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Targeting Complex Sentences in Older School Children With Specific Language Impairment: Results From an Early-Phase Treatment Study


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Purpose: This study investigated the effects of a complex sentence treatment at 2 dosage levels on language performance of 30 school-age children ages 10-14 years with specific language impairment. Method: Three types of complex sentences (adverbial, object complement, relative) were taught in sequence in once or twice weekly dosage conditions. Outcome measures included sentence probes administered at baseline, treatment, and posttreatment phases and comparisons of pre-post performance on oral and written language tests and tasks. Relationships between pretest variables and treatment outcomes were also explored. Results: Treatment was effective at improving performance on the sentence probes for the majority of participants; however, results differed by sentence type, with the largest effect sizes for adverbial and relative clauses. Significant and clinically meaningful pre-post treatment gains were found on a comprehensive oral language test, but not on reading and writing measures. There was no treatment advantage for the higher dosage group. Several significant correlations indicated a relationship between lower pretest scores and higher outcome measures. Conclusions: Results suggest that a focused intervention can produce improvements in complex sentence productions of older school children with language impairment. Future research should explore ways to maximize gains and extend impact to natural language contexts. Supplemental material:
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Research Article
Targeting Complex Sentences in Older School
Children With Specific Language Impairment:
Results From an Early-Phase Treatment Study
Catherine H. Balthazar
and Cheryl M. Scott
Purpose: This study investigated the effects of a complex
sentence treatment at 2 dosage levels on language
performance of 30 school-age children ages 1014 years
with specific language impairment.
Method: Three types of complex sentences (adverbial,
object complement, relative) were taught in sequence in
once or twice weekly dosage conditions. Outcome measures
included sentence probes administered at baseline,
treatment, and posttreatment phases and comparisons
of prepost performance on oral and written language
tests and tasks. Relationships between pretest variables
and treatment outcomes were also explored.
Results: Treatment was effective at improving performance
on the sentence probes for the majority of participants;
however, results differed by sentence type, with the largest
effect sizes for adverbial and relative clauses. Significant
and clinically meaningful prepost treatment gains were
found on a comprehensive oral language test, but not on
reading and writing measures. There was no treatment
advantage for the higher dosage group. Several significant
correlations indicated a relationship between lower pretest
scores and higher outcome measures.
Conclusions: Results suggest that a focused intervention
can produce improvements in complex sentence
productions of older school children with language
impairment. Future research should explore ways to
maximize gains and extend impact to natural language
Supplemental Material:
Asizeable number of kindergarten children (7.4%)
meet criteria for a specific language impairment
(SLI), defined as weak language skills in spite of
intact physical, social, and cognitive capabilities (Tomblin
et al., 1997). For many, SLI is a persistent condition, extend-
ing into late elementary years and beyond (Conti-Ramsden,
Botting, Simkin, & Knox, 2001; Tomblin, Zhang, Buckwalter,
&OBrien, 2003). A language impairment at school entry
increases risk for reading and writing difficulties and takes
a toll on academic achievement (Catts, Bridges, Little, &
Tomblin, 2008).
A core feature of SLI is difficulty with syntax or gram-
mar (Leonard, 2014). As preschoolers, English-speaking
children with SLI struggle with the morphosyntactic features
of language and inconsistently omit obligatory markers of
verb tense, number, and aspect (Leonard & Deevy, 2010).
With age, additional grammatical issues that center on
complex sentences emerge. A number of grammatical features
contribute to sentence complexity; these include embedding/
subordination, word order variations, and long-distance
dependencies as found in wh-object questions or object
relative clauses (Thompson & Shapiro, 2007). In comparison
with age peers, there is considerable evidence that school-age
children and adolescents with SLI find complex sentences
more difficult to comprehend and produce (Fey, Catts,
Proctor-Williams, Tomblin, & Zhang, 2004; Gillam &
Johnston, 1992; Marinellie, 2004; Montgomery & Evans,
2009; Nippold, Mansfield, Billow, & Tomblin, 2008, 2009;
Purdy, Leonard, Weber-Fox, & Kaganovich, 2014; Scott &
Windsor, 2000). In this article, we are concerned with the
first type of complexity: sentences with two clausesone
main clause and one subordinate clause.
To date, empirical reports of grammar-based treat-
ments for older children with SLI are sparse, and even less
common are studies that focus on complex sentences per
se. Here, we report results from a treatment study designed
to improve performance on complex sentences in school-age
children with SLI ages 10 through 14 years. The protocol
targets three types of multiclause sentences: those containing
Governors State University, University Park, IL
Rush University, Chicago, IL
Correspondence to Catherine H. Balthazar:
Editor-in-Chief: Sean Redmond
Editor: Jan de Jong
Received March 21, 2017
Revision received August 1, 2017
Accepted November 28, 2017
Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time
of publication.
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research Vol. 61 713728 March 2018 Copyright © 2018 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association 713
a main clause and an adverbial, object complement, or
relative subordinate clause. These three varieties account for
the majority of multiclause sentences that English-speaking
children hear and produce (Diessel, 2004; Scott, 1988). We
first present a review of studies showing that older children
with SLI struggle with complex sentencesevidence that
these types of sentences are worthy candidates for treatment.
Next is a summary of empirical work focused on grammar
objectives in this population. Finally, we present an overview
of our study and conclude with three research questions.
Complex Sentences in SLI
Investigations of complex sentences in children
with SLI fall into two broad categories. In one group of
studies, researchers have probed listening comprehension
in tasks requiring picture pointing or grammatical judgment.
Researchers have also been interested in relationships
between syntactic ability and reading comprehension. Other
investigations have centered on the production of complex
sentences in conversation, in narrative or expository spoken
or written language samples, or in other elicited production
tasks. Analyses have centered on the frequency, accuracy,
and variety of complex sentence use in comparison to age
and/or language peers.
Comprehension Studies
It should not be surprising that complex sentences pose
comprehension problems for children with SLI. Sentence
complexity often explains performance difficulties of adults
and children with typical language ability in online and
offline processing tasks (Chomsky, 1969; King & Just, 1991;
Poirier & Shapiro, 2012). Beginning with Cromer (1978) and
continuing to the present, researchers have reported that
children with SLI have difficulty in comprehending sentences
that violate canonical word order (e.g., reversible full pas-
sives) and those containing long distance dependencies (e.g.,
object wh-questions and object relatives) and other complex
structures (cf. Friedmann & Novogrodsky, 2004; Montgomery
& Evans, 2009; van der Lely, Jones, & Marshall, 2011). An
investigation by Purdy and colleagues tested the influence
of sentence complexity on listening comprehension in a
direct way (Purdy et al., 2014). School-age children with
and without SLI were asked to make grammatical judgments
of verb agreement and finiteness errors in one-clause (simple)
sentences (e.g., every night they talks on the phone) versus
two-clause (complex) object complement sentences (he makes
the quiet boy talks a little louder). Children with SLI were as
accurate as age peers judging the correct/incorrect versions
of verbs in simple sentences, but less accurate in complex
sentences where syntactic constraints operated across two
clauses. This study presents a convincing example that com-
plex sentences up the processing antefor children with
SLI. Of note, two of the three types of sentences targeted
in our study, object complements and relatives, have figured
prominently in listening comprehension studies.
Researchers have also pursued potential links between
general syntactic ability and reading comprehension, finding
correlations between the two, as summarized by Scott and
Koonce (2014). Although complex sentences as defined here
have rarely been singled out as dependent variables in these
investigations, it is probably not a coincidence that many
students begin to struggle with reading comprehension
in late elementary years when informational texts contain
higher proportions of longer, complex sentences (Catts,
Compton, Tomblin, & Bridges, 2012; Fang, 2012; Scott
& Balthazar, 2010). Although our treatment protocol was
not designed to impact reading comprehension per se, given
the established links between syntactic ability and reading
comprehension, we included a reading test among prepost
treatment measures.
Production Studies
Group comparisons of complex sentence use in children
with and without language impairment have been reported
in studies of spoken language samples (e.g., Marinellie, 2004;
Nippold et al., 2008, 2009; To, Stokes, Cheung, & Tsou,
2010), in studies of written language samples (e.g., Dockrell,
Lindsay, & Connelly, 2009; Suddarth, Plante, & Vance, 2012;
Williams, Larkin, & Blaggan, 2013), and in studies that
compare spoken and written samples (Gillam & Johnston,
1992; Scott & Windsor, 2000). Complex sentence usage
typically has been indexed with global sentence-level metrics
including mean sentence length (total words/total sentences),
clause density (total clauses, main and subordinate/total
sentences), and other measures such as percentage of com-
plex sentences.
Group comparisons often find lower complex sen-
tence frequencies in participants with language impairment
(Marinellie, 2004; Morris & Crump, 1982; Nippold et al.,
2008, 2009; Scott &Windsor, 2000; Strong, 1998). A study
of narratives produced by Cantonese-speaking children
found that a sentence complexity metric best distinguished
SLI and typical language groups when compared with
other sentence measures (To et al., 2010). A smaller group
of studies have reported limited or no difference (Houck
& Billingsley, 1989; Roth & Spekman, 1989; Zwitserlood,
van Weerdenburg, Verhoeven, & Wijnen, 2015). It is impor-
tant to note that genre, topic, and task are critical variables
when comparing the effects of age and language ability
on sentence complexity in naturalistic language samples
(Nippold, 2010).
Several studies have provided more detailed analyses
of specific types of complex sentences that distinguish SLI
and typical language groups. Owen Van Horne and Lin
(2011) reported that children with SLI produced fewer
object complement complex sentences using lower-frequency
cognitive verbs (e.g., promise, decide)innarrative/expository
contexts. In Marinellies (2004) work, school-age children
with SLI used half the number of adverbial and relative
clauses in conversation. In other work, relative clauses were
the only type of complex sentence used at significantly lower
(Zwitserlood et al., 2015). Another distinguishing feature is
the ability to combine several different types of subordinate
clauses (e.g., a sentence containing both adverbial and
714 Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research Vol. 61 713728 March 2018
relative clauses; Gillam & Johnston, 1992; Marinellie, 2004).
Scott and Lane (2008) reported that older children with
SLI posted lower frequencies of (a) sentences with three or
more clauses, (b) sentences with more than one level of sub-
ordination depth, and (c) sentences with relative clauses.
Studies have also shown increases in error rates in complex
sentences compared to simple sentences (e.g., Owen, 2010).
Sentences with relative clauses are particularly error-prone
(Frizelle & Fletcher, 2014; Jensen de Lopez, Sundahl Olsen,
& Chrondrogianni, 2014; Novogrodsky & Friedman, 2006;
Schuele & Nicholls, 2000). These more detailed analyses
underscore that it is not only the absolute frequency of
complex sentences but also the variety of subordinate clauses,
the ways they are combined within a sentence, and the
number of errors that distinguish sentences used by children
with SLI.
