Conference PaperPDF Available

A study on the impacts of Smartphone addiction

Communication has played an important role in our
society since a long time ago. Its tools and equip-
ment have been developed over times which en-
hance us to communicate with others easier and fast-
er. Recently, a Smartphone has become the most
important communication tool in people daily lives
(Suparp 2006).
Smartphone has been developed since the emerg-
ing of the first mobile phone dating back to 1983.
During 1993-2003, digital technology was applied to
Smartphone technology creating various features.
When the Smartphone could connect to the internet,
it could provide various features such as camera,
games, and a number of applications. Most im-
portantly, the price of the Smartphone has been de-
clining dramatically. These lead to the popularity of
the Smartphone in recent days (Palachaipiromsil
2011). People can use Smartphone to communicate
online with friends so they can conquer live their
lives more conveniently not just only for communi-
cation, but also for their works, and personal enter-
tainment (Boonuyang et al. 2015).
In Thailand, the number of Smartphone users had
increased by 81.4% during 2012-2016. It is reported
that there were 51 million Smartphone users in Thai-
land according to the report of the National Statisti-
cal Office (2016). However, a Smartphone also
causes negative impacts on people lives since many
of them pay much attention to playing games, chat-
ting with friends, surfing the internet, listening to
music, and watching movies. They keep doing these
activities day by day and finally addict to using a
Smartphone (Jitsukpluem 2014).
Smartphone addiction leads to various conse-
quences. It could have an impact on people mood
and temper. Previous studies (Ravichandran 2009,
Hyun-Seok et al. 2012, Sarwar 2013, Petchkhum
2014, Arbi et al. 2014, Mok et al. 2014, Park, & Lee
2014, Park & Park 2014, Park et al. 2014, De-
rakhshani & Shirazi 2015, Park et al. 2015,
Thongjuephong 2016) indicated that Smartphone
addiction had a positive impact on mood disorder.
Hence, we proposed the hypothesis as follows:
H1: Smartphone addiction has a positive impact
on mood disorder
Arbi et al. (2014) stated that Smartphone addic-
tion resulted in negative impact on exercising, eat-
ing, and sleeping as well as caused health problems.
In addition, Smartphone addiction could lead to
mental disorder (Jones 2014, Mok et al. 2014). Vari-
ous studies also founded the negative impacts of
Smartphone on health of addicted people (Ravichan-
A study on the impacts of Smartphone addiction
Napassphol Sinsomsack & Waiphot Kulachai
Burapha University, Chonburi, Thailand
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine Smartphone addiction among high school students
and its impacts. The samples of the study were 341 high school students in the Eastern region of Thailand de-
rived from stratified random sampling. The questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data were then an-
alyzed using correlation statistics. The results indicated that Smartphone addiction had a positive impact on
mood disorders. It also caused a negative impact on health, family relationship, social relationship, and aca-
demic performance of the high school students.
Keywords: Smartphone addiction, disorders.
Copyright © 2018, the Authors. Published by Atlantis Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license (
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), volume 186
15th International Symposium on Management (INSYMA 2018)
dran 2009, Sawar 2013, Petchkhum 2014, Park &
Park 2014, Park et al. 2014, Abu-Shanab & Haddad
2015, Park et al. 2015, Thongjuephong 2016).
Hence, the second hypothesis was proposed as fol-
H2: Smartphone addiction has a negative impact
on health
Besides negative impacts as discussed in the pre-
vious section, Smartphone addiction also has nega-
tive consequences on a family relationship of young
people who addict to the Smartphone. The study by
Ravichandran (2009) reported that Smartphone ad-
diction led to a poor relationship among family
members. This was in line with other previous stud-
ies (Baron 2010, Sarwar 2013, Petchkhum 2014,
Jones 2014, Park et al. 2014, Abu-Shanab & Haddad
2015, Derakhsha & Shirazi 2015). The studies by
Jeong & Lee (2015) provided supportive findings.
Hence, the third hypothesis was proposed as follows:
H3: Smartphone addiction has a negative impact
on family relationship
Some researchers examined the impact of
Smartphone addiction on academic performance of
young people, especially high school students
(Hyun-Seok et al. 2012, Sarwar 2013, Mok et al.
