Article

Effect of Perceived Parent–Child Relationship in Childhood on Resilience in Japanese Youth

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Abstract

The present study examined the effect of the perceived parent–child relationship in childhood on resilience in youth. It recruited 268 university students majoring in education and college students majoring in welfare science to investigate the relationship between their perception of parent–child relationship in their childhood and their current resilience by their responses on the Adolescent Resilience Scale and the Children's Perceived Affiliation for Parents Scale. The results indicated that female's positive perception of their relationship with their mothers in childhood had a positive influence on their resilience. On the other hand, the positive influence was inconspicuous and limited with regard to the perception of female's relationship with their fathers in childhood. In contrast, this positive influence was not confirmed in male participants regardless of the perception of their relationship with mothers and fathers in childhood. Although limited to females, these results suggest that youth's perception of their parent–child relationships in childhood significantly affected the development of resilience. In addition, sex difference was observed in this effect. The findings have been discussed with respect to the process of the development of resilience.

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... (3) hold more positive attitudes toward themselves and feel self-worth (i.e., self-efficacy; Steinberg & Silk, 2002); and (4) be more likely to persevere when facing adversity and problems (i.e., resilience; Atwool, 2006;Tamura, 2019). ...
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This study expanded current understanding of the previously demonstrated association between parent-adolescent relationships and friendship quality. A moderated mediation model was constructed to examine whether adolescent psychological capital (PsyCap) mediated this association and whether the result was further moderated by neighborhood safety and satisfaction. This was a cross-sectional study for which we recruited 733 adolescents (Mage =15.08 years, SD =1.96) in Macao, China. Participants completed questionnaires regarding their parent-adolescent relationships, PsyCap, neighborhood safety and satisfaction, and friendship quality. After controlling for gender and age, it was found that the positive association between parent-adolescent relationships and friendship quality was partially mediated by PsyCap. Moreover, neighborhood safety and satisfaction moderated the second stage of the indirect effect. Specifically, the positive effect of PsyCap on friendship quality was much stronger for adolescents reporting high as opposed to low level of neighborhood safety and satisfaction. The results underscore the importance of integrating the conservation of resources theory, ecological model, and the model of individual ↔ context relations, to understand how and when parent-adolescent relationships are associated with friendship quality. These findings also highlight the need to simultaneously consider family, neighborhood, and individual factors when developing effective interventions to improve adolescent friendship quality.
... The relationship between the parents and their adult children is the most common source of intergenerational support (22), and interaction with children is the manifestation of the parentchild relationship in daily life. There are many studies that reveal the effects of parent-child relationships on children (23)(24)(25)(26)(27), but few studies have examined how these relationships may have a possible association with the health of the parents (28). Parents' metabolic health may, in part, be influenced by aspects of the parent-child relationship (29), and parents tend to suffer from depression as there are decreases in the frequency of seeing their adult children and their satisfaction with the parentchild relationship (30). ...
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Objectives This study aims to examine the mediation role of satisfaction with children on the association between contact with children (CCT) and healthy aging among middle-aged and older parents in China. Methods Data from 9,575 parents over 45 years old were obtained from the 2018 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey. A multinomial logistic regression model was applied to measure the association between contact, satisfaction, and healthy aging with potential confounders controlled. We used the Sobel–Goodman Mediation test to analyze the mediation role of satisfaction on the association between types of CCT and healthy aging. Results Parents with contact with adult children had higher satisfaction with children [for contact weekly (satisfied/unsatisfied): relative risk ratio ( RRR ) = 2.44, CI = 1.92–3.10] and higher healthy aging [for contact weekly (Q5/Q1): RRR = 1.41, CI = 1.13–1.77]. Satisfaction was strongly related to healthy aging [for satisfied (Q5/Q1): RRR = 3.44, CI = 2.14–5.51], and mediated 19.05% of healthy aging for weekly contact (Sobel test z = 4.338; indirect role = 0.014, CI = 0.011–0.018; direct role = 0.061, CI = 0.029–0.094). Subgroup analysis further revealed that satisfaction with contact played a partial mediating role between monthly contact and healthy aging in female and rural groups. Conclusions Monthly CCT is more appropriate for older parents. Satisfaction with children in older parents seems to act as a significant and partial mediator of the relationship between contact and healthy aging. The contribution of satisfaction to healthy aging could be important to be considered and promoted in women and rural older parents, independent of CCT.