Previous Treatment Studies Centered
on Complex Sentences
A search for previous treatment studies that targeted
complex sentences as we have defined them (sentences
with a main and at least one subordinate clause) uncovered
only two investigations with participants of comparable
age to ours (ages 1014). Hirschman (2000) targeted com-
plex sentences with subordinate adverbial clauses in 9- and
10-year-old children enrolled in remedial classrooms (known
to contain 80%90% students with SLI). In 55 half hour,
classroom-based sessions over the course of the school year,
participants in the treatment group were (a) introduced to
basic grammatical features of target sentences (e.g., subjects,
objects, verbs, simple vs. complex sentences, subordinate
conjunctions), (b) asked to identify target sentences in texts
(Aesops Fables), and (c) taught to rewrite fables presented
as simple sentences using a sentence combining strategy.
Hirschman reported significant gains for the treated group
compared with the untreated groupa difference that held
for 3 months after treatment concluded. Of note, partici-
pants with the lowest pretreatment complexity scores made
more progress than those with higher scores.
In a second study directly applicable to our work, Levy
and Friedmann (2009) worked with a 12-year-old boy on
complex sentences with relative clauses, passive constructions,
and wh-questionsall structures that involve long distance
dependencies. Lessons (16 total) illustrated structural features
(using color and shape codes and arrows) and provided
guided practice constructing sentences. Prepost treatment
comparisons on a range of comprehension and elicited pro-
duction tasks showed significant improvement that matched
the performance of age peers in some cases.
A wider literature on sentence combining also relates
to our work (as shown later, sentence combining was included
among treatment activities). Sentence combining exercises
teach students how to take two or more simple sentences
and combine them into one longer sentence, which, depend-
ing on the nature of the input sentences, is often a complex,
multiclause sentence (Scott & Nelson, 2009). Participants in
these studies have typically been general education students
and less frequently special education students. In a systematic
review of 18 studies meeting inclusion criteria, Andrews
et al. (2006) concluded that sentence combining provides
an effective means of improving syntactic maturity in writing
for students between the ages of 5 and 16. In many of these
investigations, syntactic maturity has been indexed by mea-
sures of sentence length. In a meta-analysis of sentence
combining and other writing instruction strategies, Graham
and Perin (2007) reported a weighted mean effect size of .50
(moderate) for sentence combining across five investigations.
A smaller number of sentence combining studies
have included participants with language impairments or
weaknesses. Saddler and Graham (2005) randomly assigned
fourth-grade writers to either sentence combining or tradi-
tional grammar instruction (e.g., teaching parts of speech)
groups. Although there were no group differences in quality
ratings of first draft writing, the sentence combining group
performed better on posttreatment tasks and also on their
revision ability. Similar to the work of Hirschman (2000)
cited above, the treatment had its greatest impact on students
with the lowest pretreatment language scores. In a later study,
Cantonese-speaking school children with language impair-
ment were randomly assigned to sentence combining or
narrative-based syntactic treatment where both treatments
targeted the same complex sentences (To, Lui, Li, & Lam,
2015). Positive and comparable effects were seen for both
protocols. In a review of studies using a sentence combining
protocol for children with language impairment, Datchic
and Kabina (2013) described gains in percentages of complex
sentences and general writing quality using experimenter-
created rubrics.
We have restricted this review of treatment studies to
those specifically targeting complex sentences. A summary
of the effectiveness of a broader group of grammar-based
intervention studies for school-age children with primary lan-
guage impairments uncovered 35 studies categorized accord-
ing to specific grammatical targets, age of participants,
method, delivery, results, degree of experimental control,
and other variables (Ebbels, 2014). Of these, 25 studies
targeted specific syntactic structures, most commonly
morphosyntax targets including verb and noun inflections,
verb auxiliaries (9), questions (5), passives (5), argument
structure (4), and pronouns (3). Only one study (Levy &
Friedmann, 2009, reviewed above) targeted complex sen-
tences. Ten of the 35 studies targeted improvements in expres-
sive language but were not target-specific. Only eight (of
35) studies included children within the age range of partic-
ipants in our study (ages 1014). By including three major
types of complex sentences in a treatment protocol delivered
to older school-age children, our study addresses a neglected
structural domain of grammatical targets in a neglected age
group of students with language impairment.
Study Purpose and Design
This study examines the effects of a language treat-
ment designed to build understanding and use of complex
sentences in children with SLI between the ages of 10 and
Balthazar & Scott: Targeting Complex Sentences 715
14. The age range of 1014 was chosen for several reasons.
This period corresponds with continuing developmental
growth in the use of complex sentences (Nippold, Hesketh,
Duthie, & Mansfield, 2005; Nippold, Mansfield, & Billow,
2007; To et al., 2010) as well as academic language skills
generally (Uccelli et al., 2015), thus avoiding potential ceil-
ing effects. Furthermore, this is the time when a sizeable
number of children are identified as late-emergent poor
readers whose reading comprehension difficulties are often
related to general language comprehension issues, includ-
ing sentence comprehension (Catts et al., 2012). We have
discussed in previous reports the specific grammatical fea-
tures of complex sentences found in academic texts that
would challenge individuals with language impairment in
this age range (Scott & Balthazar, 2010, 2013). We also
wished to address the substantial gap in the evidence base
for language treatments with older school-age children
and adolescents. A range of 4 years was considered adequate
to reveal any obvious effects of age on treatment results.
Treatment targets included each of the three types of
complex sentences (adverbial, object complement, relative)
that, together, account for a majority of English complex
sentences investigated in developmental studies and in
studies of children with language disorders (Scott, 1988).
Targeting all three varieties of sentences is, to our knowl-
edge, unique to this study where we hoped to determine if
treatment effects varied by sentence type. Although adver-
bial, object complement, and relative clauses share the status
of being subordinate to a main clause (i.e., dependent),
they are structurally quite different (see Appendix), and we
suspected that relative clauses may be more difficult to treat,
given their late development, low frequency, and error sus-
ceptibility (Scott & Lane, 2008; Zwitserlood et al., 2015).
The three sentence types were treated consecutively for equal
amounts of time with identical procedures that included
exposure and repetition, identification, and scaffolded
manipulation activities in one-on-one sessions. The protocol
treatment effects are increased by using a greater variety
of target stimuli (Plante et al., 2014) and by using deductive
(in our terminology, metalinguistic) activities (Finestack &
Fey, 2009). In order to examine effects of treatment inten-
sity, we compared two intensity levels commonly found
in the language treatment literature. Specific research ques-
tions were as follows:
1. Are there significant treatment effects on three different
types of two-clause sentences (those with one subordi-
nate adverbial, object complement, or relative clause)
on a sentence-level probe task, and does increased treat-
ment intensity produce greater effects? We hypothesized
that treatment would be effective for all three sentence
types and that the higher dosage group would demon-
strate greater gains.
2. Are there significant prepost gains to oral language
test scores, reading test scores, and writing sample
measures, and does increased treatment intensity
produce greater gains? We examined changes in
scores on sentence-level language tasks and reading
comprehension tasks, as well as indicators of sentence
complexity in written tasks, to explore the potential
scope of impact of the treatment.
3. Does the age, nonverbal cognitive score, or any pre-
treatment language score of a participant correspond
to the degree of treatment-induced change? We
explored participant factors that might mitigate
response to treatment, as well as pretest scores that
could help us identify those most likely to benefit
from treatment of complex sentences. We suspected
that age and cognitive ability would be important,
given the continued growth in complex sentence
knowledge and the expression of more complex
concepts and ideas throughout adolescence.
Participants were selected from a pool of children
between the ages of 10;0 and 14;11 (years;months) who
had been referred to the study by speech-language patholo-
gists and parents because they demonstrated problems with
reading comprehension, writing composition, oral discourse,
and listening or following directions and had profiles con-
sistent with a diagnosis of SLI. We collected case history
documents including a parent questionnaire and whenever
possible the current Individualized Education Plan for each
child referred. We administered tests to confirm nonverbal
intelligence scores within the average range and oral language
test scores below the average range. We also administered
the first of three pretest complex sentence probes. This initial
information was evaluated to confirm that participants met
inclusionary and exclusionary criteria for SLI and that their
test performance included evidence of errors formulating
and/or understanding complex sentences. Of the 47 potential
participants evaluated, 30 met criteria for study participa-
tion: (a) a current score of at least 80 on the Test of Non-
verbal IntelligenceThird and Fourth Editions (TONI-3
[Brown, Sherbenou, & Johnsen, 1997] and TONI-4 [Brown,
Sherbenou, & Johnsen, 2010]), (b) hearing within normal
limits as determined by pure-tone audiometric screening
administered within 6 months of study enrollment, (c) lan-
guage performance 1 SD or more below the mean on the
Core Language Quotient (Core) of the Clinical Evaluation
of Language FundamentalsFourth Edition (CELF-4; Semel,
Wiig, & Secord, 2003), (d) no other diagnosed conditions or
disorders known to affect language performance, (e) less than
66% accuracy on at least one sentence type on the experi-
mental probe task designed for this study, and (f ) English
as a primary language. For five participants, parents re-
ported a secondary language spoken in the home (Spanish,
Chinese, Hindi, or Cantonese). Three participants identified
as Hispanic, seven as African American or Black, three
as Asian, and four as Eurasianor African Caucasian.
The remaining participants identified as non-Hispanic,
White, monolingual speakers of English.
716 Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research Vol. 61 713728 March 2018
Participants were assigned to a treatment dosage
schedule of once (1/wk) or twice (2/wk) weekly sessions. In
most cases, assignment to a treatment dosage group was
based on feasibility (i.e., scheduling constraints for the par-
ticipant and clinician). When both once and twice weekly
sessions were feasible, the first author assigned participants
to a group in order to achieve balance between the two
groups with respect to age and gender.
Fourteen participants were assigned to the 1/wk level,
ranging in age from 10 years to 13 years 10 months, with
a mean of 11 years 6 months. Sixteen participants were
assigned to the 2/wk level, ranging in age from 10 years to
14 years 11 months, with a mean of 12 years 1 month. Two-
tailed independent samples ttests were completed in order
to evaluate potential differences between the two groups in
age, nonverbal intelligence, or oral language scores. There
were no significant differences between the dosage groups
for age (p= .398), nonverbal intelligence ( p= .753), or
CELF-4 Core Language Score ( p= .717). Table 1 provides
a summary of the gender, age, nonverbal intelligence, and
oral language scores of the participants.
A total of 10 clinicians provided the prepost testing
and treatment at four university-affiliated clinics and four
public schools. All clinicians were certified and licensed
speech-language pathologists or graduate students in speech-
language pathology supervised on site by certified and
licensed speech-language pathologists. Study clinicians
included the two authors, two graduate student assistants
working under the supervision of the authors, one doctoral
fellow, and five practicing clinicians. All clinicians completed
a training protocol, described in the section below on treat-
ment fidelity.