2014, Park & Park 2014, Park et al. 2014, Abu-
Shanab & Haddad 2015, Al-Barashdi et al. 2015,
Jeong & Lee 2015 and Lee & Cho 2015). Most of
them found a negative impact of Smartphone addic-
tion on students academic performance. Hence, the
fourth hypothesis was proposed as follows:
H4: Smartphone addiction has a negative impact
on students academic performance
The research conducted by Baron (2010) provid-
ed interesting finding. The more likely the people
addict to a Smartphone, the most likely they will ex-
perience poor social relationship. This result was
supported by later studies (Hyun-Seok et al. 2012,
Petchkhum 2014, Park & Lee 2014, Derakhshani &
Shirazi 2015, Jeong & Lee 2015, Thongjuephong
2016). Hence, the fifth hypothesis was proposed as
H5: Smartphone addiction has a negative impact
on social relationship
2.1 Participants
The samples of the study were 341 high school stu-
dents in the Eastern region of Thailand derived from
stratified random sampling. Most of them were fe-
male accounting for 62.2%. Approximately 44.9%
were Grade 10 students. Most of them lived with
their families (85%). About 48% of the respondents
reported having their first Smartphone when they
were in the secondary school.
2.2 Measures
For all measures in the study, except demographic
questions, respondents indicated their level of
agreement with the items using a 5-points Likert re-
sponse scale anchored by (1) strongly disagree and
(5) strongly agree. Each measure is illustrated as the
Smartphone addiction measure consisted of 15
items developed by the authors. The measurement
provided an alpha reliability of .86. The example
items included I always check message from
friends on my Smartphone, I prefer using my
Smartphone rather than doing other activities, and
I always use my Smartphone before going to bed.
Mood disorder was measured using a 4-item
questionnaire developed by the authors. The meas-
urement provided an alpha reliability of .86. The ex-
ample items included I always upset when I am
prohibited using Smartphone and Whenever my
Smartphone runs out of battery, I will be very anx-
Health problem was measured by a 3-item ques-
tionnaire developed by the authors. The measure-
ment provided an alpha reliability of .79. The exam-
ple items included I always have finger-pain after
continuously using my Smartphone for hours, I
have less time for sleeping, and I usually have a
neck and shoulder pain after continuously using my
Smartphone for hours.
Family relationship measure consisted of 5 items
developed by the authors. The measurement provid-
ed an alpha reliability of .85. The example items in-
cluded After back from school, I always use my
Smartphone rather than do activities with my family
members, My family members have less commu-
nication with each other since they have their own
Smartphone, and After getting up in the morning, I
always find my Smartphone rather than communi-
cating with other family members.
Academic performance measure consisted of 4
items developed by the authors. The measurement
provided an alpha reliability of .87. The example
items included I use my Smartphone while study-
ing, I pay more attention to my Smartphone rather
than prepare for the coming exam, and I do not
understand what my teacher says in the class.
Social relationship measure consisted of 5 items
developed by the authors. The measurement provid-
ed an alpha reliability of .82. The example items in-
cluded I always use Smartphone even in the public
places, I prefer using my Smartphone rather than
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), volume 186
doing activities with friends, and I always use my
Smartphone while traveling by public transportation.
2.3 Analysis
Descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency, per-
centage, and standard deviation were employed to
analyze and explain some attributes of the variables.
In addition, correlation statistics was employed for
hypothesis testing
The correlation analysis in this study showed wheth-
er and how strongly pairs of variables are related.
The variables in this analysis consisted of smartphone
addiction (SA), mood disorder (MD), health problem
(HP), family relation (FR), academic performance
(AP), and social relation (SR). Pearsons r correla-
tion was employed to measure the degree of the rela-
tionship between linearly related variables. The re-
sults of the study are illustrated in Table 1.
Table 1. Paersons r correlation.
SA -
MD 0.67** -
HP 0.48** 0.49** -
FR 0.62** 0.60** 0.55** -
AP 0.57** 0.56** 0.46** 0.60** -
SR 0.63** 0.57** 0.52** 0.69** 0.64**
** p < 0.01.
According to Table 1, Smartphone addiction has the
highest relationship with mood disorder (r=.667) fol-
lowed by social relationship (r=.625), family rela-
tionship (r=.620), academic performance (r=.570),
and health problem (r=.481) respectively. These in-
dicate that Smartphone addiction has a high level of
relationship with mood disorder, social relationship,
and family relationship. However, it has a moderate
relationship with academic performance and health
problem. Table 2 shows the result of hypothesis test-
Table 2. Hypothesis testing.
Hypothesis Result
H1: smartphone addiction has a positive impact Accepted
on mood disorder
H2: smartphone addiction has a negative impact Accepted
on health
H3: smartphone addiction has a negative impact Accepted
on family relationship
H4: smartphone addiction has a negative impact Accepted
on students academic performance
H5: smartphone addiction has a negative impact Accepted
on social relationship
The finding indicates a strong positive relationship
between Smartphone addiction and mood disorder.
This means that the more likely the students addict
to a Smartphone, the most likely they will have a
high level of mood disorder. This finding supports
and in line with previous studies (Ravichandran
2009, Hyun-Seok et al. 2012, Sarwar 2013, Pet-
chkhum 2014, Arbi et al. 2014, Mok et al. 2014,
Park & Lee 2014, Park & Park 2014, Park et al.