... The relational differences could be due to the differences in early socialisation of emotions by parents and gendered parenting practices; for example, mothers have been found to socialise negative emotions in children more than fathers (Garside & Klimes-Dougan, 2002;Hwang & Jung, 2020). Additionally, the need for closeness and desire for identity in university students has been found to be associated with relationships with the mother (Tamura, 2019), suggesting that dysfunctions in the mother-child relationship, such as indifferent parenting, can impact the psycho-social development of emerging adults later in life. ...
Article
Background: The mental health and well-being of university students has been deemed a global concern due to the rising prevalence of poor mental health and psychosocial functioning. The thesis's impetus was drawn from the increased advocacy for resilience promotion in university students by higher education-based policies. A review of resilience literature within the higher education context illuminated several discrepancies in the conceptual and operational enquiry of resilience for this specific population. Specifically, the study of resilience within the higher education setting has primarily been individual-focused which has discounted the risk or protective role of family and social factors. Additionally, a review of the resilience-based interventions for university students indicated the need for a systematic theoretical and empirical delineation of the complex construct. Objective: The thesis proposed and examined the prospective validity of a socio-ecological model of resilience. The influence of a within-individual (i.e., perceived stress), familial (i.e., dysfunctional parenting styles), and social (i.e., perceived social support) risk and protective factors on a multidimensional construct of resilience (i.e., psychological, social, and emotional resilience) were examined. The underlying mechanism of cognitive reappraisal and the potential variations in this mechanism due to the gender and ethnic identities of the university students were also examined. Methods: A two-phase study design with baseline and 5-month follow-up assessments were conducted. A sample of undergraduate students (79.72% female students, 81.44% While/White British students, mean age = 20.74 years) from all years of study completed a self-report survey at the start of their first term (baseline, n = 775) and again at the end of their second term (follow-up, n = 376). Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to establish longitudinal measurement invariance of the measures used in the self-report survey. Path analyses examined the direct associations, mediation effects, and moderated mediation effects on the data from a final matched sample (n = 362). Results: Longitudinal path models indicated that perceived stress was a significant predictor of psychological (i.e., mental well-being and psychological distress), social (campus connectedness), and emotional (i.e., positive and negative affect) resilience. Cognitive reappraisal partly conveyed the causal relationships between perceived stress and mental well-being, psychological distress, and positive affect across time. Perceived social support from friends was associated with mental well-being and campus connectedness, and these relationships were partly conveyed by cognitive reappraisal. Perceived social support from significant others was associated with mental well-being, psychological distress, and positive affect. Experiences of maternal dysfunctional parenting styles had direct relationships with mental well-being, psychological distress, campus connectedness, and negative affect. Perceived social support from family and paternal dysfunctional parenting styles were not associated with the outcomes of resilience. Gender and ethnicity did not moderate the underlying mechanism of cognitive reappraisal in the pathways of resilience in the longitudinal models. Discussion: This thesis's findings support the need to examine social and family-based factors as predictors of resilience. Specifically, the results suggest that early adverse experiences of poor family functioning can have a cascading effect on psychological, social, and emotional adaptation later in life. The partial support for cognitive reappraisal suggests that the ability to downregulate emotional responses in the face of stressors can be beneficial when perceived social support is low, and perceived stress is high. These findings have significant implications on the development of resilience-based interventions that provide opportunities for the formation of long-lasting social support networks and cultivating stress-management skills. Overall, the findings offer a useful socio-ecological framework for the conceptualisation and operationalisation of university students' resilience within the higher education context.
