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Phytochemical Analysis, Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activity of Sansevieria cylindrica Leaves Extract

  • Era University Lucknow

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Traditionally, Genus Sansevieria has been used for the treatment of various ailments in African countries since ancient time. In South Africa and tropical American countries, a crude drug obtained from Sansevieria trifasciata species is sold out in the local market to cure the snakebite and inflammatory conditions. In this study, chemical and pharmacological studies of Sansevieria cylindrica have been carried out. Phytochemical analysis of extracts of Sansevieria cylindrica leaves showed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Methanol fraction was found to show maximum phenolic content. Ethanol extract and its methanol fraction exhibited significant antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The ethanol extract inhibited 80.5%, whereas methanol fraction showed 83.6% inhibition of DPPH free radicals at 100 μg/mL concentration respectively. In addition, methanol fraction exhibited 57.9% inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme at 100 μM concentration. Our study confirmed the traditional uses of Sansevieria cylindrica plants for the treatment of various diseases.
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Cite this Article as: Tanveer Ahamad, Devendra Singh Negi, Mohammad Faheem Khan, Phytochemical analysis, total phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of Sansevieria cylindrica leaves
extract, J. Nat. Prod. Resour. 3(2) (2017) 134-136.
J. Nat. Prod. Resour. - Volume 3 Issue 2 (2017) 134136
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Phytochemical Analysis, Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activity of
Sansevieria cylindrica Leaves Extract
Tanveer Ahamad1, Devendra Singh Negi2, Mohammad Faheem Khan1,*
1Department of Biotechnology, Era’s Lucknow Medical College & Hospital, Sarfarazganj, Lucknow 226 003, UP, India.
2Department of Chemistry, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar 246 174, UK, India.
Article history:
Received 06 August 2017
Accepted 28 August 2017
Available online 01 September 2017
Traditionally, Genus Sansevieria has been used for the treatment of various ailments in African countries
since ancient time. In South Africa and tropical American countries, a crude drug obtained from
Sansevieria trifasciata species is sold out in the local market to cure the snakebite and inflammatory
conditions. In this study, chemical and pharmacological studies of Sansevieria cylindrica have been
carried out. Phytochemical analysis of extracts of Sansevieria cylindrica leaves showed the presence of
steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Methanol fraction was found to show
maximum phenolic content. Ethanol extract and its methanol fraction exhibited significant antioxidant
and antidiabetic activities. The ethanol extract inhibited 80.5%, whereas methanol fraction showed
83.6% inhibition of DPPH free radicals at 100 μg/mL concentration respectively. In addition, methanol
fraction exhibited 57.9% inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme at 100 µM concentration. Our
study confirmed the traditional uses of Sansevieria cylindrica plants for the treatment of various
Sansevieria cylindrical
Phytochemical Analysis
Total Phenolic Content
Antioxidant Activity
Antidiabetic Activity
1. Introduction
Medicinal plants have been identified and used as significant herbal
medicine all over world from prehistoric times for the treatment of many
illness conditions [1]. These medicines are prepared in the form of crude
drug or in pure form from seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flower
parts of various plants. The therapeutic activity of a plant is due to the
presence of complex chemical constituents in different parts, providing
certain therapeutic effects [2]. World Health Organization (WHO)
estimated that 80% of people worldwide rely on herbal medicines with
increasing interest because of public dissatisfaction with the cost of
prescribe medications, various side effects of synthetic medicines, non-
toxic nature, more affordable with lower cost and allows greater public
access to health information [3]. Plants are rich sources of different types
of secondary metabolites which are generally termed as compounds or
chemical constituents. These compounds are not only used directly as
therapeutic agents, but also as starting materials for the synthesis of drugs
or as models for pharmacologically active compounds [4]. Many of these
compounds have pharmacological activities and used in the treatment of
chronic and acute conditions and various ailments such as cardiovascular
disease, prostate problems, depression, inflammation, to boost the
immune system and antioxidant properties. Antioxidant activity is shown
by phenols or their oxygen-substituted derivatives such as tannins,
flavonoids, phenolic acid as well as compounds having hydroxyl
functionality [5]. Based on the traditional aspects of herbal medicine and
Sansevieria cylindrical (SC), this study was conducted to evaluate the
antioxidant as well as antidiabetic activity of leaf extracts of this plant.
SC belongs to the family Asparagaceae, commonly referred to as Spear
Sansevieria. It is a succulent and an evergreen perennial plant, native to
the subtropical regions of the African continent and cultivated in Egypt for
ornamental purposes [6]. It is also found in some part of India as an
ornamental plant. SC including other species has different chemical
constituents such as dicarboxylic acids, phenols, steroidal saponins,
saponins, homoisoflavanone, coumarins and ester of fatty acids [7].
Sansevieria species were investigated for many pharmacological activities,
such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, and antidiabetic activities
and inhibition of the capillary permeability activity [8]. However, a survey
of the literature showed that no antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of
leaves of SC have been carried out. As part of our research work on the
phytochemical investigation of medicinal plants, we have reported
antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of extracts and their fractions of
leaves of SC.