2014, Derakhshani & Shirazi 2015, Park et al. 2015,
Thongjuephong 2016). Addiction to Smartphone al-
so leads to emotional fluctuation which finally re-
sults in depression.
As discussed in the previous section, Smartphone
addiction could lead to a poor social relationship
(Hyun-Seok et al. 2012, Petchkhum 2014, Park &
Lee 2014, Derakhshani & Shirazi 2015, Jeong & Lee
2015, Thongjuephong 2016). The finding of our
study is in line with the previous researches on these
issues. Students who are addicted to the Smartphone
have poor social interaction since they might have
no/little attachment to their families and schools and
they are not involved in any activities. Hence, they
spend most of their time with the Smartphone.
We found that Smartphone addiction affected the
relationship in the family. Students who were ad-
dicted to Smartphone reported that they had a poor
relationship with their families. They seldom com-
municate with other family members since they al-
ways pay attention to their Smartphone rather than
place importance on doing activities with other
members. The finding supports the results of previ-
ous studies (Baron 2010, Sarwar 2013, Petchkhum
2014, Jones 2014, Park et al. 2014, Abu-Shanab &
Haddad 2015, Derakhsha & Shirazi 2015, Jeong &
Lee 2015).
The result of this study also pointed out that
Smartphone addiction had negative consequences on
students academic performance. Many of them use
their Smartphone while studying. They always pay
less attention to the teachers. Hence, they cannot un-
derstand the lessons given by their teachers. This
support the finding of previous studies (Hyun-Seok
et al. 2012, Sarwar 2013, Mok et al. 2014, Park &
Park 2014, Park et al. 2014, Abu-Shanab & Haddad
2015, Al-Barashdi et al. 2015, Jeong & Lee 2015,
Lee & Cho 2015 and Sundari 2015).
Our research finding also supported that
Smartphone addiction had negative impacts on stu-
dents' health. Some of them experienced neck and
finger pain since they had used their Smartphone
playing games, chatting, and surfing internet for
long hours. The finding is in line with the previous
studies (Ravichandran 2009, Sarwar 2013, Pet-
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), volume 186
chkhum 2014, Park & Park 2014, Park et al. 2014,
Abu-Shanab & Haddad 2015, Park et al. 2015,
Thongjuephong 2016). Additionally, whenever stu-
dents have a health problem, it may result in their
poor academic performance.
We found that Smartphone addiction had negative
impacts on a social relationship, family relationship,
health problem, and poor academic performance of
the students. In addition, it also caused mood fluctu-
ation and mood disorder among high school stu-
dents. These could lead to a social problem. Some
parents use a Smartphone to keep their children si-
lent without concerning about its impacts. Parents
nowadays should be acknowledged about the nega-
tive consequences of the Smartphone so they can
explain their children properly. They should be with
their children more which will make them attaching,
committing, and involving in family, school, and
community. The most likely they are attached to the
family, school, and social institution; the more likely
they will be away from the Smartphone
Mass media should pay attention to this issue by
providing information about the consequences of
Smartphone usage through TV programs, radio,
games, cartoons, movies, and TV series. Hence, stu-
dents, parents, and people, in general, would be con-
cerned more on this problem.
This study focused on students in the Eastern re-
gion of Thailand. However, the sample size is quite
small. Future studies should be conducted in other
areas of Thailand. Comparative studies among dif-
ferent parts of the country should also be important
to pile up the body of knowledge on this topic. Dif-
ferent kinds of research should be employed to get
more in-depth finding. In addition, other conse-
quences of Smartphone addiction should be also ex-
We are nowadays living in the globalization era. In-
ternet-based technology has been developed and
changed dramatically. A Smartphone is one of the
most important technologies enhancing people to
connect and communicate easier and faster. Howev-
er, it also has various drawbacks. It causes a health
problem, poor family relationship, poor social inter-
action, and poor academic performance. It also leads
to mood disorder among high school students. To
deal with this problem, parents and young people
should be acknowledged about the consequences of
using Smartphone through various media channels.
Most importantly, the parents themselves should pay
more attention to their children by giving them more
time and affection.
Abu-Shanab, E. & Haddad, E. 2015. The influence of
smartphones on human health and behavior: Jordanians
perceptions. International Journal of Computer Networks
and Applications 2(2): 52-56.
Al-Barashdi, H., Bouazza, A., & Jabur, N. 2015. Smartphone
addiction among university undergraduates: A literature
review. Department of Information Studies: Sultan Qboos
Baron, N. S. 2010. The dark side of mobile phones. Department
of Language and Foreign Studies, American University,
Washington DC, USA.
