.70
ii
PE EF M= ×× ×

(8)
Where:
P
Ei: is the rate of the type i of pollutant (unit mass per unit time); EFi: is the emission factor for type i of pollutant
(unit mass of pollutant per unit mass of burned waste); and
M
: is the mass rate of the waste (unit mass per unit time).
Table 6. Emission factors (kg /ton waste burned) for species emitted from the burning of waste.
i
Compound Emission factor kg /ton waste burned Air pollutants ton/year
1
Carbon dioxide (CO2) 1,453 2,035,500
2
Methane (CH4) 3.7 5,183.2
3
Carbon monoxide (CO) 38 53,233
4
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) 0.5 700.43
5
Nitrogen oxides (NOX) 3.74 5,233.3
6
PM2.5 9.8 13,729
7
PM10 11.9 16,670
Total emissions (ton/year) 2,130,200
Total emissions of eCO2 (ton/year) 2,165,100
Transportation
Libya is an extensive and wide spaced country the population is distributed along and cross this vast extension. There are
about 83,200 km of roads in Libya, 47,590 km of which are surfaced [22]. Lack of efcient public transport system in most of
cities and growing travel demands has fueled the growth of private vehicles in the country and correspondingly, increased the
air pollution and is also blamed for contributing of climate change and global warming. The number of motor vehicles rose from
465,000 vehicles in 1983 to 2,680,000 in 2014. Where 2,500,000 vehicles are gasoline-fueled passenger cars and 180,000
are diesel-fueled trucks. Passenger vehicles are dened as 2-axle 4-tire vehicles, including passenger cars, vans, pickup trucks
and sport/utility vehicles. The calculations for Total Annual Pollution Emitted and Fuel Consumed are based on average annual
passenger car kilometers travelled of 19,000 km per year and an average annual light-medium truck kilometers of 24,000 km.
In 2015 and according to (FHWA 2017), fuel consumption is based on eet wide average in-use fuel economy of 10.25 km per
liter for passenger cars and 7.355kmper liter for light trucks [23]. According to Libya has eight registered air carrier companies
with 23 aircrafts, carrying 2,566,465 passengers per year around the country and cross the word wide, travelling a distance of
3,833,542,000 km pear year. And there are 146 airports serve the country, 68 airports with paved runways and the rest are
unpaved. Also Libya has a modest eet of merchant marine consists of: 8 cargos, 4 chemical tankers, 3 liqueed gas tanker, 7
petroleum tankers, 4 passengers and one roll on/roll off. The emission factors are tabulated for many types of vehicles, trucks,
aircrafts and waterborne crafts in [24-26]. As it’s indicating in Table 7 the unit of the emission factors are gram pollutant per km
driven or travelled, so the annual air emissions will be the product of the emission factor by the annual kilometers driven by vehicle
by the number of vehicles and the annual fuel consumption will be the product of the fuel consumption rates in liter per km driven
by the annual kilometers driven by vehicle by the number of vehicles. The obtained results are tabulated in Table 7.
( )
4
,
1
i ij j
j
PE EF K
=
= ×

(9)
Where,
i
PE
is the mass rate emission of type i of pollutant (unit mass per unit time); EFi,j: is the emission
factor emission of pollutant i for the transportation type j (unit mass of pollutant per km driven or travelled); and
Kj
: is the annual kilometers driven or travelled by transportation type i (unit length per unit time). Then the total air emissions
j
K
E is:
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8
1
i
i
PE PE
=
=

(10)
Table 7. Estimated emission and fuel consumption factors for gasoline-fueled passenger cars, diesel-fueled trucks, aircrafts and waterborne
craft.
i
Pollutant/fuel
Fuel Consumption Rates (litre per km driven)
Annual
Emission
per year)
j=1
j=2
j=3
j=4
Gasoline fuelled
Passenger cars
Diesel-fuelled
trucks
Aircraft
Waterborne
Craft*
1 CO2
229 1,312.90
442.6
676
1.82E07
2 CH40.04
0.003169 0.014645 0.0025
1.97E03
3 N2O 0.091 0.0029826
0.014001
0.01678 4.39E03
4 CO 6.2 8.463 n/a†
7.92
3.31E05
5 NOX0.52
6.8052 n/a
3.024 5.41E04
6VOC 0.67 0.13089
n/a 0.3384
3.24E04
7 PM
0.0053
0.13102
n/a
n/a 8.18E02
8 SO20.01004 0.39307
n/a
n/a 2.18E03
Fuel cons. (l/km)
0.0976
0.13597
0.068212
0.1411 3
Annual fuel cons. (l/year)
4.636E09
5.88.E08 2.62 E08 n/a
Total emissions (ton/year) 1.8732 E07
Total emissions of eCO2 (ton/year) 1.9603 E07
Crude oil renery industry
According to EIA and Citac, Libya has ve domestic reneries, with a combined name plate capacity of approximately 380,000
bbl/d (51,351 ton/day), signicantly higher than the volume of domestic oil consumption (227,000 bbl/d; the rest is exported).
Libya's reneries include:
Ras Lanuf export renery, completed in 1984 and located on the Gulf of Sirte, with a crude oil rening capacity of 220,000 bbl/d.
Az Zawiya renery, completed in 1974 and located in north-western Libya, with crude processing capacity of 120,000 bbl/d.
Tobruk renery, with crude capacity of 20,000 bbl/d.
Brega, the oldest renery in Libya, located near Tobruk with crude capacity of 10,000 bbl/d.
Sarir, a topping facility with 10,000 bbl/d of capacity.
The plants are unsophisticated and consume a lot of energy. They are not capable of producing products that correspond
to the specications required by the consuming countries such as unleaded petrol, reformulated gasoline and low Sulphur gas oil
(Figure 4). The reneries suffered very badly from the technological and equipment limitations imposed by sanctions. Reneries
are a potential source of atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), Volatile Organic
Compounds (VOCs) including hazardous substances such as benzene and 1,3-butadiene, Sulphur, reduced Sulphur compounds
and oxides of Sulphur, ammonia, oxides of nitrogen, toxic organic micro pollutants (dioxins, PAHs), heavy metals, particulates and
odour [27].