... For decades, the elasticity of subjects with different ages, sexes, and backgrounds has been continuously studied by researchers [11,12]. However, there is still a lack of research on the development of children's resilience [13]. As one of the internal protection factors of resilience, emotional ability is closely related to resilience [14]. ...
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Background: In the process of children's physical and mental development, emotional ability is an important part of their cognitive and social ability. Resilience in the face of difficulties or setbacks and other adversity will also produce differences in adaptability, thus affecting physical and mental development. Objectives: This study aimed to measure the effect of children's emotional ability on resilience and to provide an in-depth analysis based on age and gender differences. Methodology: A total of 300 preschool children aged 3-6 years old in kindergartens of China were randomly selected as the research subjects. Through a combination of experiments and questionnaires, the emotional ability and resilience of children were measured, and differences were analyzed according to the actual situation, using age and gender. Results: Children of different ages have significant differences in the dimensions and total scores of emotional ability and resilience, but only some of the resilience dimensions have significant gender differences. Moreover, the emotional ability has a significant positive effect on resilience. Discussions: The results confirm the influence of children's emotional ability on resilience, but the research hypothesis has not been fully verified. Limitations: This study has the limitations of a single measurement method and a more effective research tool.
... Evidence has shown the significance of the first years of life in building a foundation for healthy psychosocial development. (15)(16)(17) Stable bonding and attachment relationships with parents and other caregivers create the foundation for children's physiological functioning, for their emotional and cognitive interpretations of their own social experiences, and for the acquisition of meaning about themselves and others in several social situations. These relationships have a significant impact on how children reaction to stress, social performance, and physical and mental health. ...
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Objective To characterize self-perception of resilience in children and adolescents, and to analyze how this self-perception differs from the perception of their parents in correlation with sociodemographic variables. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted as part of the MAISaúdeMental (More Mental Health) project with a nonprobability convenience sample including 567 children and adolescents, 50.6% of whom were females aged between 9 and 17 years old (mean = 12.40; SD = 1.59 years old) enrolled in basic education schools from Central Portugal, and 592 parents (mean age = 40.43 years old; SD = 2.58 years old). A questionnaire for sociodemographic characterization was used, along with the Healthy Kids Resilience Assessment Module (version 6.0) Internal Assets subscale, adapted to the Portuguese population by Martins (2005), composed of 18 items and 6 dimensions. Results Out of the total number of children/adolescents, 78.8% lived with their parents. Out of the total number of parents, most were between the ages of 40 and 41 years old. Resilience was classified as moderate by 47.8% of children/adolescents at an identical distribution in parents. The t-test showed children’s self-perception of resilience to be more positive when compared to their parents with significant differences seen in all dimensions (p <0.000). Younger parents showed a more positive perception of their children’s resilience, significant only for “empathy and respect” (0.036) and “problem-solving skills” (0.001). Resilience decreased significantly with age and higher education levels, and children living with their parents showed higher resilience. Conclusion Study results show differences between the perceptions of resilience in children and their parents, which are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics.
... It is inconsistent with earlier research which found resilience level of left-behind middle school students declined continuously in the followup (Luo et al., 2016). A previous research suggested that youth's perception of parentchild relationships in childhood significantly affected the resilience development (Tamura, 2018). From our findings, we could conclude that separation from parents may have adverse effects on child's resilience; however, left-behind children also experience somewhat increase in the resilience level, although slowly. ...
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The concept of mechanisms that protect people against the psychological risks associated with adversity is discussed in relation to four main processes: reduction of risk impact, reduction of negative chain reactions, establishment and maintenance of self-esteem and self-efficacy, and opening up of opportunities. The mechanisms operating at key turning points in people's lives must be given special attention.