Derakhshani, N. & Shirazi, M. 2015. The role of smartphone
addiction in emotional regulation of boys' high school
students in chabahar city. Indian journal of fundamental
and applied life science 5(3): 1105-1108.
Hyun-Seok, C., Hyun-Kyung, L., & Jeong-Cheol, H. 2012. The
influence of smartphone addiction on mental health, cam-
pus life and personal relations-Focusing on K university
students. Journal of the Korean Data & Information Sci-
ence Society 23(5): 1005-1015.
Jeong, H. & Lee, Y. 2015. Smartphone addiction and empathy
among nursing students. Advanced science and Technology
Letters 88(47): 224-228.
Jitsukpluem, W. 2014. Lack of sociability. Unpublished master
thesis. Thailad: Silpakorn University.
Jones, T. 2014. Students cell phone addiction and their opinions.
The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Commu-
nications 5(1): 74-80.
Lee, J. & Cho, B. 2015. Effects of self-control and school ad-
justment on smartphone addiction among elementary
school students. Seoul-Korea: Educational technology, Col-
lege of education Ewha Womans University.
Mok, J.Y., Choi S., Kim, D., Choi, J., Lee, J.A., & Choi,
E.S.W. 2014. Latent class analysis on internet and
smartphone addiction in college students. Neuropsychiatric
Disease and Treatment 10: 817-828.
Park, N. & Lee, H. 2014. Nature of youth smartphone addiction
in Korea. Media Information Research of Seoul National
University 51(1): 100-132.
Park, C. & Park, Y. 2013. The conceptual model on smart
phone addiction among early childhood. International
Journal of Social Science and Humanity 4(2): 147-150.
Park, C.J., Hyun, J.S., Kim, J.Y., & Lee, K.E.. 2014. Impact of
personal time-related factor on smartphone addiction of
female high school students. Proceedings of the World
Congress on Engineering and computer science.
Park, J., Kim, J., Kim, J., Kim, K., Kim, N., Choi, I., Lee, S., &
Yim, J. 2015. The effects of heavy smartphone use on the
cervical angle, pain threshold of neck muscles and depres-
sion. Advanced Science and Technology Letters 91(3): 12-
Petchkhum, P. 2014. Smartphone usage behaviors among Thai
teenagers and its negative impacts on themselves and socie-
ties. Unpublished master thesis. Thailand: Sripathum Uni-
Ravichandran, S.V. 2009. Mobile phones and teenagers: Im-
pact, Consequences and concerns parents/ caregivers per-
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), volume 186
spectives. Unpublished master thesis, Unitec Institute of
Sawar, M. 2013. Impact of smartphones on society. European
Journal of Scientific Research 98(2): 216-226.
Suparp, S. 2006. Revolution of communication and technology.
Newsletter Science 3(1): 18-20.
Thongjuephong, P. 2016. Factors and effects of smart phone
addiction to job performance, nomo-phobia and conflict
with others. Journal of Information System in Business 2(3):
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), volume 186
... Researchers on finding ways to combat smartphones addiction have proposed several ways including use of mindfulness and mediation [13], the deletion of apps that cause the addiction [5], more care and attention from parents and loved ones [14] and the use of apps like persuasive tools [1]. ...
... A study on the impacts of smartphones addiction by [14] listed several negative psychological impacts. The impacts outlined in the study include mental disorder, poor relationship among family members, poor social relationships, and poor academic performance especially among young people. ...
... In a study carried out by [14] on the impacts of Smartphones addiction, it was recommended that to deal with smartphones addiction in young people, both young people and their parents should appreciate the consequences. This recommendation can be said to be the start point of combating smartphones addiction, because a problem needs to be first recognize before it can be solved. ...
Full-text available
... Similarly, the impacts of smartphone addiction were extensively studied by Sinsomsack and Kulachai (2018), where they found a high level of mood disorder among smartphone addicted high school students. Also, they found an association between smartphone addiction and interpersonal relationships wherein excessive smartphone use results in reduced interaction with family members, and hence leads to poor social relationships between them. ...
Social network websites are an important source of control of our lives in the current scenario. Being humans, we don’t exist without the presence of other fellow beings surrounding us. With the advent of technologies, computers and smartphones have taken this responsibility of connecting people to one another. Even though these tools have simplified human efforts, they have become an inseparable part of our life which could replace human relations itself. This book is an effort to explore the various driving force behind social networking, and the consequences of various social networking behaviours.
... These results indicate the importance of mobile phone addiction and the importance of resilience for adolescents. Other studies have also shown that smartphone addiction caused health problems, such as eating, sleeping, and mood disorder [63]. The findings may also help educators and medical personnel distinguish between predictive factors for adolescent mobile phone addiction. ...