2. Experimental Methods
2.1 Chemical and Instrumentation
All solvents (ethanol, methanol, dichloromethane hydrochloric acid,
sulfuric acid, chloroform, ammonia, glacial acetic acid, sodium hydroxide)
were purchased from SD fine chemical limited, Mumbai, India and were
used without further purification. All chemicals were of analytical grade.
1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, gallic
acid, ascorbic acid, anhydrous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), Dragendorff’s
reagent, mercuric chloride, potassium iodide, iodine were purchased from
Sigma-Aldrich, Mumbai, India. Solvents were recovered by using a water
bath (Perfit India) and Buchi Rotavapor (R-300). Absorbance was
measured with the help of UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Systronic, model
2.2 Plant Material
SC leaves were collected from the botanical garden, Department of
Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, UP, India in January 2017. Plant
material was kindly confirmed and authenticated Dr. Alka Kumari,
Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, UP, India
where one voucher specimen was deposited. The collected samples were
air-dried, powdered and kept in tightly-closed container for further
2.3 Extraction and Fractionation
SC leaves (1.0 kg) were chopped into small pieces and air-dried at room
temperature over several days until dryness. The dried pieces were
powdered, weighed and percolated with 95% ethanol. It was repeated five
times with an interval of 3 days. After percolation, filtration was carried
out using Whatman filter paper. The combined filtrate of the alcoholic
extracts was concentrated using Buchi Rotavapor (Interface R-300) with
the speed set at 150 RPM and temperature at 45 °C. The concentrated
*Corresponding Author
Email Address: (Mohammad Faheem Khan)
ISSN: 2455-0299
Tanveer Ahamad et al. / Journal of Natural Products and Resources 3(2) (2017) 134136
Cite this Article as: Tanveer Ahamad, Devendra Singh Negi, Mohammad Faheem Khan, Phytochemical analysis, total phenolic content, antioxidant and an tidiabetic activity of Sansevieria cylindrica leaves
extract, J. Nat. Prod. Resour. 3(2) (2017) 134-136.
extract was removed from the round bottom flask with ethanol and
poured into weighed beakers. The alcoholic solvent was allowed to
evaporate up to dryness. The dried solid extract was collected, weighed
and used for fractionation. The ethanol extract (50 g) was triturated with
hexane (5.1 g) and the hexane insoluble portion was dissolved in water,
which was successively extracted with chloroform (500 ml x 3) and
methanol (500 mL x 3) which yielded fractions of chloroform (12.7 g),
methanol (20.5 g) and water (8.2 g).
2.4 Phytochemical Screening
Phytochemical screening was carried out for all the extracts and
fractions according to the method described by Trease and Evans [9], with
slight modifications. The screening was performed for steroids, flavonoids,
saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate
formation was used as analytical tests. The qualitative results are
expressed as (+) for the presence and (−) for the absence of
2.5 Total Phenolic Content
Total soluble phenolics of the extracts were determined with Folin-Cio
calteau’s reagent with the help of UV-VIS spectrophotometer [10]. Gallic
acid was used as a standard. One mg of Gallic acid was dissolved in 10 mL
of methanol (100 μg/mL) to prepare a stock solution and then further
diluted to 8, 4, 2 and 1 μg/mL. One mL aliquot of each dilution was taken
and diluted with 10 mL of distilled water. Then 3 mL Folin-Ciocalteu
reagent was added and allowed to incubate at room temperature for 5 min,
2 mL of 20% (w/w) Na2CO3 was added in each sample and left to stand for
30 min at room temperature. Absorbance was measured at 765 nm using
UV-VIS spectrophotometer against blank (distilled water). Results were
expressed as milligrams of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per 100 g of the dry
sample. The coefficient of determination was r = 0.9968.
2.6 DPPH Assay
DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity was
evaluated based on the method described previously [11]. It was
measured a decrease in absorbance at 517 NM of a solution of colored
DPPH in methanol brought about by the sample. Ascorbic acid was used as
a reference compound. Briefly, 5 mL of methanol, DPPH (0.1 mM) was
added to 1 mL of the sample solution in 5 µg/mL, 10 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, 50
µg/mL and 100 µg/mL concentrations. These mixtures were incubated for
30 min at room temperature. After this, the absorbance was measured at
517 nm against a blank. The inhibition of DPPH radical was calculated as
where Abscontrol is the absorbance of DPPH radical + methanol; Abssample is
the absorbance of DPPH radical + extract/standard.
2.7 D-glucose-6-phosphate phosphorylase (from Rat Liver) Assay
The livers of male rats of Wistar strain were exercised. A 10%
homogenate was prepared in 150 mM KCl using Potter Elvejhem glass
homogenizer fitted with Teflon pestle. The homogenate was centrifuged at
1500 rpm for 10 min; supernatant was decanted and used as enzyme
source. The effect of extracts and fractions were studied by pre-incubating
the compound in 1.0 mL reaction system for 15 min and then determining
the residual glucose-6-phosphatase activity according to the method of
Hubscherand West [12]. The 1.0 mL assay system contained 0.3 M citrate
buffer (pH 6.0), 28 mM EDTA, 14 mM NaF, 200 mM glucose-6-phosphate,
and enzyme protein. The mixture was incubated at 37°C for 30 min after
which 1.0 mL of 10% TCA was added. Estimation of inorganic phosphates
(Pi) in protein free supernatant was done according to the method of
Taussky and Shorr [13]. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was defined as
micromole Pi released per minute per milligram protein.