Figure 4. Libyan map indicating the oil activities.
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The most signicant air emissions sources in oil reneries are catalytic or thermal cracking units, catalytic reformer units,
sulfur recovery plants, storage vessels, uid coking units wastewater streams, cooling towers, equipment leaks, blow down
systems, vacuum distillation units, steam boilers, process furnaces, process heaters, compressor engines, barge or ship loading
and gasoline loading racks specically located at petroleum reneries (Table 8). It identies the air pollutants from these air
emissions sources and summarizes US EPA publication AP-42 estimates of the uncontrolled emissions from these oil renery air
emissions sources.
Table 8. Emission factors and the air emissions from crude oil renery industry.
Pollutants Emission factor kg/1,000 bbl crude oil
Emissions
ton/year
Carbon dioxide 8,057 1,117,400
Methane 15.59 2,163
Nitrous oxide 0.2543 35.3
Particulates 347 48,129
Carbon Monoxide 6215 862,020
Sulfur Dioxide 224 31,069
Nitrogen Oxides 33 4,577
Hydrocarbons 398 55,203
Aldehydes 8.7 1,207
Ammonia 24.5 3,398
Inorganic Chlorine 4,450 617,220
VOC 2.12 294
Total emissions (ton/year) 2,742,715
Total emissions of eCO2 (ton/year) 1,182,000
Petrochemical industry
Natural gas and crude distillates such as naphtha (from petroleum rening) are used as feedstock to manufacture a wide
variety of petrochemicals which are in turn used for the manufacture of a variety of consumer goods. The basic petrochemicals
manufactured by cracking, reforming and other processes include olens (including ethylene, propylene, butylenes and butadiene)
and aromatics (including benzene, toluene and xyleme). Libya has a total of eight petrochemical manufacturing facilities [28]. Marsa
El-Brega: It came on stream in 1978 and produces primarily methanol and fertilizers and consists of: Two methanol units that
produce 720,000 tons per year (tpy), two urea units with a total capacity of 900,000 (tpy) and two ammonia units with a capacity
of 700,000 tpy [29]. Ras Lanouf: Located on the Mediterranean Coast and operated by the Libyan National Oil Corporation (NOC)
is Libya's biggest. It came on stream in 1987. It produces petrochemicals utilizing naphtha as a feed stock to an ethylene plant
with a capacity of 12,450kiloton per year (ktpy). Its main products are ethylene (330 ktpy), high density polyethylene (HDPE) (80
ktpy), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) (80 ktpy), polypropylene (170 ktpy) and butadiene (585 ktpy) [30]. Abu Kammash: It
came on stream in the 1970. Abu Kammash complex produces polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (104 ktpy), vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)
(60 ktpy), vinyl chloride (60 ktpy), sodium hydroxide (50 ktpy) and chloral (45 ktpy). A large portion of its output is exported [31].
Unfortunately, there is no any information regarding to the air pollutions is available.
Iron and steel industry
Steel will remain the basis for economic development in the world. It is used to produce everything from sewing needles
and tools to automobiles, ships and planes. The main types of plants involved in iron and steel industry are sintering plants, blast
furnaces and steel works, direct reduction plants, ferroalloy production, rolling, scarng, pickling, iron and steel foundry and other
technologies, such as argon-oxygen decarburization, ladle metallurgy vacuum degassing. Coking plants are considered here
as part of this sector, since coke is produced practically exclusively for the iron and steel industry. The iron and steel industry
causes signicant effects on environmental media: air-emissions of SO2, NOX, CO, H2S, PM, lead, Ni, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Se,
Hg, PM, etc.; water-process water with organic matter, oil, metals, suspended solids, benzene, phenol, acids, suldes, sulfates,
ammonia, cyanides, thiocyanates, thiosulfates, uorides(scrubber efuent); soil-slag, sludge, sulfur compounds, heavy metals, oil
and grease residues, salts [32].
The Libyan Iron and Steel Company (LISCO) is one of the largest companies in North Africa with an annual design capacity of
1,324,000 tonnes of liquid steel adopting direct reduction/electric arc furnace method utilizing natural gas as reductant of high
quality pellets to produce sponge iron and hot briquetted iron. LISCO is located near the coastal city of Misurata, (About 210 km
East of Tripoli). LISCO Plants consists of a direct reduction plant, two steel melt shops, a three-line bar and rod mill, a light and
medium section mill, a hot strip mill and a cold strip mill with a galvanizing line and a coating line. The calcining plant is designed
to produce 66,000 tons annually of burnt lime and 22,750 tons annually of dolomite. The plant contains two vertical furnaces for
producing burnt lime, one rotary kiln to produce burnt dolomite (Table 9). If we know that to produce one ton of iron products, we
need to burn about 460 cubic meters of natural gas, about 59 kg of oil and about 1400 kWh, as consumption of electricity [33].
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Table 9. Emission factors and the air emissions from iron and steel industry.
Pollutants Emission factor kg/ton iron Emissios
ton/year
Carbon dioxide 1,069.8 1,390,800
Particulates 0.868 1,128.4
Carbon Monoxide 3.7811 4,915.4
Sulfur Dioxide 3.5285 4,587
Nitrogen Oxides 6.2811 8,165.4
Total emissions (ton/year) 1,409,596
Total emissions of eCO2 (ton/year) 1,390,800
Industries
The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and plays an essential role in economic development. The
Libyan government privatized the small industrial sector early in the beginning of 1990s, consequently, measurement execution is
not possible. Regardless most of private industrial activities are registered in the Libyan Industry Union, but there is no sufcient
information about the activities of these factories, indeed some of them are manufacturing factories and most of them are just
packing factories. For this reason, we recommended at the end of this work, all the private industrial activities have to submit an
environmental report at the end of the year, including energy consumption, amount of emissions whether gas, liquid or solid. This
report should be evaluated by a specialized committee, similar to the nancial report that provides taxes periodically. Therefore, we
have applied the carbon pricing or taxes to every product based on internationally standard environmental restrictions. However,
heat is required in most industrial processes. The sources of gas emissions issued by the chimneys factory are caused by burning
fossil-fuel in factories. In small factories, electricity can be used as a source of the thermal energy. However, in large factories,
fossil- fuel or natural gas are burned in ovens, burners or boilers to provide the thermal energy to the plant. However, unfortunately
there are no information about the number of factories, their activities and how to provide them for thermal energy. According to
what stated in the bulletin of the Libyan Industry Union, there are two factories for soap and powder detergent manufacturing.