Full-text available
Background As mobile phone use grows, so it brings benefits and risks. As an important part of adolescents healthy growth, resilience plays an indispensable role. Thus, it is important to identify when mobile phone use of an adolescent becomes an addiction. This study proposed to explore the effects of adolescent resilience on mobile phone addiction, and tested the mediating role of coping style and depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS) on phone addiction among 2,268 adolescents in the Henan province, China. Methods The adolescents were surveyed via an online questionnaire, a mobile phone addiction index (MPAI), a depression, anxiety, and stress scale with 21 items (DASS-21), the Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescents (RSCA), and the Simplified coping style questionnaire (SCSQ), and we used structural equation modeling to examine the correlations and moderation effects. All data analyses were performed using SPSS 26.0 and Amos 23.0. Results The results show that adolescences resilience were negatively related to negative coping, DASS, and mobile phone addiction; both coping style and DASS could mediate the relationship between adolescent resilience and mobile phone addiction among Chinese adolescents. The relationship between adolescent resilience and mobile phone addiction in Chinese adolescents was mediated by the chain of coping styles and DASS. Conclusions There is a negative relationship which exists between resilience and mobile phone addiction in this population. In addition, stress, anxiety, depression, and coping style significantly influence the risk of adolescent mobile phone addiction and play an intermediary role in Chinese adolescent resilience and mobile phone addiction.
... Mental health symptoms (students often feel anxious and stressed out if the phone (smartphone) is taken away from them or the internet servers are disconnected (Staff N-12)) and negative emotions (some smartphone games make us angry (Student N-9)) were also associated with smartphone overuse by the participants. Similarly, the findings from the literature review showed that stress, anxiety [41,84,85], and negative emotions [86,87] were related to smartphone addiction. ...
Full-text available
Smartphone overuse and addiction is a growing concern worldwide. However, there are limited studies about smartphone addiction and its impacts on university students in Saudi Arabia. This qualitative study aimed to elicit students’ and university staff’s perspectives and experiences about smartphone overuse/addiction in Umm Al-Qura University (UQU), Saudi Arabia. Fifteen undergraduate students and 18 university staff (13 lecturers and five professionals) were recruited for the purpose of this study. The study data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. The qualitative data comprising 33 participants (students and staff) identified four major themes including the perception of smartphone use; causes of smartphone overuse; negative impacts of smartphone overuse; and strategies to reduce the overuse of smartphone. The overall findings confirmed that students and staff alike held both positive and negative perceptions about using a smartphone. Potential factors leading to smartphone overuse included personal factors (extended free time and low self-confidence, irresponsibility/escaping certain social gatherings/passing the time); smartphone factors (reasonable price, attractive advertisements (ads), and engaging smartphone Apps); and social factors (social pressure and fear of losing a connection). The main negative impacts of smartphone overuse were found to be related to low academic productivity, poor physical health (body pain, lack of sleep, and low exercise), compromised mental well-being (stress and negative emotions), and decreased socialisation (social isolation and a reduction in face-to-face communication). Our findings suggested that awareness campaigns about smartphone overuse, promoting family and social events, encouraging physical activities, and limiting internet use can reduce smartphone usage among university students. This finding has significant implications for decision-makers.
... High frequency of smartphone use decreases satisfaction with life due to mental disturbance caused by addiction to smartphone and may result in increase in loneliness; people who spend more time on smartphone avoid physical face-to-face interaction and prefer connecting online; it may lead to decrease in academic performance as excessive involvement with the smartphone adversely affects studies and other work (Dayapo glu et al., 2016;Lepp et al., 2014). Young adolescents who are addicted to their smartphone were found to have emotional problems, lower levels of self-esteem, poor social relationships, and lack of communication with their parents and peers (Lee et al., 2018;Sinsomsack and Kulachai, 2018). With the increase in stress, self-control decreases which increases the level of addiction to smartphone (Cho et al., 2017). ...