Outcome Measures
Outcome measures were of two types: (a) complex
sentence probes administered before, during, and after
treatment and (b) language tests and criterion referenced
tasks administered prepost treatment and chosen to sample
a broad array of language skills including oral and written
language. These measures are described below.
Complex Sentence Probes
The experimental probe was a written sentence
combining task developed to sample production of target
complex sentences in a format that resembled one of the
treatment activities. Each probe item contained two single-
clause sentences that were to be combined into a complex
sentence, given a starter word or phrase. The items were
balanced to represent content similar to sentences found in
either narrative/conversational or informational/expository
discourse, similar to sentences used in treatment sessions.
Probe items also matched structural variations in the three
types of complex sentences taught (see Appendix). Adverbial
clause (AC) probes contained six items (three left-branching
and three right-branching forms); object complement (OC)
probes contained six items (three finite and three nonfinite
forms); relative clause (RC) probes contained eight items
(two each of the four possible combinations of subject or
object modification with either subject or object relativiza-
Participants wrote their responses; however, typing
or dictation were permitted variations.
PrePost Measures
As a broad measure of oral language ability, the
CELF-4 Core (Semel et al., 2003) subtests were adminis-
tered pre- and posttreatment. Three of the four subtests,
Formulated Sentences (FS), Recalling Sentences (RS), and
Concepts and Following Directions (CFD), were sentence-
level tasks whose items included complex sentences with
adverbial, relative, and object complement subordinate
clauses. The Sentence Comprehension (SC) subtest of the
Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL;
Carrow-Woolfolk, 1999) provided an additional measure
of complex sentence comprehension. The Gray Oral Read-
ing TestsFourth Edition (GORT-4; Wiederholt & Bryant,
2001) Oral Reading Quotient was included as a broad
measure of reading fluency and comprehension.
Written language production was sampled in two
ways. Narrative writing was elicited using the Story Con-
struction subtest of the Test of Written LanguageFourth
Edition (TOWL-4; Hammill & Larsen, 2009). Expository
writing was elicited by asking participants to summarize a
short video (NOVA ScienceNow) following the procedure
developed by Scott and Windsor (2000). Two different
videos on the same topic (the nature of memory) were used
for pre- and posttesting. Both narrative and expository
samples were analyzed for two measures commonly used
to index sentence complexity: mean length of T-unit (MLTU)
in words and the subordination index (SI; number of clauses,
main and subordinate, divided by number of T-units).
Experimental probe items were scored by the second
author using a 03 point scoring rubric developed for this
Table 1. Participant summary.
Group nMF
(years;months) TONI CELF-4
1/wk 14 8 6 Mean 11;6 94.27 73.73
Range 10;013;10 81127 4887
2/wk 16 10 6 Mean 12;1 92.67 71.19
Range 10;014;11 81118 5485
Total 30 18 12 11;9 92.71 72.10
Note. M = male; F = female; TONI = standard score on Test
of Nonverbal IntelligenceThird or Fourth Edition; CELF-4 =
Core Language Quotient of the Clinical Evaluation of Language
FundamentalsFourth Edition.
Examples of experimental probe items are available in Supplemental
Material S1.
Balthazar & Scott: Targeting Complex Sentences 717
The highest score was given to a grammatical,
complex sentence that was appropriate given the content
and form of the stimulus. The lowest score was given to
incomplete or unchanged sentences. Scores in between
were assigned when a response met some but not all cri-
teria. Percent accuracy scores were then calculated for
each sentence type (AC, OC, RC).
Scoring of the CELF-4,
the CASL SC subtest, and the GORT-4 was completed by
the clinician who administered the test. Written samples
were transcribed by the second author into language analy-
sis software (Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts,
Miller & Iglesias, 2012) using T-unit segmentation rules
(Hunt, 1970) and coded for the presence of subordinate
clauses. MLTU and SI measures were calculated automati-
cally by the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts
After initial scoring, the first author rescored a sub-
set of probes and written samples for reliability. Partici-
pant and treatment phase (pre or post) identifiers were
first removed from all probes and samples. Fifteen percent
of the probes were then randomly selected and rescored.
Interrater reliability was calculated through point-by-point
analysis. The total number of agreements on each probe
was divided by the number of sentences scored to arrive at
a percent agreement score. These were averaged over the
580 sentences for a total of 90% exact agreement between
the two authors. This level of interrater agreement was
deemed adequate to support the use of the scoring rubric
for reliably quantifying important features of participant
responses. Ten percent of written language samples were
selected for reliability checks of T-unit segmentation and
SI coding. Segmentation agreement was 99%. Point-by-
point coding agreement for subordinate clauses was 91.4%.
Where disagreements existed, the probe scores and written
sample codes assigned by the second author were used.
Spoken responses on the CELF-4 and GORT-4 were
audio-recorded and reviewed by trained graduate assistants
who did not participate in the testing or treatment. The
recordings were compared against the handwritten notes
on test protocols for verification. All of the test protocols
were then rescored by the same graduate assistants, and
any discrepancies were brought to the attention of the first
author, who scored the protocol again to determine a final
score. In all, there were five test protocols subjected to
rescoring by the first author. Together, these reliability
procedures and analyses were designed to provide a mea-
sure of control against experimenter bias.
Complex Sentence Treatment
Treatment Procedures
Treatment sessions were 4060mininlengthand
followed a fixed sequence of activities provided in the
treatment manual. The activities were presented in both
oral and written form using computer-based applications
(PowerPoint and Word) and paper-and-pencil tasks. Written
forms of stimuli were always available as a reference in
order to reduce load on working memory. Based on partic-
ipant preference and computer skills, clinicians and partici-
pants decided together which version (computer or paper/
pencil) to use for each activity. All presentations of the
target sentence types included visual emphasis of key sen-
tence features with boldface type, color, highlighting, and
underlining. All complex sentences were composed of two
clauses: a main clause and one subordinate clause. All
items were read aloud by the clinician. Participants were
instructed to visually track the sentence as it was read
aloud and thus had simultaneous visual and auditory input.
All complex sentences used in treatment were drawn
from a pool of sentences developed specifically for this
project by the authors and trained graduate assistants.
Sentences provided exemplars of the structural variations
addressed under each complexsentencetype(e.g.,both
right- and left-branching AC; see variations of AC, OC, and
RC in the Appendix). The sentences were written to reflect
narrative or expository content. Narrative content centered
on everyday life occurrences (e.g., John could not leave for
the movies until his mother got home from work). Expository
content was based on information adapted from upper ele-
mentary social studies and science textbooks (e.g., After the
bombing of Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D.Roosevelt
declared war on Japan). Sentences used in each treatment
session were then balanced across structural and content
domains. Sentences in each treatment session were unique
exemplars; none were repeated in subsequent sessions or
in the complex sentence probes.
Each session began with a warm-up”—a brief pre-
sentation of the structural characteristics of the targeted
sentence type for that session. Instruction was scripted and
included a definition of the target clause, how it could be
used, and ways to identify and differentiate it from other
clause types. The clinician then read aloud with the partici-
pant a one- or two-paragraph selection containing multiple
examples of the target sentence type to show how the
complex sentence worked in context. Next, the clinician
modeled five complex sentences for repetition (Sentence
Repetition) for the purpose of priming production of the
desired structural patterns.
The second part of each session was devoted to explicit
metalinguistic instruction and guided practice. The first of
these activities was Sentence Identification. This included
five sentences for which the participant identified the target
subordinate clause after three to five examples provided by
the clinician. The second metalinguistic activity alternated
between Sentence Deconstruction and Sentence Combining
or Sentence Generation. Following three items that were
The scoring rubric is available in Supplemental Material S2.
We use the acronyms AC, RC, and OC to refer to complex sentences
with two clausesone main clause and one subordinate clause, where
the subordinate clause is either an adverbial (AC), relative (RC), or
object complement clause (OC).
718 Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research Vol. 61 713728 March 2018
reviewed jointly with the clinician, five items were presented
for the participant to attempt independently. Scaffolded sup-
port (a cue, prompt, or explanation) was offered when the
participant was unable to respond correctly independently.
In Sentence Deconstruction, participants were shown a
complex sentence and asked to isolate the subordinate
clause from the main clause. In Sentence Combining,par-
ticipants were asked to combine two simple sentences into
one complex sentence. For structural reasons, Sentence
Combining was altered slightly into a Sentence Generation
task in OC sessions. For both of these tasks, the goal was
for the participant to use predetermined simple (one-clause)
sentences to construct complex (two-clause) sentences that
followed the target syntactic pattern.
The third part of each session engaged the participant
in one of several activities designed to highlight the mean-
ings and/or purposes of the complex sentence in context.
For the Clause Hunt, the participant and clinician read a
passage aloud together. After each two or three sentences,
the clinician prompted the participant to identify target
subordinate clauses, followedbydiscussiononhowthe
clause added meaning, detail, or nuance to the sentence. For
Preference Production,participantsviewedsetsoftwo
complex sentences that were the same with the exception
of one key word or phrase in the subordinate clause (e.g.,
Some soldiers who are leaving for duty in Iraq are having
trouble finding a job versus Some soldiers who are returning
from duty in Iraq are having trouble finding a job). The par-
ticipant was asked which one made more sense and why. In
the Cloze Production activity, the participant and clinician
read a passage aloud together. On a second copy of the
same passage with blanks for subordinate clauses, the partic-
ipant attempted to provide a target clause that made sense.
In all of these contextualized activities, the clinician provided
scaffolding as needed.
Probes were administered at the end of the treatment
activities within a designated session. For each probe set,
the clinician began by reading a script that illustrated how
to complete the sentence combining task. Once these instruc-
tions were completed, the clinician read each item (two
simple sentences) aloud while the participant read along
silently. The participant then wrote his or her solution
(combining the information from two simple sentences
into one complex sentence) in the blank provided.
Treatment Fidelity
Clinicians were trained to deliver the treatment and
were provided with a scripted protocol and materials. Train-
ing included information about AC, OC, and RC structure
and scaffolding techniques. A treatment manual provided
schedules and scripts for all activities. Clinicians reviewed the
manual with the trainer, viewed videotaped examples of
treatment sessions, and engaged in role-play demonstrations
of each treatment activity. Project staff remained in close
contact by phone and onsite visits to respond to clinician
In this manner, a highly scripted protocol was used
to guide every treatment session and probe administration.
Each clinician worked from the same master schedule that
laid out the sequence of pretesting (two to three sessions),
treatment (nine or 18 sessions, depending on dosage assign-
ment), and post testing (two to three sessions). The manua-
lized nature of the treatment in terms of both scripting and
scheduling served to maximize treatment fidelity.