ALKALA located in Tripoli with an annual capacity of 18,000 tonnes, ALNIER located in Misturata with an annual capacity of 9,200
tonnes. Using the manufacturing data provided by Ali Af, and we get the emission factors for the soap industry [34]. Introducing the
emission factor for soap industry and the amount of air emissions from these two factories in Table 10.
Table 10. Emission factors and the air emissions from soap and powder detergent manufacturing.
i
Pollutants Emission factor kg/ ton production
Emissions
ton/year
1
CO2138.14 3,757.4
2
CO 0.013503 0.36728
3
SO20.040809 1.110
4
NO20.38497 10.471
5
H2S 0.010587 0.28797
Total emissions (ton/year) 3,770
Total emissions of eCO2 (ton/year) 3,757.4
Residential and commercial sector
During the last 7 years (2011-2017), the residential sector became a source of pollution, especially after the inability of
the General Electrical Company of Libya (GECL) to provide the people a sustainable electrical energy, so it led to massive use of
mobile electricity generators to meet their decit need of electricity, in addition to the use of natural gas in the food-cooking. Due
to the abnormal circumstances of (2011-2017), GECOL faced a shortage in the energy production process, which led to 1200 MW
load shedding (20% of total peak load) for 33 days electricity cut-off in the year 2015 (792 hr/year). In the absence of sufcient
information about the number of generators that are operating in the time of electrical power cut-off, however, the house holders
prefer to buy generators running on diesel, while the owners of shops prefer gasoline-fueled generators! The efciency of these
generators is about 60%.
In Figure 3 the residential sector consumes 36% of the total energy generated, assuming that 50% fraction of the house
load will be provided by a generator and about 70% of the house holders have generators, so about 1,014.4 MW (2,892.3 TJ/year)
will be generated by diesel-fueled generators. And 14% of the base load will be carried over by Gasoline generators also with 50%
fraction load cover, it means that 563.57 MW (1,606.9 TJ/year) will be covered by gasoline generators [35].
The annual fuel consumption (m3/year) of the gasoline G and diesel D fuel are calculated from the following equations (11):
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( )
( )
( )
6
3
3
2,892.3 10 /
//
D
Diesel
MJ year
V m year HHV MJ m
η
×
=×
(11)
( )
( )
( )
6
3
3
1, 606.9 10 /
//
G
Gasoline
MJ year
V m year HHV MJ m
η
×
=×
Where D and G are the annual fuel consumption for diesel and gasoline generators respectively, η is the efciency of the
generator, HHV is the higher heating or caloric value of the fuel. The other source of domestic pollutants is liqueed petroleum
gas (LPG which used for cooking purposes, Libya consumes about 2.7336 million tonnes of gas per year, which equivalent to
5.3843 million m3 per year [36]. The emission factors for gasoline, diesel fuels and LPG are documented in [37,38] and tabulated in
Table 11. The total emissions by the residential and commercial sector will be found from equation (12) and the results tabulated
in Table 11.
( )
3
,i ij j
j
PE MF V= ×

(12)
Table 11. The emission factor for gasoline and diesel-fueled electricity generators.
i
Pollutants
Emission factors (kg/m3 fuel or gas) Emission via
generators (ton/
year)
Emissions
via LPG
(ton/year) Total emissions (ton/year)
j=1 j=2 j=3
Gasoline Diesel LPG
1
CO22322.1 2689.63 1,500 5.1625E05 8.0765E06 8,592,750
2
CH40.1004 0.133 0.024 24.386 129.22 154
3
N2O 0.02114 0.4 0.108 51.102 581.50 633
4
PM 0.1623 0.9628 0.084 131.830 452.28 584
5
SO20.10286 2.8884 0.005 365.070 26.922 392
6
NO21.628 12.516 1.56 1,675.50 8,399.5 10,075
7
VOC 38.628 0.9628 0.12 3,178.1 646.12 3,824
8
CO 223.18 7.7024 0.9 18,626 4,845.9 23,472
fuel cons. m3 /year 79,194 123,570 5,384,300
Total emissions (ton/year)
8,631,883
Total emissions of eCO2 (ton/year)
8,785,106
Note: Gasoline HHV=33,818 MJ/m3, Diesel HHV=39,010 MJ/m3 and LPG (propane) HHV=101 MJ/m3 Gasoline HHV=44.8MJ/kg, LHV=42.9 MJ/
kg, Diesel HHV=47.3 MJ/kg, LHV=43.0 MJ/kg and LPG (propane) HHV=50,350 kJ/kg , Gasoline density=740 kg/m3, Diesel density=830 kg/m3
and LPG density=507.7 kg/m3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The obtained results are presented statistically and plotted by bar and pie charts in Figures 5-14 showing the amount of
pollutants emitted from each sector and also the share of each sector of total pollutants. It is evident from Figure 5 that, the
electrical power industry emits 20.55 million tonnes annually, which presents 35.3% of the total CO2 emissions in the country.
Followed by the transportation sector with 19.6 million tonnes per year, which presents about 31.3% of the total CO2 emissions. The
residential sector comes in third place with 8.8 million tonnes per year which is equivalents to 14.8% of the total CO2 emissions.