2.8 Statistical Analysis
The values are expressed as Means±SD. The experiments were repeated
three times. Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA followed by
Dunnett’s test for multiple comparisons using the graph pad prism v5.0
(Graph pad software, inc., USA). P values of less than 0.05 were taken to be
significant in the experiments.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1 Phytochemical Screening
The preliminary phytochemical screening of leaf extracts of SC (Table
1) revealed the presence of various compounds such as phenols, alkaloids,
saponins, steroidal-spanning, flavonoids, fatty acids and coumarins. When
1ml of the methanol or aqueous extract was taken in test tube followed by
a few drops of 10% ferric solution was added. Formation of blue or green
color indicates presence of phenols. For the steroids, 1 mL of extract in
chloroform and few drops of conc. H2SO4 was mixed to form brown ring.
Fluorescence was detected by the UV test (365 nm) for chloroform fraction
which indicate the presence of coumarins. Flavonoids were verified for the
studies chloroform, methanol and residual aqueous fraction with Shinoda
test. In this test to the test solution few magnesium turnings and
concentrated hydrochloric acid was added dropwise pink, scarlet or green
to blue color appears after minutes. The presence of saponins was
confirmed by foam-producing properties of these compounds. They were
identified in methanol and aqueous fractions.
Table 1 Results of phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts of SC
Fatty acids
+++: Strong intensity reaction; ++: Medium intensity reaction;
+: Weak intensity reaction; −: Nondetected
3.2 Extraction Yield
Results of extraction yield showed that the amount of extraction crude
of SC depends upon the solvent nature and it varied from 10.2to 41.0%
with a descending order of methanol >water > chloroform > hexane (Table
2). Extraction with methanol resulted in the highest amount of total
extractable compounds, whereas the extraction yield with hexane was
small in comparison to other solvents. Higher extraction yield in methanol
might be due to the fact that it easily penetrates the cellular membrane
and extracts the intracellular ingredients from the plant material. These
results showed that SC contains more of polar compounds than the others.
3.3 Total Phenolic Content
The quantitative determination of total phenol was determined with the
Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The total phenols were expressed as mg/g Gallic
acid equivalent using the standard curve of gallic acid (Fig. 1). Linearity of
calibration curve was achieved between 1 to 8 µg/mL and calculated as an
equation: y = 0.0837x-0.0513, R2= 0.999, where y is absorbance at 760 nm
and x is total phenolic content in the extracts and fractions. The maximum
phenolic content was found in the methanol fractions (86.2 ± 2.6). In the
hexane and chloroform fractions, phenolic compounds could not be
detected. These results demonstrate clearly that the content of phenolic
compounds is dependent on the polarity of the solvent used; higher the
polarity of the solvent, higher the content of phenolic compounds.
Moreover, SC leaves can be considered as a good source of phenolic
Fig. 1 Standard curve of Gallic acid
Table 2 Extraction yield and Total phenolic content of SC leaves extracts
S. No.
Extraction yield
Total phenolic content (mg
GAE/g extract)
10.0 ± 1.5a
81.8 ± 3.4a
10.2 ± 0.5b
25.4 ± 2.1c
21.9± 1.8b
41.0 ± 1.8d
86.2 ± 2.6c
16.4 ± 2.4e
Values are mean ± standard deviation of triplicate experiments. Different letters in
columns show significant differences at p < 0.05; ND, not detected
Tanveer Ahamad et al. / Journal of Natural Products and Resources 3(2) (2017) 134136
Cite this Article as: Tanveer Ahamad, Devendra Singh Negi, Mohammad Faheem Khan, Phytochemical analysis, total phenolic content, antioxidant and an tidiabetic activity of Sansevieria cylindrica leaves
extract, J. Nat. Prod. Resour. 3(2) (2017) 134-136.
3.4 Antioxidant Activity
Most of the methods of determination of total antioxidant activity
characterize the ability of the tested compound or product to scavenge
free radicals where DPPH is the best example to measure the free radical
scavenging activity. It is recommended for studies with electron and
hydrogen donating compounds such as phenols or flavonoids. Our result
showed that the methanol fraction has the highest percentage of phenol
content. Keeping in view, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of the
ethanol extract and its fractions viz hexane, chloroform, methanol and
aqueous by determining the percentage inhibition of DPPH radical.
Ascorbic acid was used as standard for the present investigation. A
significant inhibition of DPPH free radical was observed in ethanol extract
and methanol fraction at the concentration of 100 μg/mL (Table 3).