Clinicians recorded the number of items completed in
each session. The resulting data allowed for comparison of
dose frequency and adherence to the specified schedule of
stimuli and activities across participants. In 82% of sessions,
the clinician documented the specified number of trials of
sentence-level activities, including sentence identification, sen-
tence deconstruction, and sentence combining/generation.
The concept of dosageencompasses multiple factors
that affect how much treatment is delivered (Warren, Fey,
& Yoder, 2007). In this study, total dosage was varied by
manipulating dose frequency (how often the treatment was
delivered), whereas dose, dose form, and total intervention
duration were held constant. Participants were assigned to
one of two dosage levels. For both levels, the average rate
of stimulus presentation per session remained constant at
30 per session. Session length (4060 min) and total dura-
tion of intervention (9 weeks) were also the same. Stimulus
presentation included 15 instances of modeling and repeti-
tion and a target of 15 trials in which participants were
asked to manipulate a complex sentence with clinician
feedback/scaffolding. The 1/wk group attended once-weekly
sessions for 9 weeks, for a total of nine sessions (three ses-
sions each for AC, OC, and RC, presented consecutively).
The 2/wk group attended twice-weekly sessions for 9 weeks,
for a total of 18 sessions (six sessions each for AC, OC,
and RC). The cumulative intervention intensity for the 2/wk
condition was therefore double that of the 1/wk session.
Once treatment was completed, we calculated the actual
dosage delivered to each group. The difference in cumulative
intervention intensity was very close to what was planned.
Cumulative intervention intensity for the 1/wk condition
was 236 total stimulus items delivered on average (26 items
per session for nine sessions). This compared with 502 total
stimulus items for the 2/wk condition (28 items per session
for 18 sessions).
Single-Subject Experimental Design
A key element of the study was to determine whether
the treatment was equally effective across the three sentence
types. We employed a single-subject experimental design
for this purpose. A multiple baseline across behaviors design
allowed us to provide the treatment to all participants non-
concurrently over a 3-year time period. The multiple baseline
design establishes within-subject control over extraneous
Sample experimental probe items are available in Supplemental
Material S1.
Balthazar & Scott: Targeting Complex Sentences 719
variables such as history and practice effects by comparing
several developmentally related target behaviorsin our
case, three types of complex sentencesduring baseline
and sequentially arranged treatment phases. A causal link
between the treatment and changes in the outcome mea-
sure (the complex sentence probe) can then be inferred
when a pattern of stability in baseline followed by improve-
ment during treatment is repeated across multiple targets
(Kratochwill et al., 2010; Robey, Schultz, Crawford, &
Sinner, 1999). The design consisted of five phases, each com-
prising a predetermined number of sessions (see Figure 1).
Pretreatment (Phase A1).Participants referred to the
study were first evaluated to establish eligibility. In this
initial session, we collected parent consent/participant
assent, a brief history from the parent and/or school clini-
cian, and completed oral language (CELF-4 Core), nonverbal
intelligence (TONI-3/TONI-4) testing, and a complex sen-
tence probe. Those who qualified for the study then partici-
pated in two additional pretreatment evaluation sessions,
during which sentence comprehension (CASL SC), reading
(GORT-4), narrative writing (TOWL-4 Story Construction),
and expository writing (Written Summary) were assessed.
Probes were administered at each of the three pretreatment
sessions to establish baseline performance.
Treatment (Phases B1, B2, B3).Participants in the
1/wk group met individually with a clinician once per week
for 9 weeks. They received three sessions each targeting
AC, OC, and RC, in that order. During the treatment
period for each sentence type, probes were administered
in the session prior to treatment, at the end of the second
treatment session, in the first session posttreatment, and
1 week posttreatment. Participants in the 2/wk group met
individually with a clinician twice per week for 9 weeks.
They received six sessions each targeting AC, OC, and RC,
in that order. During the treatment period, target sentence
probes were administered for each target sentence type imme-
diately prior to treatment, at the end of the second, fourth,
and sixth treatment sessions, and 1 week posttreatment.
RC sentences, which were the last to be treated, were also
probed once during the third OC treatment session.
Posttreatment (Phase A2).Three sessions of evalua-
tion began 1 week after the final treatment session and
were completed within 4 weeks of the end of the treatment
sequence. All pretreatment language and reading tests and
writing tasks were once again administered. Final probes
of all three sentence types were administered during each
of the posttreatment evaluation sessions. By the end of the
final posttreatment session, a total of eight probe sets for
the 1/wk group and 11 probe sets for the 2/wk group were
collected for each complex sentence type.
Data Analysis
Single-Subject Data Analysis
Probe data from each of the 30 participants were
analyzed to establish the magnitude of a treatment effect
for each sentence type. We combined visual analysis with
two quantitative measures, percent exceeding median (PEM)
Figure 1. Phases of the multiple baseline across behaviors design, showing test administration schedule. For each sentence
type, treatment phase is indicated in gray. There were three treatment sessions with one probe during treatment for the
1/wk participants and six treatment sessions with two probes during treatment for the 2/wk participants. A1 = pretest
phase; B1 = treatment phase, first target: AC; B2 = treatment phase, second target: OC; B3 = treatment phase, third target:
RC; A2 = posttest phase; TONI = Test of Nonverbal IntelligenceThird or Fourth Edition (Brown, Sherbenou & Johnsen, 1997,
2010); CELF-4 = Clinical Evaluation of Language FundamentalsFourth Edition (Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003); CASL = Sentence
Comprehension subtest of the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (Carrow-Woolfolk, 1999); GORT-4 = Gray
Oral Language TestFourth Edition Oral Reading Quotient (Wiederholdt & Bryant, 2001); WS = Written Summarization; TOWL-4
Story = Story Generation subtest of the Test of Written LanguageFourth Edition (Hammill & Larsen, 2009); AC = adverbial
clauses; OC = object complements; RC = relative clauses.
720 Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research Vol. 61 713728 March 2018
and standard mean difference, pooled (SMD
). Visual analy-
sis provided observation of the slope of trend lines during
baseline in order to identify participants whose performance
may have been improving prior to treatment, as could be
the case due to factors such as practice effects or regression
to the mean. A baseline was considered to be stable if the
last pretreatment probe measure remained at or below the
median of baseline measures. PEM helped us quantify perfor-
mance improvements during treatment by observing how
often a participants performance exceeded the baseline
median. The number of data points above the baseline
median during and after treatment was divided by the total
number of postbaseline data points to arrive at the PEM.
Although PEM does not capture the magnitude or variability
of performance, it has the advantage of reflecting treatment
effects even in the presence of floor or ceiling data. Following
Wendt (2009), we reasoned that PEM scores of .90 or more
would be expected of highly effective treatment. Moderately
effective treatment would be indicated by PEM scores less
than .90 but more than .70, and PEM scores of less than
.70 would indicate questionable or ineffective treatment.
was calculated to provide a standardized mea-
sure of the amount of change attributable to treatment.
Given the relatively small number of baseline data points,
we reasoned that SMD
, a method that uses all data points
to arrive at the means and variances, would be the best
model for representing expected variance (Ebert & Kohnert,
2009). We calculated SMD
by subtracting the mean of
thebaselinedatapointsfrom the mean of all data points
following the introduction of treatment and dividing by
the pooled standard deviation across all data points (Busk
& Serlin, 1992). In the absence of effect size data from com-
parable treatment studies, we ranked SMD
effect sizes for
each sentence type across all 30 participants and used quar-
tile values to define minimum values for small, medium,
and large effect sizes (25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles,
respectively). To analyze dosage effects, a two-way analysis
of variance was completed with dosage (1/wk, 2/wk) and
sentence type (AC, OC, RC) as independent variables and
or PEM as dependent variables.
Analysis of PrePost Data
Prepost comparisons between the two dosage groups
on oral and written language outcome measures (Research
Question 2) were completed using a repeated-measures
multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with dosage
(1/wk, 2/wk) as the between-subjects factor and time (Pre,
Post) as the within-subject factor. Complex sentence probe
averages pretreatment (Phase A1) and posttreatment (Phase
A2) were also used in this analysis (see Figure 1). In order
to evaluate effect size, partial eta squared (η
) values were
calculated. In a MANOVA, partial eta squared expresses the
proportion of variance in the dependent variables accounted
for by the independent variables (dosage or time).
Analysis of Participant Factors
To explore possible factors related to treatment
response (Research Question 3), data from the two dosage
groups were combined. Pretreatment chronological age, non-
verbal intelligence (TONI-3/TONI-4), oral language ability
(CELF-4 Core and subtests), reading ability (GORT-4), and
complex sentence performance (pretest probe scores for
AC, OC, and RC) were entered into a correlational analysis
with two indicators of treatment outcomes: (a) SMD
as a
measure of effect size on probe performance and (b) amount
of prepost gain on all other measures. Because numerous
comparisons were being explored in the correlation, we
adjusted the alpha level to .03 using the false discovery rate
procedure (Benjamini & Hochberg, 1995) in order to set a
stringent criterion for significance.
Single-Subject Results
Treatment Effects
Visual analysis indicated that baselines for the large
majority of participants were stable prior to treatment for
all three types of sentences (93% for AC, 69% for OC, and
86% for RC). A PEM score was calculated for each par-
ticipant on each sentence type, which was then used to
determine whether treatment had been highly (better than
.90) or moderately (better than .70) effective for each sen-
tence type. Means and standard deviations for PEM are
presented in Table 2. On average, moderately effective
PEM values were obtained for AC (.73) and RC (.80), but
not OC (.49). Twenty-six participants (87%) demonstrated
moderately to highly effective PEM scores on at least one
of the sentence types. Ten (33%) of the participants achieved
a moderate to highly effective PEM on two sentence types;
six participants (20%) achieved it on all three. Four par-
ticipants (13%) did not demonstrate moderately or highly
effective PEM scores for any of the sentence types.
Standardized effect size values (SMD
for each participant on each sentence type (see Table 2).
Effect size values are reported in Table 3. For the OC sen-
tences, a number of participants demonstrated no or nega-
tive treatment change, and consequently, the first quartile
value fell below zero. Because it would be problematic to
interpret negative values as improvement, we set the lower
boundary value for a small OC effect size at zero rather
than the 25th percentile. Medium (.15) and large (.55) effect
sizes for OC were still defined using the 50th and 75th per-
centile values. Twenty-four participants (80%) demonstrated
a medium or large effect size on at least one of the sentence
types. Seven (23%) of the participants achieved a medium
or large effect size on two sentence types; eight participants
(27%) achieved it on all three.
Dosage and Sentence Type Effects
In order to detect differences in treatment effect size
among the two dosage groups and three sentence types,
data were subjected to a two-way analysis of variance with
Benchmark values for magnitude of SMD
may be found in Supplemental
Material S3 for this article.