With the same rates of participation for almost all sectors in GHG gases, which are graphically represented by CO2e, as it appears
from Figure 6. While the oil rening sector accounted for 67.3% of the total CO emissions, followed by the transportation sector
with 25.9% and all other sectors contributing 6.8%, as it’s presented in Figure 7. However, the situation was different for NOX
emissions, the transportation sector topped the list with share of47% followed by electricity sector with 21.3% the residential
sector share was 8.8% and the rest of the sectors contributed with 23%, as it’s indicated in Figure 8. It refer to the increasing
share of the livestock in the emissions of CH4 and N2O gases, where the emissions exceeded the annual amount of 40 and 11
thousands of tonnes respectively Figures 9 and 10. It is known that the green house effects of CH4 and N2O are 25 and 298
times than CO2. Therefore, this quantity can't be underestimated, for this reason, its effect is signicant in total CO2e, where the
contribution of livestock was approximately 7% of the total GHG emissions, as it evidentially from Figure 6. Figure 11 presents
the amounts Particulate Matters (PM) in tonnes per year that are emitted by sectors and the share of each sector in total PM
emission. The cement industry topped the list with 252 thousand tonnes per year which present about 83% of the total PM
emitted. Although the use of lters and electrostatic precipitators is very efciently to capture most of these PM-as it’s evident
from Table 4. But, unfortunately, it is not used in most factories. Figure 12 presented the amount of Volatile Organic Compound
(VOC). As it’s expected, those sectors that used Gasoline as a red fuel were on top of the list, these sectors are the transportation
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and residential & commercial sectors, by using the gasoline fuelled passenger cars and the gasoline fuelled electricity generators,
are responsibility of about 88% and 11% respectively of total VOC emissions. In the end two are also created, these are: the total
pollutants emitted from all sectors presented in Figure 13. Of course the largest share was for CO2 with 58 million tonnes per
year which is a 96% of the total emissions in the country [39]. Also the contribution of each sector in the air emissions (ton/year)
and the arrow of each sector in percentage are presented in Figure 14.
Figure 5. The annual CO2 (ton/year) emitted by sectors and the share of each sector in total CO2 emission.
Figure 6. The annual GHGs (ton/year) emitted by sectors and the share of each sector in total GHGs emissions.
Figure 7. The annual CO (ton/year) emitted by sectors and the share of each sector in total CO emission.
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Figure 8. The annual NOX (ton/year) emitted by sectors and the share of each sector in total NOX emission.
Figure 9. The annual CH4 (ton/year) emitted by sectors and the share of each sector in total CH4 emission.
Figure 10. The annual N2O (ton/year) emitted by sectors and the share of each sector in total N2O emission.
Figure 11. The annual PM (ton/year) emitted by sectors and the share of each sector in total PM emission.
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Figure 12. The annual VOC (ton/year) emitted by sectors and the share of each sector in total VOC.
Figure 13. The annual pollutants (ton/year) emitted by all sectors and the percentage of contribution of each pollutant in the total emissions.
Figure 14. The contribution of each sector in the air emissions (ton/year) and the arrow of each sector in percentage.
CONCLUSION
The pollutants released from the air emissions sources in Libya has been estimated according to eld measurements in some
sectors and from published or unpublished reports for other activities and unfortunately some industrial activities are left without
evaluation due to the lack of necessary data for the environmental evaluation process. The study reveals that most factories can't
quantify the toxic gases emissions because there are no measuring and controlling devices in their industrial units. Libya ranks 53
from 225 in the list of countries by emissions of carbon dioxide with contribution of up to 0.22% and ranks 41 from 225 in the list
of countries by emissions of carbon dioxide per capita. The annual total air emissions are around 61.1 million tonnes. The largest
share was for carbon dioxide CO2 (96.76%), followed by carbon monoxide CO (2.13%), then particulate matters PM (0.55%), then
sulfuric dioxide SO2 (0.21%), nitrogen oxides NOX (0.18%), then methane gas CH4 (0.089%), voltaic organism component VOC
(0.061%) and in the last position was nitrous oxide N2O with (0.028%). The annual total equivalent carbon dioxide is around 64.6
million tonnes CO2e, which represents about 9.7 ton/year/capita. The main uncertainty results from the incomplete available data.
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It is mainly due to a lack of information provided by private industrial establishment. Conict of information even when the same
researcher, which reduces the condence of some information. Therefore, the environment in Libya requires a more thoughtful
and comprehensive policy of planning, awareness and conservation. In general, these environmental problems have multiplied,
causing socio-economic problems and increasing health hazards. Observing the situation of air pollution in Libya will lead to the
conclusion that many factors needed to solve this problem are absent. For instance, there is no comprehensive national plan
to tackle various environmental problems, including air pollution problems; no control against exceeding the permitted levels
of pollutants, even from ministry of electricity or the environmental authority; no observation or testing centres responsible for
licensing vehicles; no measuring station for air pollution in urban areas and city centres; no follow- up for open air burning garbage
and waste; an absence of specialized teams in air pollution; and a scarcity of specialists, leading to a scarcity of studies and real
facts about air pollution.
RECOMMENDATIONS
The alarm bells are ringing, alerting us to the danger of air pollution. We should start addressing this problem immediately
by activating environmental authorities to create a comprehensive plan to study air pollution problems and their solutions.
Authors suggest these recommendations in this context:
Increasing awareness and educational programs in the area of energy conservation, environment protection and health
risks resulting from environmental pollution, at all levels of education and in all means of social communication.
Non-prot societies and associations could combine their efforts to solve this problem by establishing teams to help
with environmental awareness and encouraging people to use environmentally friendly equipment and transportation, reactivate
public buses or other mass transit. Set up a large indicator sets covering most sustainable development issues and providing
detailed insights.
Improve data collection from the surveys include information on monetary expenditures and physical quantities, includ-
ing fuels and electricity, as well as information of other socio-economic, demographic and infrastructural data.
The private industrial activities have to submit an environmental report at the end of the year, including energy con-
sumption, amount of emissions whether gas, liquid or solid. This report should be evaluated by a specialized committee, similar
to the nancial report that provides taxes periodically. Therefore, we can apply the carbon pricing or taxes to every product based
on internationally standard environmental restrictions.