Purpose With the rise in adverse impact of excessive technology use, such as smartphone; the issue of smartphone addiction has gained the attention of researchers in recent years. Therefore, this study undertakes to review the literature on smartphone addiction research by identifying the current state of research in this domain and the future avenues that need to be addressed. Design/methodology/approach A comprehensive bibliometric analysis was conducted on 652 articles extracted from SCOPUS database. Publications were extracted from Scopus by performing a keyword search of “Smartphone Addiction” OR “Problematic smartphone use”. Bibliometric methods such as performance analysis and science mapping were used to perform the overview of smartphone addiction research. In addition, VOSviewer software was used to organise, analyse and present the data. This study identifies the most prolific authors, journals, documents, collaborative work, major research themes, potential research avenues in this field of research. Findings The result shows that the research on smartphone addiction has increased recently, the dominance of research is found in few countries only. There is preponderance of research in this domain in Asian countries, particularly South Korea and still there is a significant scope for future research in this area, which is presented in detail in this study. The research on smartphone addiction has been mainly conducted in the field of medicine and psychology; the other subjects lack behind by a significant margin in terms of research publications in this domain. The findings suggest Elhai (US) is the most influential researcher in this field, and US has shown high collaboration in smartphone addiction research with other countries as well as with authors within its domestic territory. Thematic map obtained from R software presents the evolution of themes. It shows that quality of life, social support, self-efficacy, anxiety and depression are major variables studied over the period. Respondents in most of the studies were university students, as the young generation is technology-savvy and is more attracted to gadgets such as smartphones. Research limitations/implications This study provides an overview of research on smartphone addiction through an exhaustive bibliometric analysis to organise the fragmented literature on smartphone addiction and provide structure for future research in the domain. This is the first study of its kind on the subject. This study has found important future research avenues in the domain, which need to be addressed. Also, it will provide guidance to stakeholders from different backgrounds like, manufacturers, marketers, regulators, policymakers, consumers and academicians to contribute in controlling this problem as a part of their social responsibility. Originality/value This paper is unique in the sense that it, for the first time, attempts to provides valuable insights on the current status of research on smartphone addiction and also provides guidance for potential future agenda through bibliometric and content analysis techniques.
... According to the literature, the unhealthy and asocial lifestyle of young people can lead to physical, mental and social problems (Alosaimi, Alyahya, Alshahwan, Al Mahyijari, & Shaik, 2016;Kim, Lee, & Lim, 2017;Sinsomsack & Kulachai, 2018). In our country, the study of Yayan, Düken, Dağ, and Ulutaş (2018) on university students studying in the health sciences and the study conducted by Haug et al. (2015) in Switzerland showed that insufficient physical and sports activities are closely related to high level of smartphone addiction. ...
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between smartphone addiction and leisure satisfaction of university students in terms of some variables. In the study, correlational survey research model was used and smartphone addiction and leisure satisfaction of university students were examined with a comparative approach. The population of this study consists of 855 university students studying at two large universities. Smartphone Addiction and Leisure Satisfaction Scales were used to collect research data. Research findings show that leisure satisfaction and smartphone addiction among university students are high. Another finding of the research is that students who participate in active sports, social, artistic and cultural activities have low smartphone addiction. Finally, smartphone addiction among students significantly reduces their leisure satisfaction.
Full-text available