Balthazar & Scott: Targeting Complex Sentences 721
sentence type (AC, OC, RC) and dosage (1/wk, 2/wk) as
the independent variables and PEM or SMD
as the depen-
dent variable. Means and standard deviations for each
dosage group by sentence type are presented in Table 3.
Mean values reflected a significant effect of Sentence Type
for both PEM, F(2, 27) = 22.863, p< .001, and SMD
F(2, 27) = 32.458, p< .001. The source of difference was
significantly lower performance on OC compared to the
other two sentence types. Surprisingly, although the number
of treatment sessions was doubled for the 2/wk participants,
nificant Dosage × Sentence Type interaction on SMD
for AC, F(1) = 2.801, p= .105; OC, F(1) = 1.391, p= .248;
or RC, F(1) = 0.743, p= .396. There was also no dosage
or Dosage × Sentence Type interaction for PEM for AC,
F(1) = 1.234, p= .277, and RC, F(1) = 0.067, p= .797; how-
ever, there was a statistically significant Dosage × Sentence
Type interaction found for OC, F(1) = 4.401, p=.045.
Analysis of PrePost Test Results
Pre and post probe scores, CELF-4 scores, CASL, and
GORT-4 scores are presented in Table 4. For the language
and reading test scores, results of the Time × Dosage
repeated-measures MANOVA revealed a significant effect of
time overall, F(9, 20) = 9.825, p<.001,Λ= .184, η
Univariate tests showed that the effect of time was signifi-
cant for the CELF-4 Core, F(1) = 41.05, p< .001, η
= .59;
CFD, F(1) = 9.53, p= .005, η
= .30; FS, F(1) = 46.59,
= .63; and word classes (WC), F(1) = 10.36, p=
.003, η
= .27, measures, as well as the prepost sentence
probes for AC, F(1) = 32.56, p<.001,η
=.54;OC,F(1) =
4.25, p=.049,η
= .13; and RC, F(1) = 46.75, p< .001,
SC (p= .058) and GORT-4 ( p= .071). It was not signifi-
cant for RS ( p= .347) or word definitions (WD; p=.379).
The effect of dosage overall was not significant, F(9, 20) =
1.22, p=.339,Λ= .184. The Time × Dosage interaction was
also not significant, F(9, 20) = 1.80, p= .131, Λ= .552.
Writing sample scores (MLTU and SI) are presented
in Table 5. For the writing scores, results of the Time ×
Dosage repeated-measures MANOVA revealed no significant
effect of time overall for the TOWL-4 Story Generation,
F(6, 23) = .487, p= .811, Λ= .887, and no Time × Dosage
interaction, F(6, 23) = .873, p=.53,Λ= .815. For the expos-
itory writing samples (WS), the effect of time overall was
significant, F(6, 20) = 4.862, p= .003, Λ= .407, as was
the Time × Dosage interaction, F(6, 20) = 2.657, p= .046,
Λ= .556, but not in the anticipated direction. Univariate
tests showed that these effects were due to a significant effect
of time on SI for both groups overall, F(1) = 6.658, p= .016,
produced by a decrease in SI from pretest (M=2.44)to
posttest (M= 2.03) and of the Time × Dosage interaction
on MLTU, F(1) = 4.973, p= .035, which resulted from
a drop in MLTU on the WS from pretest (M= 12.21) to
posttest (M= 9.48) for the 2/wk group.
Analysis of Participant Factors
The pretest variables of chronological age, TONI-3/
TONI-4 score, CELF-4 Core score, CELF-4 subtest scores,
CASL SC score, GORT-4 score, and average baseline AC,
OC, and RC probe scores were entered into a correlational
analysis with effect sizes (SMD
values) and prepost gain
values on the CELF-4 Core and subtests, GORT-4, and
CASL. Five of 49 possible correlations were significant,
all involving sentence-level measures in which lower pretest
scores correlated with greater treatment effects and gains
(i.e., negative correlations).
The FS pretest score was corre-
lated with OC effect size (r
=.400, p= .029) and FS gain
=.394, p= .030). AC average at baseline produced
a significant correlation with AC effect size (r
p= .000). OC average at baseline correlated with OC effect
size (r
=.569, p= .001). Age, CELF-4 Core, TONI-3/
TONI-4, CASL, and GORT-4 pretest scores did not corre-
late significantly with effect sizes or test gains.
This study was designed as an early-phase treatment
study addressing whether school-age children with SLI
benefit from a treatment protocol designed to improve
performance on three types of complex sentences. Benefit
was examined by analyzing probe scores as part of a single-
subject multiple baseline across behaviors design and
comparing prepost treatment measures that included norm-
referenced language tests and naturalistic writing samples.
We also examined relationships between outcome measures
and participant age, nonverbal cognition, and pretreatment
language scores.
Treatment Effects
Our primary research question was whether there was
a significant effect of treatment on participantsproduction
of each of the three types of complex sentences, and if so,
whether the effect was greater in the higher dosage condition.
Performance on complex sentence probes varied across
A table showing all correlations is available in Supplemental
Material S4.
Table 2. Mean (standard deviation) PEM and SMD
values for each
sentence type.
Measure Group AC OC RC
PEM 1/wk 0.81 (0.31) 0.37 (0.36) 0.81 (0.31)
2/wk 0.68 (0.28) 0.60 (.23) 0.79 (0.23)
Total 0.73 (0.30) 0.49 (.32) 0.80 (0.27)
1/wk 1.12 (0.74) 0.09 (0.85) 0.89 (0.76)
2/wk 0.71 (0.28) 0.20 (0.45) 1.10 (0.54)
Total 0.91 (0.69) 0.06 (0.67) 1.00 (0.65)
Note. PEM = percent exceeding median; SMD
= standard mean
difference using pooled variance; AC = adverbial clauses; OC =
object complement clauses; RC = relative clauses.
722 Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research Vol. 61 713728 March 2018
individuals in terms of the size of treatment effect (expressed
as the PEM and SMD
values) and which sentence type(s)
improved but did not vary as a function of treatment
The first measure of treatment effect was PEM, which
reflected the proportion of measurements above the median
baseline after treatment. Performance for most participants
improved once treatment began and remained reliably above
baseline levels, thus demonstrating clinical significance on
at least one and usually more than one sentence type. The
second way we looked at treatment effect was with SMD
a standardized effect size metric that quantifies the magnitude
of change. The majority of participants (80%) demonstrated
medium or large effect sizes for at least one of the three sen-
tence types; a sizable proportion also demonstrated medium
to large effects for two (23%) or all three (27%) sentence
types. We concluded that the majority of participants made
important treatment-related gains in complex sentence
Effect size analyses revealed a difference in treatment
effect across the three types of sentences. The majority of
participants demonstrated moderate or high learning effects
on AC and RC sentences, but not on OC sentences. Com-
pared with AC and RC, OC performance showed greater
fluctuation across time and was also closer to ceiling at base-
line, which could have limited the potential for contrast.
Differences in the syntactic operations underlying perfor-
mance on OC probes could also explain treatment effect
disparities. AC and RC probes involved conjoining, substi-
tution, and movement operations different from those
required for OC probes. The OC is an obligatory argument
(object) of the main clause, which would be ungrammatical
without it. Also, only certain main clause verbs, ones that
signal cognitive or linguistic activity (e.g., think, ask, decide,
conclude), collocate with OC. These structural and semantic
features of OC sentences required that participants follow
a different metalinguistic pathway during probes and in
treatment activities.
PrePost Comparisons
To explore the broader potential impact of treatment
beyond direct probe measures, we compared prepost oral
language and reading test scores as well as sentence-level
indicators of complexity in writing samples. Across dosage
groups, the average gain on the CELF-4 Core was large
a statistically significant 10 standard score points. There
are several reasons to interpret this change as attributable
to treatment and clinically significant and not the result of
regression toward the mean or practice effects. First is the
size of the improvementthe large number of participants
(60%) whose gain exceeded the 90% confidence interval of
Table 4. CELF-4 Core and subtests, CASL SC, and GORT-4 mean (standard deviation) and gain scores by dosage group.
1/wk 2/wk Total
Pre Post Gain Pre Post Gain Pre Post Gain
CELF-4 73.1 (9.8) 82.9 (9.8) 9.8 (6.8) 71.2 (11.7) 80.7 (14.4) 9.5 (9.2) 72.1 (10.7) 81.7 (12.3) 9.6 (8.1)
5.3 (2.2) 6.3 (3.1) 1.0 (2.0) 3.2 (1.1) 5.3 (3.2) 1.9 (2.5) 4.2 (2.0) 5.8 (3.1) 1.6 (2.2)
9.0 (0.0) 10.0 (1.4) 1.0 (1.4) 6.8 (3.2) 8.6 (3.2) .75 (2.2) 7.5 (2.7) 9.0 (2.8) .83 (1.8)
RS 3.9 (1.8) 4.2 (2.1) 0.3 (1.4) 4.0 (2.4) 4.2 (2.9) 0.2 (1.7) 3.9 (2.1) 4.2 (2.5) 0.3 (1.5)
FS 6.1 (2.5) 9.4 (2.4) 3.3 (2.4) 6.4 (3.6) 9.3 (3.7) 2.9 (2.5) 6.2 (3.1) 9.3 (3.1) 3.1 (2.5)
WC 6.5 (1.8) 8.1 (2.3) 1.6 (2.2) 6.6 (1.7) 7.6 (2.5) 1.0 (2.2) 6.5 (1.7) 7.8 (2.3) 1.3 (2.2)
CASL SC 84 (8) 87 (13) 3 (12) 83 (7) 87 (8) 4 (7) 83 (7) 87 (11) 4 (10)
GORT-4 81 (12) 84 (15) 3 (10) 72 (15) 77 (13) 5 (11) 77 (14) 80 (14) 4 (10)
Note. CELF-4 = Core Language Quotient of the Clinical Evaluation of Language FundamentalsFourth Edition; CFD = Concepts and Following
Directions; WD = Word Definitions; RS = Recalling Sentences; FS = Formulated Sentences; WC = Word Classes; CASL SC = Sentence
Comprehension subtest of the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language; GORT-4 = Gray Oral Language TestFourth Edition Oral
Reading Quotient.
n= 12 in the 1/wk group, 12 in the 2/wk group.
n= 2 in the 1/wk group, 4 in the 2/wk group at pretest.
n= 2 in the 1/wk group, 5 in the
2/wk group at posttest.
Table 3. Mean (standard deviation) and gain scores for AC, OC, and RC probes.