Reactivate and give the power to the censor division in the environmental authority to conduct its work regulatory on
the environment.
Encourage researches in the eld of renewable energy resources and increase support to the research institutions in
the area of clean energy and environmental issues.
For decision making purposes, less complex frameworks with small sets of a few lead indicators and recommendations.
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... "Air pollution is defined as the presence of foreign matter in the air, in a concentration that is most probably will adversely affect the well-being and health of people, which is caused mainly from multiple human activities, such as: construction, transportation, industry, or natural resources, and is considered as one of the main pollution problems around the world [2]." Natural and unnatural -anthropogenic-air pollution are the main classification of air pollution. ...
... Unnatural -anthropogenic-air pollution, also known as "Man-made air pollution", is a type of pollution which humans contribute in though daily activities, a great case in point is transportation, "thermal power generating plants, and industrial parks [2]". ...
... In addition, it stated some important percentages of numerous pollutants, which are CO2 (96.76%), CO (2.13%), PM (0.55%), SO2 (0.21%), NO2 (0.18%), and reaching to the utmost conclusion of how economic status of the state can greatly affect the capabilities of it to create a healthy indoor air environment [2] EPA 2017, has defined the main categories of exposure to pollutants; acute and chronic exposures, and their effect, with conclusion of how indoor air quality can effect individual`s performance, especially some parameters like temperature, humidity, ventilation, and also the presence of any source of pollution, could adversely affect the mental and physical aspects of individuals [6] A study was in France, has pointed out the most indoor air chemical concentrations is the healthcare activities, and mentioned ventilation as an important factor that when it's in at a low rate, level of pollutants would be increased [23]. ...
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Background: Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a very important topic; it contains a variety of factors: temperature, humidity, the presence of chemicals and the quality of outdoor air brought inside are typical metrics used to define IAQ. However, with poor quality usually lead to Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) and other serious symptoms. Aims: This study aimed to investigate Indoor air diseases and their symptoms of SBS among patients in ten hospitals in Benghazi, Libya and focusing on awareness/knowledge of patients and their education level regarding some pollutants and noise pollution. Study Design: This paper is a cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in December 2019 to September 2020 in Benghazi, Libya. Methodology: Performed sub analysis statistics have chosen 150 patients randomly in 10 hospitals (polyclinics/health centers) to fill out questionnaire about the most common symptoms are related to indoor air value in hospitals by also using the observational checklist. Results: Mostly females 54% were of age above 46 years, 31.3% of the participants were university education level, 69.3% have suffered from different type of diseases, which are hypertension, diabetes, and asthma, and most pollutants were inducted from vehicle traffic 63.3%. Conclusion: the study indicated the highest contaminates impact and the health criteria in all ten hospitals were under the study, which are; temperature and humidity, PM, other chemical pollutants and noise effect.
... Libya, illustrated in Figure ( On the other hand, NO 2 levels in Libya have exceeded the permissible levels especially in surrounding industrial areas such as electricity generation and cement industry, as reported by Nassar et al., (2017). ...
... 1), officially recognized as the State of Libya (26.3351° N, 17.2283° E), is a North African country with a total area of 1.76Km 2 and a population of approximately 6.871 million people (equivalent to 0.9% of the total global population) concentrated along the coast(Nassar et al., 2017; World Bank, 2020). ...
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The overall aim of this study is to estimate the spatial-temporal variation of NO 2 concentrations and its influencing factors in the State of Libya using the tools offered by Sentinel-5P TROPOMI, over the past year (January to December 2021). The significance of NO 2 observation comes since NO 2 accumulation in the atmosphere will cause severe air pollution. In recent decades, the Libyan State has been exposed to huge amounts of NO 2 due to rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization. Lately, Sentinel-5P observations have become the critical technical means regarding atmospheric observation compared with ground-based measurements. Results have shown that measurements obtained from Sentinel-5 Precursor were 8.7% more accurate than ground-based measurements. Moreover, the NO 2 column concentration was higher in the summer than in winter was as found in global and local Moran's test results, whilst the spatial distribution pattern was higher in coastal areas than inner areas. The influencing factors have also had a significant and positive impact that led to the high NO 2 atmospheric concentrations emphasized by SLM calculations. ‫الم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫خص‬ ‫لتركيزات‬ ‫والزماني‬ ‫المكاني‬ ‫التباين‬ ‫تقدير‬ ‫هو‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫من‬ ‫العام‬ ‫الهدف‬ 2 NO ‫والعوامل‬ ‫قدمها‬ ‫التي‬ ‫األدوات‬ ‫باستخدام‬ ‫ليبيا‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫في‬ ‫فيه‬ ‫المؤثرة‬ Sentinel-5P TROPOMI ‫العام‬ ‫خالل‬ ، ‫ديسمبر‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫يناير‬ ‫(من‬ ‫الماضي‬ 2021 ‫ثا‬ ‫تراكم‬ ‫ألن‬ ‫النيتروجين‬ ‫أكسيد‬ ‫ثاني‬ ‫مراقبة‬ ‫أهمية‬ ‫تأتي‬ .) ‫أكسيد‬ ‫ني‬ ‫األخيرة‬ ‫العقود‬ ‫في‬ ‫الليبية‬ ‫الدولة‬ ‫تعرضت‬ ‫للهواء.