Ethanol extract inhibits 80.5% of the DPPH free radical at 100 μg/mL,
whereas methanol fraction showed 83.6% inhibition of DPPH radicals at
the same concentration (Fig. 2). These results were compared with
ascorbic acid as standard drug which shows 92.1% inhibitory activity. In
addition, hexane and chloroform fraction were also evaluated for
inhibition of DPPH radical, but they have been found to show weak
inhibitory activity.
Fig. 2 In vitro antioxidant activity of ethanol extract and methano l fraction at
different concentration
Table 3 DPPH assay showing % inhibition of the ethanol extract and its fractions
% inhibition of free radicals
ND: not determine
3.5 Antidiabetic Activity
Increased oxidative stress is involved in diabetes by the generation of
oxygen derived free radicals. The generation of free radicals may lead to
lipid peroxidation in diabetes mellitus by glucose degradation, non-
enzymatic glycation of proteins and the subsequent oxidative degradation
[14]. Glucose 6-phosphatase is as hydrolyzing enzyme and plays a key role
in the homeostatic regulation of blood glucose levels via formation of a
phosphate group and a free glucose on hydrolysis [15]. Ethanol extract and
all the fractions were evaluated for glucose-6-phaphatase inhibitory
activity against standard drug sodium orthovanadate. The ethanol extract
showed 51.3% inhibitory effect (Table 4). Furthermore, the methanol
fraction exhibited 57.9% inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme at
100 µM concentration which was most active in comparison to other
fractions such as hexane, chloroform and aqueous fraction.
Table 4 In-vitro glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme inhibition results of extract and
fraction at 100 μM concentration
% inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme
Percentage inhibition of sodium orthovanadate is 53.4% at 100 μM concentration
4. Conclusion
In conclusion, our results show the presence of various phytochemicals
in fractions of plant which may be responsible for the pharmacological
activity. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic activity were
also discussed. Methanol fraction has highest phenolic content that is 86.2
± 2.6. Ethanol extract and methanol fraction showed maximum DPPH
radical scavenging activity and they inhibited 80.5% and 83.6% free
radicals at 100 μg/mL concentration, respectively. In order to evaluate the
antidiabetic activity, methanol fraction showed 55.5% inhibition of
glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme. Extracts of SC appear to be attractive
materials for further studies leading to possible drug development for
antioxidant and diabetes, which is relatively inexpensive, less time
consuming and more economical for drug development and discovery.
Authors are highly grateful to EET (Era’s Educational Trust), Era’s
Lucknow Medical College & Hospital, Lucknow, UP for financial assistance
to carry out this work.
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... National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) research identified the active ingredients of pregnane glycosides, namely 1beta, 3beta-dihydroxypregna-5,16-dien-20-one glycoside, ruscogenin, abamagenin, neoruscogenin, sansevierigenin and saponin. Sansevieria can absorb up to 107 pollutants, including nicotine from tobacco, carbon monoxide, dioxins and naphthalene (15,(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25). ...
... The entire plant is used to treat cuts, sprains and broken bones, while the roots are used to treat snakebites. It was reported that D. angolensis contains several amino acids and proteins useful for healing certain diseases (24). It is traditional use in several countries includes the treatment of fever, itching, respiratory infections, coughs, hemorrhoids, influenza, cough, diabetes, cancer and respiratory infections (35). ...
Full-text available
Dracaena angolensis Welw. ex Carriere also known as Sansevieria cylindrica from the Genus Dracaena, is a decorative plant due to its unique shape. Beside its ornamental value, it is recognized for its ability to eliminate unpleasant odours and absorb air pollutants. In various African and Asian countries, the plant’s leaves and roots have been widely used as traditional medicine to treat an assortment of ailments, including coughs, diarrhoea, hemorrhoids, chickenpox, rheumatism, gynaecological problems, as well as an antiseptic, snake bites, wound healing and refreshing beverage. Previous research showed that leaves and rhizomes of D. angolensis contain bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, saponins, cardenolides, polyphenols, steroids and abamagenin. Therefore, this review aims to provide information on the D. angolensis plant in terms of its distribution, taxonomy, phytochemical content and pharmacological potential. It presents the use of D. angolensis as traditional medicine in various regions as a candidate for natural medicine and identifies the opportunities for its development. Based on pharmacological literature, the plant has the potential as an antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and antitoxic agent. However, the literature on its antioxidant and anticancer potential is more extensive than its antibacterial and antitoxic properties. Further research on the pharmacological potential of this plant is necessary and its safety parameters need to be research in greater detail.
... Comparando los resultados con los obtenidos por Tanveer et al., (2017) el contenido de polifenoles que obtuvieron en sus extractos etanólicos fue menor a lo reportado en el presente trabajo. Dicho comportamiento se puede deber factores ambientales como el clima, tierra y humedad de donde se cultivó la planta, ya que hubo variaciones de polifenoles a pesar de utilizar etanol y la misma planta de Sansevieria en ambas investigaciones. ...
... En relación con los resultados de actividad antioxidante (Tabla 2), se observó que los extractos que obtuvieron un mayor porcentaje de inhibición del radical DPPH fueron los obtenidos en el tiempo de 60 min con 72.82% de actividad antioxidante. Tanveer et al., (2017) obtuvieron porcentajes de inhibición del radical DPPH mayores a los reportados en este trabajo (80.5%). La diferencia que existe entre los resultados de Tanveer et al., (2017) y los del presente estudio se puede deber a que el tiempo de maceración y la concentración del solvente fue diferente en ambos estudios. ...