Pre Post Gain Pre Post Gain Pre Post Gain
1/wk .63 (.20) .84 (.08) .21 (.19) .73 (.13) .76 (.11) .03 (.17) .38 (.22) .58 (.17) .20 (.17)
2/wk .71 (.10) .81 (.10) .10 (.11) .67 (.15) .75 (.10) .08 (.13) .34 (.18) .59 (.23) .25 (.19)
Total .67 (.15) .82 (.09) .15 (.16) .70 (.14) .76 (.13) .06 (.15) .36 (.20) .58 (.20) .22 (.18)
Note. Pretest score is average of first three baseline probes. Posttest score is average of last three posttreatment probes. AC = adverbial
clauses; OC = object complement clauses; RC = relative clauses.
Balthazar & Scott: Targeting Complex Sentences 723
the test (±6 points), an interval calculated to set statistical
boundaries on the likelihood that a given test score is
stable and representative. In research on the longitudinal
course of language impairment, it is reported that school-
age children rarely exceed 1 SE of measurement unit
on repeated test administrations (this point is reviewed
in Gillam et al., 2008). Second is the number of partici-
pants (47%) whose score normalized from a clinical status
of SLI (a standard score of 85) to a score above 85. A
third indication is the variation in improvement across
CELF-4 Core subtests (see Table 4). If regression toward
the mean, practice effects, or the passage of time under-
lies the improvement, one might expect gains to be evenly
distributed across subtests. However, there were no sig-
nificant gains on two subtestsRSandWordDefini-
tions. Furthermore, of the four subtests that make up
treatment activities, which posted the highest gains and
contributed the most to the Core Language Quotient
We found less evidence of treatment impact on
reading and writing scores. Although both dosage groups
demonstrated reading gains approaching significance on
the GORT-4, the size of the change did not reach statisti-
cal significance or exceed the tests confidence interval
(±6). Because passages on the GORT-4 contain complex
sentences that must be correctly parsed to arrive at text-
level meaning, we had hypothesized that scores could be
affected by our treatment. Because the changes observed
were consistently in a positive direction, it may be that
either the quantity of treatment was not sufficient to pro-
duce significant gains or that the treatment content did
not link directly enough to the task of reading.
Unlike reading, we saw no improvements on the most
naturalistic of our prepost measuresthe two writing
tasks. Posttreatment narrative and expository writing
samples did not show gains on measures frequently used
to index sentence complexity (MLTU, SI). The lack of
significant positive change in either narrative or expository
writing was not surprising given the short overall length
of treatment (9 weeks, with a total of nine or 18 treatment
sessions), the sentence-level emphasis of the intervention,
and the relative difficulty of writing for school-age children
with SLI (Scott & Windsor, 2000).
We examined whether the 2/wk dosage produced sig-
nificant differences in treatment effects or prepost gains.
We did not find an advantage to this doubling of the treat-
ment intensity on any of our oral and written language
outcome measures. A negative finding regarding a dosage
effect is somewhat counterintuitive, and it is important to
consider why it may have occurred. It could be that perfor-
mance approached ceiling for both dosage groups after
the first few sessions (there were three sessions devoted to
each sentence type in the 1/wk group), and there was no
advantage to additional treatment. This seems likely when
looking at findings from a study using the same probes
with typically developing 10-, 12-, and 14-year-olds (Selin,
2013). In this study, a plateau in performance emerged at
around the age of 12, with scores ranging from 60% (RC)
to 90% (AC and OC) accuracy for 14-year-olds. In terms
of average age and postprobe scores, our participants were
similar (average age of 12, RC score of 58%, and AC score
of 82%). Thus, many of the participants, even within the
lower dosage group, were approaching levels of performance
comparable to that of age peers. A probe task with greater
discriminatory ability at the higher end may be needed in
order to observe treatment dosage effects.
Prepost gains on the CELF-4 were significant, but
again, not greater for the higher dosage group. A ceiling
effect would not account for the lack of a dosage effect on
this measure. We suspect that the impact on the CELF-4
Core score resulted from treatment effects on the FS subtest,
which, as we stated previously, is composed of a high pro-
portion of test items involving AC constructions. Perhaps a
norm-referenced measure, which relied in equal proportions
on OC and RC constructions, would have more potential
to show additional impact. In our review of potential mea-
sures, however, no such test was found. For the remaining
prepost measures, namely the reading and writing tasks,
significant gains were not observed for either of the dosage
groups. Here it is likely that even the higher dosage was
Table 5. Pre- and posttest narrative and expository writing sample score mean (standard deviation) scores by dosage group.
Measure Group
TOWL-4 Story Written Summary
Pre Post Pre Post
MLTU 1/wk 9.84 (2.98) 8.87 (2.77) 11.62 (4.88) 11.86 (5.19)
2/wk 9.00 (2.73) 9.13 (2.21) 12.21 (3.07) 9.48 (1.89)
Total 9.39 (2.83) 9.02 (2.45) 11.93 (3.85) 10.36 (3.89)
SI 1/wk 2.82 (0.470) 1.65 (0.498) 2.45 (0.953) 2.16 (0.845)
2/wk 1.67 (0.440) 1.77 (0.453) 2.43 (0.799) 1.92 (0.523)
Total 1.74 (0.450) 1.72 (0.471) 2.39 (0.839) 1.99 (0.696)
Note. TOWL-4 Story = Story Generation subtest of the Test of Written LanguageFourth Edition (Hammill & Larsen, 2009); MLTU = mean
length of T-unit (the number of total words divided by the total number of T-units); SI = subordination index (the number of total clauses
divided by the total number of T-units).
724 Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research Vol. 61 713728 March 2018
not enough to significantly affect performance on more
complex tasks, such as reading and writing.
Other language treatment studies across a variety of
language domains and involving both adults and children
have similarly found little relationship between dosage and
degree of treatment response (e.g., Barratt, Littlejohns, &
Thomson, 1991; Fey, Warren, Yoder, & Bredin-Oja, 2013;
McGregor, Sheng, & Ball, 2007). Our findings, along with
results in these studies, highlight the challenges of defining
the concept of dosage in the study of language treatment
(Proctor-Williams, 2009) and, more specifically, understand-
ing the role of treatment intensity (Yoder, Fey, & Warren,
2012). Further investigation is required to confirm that there
is no added benefit for the higher dosage and to explore
potential dosage effects and interactions with longer total
treatment times, treatment maintenance, and different out-
come measures.
Pretest Characteristics and Outcomes
Our last research question involved an exploration
of factors that could potentially mediate treatment effects,
including baseline probe measures, age, nonverbal cogni-
tion, and pretest language scores. Results were surprising
in that so few of these variablescorrelatedwithtreatment
outcomes. Only a small subset of baseline probe and pre-
test language scores corresponded with the amount of
treatment gain, and for these, the correlation was a negative
one. Lower AC and OC probes at pretest corresponded to
larger effect sizes, suggesting that participants who had the
most difficulties with these complex sentences made the
greatest gains. This pattern is consistent with results from
the two studies that taught complex sentence structure to
students in the same age range as our participants. Hirschman
(2000) found that students with lower complexity scores
showed greater benefit from the treatment of adverbial
clauses. Similarly, Saddler and Graham (2005) noted that
students with the lowest pretreatment language scores
benefitted the most from sentence combining instruction.
We took this pattern, combined with the significant effect
size for RC (for which pretest performance was lower than
AC and OC to begin with), as an encouraging sign that
the treatment protocol was working to improve exactly the
skills intended, for those who needed it the most. It also
suggests that a fairly narrow focus on complex sentences
during assessment is required in order to determine which
individuals might be in need of support, specifically on
complex sentence structure. Likewise, the only language
measure that related significantly (and negatively) to effect
size was FS. As discussed above, this is also a sentence-level
production task with many exemplars of AC sentences,
one of the complex sentence types treated.
Future Directions
Our analysis of the results leaves us optimistic about
providing complex sentence intervention to older school-age
children with SLI. The study has provided a starting point
to build a stronger evidence base supporting treatment deci-
sions and valuable lessons that will influence future investi-
gations. Regarding methodology, future studies should
extend assessments posttreatment to determine the degree
to which learning is maintained. In evaluating the dosage
component of the study, randomization of assignment to
dosage levels would improve our ability to make general,
more conclusive statements about dosage effects. Later-
phase iterations of complex sentence treatment studies can
consider further methodological improvements that enhance
internal and external validity.
Specific to treatment, there are a number of avenues
to explore. The nonsignificant dosage effect raises the
question of whether our dosage increment was sufficient.
Although it should not be assumed that more equals
better(Kamhi, 2014), it may be that a larger difference
between the two dosage levels in either frequency (number
of sessions per week) or cumulative intervention intensity
(total amount of instruction provided) would have made
an observable difference. Going back to the early days of
language treatment research, clinicians have discussed how
much treatment is needed for change to occur, as well as
the appropriate performance criteria for language goals
(Fey, 1986). Future investigations should address these
issues. Regarding content, several modifications based
on our results deserve consideration. Treatment could
pay more attention to meaning, for example, emphasizing
complement-taking verbs, particularly lower-frequency verbs
found in school subjects (e.g., hypothesize,assume), or
logical relations signaled by various adverbial conjunctions.
The number and variety of clauses being manipulated in
each sentence and the depth of embedding, both of which
increase the difficulty level for parsing a complex sen-
tence, could also be increased. It would be interesting to
see whether more treatment time devoted to manipulating
target sentences in real reading and writing tasks might
promote generalization. These remain areas worthy of
further investigation, and we look forward to determining
whether changes might result in broader effects that are
maintained in more natural language contexts. As an early-
phase treatment study, however, this study has demonstrated
that older school-age children can be taught to be more
successful manipulating untrained complex sentences.
Furthermore, there are clinically meaningful gains on a
comprehensive test of oral language, and these changes
can occur in a relatively short intervention span. The
results support a developing narrative wherein older chil-
dren and adolescents with SLI benefit from highly focused
interventions that recruit specific language skills and address
their persistent functional language problems.
The Complex Sentence Intervention treatment protocol was
developed with the support of Grant 1R15011165-01 from the
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communicative Disor-
ders, awarded to Catherine H. Balthazar and Cheryl M. Scott.
The content of this article is solely the responsibility of the authors
Balthazar & Scott: Targeting Complex Sentences 725
and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National
Institute on Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders or the
National Institutes of Health. The authors wish to acknowledge
the speech-language pathologists and graduate students who
contributed to the development and delivery of the treatment pro-
tocol: Laura Anderson, Joy Bedell, Patty Boyd, Julie Burns, Sara
Butler, Erica Fenton, Cynthia Loiterman, Robyn Maciejewski,
Colleen Shanahan, Katie Stuepfert, Pat Tattersall, and, especially,
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Examples of Sentence Targets (AC, OC, RC) and Structural Variations
Complex sentences with adverbial clauses (AC): Adverbial clauses modify the associated main clause, adding information
about time, place, or manner/condition. They are adjoined to the main clause with an adverbial conjunction (such as because,
when, although, unless). The AC can either follow (right-branching) or precede (left-branching) the main clause.