‬ ‫ًا‬ ‫شديد‬ ‫ا‬ ً ‫تلوث‬ ‫سيسبب‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الغالف‬ ‫في‬ ‫النيتروجين‬ ‫الحضري.‬ ‫والتطور‬ ‫والتصنيع‬ ‫السريع‬ ‫االقتصادي‬ ‫النمو‬ ‫بسبب‬ ‫النيتروجين‬ ‫أكسيد‬ ‫ثاني‬ ‫من‬ ‫هائلة‬ ‫لكميات‬ 28-01-2022 Rihan Journal for Scientific Publishing ‫م‬ ‫العلم‬ ‫للنشر‬ ‫ريحان‬ ‫جلة‬ ‫ي‬ ISSN:2709-2097 www.rjsp.org Issue 19 (2022) PP 01:13 3 ‫أرصاد‬ ‫أصبحت‬ ‫األخيرة،‬ ‫اآلونة‬ ‫في‬ Sentinel-5P ‫التقنية‬ ‫الوسائل‬ ‫هي‬ ‫بمراقبة‬ ‫يتعلق‬ ‫فيما‬ ‫الحاسمة‬ ‫من‬ ‫عليها‬ ‫الحصول‬ ‫تم‬ ‫التي‬ ‫القياسات‬ ‫أن‬ ‫النتائج‬ ‫أظهرت‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫األرضية.‬ ‫بالقياسات‬ ‫مقارنة‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الغالف‬ Sentinel-5 Precursor ‫بنسبة‬ ‫دقة‬ ‫أكثر‬ ‫كانت‬ 8.7 ‫كان‬ ‫ذلك،‬ ‫على‬ ‫عالوة‬ ‫األرضية.‬ ‫القياسات‬ ‫من‬ ٪ ‫عمود‬ ‫تركيز‬ 2 NO ‫الشتا‬ ‫في‬ ‫عليه‬ ‫كان‬ ‫مما‬ ‫الصيف‬ ‫في‬ ‫أعلى‬ ‫اختبار‬ ‫نتائج‬ ‫في‬ ‫موجود‬ ‫هو‬ ‫كما‬ ‫ء‬ s ' Moran ‫لتركيزات‬ ‫المكاني‬ ‫التوزيع‬ ‫نمط‬ ‫كان‬ ‫بينما‬ ‫والمحلية،‬ ‫العالمية‬ 2 NO ‫في‬ ‫منه‬ ‫الساحلية‬ ‫المناطق‬ ‫في‬ ‫أعلى‬ ‫تركيزات‬ ‫ارتفاع‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫أدى‬ ‫وإيجابي‬ ‫كبير‬ ‫تأثير‬ ‫ًا‬ ‫أيض‬ ‫المؤثرة‬ ‫للعوامل‬ ‫كان‬ ‫الداخلية.‬ ‫المناطق‬ 2 NO ‫في‬ ‫ح‬ ‫عليها‬ ‫أكدت‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الغالف‬ ‫لألراضي‬ ‫المستدامة‬ ‫اإلدارة‬ ‫سابات‬ (SLM). ‫المفتاحية:‬ ‫الكلمات‬ ‫المؤثرة،‬ ‫العوامل‬ ‫الزماني،‬ ‫المكاني‬ ‫التباين‬ 2 NO ، 5P-Sentinel ‫ليبيا‬ ، .
... On the other hand, the Libyan government intends to participate in international events to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, which is considered as the primary cause of the dangerous climatic phenomena that humanity suffers from [3]. Considering that the energy industry in Libya is the largest contributor to the environment pollution, due to its fulldependence on fossil fuels [4]. ...
Conference Paper
Solar energy is one of the most promising renewable energy options in Libya. The electrical yield of the solar PV panel is very sensitive to the cell's temperature. As Libya is a vast and with different terrains, weather parameters such as: temperature, wind, rain and humidity vary significantly across the country. Therefore, this variation must be considered when assessing the feasibility of the PV solar systems, taking into consideration the selection of the appropriate PV technology in terms of the electrical characteristics, and not generalizing the results of a specific region to the whole country. The present work aims to determine the kinds of solar PV module technologies that are suitable for the climatic conditions of each region of Libya identified on the map. Due to the lack of weather data, the research utilized the data provided by Solargis Database Company in analyzing the performance of PV solar field. In this regard, economic parameters of three different kinds of PV solar modules were simulated under real weather conditions of several sites using System Advisor Model software (SAM) simulation tool developed by the NREL-USA. It is successfully determined the most suitable kind of PV solar module for each zone across the Libyan territory. The obtained results can be implemented in the preliminary design steps, especially in the selection of the kind of PV solar modules to be installed in a particular location, where a difference in the Levelized Cost Of Energy (LCOE) values up to 45% was remarked between several types of PV solar modules for the same location.
... The industrial sector is a substantial economic resource for Libya, yet it is also considered to be the most polluting sector (Nassar, Aissa, & Alsadi, 2018). Given this, industries must pay particular attention to environmental issues. ...
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Full-text available
The use of environmental management accounting (EMA) benefits organisations by providing them with different information for decision-making (Burritt, Hahn, & Schaltegger, 2002; Adams & Zutshi, 2004; International Federation of Accountants IFAC, 2005). EMA has received increasing attention since 2000 and is now considered an effective tool for dealing with environmental issues and the economic performance of companies and countries (Elhossade, Abdo, & Mas’ud, 2021). This paper purposes to present an empirical case for research in EMA. The paper provides an analysis of the current status of EMA practices in manufacturing companies operating in Libya and identified the barriers preventing such practices. Data were collected from a sample of companies in Libyan manufacturing industry contexts utilizing a questionnaire survey. To analyse these data, two statistical techniques were employed: factor analysis and descriptive tools analysis. The current level of EMA adoption among manufacturing companies in Libya was found to be low. The findings of the study reveal that institutional barriers constituted the greatest obstacle to the adoption of EMA in manufacturing companies in Libya. This was followed by management barriers, informational barriers, financial barriers, and, lastly, attitudinal barriers. This paper concluded that Libyan universities should include EMA in the management accounting syllabus, provide books, and conduct research into practices related to EMA. Furthermore, the Libyan government and other stakeholders should play an active role in enacting and enforcing further strict environmental regulations and laws. This would be useful, as it would increase the concern of local communities about environmental issues; this would, in turn, make companies more concerned about improving their environmental performance.