Espada africana (Sansevieria trifasciata) es una planta a la que se le atribuye una gran cantidad de remedios medicinales, es utilizada en África y Asia para aliviar malestares intestinales, respiratorios, cólicos, tratar mordeduras de serpiente y como desinflamatorio. Lo anterior se puede relacionar con la bioactividad de los flavonoides que se encuentran en las hojas, rizomas y raíz de la planta. Por lo anterior, se decidió realizar una comparación de métodos de extracción de compuestos fenólicos por maceración y ultrasonido a partir de esta planta, bajo las mismas condiciones y variando los tiempos de extracción (0, 20, 40 y 60 min.). De igual manera se evaluó la actividad antioxidante por medio de los ensayos DPPH y ABTS. Los resultados del contenido fenólico reflejan que con la extracción por ultrasonido se obtiene un menor porcentaje de compuestos fenólicos con un rendimiento de 186.37 miligramos equivalentes en ácido gálico por litro (mg eq. Ag/L) contra 212.35 mg eq. Ag/L de polifenoles obtenidos por maceración ambos extractos obtenidos a los 60 min de extracción. En cuanto a la actividad antioxidante por DPPH los extractos macerados también fueron los que presentaron una mayor actividad antioxidante de70.81% contra un 55.67% de actividad de los extractos sonicados, en contraste con la actividad antioxidante medida por ABTS, en donde se observó que los extractos sonicados presentaron una mayor inhibición con 85.88%. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos se concluye que ambos métodos de extracción son buenos para obtener compuestos fenólicos de S. trifasciata, destacando el método por maceración que permitió un mayor rendimiento bajo las condiciones estudiadas. En cuanto a las actividades antioxidantes, se demostró que la planta tiene más del 50% de esta actividad biológica, por lo que podría ser utilizada como fuente de antioxidantes naturales.
... The Sansevieria cylindrica plant, is a member of the Asparagaceae family, and is most frequently found in Africa. It is also used for ornamental purposes in India, Egypt and other nations (12,13). Numerous biological actions reported by Sansevieria species includes antibacterial, free radical scavenging, antidiabetic, anticancer, and capillary permeability suppression (14). ...
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Background: Sansevieria cylindrica and Plumeria obtusa are used as a medicinal plant during intentional and unintentional accidental injuries. However, limited investigations have been performed to study pharmacological activities of these plants. Objectives: The current study designed at examining in-vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effect of both plant extracts. Material & Method: Initially, the collection and authentication of both the plants performed. Phytochemical screening was done thereafter. Sansevieria cylindrica leaves and Plumeria obtusa seed pods were extracted using a combination of water and ethanol. Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed using membrane stabilization and protein denaturation assays. Anti-oxidant activity was measured by free radicals scavenging method using different reactive oxygen species producing reagents. Results: The dose dependent increase in anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities were reported by both plants. Overall, Sansevieria cylindrica has shown higher rate of prevention of inflammation and oxidation compared to Plumeria obtusa extract. Both plants showed comparable anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity in combination with that of reference drugs. Conclusion: The hydro-alcoholic extracts of Sansevieria cylindrica and Plumeria obtusa individually and also as 1:1 blend might be responsible for an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities.
... tissue is believed to be one of the crucial mechanisms suggested for plant extracts against blue molds (Pangallo et al. 2017). This is strongly related to the high antioxidant activity reported for the effective extracts, including S. cylindrica leaf extract (Karamova et al. 2016;Ahamad et al. 2017;Alexander et al. 2022), P. tuberosa tuber extract (Rumi et al. 2014), B. aegyptiaca fruit extract (Abdelaziz et al. 2020;Abdel-Farid and El-Sayed 2021) and A. nilotica fruit extract (Kumar et al. 2022a). The plant extracts might be involved in many other mechanisms suggested against blue molds, including the inhibition of nucleic acid biosynthesis (Wu et al. 2013), the alteration of pathogen cell structure, including cytoplasmic plasma membrane (Cushnie and Lamb 2005;Xu et al. 2011), induction of oxidative stress and downregulation of energy metabolism (Yang et al. 2016) and disruption of essential genes resulting in inactivation of enzymes (Telezhenetskaya and Yunusov 1977). ...