Right-branching: Matthew couldnt get his books because his locker was jammed shut. (N)
Left-branching: Although the Titanic was unsinkable, it went down in the North Atlantic on April 15, 1912. (E)
Complex sentences with object complement clauses (OC): Object complement clauses are embedded in the main clause
as the obligatory object of the verb. A restricted set of main clause verbs take object complements; these include cognitive
verbs (e.g., think, know, say, conclude, decide, predict). OC take a variety of forms including finite forms beginning with that or
a wh-interrogative form (what, why) and nonfinite forms in which the verb in the OC is an infinitive, a base, or a participial verb
Finite: The Queen of Spain learned that Columbus had reached the New World. (E)
Nonfinite: Jake volunteered to work the difficult math problem on the blackboard. (N)
Complex sentences with relative clauses (RC): Relative clauses follow nouns and provide additional information about
that noun. Typically they begin with a relative pronoun (that, who, whose, which). A relative clause can modify any noun in
a sentence, whether the noun functions as the main clause subject or object. Four structural subtypes were trained in this
Subject, Subject: The candidate that wins the primary advances to the main election. (E)
Subject, Object: The used car that Jake bought had major problems from the beginning. (N)
Object, Subject: The legislature passed a law that reduced car emissions by half. (E)
Object, Object: We met the new band director that the school district hired over the summer. (N)
N in parentheses refers to narrative content (about a common life experience). E in parentheses refers to expository (informational) content.
728 Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research Vol. 61 713728 March 2018
... In the present review, only results that considered oral language comprehension were reported, although some of the studies also targeted expressive language (please see Tables 3 to 5). For example, Balthazar and Scott (2018) examined the use and understanding of complex sentences, but only the results regarding comprehension are discussed in the present review. ...
... All studies using time-series design without a control group were designated to level III-3. Studies were categorised as pretest/post-test design also when the measures for oral language comprehension were administered in this design even though the general design of the study was time series design, like in the case of Balthazar and Scott (2018). Studies with only one intervention group and no control group were categorised as pretest/post-test designs to level IV. ...
... Six of the intervention studies used explicit teaching of the grammatical rules with visual support: the SHAPE CODING system (Ebbels, 2007;Ebbels et al., 2014;Ebbels & Lely van der, 2001), MetaTaal (Zwitserlood et al., 2015), and explicit teaching of syntactic movement (Levy & Friedmann, 2009) were used. In the seventh study, exposure, repetition, identification, and scaffolded manipulation activities were used (Balthazar & Scott, 2018). Here scaffolding means a cue, a prompt, or an explanation. ...
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Difficulties understanding spoken language are associated with several social and academic risks in school-age children and adolescents with developmental language disorder (DLD). Still, interventions for this group have received little attention, and there are no reviews focusing on oral language comprehension interventions in school-age children and adolescents. The objective of this systematic scoping review was to identify interventions targeting oral language comprehension in school-age children and adolescents with DLD. Further, the aim was to examine the focus of intervention, efficacy, and level of evidence of the identified interventions. The present review is the second part of a larger search on oral language comprehension interventions. The first review examined the same factors in children 8 years and younger.
... The presence of instructions, descriptions, or demonstrations at the onset of an intervention task increases the child's awareness of the task goal and subsequently activates the explicit learning system. A clear goal, such as "find the 'subordinate clause'" (from Balthazar & Scott, 2018), encourages the use of hypothesis-based learning or deliberate problem solving. In contrast, exposure to stimuli with underlying rules that cannot easily be detected with overt instructions is more likely to promote implicit learning. ...
... Selected articles were required to (a) include children with DLD or specific language impairment (SLI) 1 in the childhood-toearly-adolescent age range, (b) target grammar or syntax using real English stimuli, and (c) contain detailed methodological information. The interventions and selected studies include (a) Bombardment (Plante et al., 2018), (b) Recasting (Enhanced: Plante et al., 2014;Conversational: Leonard et al., 2004;Focused + Structural Priming: Wada et al., 2020), (c) Focused Stimulation (using Language in Interaction Therapy: Bruinsma et al., 2020), (d) Modeling (Weismer & Murray-Branch, 1989), (e) Imitation (Nelson et al., 1996), (f) Complex Sentence Treatment (Balthazar & Scott, 2018), (g) MetaTaal (Zwitserlood et al., 2015), and (h) Shape Coding (Shape Coding alone: Ebbels, 2007; Shape Coding with systematic cues : Calder et al., 2020). The selected articles comprise participants ranging in age from 3 to 14 years and interventions targeting morphosyntax (e.g., auxiliaries, plural -s, third-person -s, present progressive -ing, past tense -ed) or complex sentences (e.g., relative clauses, adverbial clauses, use of object complements). ...
... Using the Complex Sentence Treatment, Balthazar and Scott (2018) taught 30 children with SLI (aged 10;0-14;1) to use three targeted sentence types (adverbial object, complements, relative sentence types) during a series of structured tasks. Each session included (a) scripted instruction containing a definition of the target clause, description of how it could be used, and ways to differentiate it from other sentence types; (b) explicit metalinguistic instruction and guided practice (e.g., sentence identification, deconstruction, combining, or generation tasks); (c) activities designed to highlight the meanings and/or purposes of target sentences in context; and (d) occasional probes involving a written sentence combining task. ...
Purpose The growing interest in framing intervention approaches as either implicit or explicit calls for a discussion of what makes intervention approaches engage each of these learning systems, with the goal of achieving a shared framework. This tutorial presents evidence for the interaction between implicit and explicit learning systems, and it highlights the intervention characteristics that promote implicit or explicit learning as well as outcome measures that tap into implicit or explicit knowledge. This framework is then applied to eight common intervention approaches and notable combinations of approaches to unpack their differential engagement of implicit and explicit learning. Conclusions Many intervention characteristics (e.g., instructions, elicitation techniques, feedback) can be manipulated to move an intervention along the implicit–explicit continuum. Given the bias for using explicit learning strategies that develops throughout childhood and into adulthood, clinicians should be aware that most interventions (even those that promote implicit learning) will engage the explicit learning system. However, increased awareness of the implicit and explicit learning systems and their cognitive demands will allow clinicians to choose the most appropriate intervention for the target behavior.
... For example, similar intensity in terms of teaching episodes for word learning could be achieved by presenting 30 clinician models of a target word over the course of a single session, or at a rate of three models per session for 10 sessions. Traditional intervention research may consider questions of dose and intensity, such as by comparing two different levels of intervention dose (eg., Balthazar & Scott, 2018;Fey et al., 2013). However, there is not a consistent presumption that intervention service delivery approaches within research mimic the intensity and structures available in clinical contexts. ...
Purpose Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and researchers face difficulties in moving evidence-based practices from clinical research into widespread practice, in part due to a mismatch between the design of typical intervention research studies and the realities of clinical settings. SLPs must adapt interventions from the literature or established programs to fit the needs of specific clients and settings. Researchers must design studies that better reflect clinical practice. Method Here, we provide an overview of the Minimal Intervention Needed for Change (MINC) approach, a systematic approach to developing and adapting interventions that focuses on achieving meaningful outcomes within specific contexts. We outline the principles of MINC and illustrate this process through the use of a case study. Results MINC can support systematic development and adaptation of interventions in clinical and research settings, particularly settings with resource limitations. Conclusions Researchers should work to align research intervention work with typical clinical settings. This involves both targeting outcomes that are functional and clinically significant and acknowledging resource limitations. SLPs should adapt evidence-based interventions systematically and carefully to meet the needs of clients and settings while retaining the core components of intervention that result in meaningful change for clients.
... As they talk, SLPs guide students to "lift" or elevate their vocabulary by using less-common words that are found in many content domains (see Table 4). It is also a powerful opportunity for students to learn how to use complex syntax, especially subordinating conjunctions (Balthazar & Scott, 2018). A shared-reading approach, in which the SLP reads a text as students follow along, gives students access to grade-level language. ...
Purpose This tutorial describes a comprehensive approach to the development of collaborative academic conversations in older students with language delays and impairments. Support materials including a link to an instructional video are provided. Conclusions These students require systematic, explicit instruction to develop competence and to acquire the thinking and language skills required to productively engage in a collaborative academic conversation. Speech-language pathologists are uniquely equipped to prepare students for gainful participation and to collaborate with classroom teachers, ensuring transfer of language and thinking skills. Supplemental Material
... In that sense, it would be interesting to compare the effect of systematic training in WM with that of direct syntactic training (with, for example, the metalinguistic approach of Shape Coding, Ebbels, 2007). There is still little evidence in the scientific literature regarding the effectiveness of syntax-based speech-language pathology therapy (Ebbels, 2014;Law et al., 2003), but such trainings, including explicit grammatical interventions, seem to be efficient (Balthazar & Scott, 2018;Calder et al., 2020;Zwitserlood et al., 2015). ...
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Linguistic deficits attested in children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) have been explained in terms of limitations in working memory (WM). The goal of this research is to assess whether a tailored WM program can improve the syntactic abilities of children with DLD and those with typical development (TD). We created a novel iPad application consisting of five activities specifically designed to train the components of WM that have been shown to be the most predictive of performance on tests assessing complex syntax. Thirty-two children with DLD (M = 9;0) and 18 with TD (M = 8;5) followed the WM training (lasting 12 hours). Results show significant improvement in verbal WM (direct effects) in both TD and DLD groups, and in sentence repetition (transfer effects) in the DLD group, with the most pronounced improvements observed for complex syntactic structures. This progression is not observed for 38 age-matched children of the same age who followed an alternative, global scholastic training (20 DLD, 18 TD), which proves the specific efficacy of our WM training. The logical next step will be to incorporate the training into the therapy of children with DLD in order to reinforce the potential benefit of their interventions.
... She demonstrated that this intervention was effective at improving both syntactic skills in this population. We identified a single study, by Balthazar and Scott (2018), that took this a step further to test the effects of instruction specifically of syntax on reading comprehension. In a study with 10-14-year-old students with specific language impairment, Balthazar and Scott trained students once or twice a week on different clause types in three stages at each session. ...
The reading wars were fought over the importance of sentence- versus word- level information to students’ reading. As the field considers new debates on the science of reading, we argue here that sustained empirical inquiry into the role of sentence- level information in students’ reading skill is needed. These investigations could be particularly useful in identifying ways to sup-port reading comprehension. In this article, we review theories pointing to this possibility, as well as key pieces of available empirical evidence. We also identify crucial gaps in knowledge, as the field must assess the mechanisms by which this relation functions, which will inform instruction, and potential changes in this relation across development and across aspects of this skill. Advancement in each of these areas will lead to a comprehensive under-standing of the relation between sentence- level skills and reading compre-hension, which can inform effective instruction in the classroom.