... For this reason, the clear sky model was adopted to calculate the intensity of solar radiation in this study [23]. The methodology for estimating the solar irradiation incident on a tilted surface and facing to a certain azimuth angle is well documented in all text books of solar energy engineering [1] and reported in many research papers [24][25][26][27][28][29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this research, the performance of a moving solar system on two axes was studied, the east-west axis, this axis represents the tilt angle of the solar collector. The other movement is the surface's rotation around the perpendicular axis on the surface in the east and west directions, which in turn represents the azimuth angle of the solar collector. All possibilities for these movements were also studied, in order to reach the optimal option, which in turn depends on the importance of alication and the available space on the one hand, and the economic conditions on the other hand. The maximum value of solar radiation intensity was adopted as a guide to compare the performance of six options for tracking systems. Despite the high costs of tracking systems, they often have a positive economic return, as these systems increase the efficiency of the solar system, whether it is electric or thermal twice, the first one by increasing the intensity of the solar radiation incident on the solar collector, and the second one by increasing the optical efficiency of the solar collectors and thus increasing the overall efficiency of the device. The percentage of increase in the sixth type of solar energy is about 38% compared to the fixed mode. The minimum optical efficiency of the dual tracking mode has been found as 84%, while for fixed mode is about 48%.
... It is believed that renewable energies can substitute the conventional power plants based on fossil-fuel-fired and put an end to the global warming, as it became confirmed the role of carbon dioxide gas emitted from the chimneys of power plants in global warming and climate change [1,2], in additional many emissions that affect human health and the environment [3,4]. As a result of the electricity crisis that Palestinian cities suffer from, especially the Gaza Strip (Fig.1), where the hours of power cuts reach 18/24 hours, which prompted the government to increase in support for the use of solar collectors instead of electrical water heaters [6]. ...
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Full-text available
Little works considered the optimization of working fluids in solar systems. Engineers, designers and scientists are interested with the optimization problems, furthermore it is very important specially, for solar systems to improve the energetic behavior and increase their efficiencies as a conversion system of solar irradiance to a useful thermal power. According to the available literature, the criteria of optimization mainly relates to energetic and economic analysis (one of them or both). The analysis was based upon the maximum useful energy obtained from solar collector. Accordingly, the optimum mass flow rate was found aspires to infinity. The second analysis is based upon minimum cost of the unit of useful energy [$/W]. The optimum mass flow rate of solar air-heating flat-plate collector for the considered domestic solar heating system has been found 29 kg/h per square meters of solar collectors. This paper deals with a third criteria that is, the amount of the additional energy required to achieve the required task from the solar system by means of auxiliary heating system. In where both the outlet temperature and mass flow rate play crucial role in the heat exchange between the fluid in the collector loop and the fluid in the load loop.
... It has estimated that the Sahara Desert alone contributes 2 × 10 8 -3.3 × 10 8 tons per year or between 40-66% of the total dust. Dust storms may be traced as far as 4000 km from their origin (Nassar et al., 2018). Economic impacts of dust storms, reported in the literature include reduced soil fertility and damage to crops, a reduction of solar radiation and in consequence the efficiency of solar devices (Nassar, 2006;Hafez, 2019), damage to telecommunications and mechanical systems, dirt, air pollution (Nassar et al., 2017). ...
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Full-text available
Dust and sand storms attenuation is one of the main problem in usage of microwave bands for terrestrial and DB satellite at desert areas. This paper present and enforce a mathematical version to are expecting the microwave sign attenuation because of dust and sand storm withinside city of Sabha. The foremost enter parameters for the version are visibility, sign frequency, the quantity of dust particular sand humidity. The offered version successfully predicts the microwave sign attenuation. The effects display that the attenuation will increase with frequencies and humidity and reduces with visibilities. The observe located out that the very best values of attenuation in sabha city varies from 0.13 to 9.78 dB/km at humidity 60%. The final results of this observe will facilitate the layout of dependable conversation structures through thinking about the attenuation traits because of atmospheric situations that may permit mitigation of channel fading circumstance through adaptively choosing suitable propagation parameters.
... In the second test, the engine is allowed to idle between 450 and 1500 pm before the measurements were taken. (Tarfa, 2018, Motshwanedi, 2019, Nassar et al., 2017, Sahnoune et al., 2016, Beyene, 2015. Nigeria contributed more than 72% of West Africa's GHG emissions in 2015. ...
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Full-text available
The estimated economic cost of premature deaths in 2013 from air pollution in Africa was USD 450 billion. The economic cost might become uncontrollable if radical policy changes are not implemented soon. Particulate matter emission is mostly attributed to road transport and power generation worldwide. This paper examines the state and adequacy of fuel and vehicle standards prevalent across the African continent. Experimental emissions tests were conducted on 200 vehicles each in Rwanda and Ghana to ascertain compliance to local and international standards. The result showed that even some new vehicles failed the emission tests while almost all the diesel cars tested in both countries failed the international standard. It was discovered that only five African countries have emission standards, most of which were not being implemented. The results also show that while there are approximately 72 million vehicles in use in Africa, only seven countries are responsible for 70% of greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions from transportation in Africa is growing at a rate of 7% annually. Poor fuel quality, aging vehicle fleet, and lack of mandatory roadworthy emission tests were to blame for the deteriorating transport emissions. More than 50% of African countries have fuel quality worse than European fuel quality predating 1992. The study recommended the UK’s emission standard for the annual in-service emission testing and Euro 4 standards for both fuel and new vehicle standards.
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Full-text available
In this study, we explored a complicated environmental conflict among four parties in Libya: the National Oil Corporation, Jakhira Municipality, the residents of Jakhira City, and the Farmer Association of Jakhira City regarding the operation of the As-Sarah oil field. Therefore, a negotiation model based on the four issues of air pollution, water quality and quantity, noise pollution, and sustainable development was developed to resolve the conflict and help in the development and operations of the oil field. The value of maximizing the product in the cooperative negotiation model was 139,500, and the contract options were 2 for air pollution, 2 for water quality and quantity, 3 for noise impact, and 1 for sustainable development and tax returns. FA, ROJ, JM, and NOC had contract values of 73, 68, 78, and 70, respectively. The value of maximizing the product in the cooperative model was improved to 643,125 by using the Nash solution. The contract options were as follows: 2 for air pollution, 1 for water quality and quantity, 1 for noise impact, and 3 for sustainable development and tax returns. FA, ROJ, JM, and NOC had contract values of 90, 90, 80, and 70, respectively.