Ergonomic Analysis of Online Learning Using Smartphones During the Covid-19 Pandemic. The aims of the study were: (1) to analyze ergonomically the behavior of students when participating in online learning, (2) to analyze physical muscle complaints (MSD) and psychological (stress and smartphone addiction). The subjects of this research are students of the Fashion Design skill program at SMK Negeri 5 Malang in the 2021/2022 academic year. The number of targets/respondents is 174 people. Data collection techniques were carried out by surveying students with a questionnaire. Using survey design method with cross sectional design. Measurement through PSS (Perceived Stress Scale) and SAS (Smartphone Addiction Scale) with a closed-ended question concept. The discussion in the study showed that of the 28 types of MSD complaints, complaints of severe pain in the right elbow (34%); back (24%); left shoulder (18%). Respondents included in the category of addicted to smartphones as much as 27%, and respondents suffering from stress, feeling anxious and depressed as much as 26%. Physical complaints are reduced by applying ergonomic considerations, namely by supporting the arm when using a smartphone.Keywords: smartphone, MSD, stress, ergonomic considerationsAbstrak: Analisis Ergonomi Pada Pembelajaran Daring Menggunakan Smartphone Di Masa Pandemi Covid-19. Tujuan penelitian adalah: (1) menganalisis secara ergonomi perilaku siswa saat mengikuti pembelajaran daring, (2) menganalisis keluhan fisik otot (MSD) serta psikis (stress dan smartphone addiction). Subjek penelitian ini siswa program keahlian Tata Busana SMK Negeri 5 Malang tahun ajaran 2021/2022. Jumlah sasaran/responden sebanyak 174 orang. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan mensurvei siswa dengan angket. Menggunakan metode rancangan survei dengan cross sectional design. Pengukuran melalui PSS (Perceived Stress Scale) dan SAS (Smartphone Addiction Scale) dengan konsep closedended question. Pembahasan dalam penelitian menunjukkan dari 28 jenis keluhan MSD, keluhan sakit sekali pada siku kanan (34%); punggung (24%); bahu kiri (18%). Responden termasuk dalam kategori addicted to smartphone sebanyak 27%, dan responden menderita stress, merasa gelisah dan tertekan sebanyak 26%. Keluhan fisik dikurangi dengan menerapkan pertimbangan ergonomi, yaitu dengan menopang lengan saat menggunakan smartphone.Kata Kunci: smartphone, MSD, stress, pertimbangan ergonomi
هدفت الدراسة إلى التعرُّف على دور المساندة الاجتماعية في التنبؤ بالقلق الاجتماعي وإدمان الهواتف الذكية لدى طلاب المرحلة الثانوية بالمدينة المنورة، واستخدم الباحث المنهج الوصفي الارتباطي، واشتملت عينة الدراسة الأساسية على عينة عشوائية بسيطة قوامها (555) طالبًا، ولقياس متغيرات الدراسة تمّ استخدام مقياس المساندة الاجتماعية إعداد أماني عبدالمقصود وأسماء السرسي (2001)، ومقياس القلق الاجتماعي إعداد مجدي الدسوقي (2003) ومقياس إدمان الهواتف الذكية (إعداد الباحث). وخلصت الدراسة إلى نتائج من أهمها: وجود فروق دالة إحصائيا بين متوسطات درجات عينة الدراسة من طلاب المرحلة الثانوية بالمدينة المنورة في المساندة الاجتماعية والمتوسط الفرضي له، وأن مستوى المساندة الاجتماعية لدى المراهقين كان عن المستوى المتوسط، كما أن مستوى المساندة من قبل النظراء كان عند المستوى المتوسط، ومستوى المساندة من قبل الأسرة كان عند المستوى المرتفع، بالإضافة إلى أن مستوى الرضا الذاتي عن المساندة كان عند المستوى المتوسط. كما توجد فروق دالة إحصائيًّا بين متوسطات عينة الدراسة من طلاب المرحلة الثانوية بالمدينة المنورة في القلق الاجتماعي والمتوسط الفرضي له، وأن مستوى انتشاره متوسط بين فئة المراهقين، بالإضافة إلى وجود فروق دالة إحصائيًّا بين متوسطات عينة الدراسة من طلاب المرحلة الثانوية بالمدينة المنورة في إدمان الهواتف الذكية والمتوسط الفرضي له، وأن مستوى إدمان الهواتف الذكية منتشر بدرجة متوسطة بين المراهقين. وأخيرًا يمكن للمساندة الاجتماعية التنبؤ بالقلق الاجتماعي في كل الأبعاد والتنبؤ بإدمان الهواتف الذكية في بعدين هما: المساندة من قبل النظراء، والرضا الذاتي عن المساندة بينما لا يمكن لبعد المساندة من قبل الأسرة التنبؤ بإدمان الهواتف الذكية لدى طلاب المرحلة الثانوية بالمدينة المنورة.
Full-text available
Purpose of the study: This quantitative research investigates the effects of smartphone addiction on family communication. Research Methodology: The sample size (N=200) consists of 100 males and 100 females. The participants have been divided into three groups according to age, age group 18-20, age group 21-23, and age group 24-25. The sample has been selected by the purposive sampling technique. Smartphone Addiction Scale- Short Version (SASS-SV)has been used to measure smartphone addiction and Family Communication Scale (FCS) assesses the family communication of adults. For statistical analysis Statistical Package for Social Sciences(SPSS) version 23 software has been used. The relationship has been assessed using Pearson correlation and an independent sample t-test has been used to find meaningful differences. Main findings: The study concludes that there is no significant effect of smartphone addiction on family communication. Moreover age group (18-20) is more addicted to the smartphone than the other age groups. Application of the Study: The study will provide researchers with enough data and information related to smartphone addiction and family communication. Findings will also enable them to further explore the long-term use of smartphones in the joint family system. Innovation of the Study: Joint family system is the norm in Pakistan whose major part of the population comprises youth, ages between 18-20 years. No research on smartphone addiction in the perspective of family communication in a joint family system has yet been conducted in Pakistan to my knowledge.