Introduction Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) start learning foreign languages, usually English as a foreign language (EFL), at an increasingly young age. However, current scholarship lacks crucial insights into how children with DLD respond to language learning in classroom settings and how they can be supported in doing so. The purpose of this early efficacy study is to determine whether a business-as-usual curriculum or a new teaching method tailored to the specific needs of pupils with DLD results in (greater) progress in the foreign language (English) and in the school language (Dutch). Method The participants were 75 pupils with DLD in the last three years of primary school, learning EFL in special education in the Netherlands. The intervention group (n=41) received 12 lessons following the CodeTaal approach, including metalinguistic instruction of grammar rules, explicit cross-linguistic contrasts and multimodal interaction with the material. The control group (n=34) received their regular English lessons. The study used a pre- to post-test design and compared the performance of the two groups on a Grammaticality Judgment Task (GJT) in English and a narrative task in both English and Dutch. Results Only the intervention group significantly improved in their ability to identify ungrammaticalities in English and generalised the learnt rules to new sentences. Although the performance on the GJT predicted accuracy of English narratives, neither group showed a significant decrease of error rates in English. In contrast, the accuracy of Dutch narratives showed improvement, but only in the intervention group. However, the effects were small and there was significant variability in responsiveness to the intervention. Conclusion We conclude that pupils with DLD are able to make progress in foreign language learning in a classroom setting if provided with adequate support.
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Resumen Los trastornos del lenguaje generan repercusiones en el funcionamiento comunicativo de los sujetos. Los trastornos específicos del lenguaje (TEL) corresponden a dificultades de alta prevalencia y que afectan el rendimiento académico y social de los niños y niñas. Existe gran variabilidad en la entrega de apoyos a esta población y muchas veces la información relacionada con tales apoyos no está explicitada. En consecuencia, puede resultar difícil realizar una práctica basada en la evidencia. El objetivo de este artículo fue identificar la evidencia actual sobre los componentes claves de la intervención en lenguaje en niños con TEL. Se realizó una revisión panorámica en la cual se examinaron 35 artículos científicos que cumplieron con los criterios de elegibilidad. Se observó una gran variabilidad en cada uno de los componentes evaluados, especialmente en las técnicas, actividades, modelos de servicios y dosis. En factores tales como agentes y objetos de intervención, se observa una tendencia a priorizar el trabajo directivo del fonoaudiólogo y temas lingüísticos más tradicionales, con una leve tendencia a incluir variables cognitivas no lingüísticas. Por lo tanto, se concluye que la terapia fonoaudiológica entrega resultados positivos, sin embargo, se observan algunos factores de la intervención que no se consideran plenamente, tal como el trabajo colaborativo e inclusivo, y escasa consideración de elementos más naturalistas.
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Background: People with language disorders (including developmental language disorder-DLD) often struggle to learn new words and, for young adults, this could affect their success in future work. Therefore, it is crucial to support their learning of career-specific vocabulary. However, little published evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of speech and language intervention for older adolescents and young adults with (developmental) language disorder (D)LD within a post-16 provision. Aims: To investigate whether for students with (D)LD in a post-16 environment, the addition of direct individual intervention from a speech and language therapist (SLT) teaching course-specific vocabulary leads to more progress than just in-course teaching on bespoke vocabulary measures. Methods & procedures: A total of 28 college-aged students (11 female and 17 male) with (D)LD (aged 16.0-19.9) participated in a within-participant study comparing progress with explicit vocabulary intervention plus in-course teaching versus in-course teaching alone. The participants were assessed at four time points (3 months pre-intervention, immediately pre- and post-intervention, 3.5 months after intervention) using bespoke vocabulary assessments with an equal number of nouns, verbs and adjectives. All participants received one-to-one vocabulary intervention from their usual SLT for 30 min per week for 9 weeks. The intervention had four main components: (1) to identify intervention focus, (2) to recap previously taught terms (using an online flashcard program), (3) to explicitly teach new words using word maps to help with: creating definition and pictorial representation, identification of word class and investigation of phonological and morphological properties, and (4) to add new words, with their definition and pictorial representation to online flashcard program. Outcomes & results: The results showed a stable baseline, then during the intervention term significant progress on words targeted only in lessons and significantly greater progress on words targeted both in lessons and SLT sessions. Progress was maintained for 14 weeks. Individuals with initially lower scores showed smaller intervention effects. In general, performance was higher on verbs and on the definition recognition task and lower on the production tasks, but all tasks improved with intervention. Conclusions & implications: Direct one-to-one vocabulary intervention with an SLT can lead to significant gains in knowledge of course-specific terminology for college-aged students with (D)LD. The effectiveness of speech and language therapy services for this age group in a wider range of areas of language and social communication should also be investigated. What this paper adds: What is already known on this subject Very few services exist for young adults with DLD, despite their persisting language difficulties and the detrimental impact of these on their academic attainment and employment prospects. Most careers involve specific vocabulary which is crucial to executing a role successfully and these need to be learned by those looking to move into these careers. However, children, adolescents and adults with DLD struggle to learn new words and may need help in this area. What this study adds to existing knowledge The young adults with (D)LD received 9 weeks of intervention targeting individualized course-specific vocabulary (nouns, verbs and adjectives), using word maps to focus on word forms, definitions, morphologically related words and syntactic information such as word class and how to use the word in a sentence. An online learning tool provided regular spaced retrieval practice of previously taught words and their definitions. The participants showed significant progress with learning course-specific vocabulary from attending lessons. However, they made significantly greater progress on those words which were also targeted in individual SLT sessions, regardless of word class. Progress was maintained over 14 weeks. What are the potential or actual clinical implications of this work? Direct one-to-one vocabulary intervention with an SLT can lead to significantly greater gains in the acquisition of targeted course-specific terminology for young adults with (D)LD than the vocabulary teaching available in lessons. Individual intervention delivered by SLTs should therefore be offered to this age group of students with (D)LD to maximize their ability to access the academic curriculum and their future careers. Indeed, the broader role of SLTs in helping these young adults to access the world of work and independent living should be further investigated and supported.
Purpose This clinical focus article describes a literacy intervention protocol developed for mid-elementary students struggling with reading and writing. This clinical focus article begins with a discussion of the clinical questions and reasoning behind the choice of two major targets that include (a) improved reading fluency and (b) improved writing (spelling and composition) when integrated with reading. Extant research and expert opinion supporting each target are summarized. The protocol was implemented by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) with three third-grade students in a series of seven procedural steps described in detail. Clinician and teacher observations of student behaviors during protocol implementation and potential explanations are discussed. Conclusions Although SLPs are encouraged to take on literacy intervention and the literature is robust with applicable research, there is less discussion of exactly how to approach intervention with older struggling readers who have both reading and writing needs. This clinical focus article illustrates how the marriage of clinical reasoning/experience and research can shape the choice of targets and step-by-step procedures to reduce this practice gap. SLPs are encouraged to consider whether the protocol holds promise for addressing literacy needs of students on their caseloads.
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Purpose: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sentence-combining (SC) and narrative-based (NAR) intervention approaches to syntax intervention using a randomized-controlled-trial design. Method: Fifty-two Cantonese-speaking, school-age children with language impairment were assigned randomly to either the SC or the NAR treatment arm. Seven children did not receive treatment as assigned. Intervention in both arms targeted the same complex syntactical structures. The SC group focused on sentence combination training, whereas the NAR group made use of narratives in which the target structures were embedded. Pretest and posttest performances measured using a standardized language assessment were subjected to analyses of covariance mixed-effect-model analyses of variance. Results: Children in both treatment arms demonstrated significant growth after 4 months of intervention. The main effect between treatment arms and time was not significant after controlling the pretest performance, suggesting that both treatment approaches showed similar effects. The main effect of time was significant. Conclusions: This study provided evidence to support language intervention in the school years in Cantonese-speaking children. However, neither approach was shown to be more efficacious than the other. Future researchers could examine the effects of a longer treatment period and include functional outcome measures.
The common approach to the multiplicity problem calls for controlling the familywise error rate (FWER). This approach, though, has faults, and we point out a few. A different approach to problems of multiple significance testing is presented. It calls for controlling the expected proportion of falsely rejected hypotheses — the false discovery rate. This error rate is equivalent to the FWER when all hypotheses are true but is smaller otherwise. Therefore, in problems where the control of the false discovery rate rather than that of the FWER is desired, there is potential for a gain in power. A simple sequential Bonferronitype procedure is proved to control the false discovery rate for independent test statistics, and a simulation study shows that the gain in power is substantial. The use of the new procedure and the appropriateness of the criterion are illustrated with examples.
This book presents the first comprehensive study of how children acquire complex sentences. Drawing on observational data from English-speaking children aged 2;0 to 5;0, Holger Diessel investigates the acquisition of infinitival and participial complement clauses, finite complement clauses, finite and nonfinite relative clauses, adverbial clauses, and coordinate clauses. His investigation shows that the development of complex sentences originates from simple nonembedded sentences and that two different developmental pathways can be distinguished: complex sentences including complement and relative clauses evolve from simple sentences that are gradually expanded to multiple-clause constructions, and complex sentences including adverbial and coordinate clauses develop from simple sentences that are integrated into a specific biclausal unit. He argues that the acquisition process is determined by a variety of factors: the frequency of the various complex sentences in the ambient language, the semantic and syntactic complexity of the emerging constructions, the communicative functions of complex sentences, and the social-cognitive development of the child.
“Specific language impairment” (SLI) is a term applied to children who show significant deficits in language learning ability but age-appropriate scores on non-verbal tests of intelligence, normal hearing, and no clear evidence of neurological impairment. Children who meet this definition are not identical in their characteristics, though some linguistic profiles are rather common. Boys outnumber girls, with a ratio of approximately 2.8 to 1 (Robinson, 1987). At age five years, the prevalence of SLI might be as high as 7% (Tomblin, 1996). This percentage is probably lower at older ages, due to the fact that some proportion of children with milder language difficulties achieve normal levels of ability within a few years, often with the help of intervention.
It is hypothesized that children with specific language impairment (SLI) will have difficulties in the acquisition of complex syntactic structures. The studies reported provide evidence of linguistic vulnerability at the level of formulation of complex syntactic structures, specifically relative clauses, in three children with SLI participating in a longitudinal familial case study. In language samples, the proband omitted obligatory relative markers in subject relative clauses and made errors in selecting relative markers in object relative clauses. Two other children in the family, identified as SLI, evidenced omissions of obligatory subject relative markers in language sample data and elicited data. Of the five children in the family with a negative clinical history, omission of subject relative markers in language sample and elicited data was observed in only one child. The findings are consistent with Leonard's functional category deficits account of the grammatical limitations of children with SLI.