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Blue mold caused by Penicillium italicum imposes a serious problem in economically important citrus fruit during the storage period. Traditionally, synthetic chemicals have been widely used to control blue molds; however, this use of chemicals has caused critical environmental problems. This has encouraged scientists to look for safer and readily available alternatives from natural eco-friendly sources such as botanical extracts. In line with that, the present study aims to investigate the antifungal efficiency of twelve methanolic extracts from eight plant species against P. italicum in vitro and to further select the most promising extracts to study their efficacy in vivo on reduction of disease severity and some physiological aspects of ‘Washington Navel©’ orange fruit under storage conditions. Being the most effective treatment, Sansevieria cylindrica leaf extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify phytochemical components. The results obtained signified the potential efficacy of the tested plant extract to reduce the mycelial growth of P. italicum under in vitro conditions. The most effective extracts were Balanites aegyptiaca fruit, Polianthes tuberosa bulbs, Acacia nilotica fruit and Sansevieria cylindrica leaves at 1000 µg/mL inhibition % of mycelial of 54.3, 42.4, 41.3 and 31.5%, respectively. When compared under storage conditions of orange fruit, the lowest disease incidence and, thus, the highest reduction of disease severity (86.7%) were caused by S. cylindrica leaf extract. These effects were supported by high values of total phenols content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC) in treated fruit, along with elevated activities of antioxidant enzymes: peroxidase (PO) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The identified phytochemicals in S. cylindrica leaf extract were dominated by fatty acids and their esters, which, together with the other compounds, have evidence of microbial activity. To sum up, using methanolic extracts of S. cylindrica as a substitute for chemical fungicides may help control P. italicum in ‘Washington Navel©’ oranges.
... For their antioxidant activity, metals salts of Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, Zn, Cu, and metal oxides like copper oxide (CuO), zinc oxide (ZnO), nickel oxide (NiO), and magnesium oxide (MgO) are frequently utilized [151]. Numerous medicinal plants and nanoparticles synthesized by their extracts along with free radical scavenging properties are well studied [152][153][154][155][156] [157,158]. Nanoparticles derived ROS that facilitate the damaging of the cell membrane of microorganisms, as well as cancerous cells, are resulted into antimicrobial and anticancer effects. ...
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In the 21st century, plant-derived metal nanoparticles (PDMNPs) have gained considerable interest because of their tremendous and remarkable potential as therapeutic agents as well as development of less expensive, safer, and easier biomedical equipment. PDMNPs are synthesized from metal salts or oxides by using plant extracts because plants have diversified bioactive compounds that can act as reducing and stabilizing agents at the time of nanoparticle synthesis. Besides, PDMNPs take advantages over the nanoparticles synthesized by other methods because of their low cost, environmental friendliness, and sustainability. The present review explains the synthesis of PDMNPs, their characterization techniques, and oxidative stress-mediated pharmacological effects. The mode of actions for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties has also been critically explored. Due to the plethora of data on plant-derived nanoparticles and their pharmacological properties, we have highlighted PDMNPs’ shape, size, metals of use, and experimental findings regarding their antioxidant, anti-microbial, and anticancer properties in a tabulated form for studies conducted in the last five years, from 2018 to 2022. Because of our review study, we, herein, contemplate that the scientific community as a whole will get a greater comprehension of PDMNPs and their numerous therapeutic applications in a single window.
... S. cylindrica plant is originated from subtropical regions of the African continent. It is also cultivated in Egypt, and India for ornamental purposes, and belongs to the family Asparagaceae [6][7] . It is also called as Snake plant, Snake tongue 8 . ...
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in 2 DOI: Background: Sansevieria cylindrica (S. cylindrica) Bojer ex Hook. (Asparagaceae) is an indoor ornate plant. The plant was conventionally utilized by the local healers during deliberate, and accidental injuries. The pharmacognostic study of this plant with different parameters was very poorly explored. Hence, the present investigation was carried out to explore, and evaluate different characteristics of the plant. Aim: To explore the preliminary pharmacognostic, physicochemical, phytochemical, microscopic, and phytoconstituents potential of S. cylindrica leaves for authentication of the plant. Method: The morphology, and microscopic properties of plant leaves were evaluated. The herbal standardization was then carried out based on physicochemical parameters including ash values, extractive values, and fluorescence analysis. The qualitative evaluation of phytoconstituents was performed using different chemical tests followed by quantitative estimation of important phytochemical, and analytical profiling of extract. Result: The macroscopy has studied for the basic features like colour, size, odor, shape, taste, surface, and fracture of plant leaves. The microscopical study confirms the presence of vessels, vascular bundles, lignified fibers, and calcium oxalate crystals etc. Physicochemical evaluation showed less quantity of inorganic matter present in the plant. Preliminary phytochemical analysis confirms the presence of glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, and carbohydrates. Instrumental analysis has given an idea about the identification, and confirmation of various phytoconstituents in the extract. Conclusion: The result of the present study can be meaningfully used as a reference for the standardization, and quality control of S. cylindrica and for the authentication, and preparation of monograph of the plant.
... Furthermore, the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has indicated that animal testing of any new drug for determination of its toxicity and pharmacological efficacy is critical 8 . SC plant belongs to the Asparagaceae family and is commonly found in the African continents whereas it is also grown for ornate reasons in Egypt, India and other countries 9,10 . They grow up to 2 m (7 ft) above the soil and have a diameter of around 3 cm (1 inch). ...