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Almost since the beginnings of psychiatric practice, there has been a recognition that negative life experiences and stressful happenings may serve to precipitate mental disorders (Garmezy & Rutter, 1985). Nearly 200 years ago, Pinel wrote about the psychiatric risks associated with unexpected reverses or adverse circumstances, and it is reported that his initial question to newly admitted psychiatric patients was: “Have you suffered vexation, grief or reverse of fortune?” Nevertheless, although an appreciation that a variety of stressors may play a role in the genesis of psychiatric disorder has a long history, the systematic study of such effects is much more recent.
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This article discusses the building blocks for a developmental psychopathology, focusing on studies of risk, competence, and protective factors. The current Project Competence studies of stress and competence are described, with particular attention to the methodology and strategies for data analysis. The authors present a 3-model approach to stress resistance in a multivariate regression framework: the compensatory, challenge, and protective factor models. These models are illustrated by selected data. In the concluding section, an evaluation of the project is offered in terms of future directions for research.
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This study describes the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the 25-item Resilience Scale (RS) in a sample of 810 community-dwelling older adults. Principal components factor analysis of the RS was conducted followed by oblimin rotation indicating that the factor structure represented two factors (Personal Competence and Acceptance of Self and Life). Positive correlations with adaptational outcomes (physical health, morale, and life satisfaction) and a negative correlation with depression supported concurrent validity of the RS. The results of this study support the internal consistency reliability and concurrent validity of the RS as an instrument to measure resilience.
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This study tested hypotheses from an organizational-developmental model for childhood resilience. In this model resilience reflects a child's mastery of age-salient objectives, in the face of substantial adversity, by drawing on internal and external resources that enhance processes of adaptation specific to each developmental stage. Interviews were conducted with parents of 122 7- to 9-year-old urban children exposed to multiple risk factors, 69 classified as resilient and 53 as maladjusted. Consistent with predictions generated by the model: (1) characteristics of a child's caregiving system and early development differentiated children with resilient and stress-affected adaptations; and (2) variables reflecting emotionally responsive, competent parenting were direct, proximal predictors of resilient status and mediators of other caregiver resources such as education, mental health, and relational history. Identified predictors of resilient status, including competent parenting and caregiver psychosocial resources, largely replicated findings from a prior study with sociodemographically comparable 9- to 12-year-old children.
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Influential studies have cast doubt on the validity of retrospective reports by adults of their own adverse experiences in childhood. Accordingly, many researchers view retrospective reports with scepticism. A computer-based search, supplemented by hand searches, was used to identify studies reported between 1980 and 2001 in which there was a quantified assessment of the validity of retrospective recall of sexual abuse, physical abuse, physical/emotional neglect or family discord, using samples of at least 40. Validity was assessed by means of comparisons with contemporaneous, prospectively obtained, court or clinic or research records; by agreement between retrospective reports of two siblings; and by the examination of possible bias with respect to differences between retrospective and prospective reports in their correlates and consequences. Medium- to long-term reliability of retrospective recall was determined from studies in which the test-retest period extended over at least 6 months. Retrospective reports in adulthood of major adverse experiences in childhood, even when these are of a kind that allow reasonable operationalisation, involve a substantial rate of false negatives, and substantial measurement error. On the other hand, although less easily quantified, false positive reports are probably rare. Several studies have shown some bias in retrospective reports. However, such bias is not sufficiently great to invalidate retrospective case-control studies of major adversities of an easily defined kind. Nevertheless, the findings suggest that little weight can be placed on the retrospective reports of details of early experiences or on reports of experiences that rely heavily onjudgement or interpretation. Retrospective studies have a worthwhile place in research, but further research is needed to examine possible biases in reporting.
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  • M G Sawyer
  • P A Baghurst
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Understanding and resolving emotional conflict
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Jido no oya ni taisuru sinwasei no inshikozo to syakudo no sakusei [The factor structure of children's affiliation with their parents and the development of the scale to assess children's affiliation with their parents]. Fujita Shoken sensei taikan kinen shi
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Parenting and resilience
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Fostering resiliency in kids: Protective factors in the family, school and community
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Parental attachment and love language as determinants of resilience among graduating university students
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