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Full-text available
The knowledge of solar radiation for a specific location is the basis for knowing the potential and thus the beginning of the process of designing and economic and technical evaluation of the solar system, whether it is flat or concentrated, fixed or tracking, thermal or electric. Because solar radiation measurements are not available except in meteorological stations, which of course do not cover all places on the earth, the only approach to calculate the solar radiation incident on an inclined surface is by using plane-to-array transposition models for all solar radiation components: direct beam solar radiation, sky-diffuse solar radiation, and ground-reflected solar radiation. This article presents a detailed presentation of the 22 most widely used sky-diffuse transposition models in the scientific community, commercial software, and database banks specialized in solar energy. The comparison includes four different statistical indicators: RMSE, MBE, PAD and t-stat are used to identify the most promising transposition model.
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Electricity crisis in Libya-specially in summer season-led to the urgent need for the use of generators in order to provide houses, hospitals, commercial shops, restaurants, etc by electricity. The problem still not yet solved, so it leads to massive use of such generators. Indeed, the government is facing two problems: the first one conducted to the electricity industrial and the other one is associated with the individual electricity generation (in case of electricity cutoff) such as: aggravations of the fuel (gasoline and diesel) consumption, air pollution and money waste. The study was conducted to evaluate the amount of gases emissions such as: NO X , SO X , CO 2 , CO, VOC and PC resulting per kWh of electricity generated by generators, assessing their impacts on the human health and environment also the overall economic process, offering other alternatives to overcome these problems. Moreover, these proposals are including hybrid power generation plants which consists both traditional and renewable power generation plants such as steam cycle, gas cycle, combined cycle, wind, thermal solar and PV solar. However, the study is successfully outlined the pricing process which must be followed to evaluate the real cost of the electricity production (especially in countries that supporting the fuel and electricity prices-generally all Oil producing countries-such as: Libya, Saudi, UAE, Alger, Iraq, Niger, Venezuela, etc...), including the damages of the fluent gases from the generators. This procedure will put the renewable energies in advanced competitive positions. Therefore, a general equation connecting the crude oil price and the electrical load with the total money savings has been created. A practical tool for decision makers is presented which facilitates a primary estimate of the costs of power generation plants under local conditions. Furthermore, with the range of money savings from the proposed scenario, many possibilities to build a regional Multi-Mega power plant to cover the base electrical load were tabulated.
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Dust Storms play a key role in environmental pollution. They have a significant impact on climate-forcing factor by solar and terrestrial radiation by scattering and absorption. The dust storms represent a familiar phenomenon of frequent occurrence over Iraq atmosphere, especially during the period (April-September) of each year. In present study, the effect of 20 dust storms struck Baghdad city during the period (2008-2012) on meteorological parameters was investigated. These parameters include visibility, solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, air temperature and relative humidity. Through the comparison among the impact of the selected dust storms, it was found that the dust storm which struck Baghdad city 16th May 2008 had a more severe Impact on the meteorological variables than the other dust storms. the difference in the radiation to the (5229) W\m 2 from the day before the storm and the temperature dropped by 2.5 o C and visibility deteriorated greatly to be the difference from the day before the storm of dust in limits 6467 m. It has been found that this storm has had a greater impact on the meteorological variables from other storms.
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Estimated emissions of gases and particulate matter from two Portland cement plants near Khoms city in northwestern Libya by computer simulation reveal that the SO2, NOx, and dust emissions exceed selected international standard limits. The results highlight the need for improved operational procedures to minimize emissions and avoid any possible adverse environmental effects.
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Solid waste holds the greatest potential as biomass source in Libya. The rapid expansion of industry has led to increased urbanization, and growing population. These factors have dramatically increased the amount of MSW (municipal solid waste) generated in Libya. However, issues related to environmentally sound MSW management – including waste decrease and clearance – have not been addressed sufficiently. This study presents an overview on solid waste that can be used as a source of bioenergy in Libya including MSW, ISW (industrial solid waste), and HSW (health care wastes) as biomass sources. The management of solid waste and valorization is based on an understanding of MSW's composition and physicochemical characteristics. The results show that organic matter represents 59% of waste, followed by paper-cardboard 12%, plastic 8%, miscellaneous 8%, metals 7%, glass 4%, and wood 2%. The technology of WTE (Waste-to-energy) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in Libya. This paper provides an overview of this technology, including both its conversion options and its useful products (e.g., electricity, heat, greenhouse gas emissions). The WTE benefits and the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in Libya are discussed. It also demonstrates that Libya could become an exporter of hydrogen in lieu of oil and natural gas.
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The open burning of waste, whether at individual residences, businesses, or dump sites, is a large source of air pollutants. These emissions, however, are not included in many current emission inventories used in chemistry and climate modeling applications. This paper presents the first comprehensive and consistent estimates of the global emissions of greenhouse gases, particulate matter, reactive trace gases, and toxic compounds from open waste burning. Global emissions of CO2 from open waste burning are relatively small compared to total anthropogenic CO2. However, regional CO2 emissions, particularly in many developing countries in Asia and Africa, are significant. Further, emissions of reactive trace gases and particulate matter from open waste burning are more significant on regional scales. For example, the emissions of PM10 from open domestic waste burning in China is equivalent to 22 % of China's total reported anthropogenic PM10 emissions. The results of the emissions model presented here suggest that emissions of many air pollutants are significantly underestimated in current inventories because open waste burning is not included, consistent with studies that compare model results with available observations.
Energy conservation indicators in Southern mediterranean countries Country report for Libya
  • E M Ali
Ali EM, et al. Energy conservation indicators in Southern mediterranean countries Country report for Libya. 2012. 2. https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/gas-density-d_158.html 3. http://www.countryreports.org/country/Libya.htm
General electrical company of Libya (GECOL)
  • W Alsuessi
Alsuessi W, et al. General electrical company of Libya (GECOL). Eur Int J Sci Tech. 2015;4:1-9.