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em>Sansevieria cylindrica (SC) Bojer ex Hook. (Asparagaceae) and Plumeria obtusa (PO) L. (Apocynaceae) are indoor and outdoor ornamental plants respectively. These plants are traditionally used by the local healers during accidental injuries. However, their toxicological properties are very poorly explored over folkloric usage. Therefore, the present study evaluated the toxic potencies of SC leaves and PO seed Hydro-Alcoholic Extract (SCPOHAE) through acute oral dose (14-days) administration in female Wistar rats. Safety of the SCPOHAE was evaluated as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Acute Oral Toxicity study guidelines 423. The female Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=3). A single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg of body weight of individual extract and 1:1 blend was administered to each animal. The animals were closely observed for clinical signs, neurobehavioral changes, morbidity, and mortality if any for the first half an hour and then every hour for the first four hours followed by observation every 24–hours for 14 days. Changes in food and water consumption, body weight were monitored daily during the study. On day 1 and day 15 blood samples were collected to evaluate changes in the hematology and biochemistry parameters. The urine samples were also collected for urine analysis parameters. Animals were sacrificed on day 15 and organ samples of liver and kidney were collected for histopathological findings. The SCPOHAE individually and also as 1:1 blend at the limit dose (2000 mg/kg, body weight) did not cause death and did not induce any remarkable and abnormal clinical signs, indicative of systemic toxicity, in rats during the treatment period of 14–days. The statistically non-significant small differences in the body weight were observed. Conclusion: The oral administration of SCPOHAE did not cause any systemic toxic effects. In conclusion, the No-observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) of these extracts in rats was found to be greater than 2000 mg/kg.
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Many members of the Asparagaceae family are used in traditional medicine in different countries and characterized by a high content of biologically active metabolites. In this work, the qualitative composition and quantitative content of the components of methanol extracts from leaves and underground organs of Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer ex Hook, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain, Polianthes tuberosa L., leaves of Yucca filamentosa L. and Furcraea gigantea var. watsoniana (Hort. Sander) Drumm. were determined. Extraction of plant leaves and underground organs using 80% methanol resulted in 5.2–16.7% and 16–25.1% of the total extractive substances consequently. The presence of steroidal saponins in the extracts was shown by thin layer chromatography. Spirostanol saponins were predominate in the extracts from leaves of Y. filamentosa, F. gigantea and underground organs of S. cylindrica, S. trifasciata, P. tuberosa, furastanol saponins – in the extracts from leaves of S. cylindrica and S. trifasciata. The content of terpenoid and phenolic compounds in the extracts established using spectrophotometry significantly differs depending on the plant species and their anatomical part. All the extracts tested exhibited inhibition of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical in dose-dependent manner. The highest antiradical activity demonstrated the extract from the leaves of Y. filamentosa (IC50 = 25.95 μg/ml) containing the largest amount of phenolic compounds, including flavonoids – 51.3 and 15.5% of the total extractive substances.
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Background: Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and antiglycation properties of Eysenhardtia polystachya (EP) bark methanol-water extract. Materials and Methods : The antioxidant capacities were evaluated by studying in vitro the scavenging of DPPH and ABTS free radical, reactive oxygen species such as RO2, O2·-, H2O2, OH., H2O2, ONOO-, NO, HOCl,1 O2, chelating ability, ORAC, β-carotene-bleaching and lipid peroxidation. The antiglycation activities of EP were evaluated by haemoglobin, bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose, BSA-methylglyoxal and BSA-glucose assays. Oral administration of EP at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/g was studied in normal, glucose-loaded and antidiabetic effects on streptozotocin-induced mildly diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) mice. Results: EP showed Hdonor activity, free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating ability and lipid peroxidation Antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. EP is an inhibitor of fluorescent AGE, methylglyoxal and the glycation of haemoglobin. In STZ-induced diabetic mice, EP reduced the blood glucose, increased serum insulin, body weight, marker enzymes of hepatic function, glycogen, HDL, GK and HK while there was reduction in the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, TBARS, LDL and G6Pase. Conclusions: Eysenhardtia polystachya possesses considerable antioxidant activity with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity and demonstrated an anti-AGEs and hepatoprotective role, inhibits hyperglycemic, hyperlipidemic and oxidative stress indicating that these effects may be mediated by interacting with multiple targets operating in diabetes mellitus.
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The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety.
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A study of the genus Sansevieria based on gross morphological variation and enzyme electrophoresis was carried out to delimit the Sansevieria taxa that occur in Zimbabwe and to elucidate evolutionary relationships that exist in the genus. The study was based on living specimens from the wild and those in cultivation at the National Botanic Garden (Harare). Eight species S including one new species Sansevieria sp. A were delimited. Isoenzyme data showed that in spite of the great variation observed in the genus, a close relationship existed between the Sansevieria species, suggesting high reticulate crossings among the ancestral groups. The study highlighted the importance of rescuing members of the genus growing in the wild from over exploitation by local communities, that has resulted in certain species like S. stuckyi and Sansevieria sp. A becoming locally extinct. By highlighting the diversity in species and habitat preferences in the wild, this study contributes to the field of horticulture an avenue through which wild Sansevieria species can be introduced into cultivation as ornamentals, thereby ensuring their sustenance.
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Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life.
Phytochemical study on the methanolic extract of Sansevieria cylindrica aerial parts lead to the isolation, characterization and structure elucidation of a new steroidal saponin, 1β-hydroxy-kryptogenin-1-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-arabinopyranoside (1), a new homoisoflavanone, (3S)-3,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-3-(3′,4′-methylenedioxybenzyl) chroman-4-one (2) and the known saponin alliospiroside A (3). To the best of our knowledge, the genin 1β-hydroxy-kryptogenin is reported here for the first time. The structures of the new compounds were determined by UV, IR, EIMS, HRESIMS together with 1D (1H and 13C) and 2D (HSQC and HMBC) NMR spectral analysis. The isolated compounds 1–3 were tested for their radical scavenging activity (DPPH). Compound 2 exhibited activity compared to that of ascorbic acid as a standard. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds and the standard doxorubicin was tested against the three human tumor cell lines HT116, MCF-7 and PC-3. The results showed that the isolated compounds were inactive.
While use of synthetic antioxidants (such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole) to maintain the quality of ready-to-eat food products has become commonplace, consumer concern regarding their safety has motivated the food industry to seek natural alternatives. Phenolic antioxidants can inhibit free radical formation and/or interrupt propagation of autoxidation. Fat-soluble vitamin E (-tocopherol) and water-soluble vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) are both effective in the appropriate matrix. Plant extracts, generally used for their flavoring characteristics, often have strong H-donating activity thus making them extremely effective antioxidants. This antioxidant activity is most often due to phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, caffeic, and rosmarinic acids), phenolic diterpenes (carnosol, carnosic acid, rosmanol, and rosmadial), flavonoids (quercetin, catechin, naringenin, and kaempferol), and volatile oils (eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, and menthol). Some plant pigments (anthocyanin and anthocyanidin) can chelate metals and donate H to oxygen radicals thus slowing oxidation via 2 mechanisms. Tea and extracts of grape seeds and skins contain catechins, epicatechins, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, and resveratrol, all of which contribute to their antioxidative activity. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of natural antioxidants, their mechanisms of action, and potential applications.
This study selected 13 fruits and vegetables to determine their total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their stimulatory effects on splenocyte proliferation from female BALB/c mice. The highest total phenolic content was observed in mulberry (1515.9 ± 5.7 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g fresh matter (FM)) among four selected fruit species. The highest total phenolic content was observed in a variety of red onions (310.8 ± 4.9 mg GAE/100 g FM) among nine selected vegetable species. The highest total flavonoid content was observed in mulberry (250.1 ± 6.3 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g FM) among the selected fruits. The highest total flavonoid content was observed in ceylon spinach (133.1 ± 26.2 mg QE/100 g FM) among the selected vegetables. The mulberry, strawberry and red onion demonstrated an immuno-modulatory potential via stimulating splenocyte proliferation. Bitter melon showed a significantly (P < 0.05) negative correlation with splenocyte proliferation. Their immuno-modulatory components are highly correlated with phenolics, including flavonoids. The total phenolic contents in all selected fruits and vegetables significantly correlated with splenocyte proliferation in vitro.
Toward Drug Development The vast majority of pharmaceuticals on the market are based on natural product molecules originally derived from living organisms. When it comes to newly approved drugs, however, the situation looks rather different. Difficulties with high-throughput screening and laboratory synthesis of natural products have led drug companies to focus on libraries of synthetic compounds, despite their providing a much lower “hit rate.” Li and Vederas (p. 161 ) review methodologies that facilitate the screening, analysis, and synthesis of natural product molecules and their derivatives. Given these advances and the vast numbers of organisms and environments that remain to be explored for potential drug candidates, the current lull in newly approved drugs based on natural products will likely be temporary.
1. Homogenates of the mucosa of the small intestine of the guinea pig were separated by fractional sedimentation into seven different fractions. The enzymic properties of some of these subcellular fractions were compared with those obtained from the mucosa of the small intestine of the rabbit and cat. 2. The enzymic properties of the low-speed sediment (15000g-min.) were investigated and it was shown that invertase and alkaline ribonuclease were predominantly located in this subcellular fraction, whereas alkaline phosphatase, aryl-amidase, acid phosphatase, acid ribonuclease and phosphoprotein phosphatase, though true constituents of this fraction, occurred to varying degrees in other subcellular structures also. 3. It was shown that the most probable source of the enzymic activities observed in the low-speed sediment was the brush border. Electron micrographs of the purified brush-border fraction indicated vesicles derived from the brush-border membrane. 4. A method is described for the fractionation of mucosal homogenates into a brush border-plus-nuclei fraction, a mitochondrial fraction, a microsomal fraction and a particle-free supernatant. The fractions were shown to be relatively pure, as indicated by the distribution of invertase, DNA, succinate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphatase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. 5. Most of the activity of four lysosomal enzymes present in the nuclei-free homogenate was sedimented at 375000g-min., suggesting the occurrence of lysosomal particles in mucosal homogenates. 6. Further fractionation of the microsomal membranes into three fractions is described. The enzymic composition of the membrane fractions is given and discussed in relation to their structure as seen in electron micrographs.