Full-text available
Smartphone addiction is a type of addiction using excessive and uncontrolled smartphones that harms the social relationships of users. Even though people in all ages use smart phones, the most adaptable ones are the Y and Z generations. This generation called "Y" generation born between 1977-1994 and consists of individuals who are intellectual and prone to technology. "Z" generation consists of individuals born in 1995 and after. In addition to being a functional piece that makes life easier, smartphones have become an object that negatively affects individuals' physical and mental health due to their unconscious and excessive use. Physical problems include head, neck, back, and wrist pain while psychiatric problems include anxiety, depression, attention deficit, and decrease in social interaction, academic success and problems in business life. Adolescence is the most sensitive and vulnerable age group against technological dependencies. While adolescents experience developmental problems, they also have to cope with social, psychological and technological problems. Although it is known that smartphone addiction causes many physical and psychosocial problems in young people, sometimes the preexisting problems of young people can connect them to smartphones. Low academic success, sleep disorders, obesity, low self-esteem and depression are common problems among adolescents associated with smartphone addiction. Early diagnosis and intervention in primary care services for smartphone addiction may have a positive impact on both the health and quality of life of individuals. This study aims to focus on the problems of smartphone addiction during adolescence via a public health perspective. ÖZET Akıllı telefon bağımlılığı, akıllı telefonların aşırı ve kontrolsüz kullanılarak kullanıcıların sosyal ilişkilerine zarar veren bir bağımlılık türüdür. Her yaş grubundan insan akıllı telefon kullansa da akıllı telefon kullanımına en çok uyum sağlayanlar Y ve Z kuşağı olmaktadır. Y kuşağı olarak adlandırılan ve 1977-1994 yılları arasında doğan bu kuşak entelektüel ve teknolojiye çok yatkın bireylerden oluşmaktadır. Z nesli 1995 yılı ve sonrası doğan bireylerden oluşturmaktadır. Akıllı telefonlar hayatı kolaylaştıran işlevsel bir parça olmasının yanı sıra bilinçsiz ve aşırı kullanımı nedeniyle fiziksel ve ruhsal sağlığını olumsuz etkileyen bir nesne halini almıştır. Fiziksel sorunlar arasında baş, boyun, sırt ve el bileği ağrıları yaygın olarak görülürken; ruhsal sorunlar arasında anksiyete, depresyon, dikkat eksikliği, sosyal etkileşimde azalma, akademik başarıda düşüş, iş hayatında problemler yer almaktadır. Ergenlik dönemi teknolojik bağımlılıklara karşı en hassas ve savunmasız yaş grubunu oluşturmaktadır. Ergenlik dönemindeki gençler bir yandan gelişimsel sorunlar yaşarken bir yandan da sosyal, ruhsal ve teknolojik problemlerle baş etmek zorunda kalmaktadır. Akıllı telefon bağımlılığının gençlerde birçok fiziksel ve psiko-sosyal soruna neden olduğu bilinse de bazen de gençlerin var olan sorunları onları akıllı telefonlara bağlayabilmektedir. Düşük akademik başarı, uyku bozuklukları, obezite, düşük benlik saygısı ve depresyon akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ile ilişkili ergenlerde görülen yaygın sorunlardır. Davranışsal bir bağımlılık türü olan akıllı telefon bağımlılığına yönelik birinci basamak erken tanı ve müdahale çalışmaları hem bireylerin sağlığı ve hem de yaşam kalitesi üzerinde olumlu etki bırakabilir. Bu çalışma halk sağlığı bakış açısıyla akıllı telefonu bağımlılığının ergenlik döneminde ortaya çıkardığı sorunlara odaklanmayı amaçlamıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Halk sağlığı, akıllı telefon bağımlılığı, ergenlik
Full-text available
The advent of new touch technologies and the wide spread of smart mobile phones made humans embrace technology more and depend on it extensively in their lives. With new communication technologies and smart phones the world really became a small village. Although these technologies provided many positive features, we cannot neglect the negative influences inherited in these technologies. One of the major negative sides of smart phones is their side effects on human health. This paper will address this issue by exploring the exiting literature related to the negative side of smart phones on human health and behavior by investigating the literature related to three major dimensions: health, addiction and behavior. The third section will describe the research method used. The fourth section will discuss the analysis side followed by a section on the conclusions and future work.
Full-text available
Purpose: This paper reviews the growing literature on Smartphone addiction among university undergraduates to identify trends. Design/Methodological Approach: It is based on literature published during the period 1996- 2013. Only original research papers have been included in this literature review. The thematic structure has been adopted. In the beginning, such concepts as the symptoms and levels of this addiction will be clarified. Afterwards, the underlying problems and methodological issues raised in the literature will be touched upon. The paper also reviews the relationship between Smartphone addiction among undergraduates and their academic achievement. Finally, significant differences in addiction among undergraduates according to their gender, field of study, parents educational level and family income level will be examined. Findings: While some studies have shown gender differences in Smartphone addictive use, others have proved that gender and Smartphone use are not significantly related. A few studies Review Article Al-Barashdi et al.; JSRR, 4(3): xxx-xxx, 2015; Article no.JSRR.2015.025 have examined the relationship between addiction and students' field of study. Some of these have found that humanities students have a higher addiction level than physical science students. So far, little is known about the extent of the relationship between socio-economic factors (such as parental education and family income), mobile phone use behavior and addiction among university students. The results regarding Smartphone usage and family income had showed contrary indications. Nor is there agreement about the results regarding Smartphone use and parental education. Practical Implications: This state-of-art is useful for researchers and practitioners for understanding current trends and problems and methodological issues. Originality/Value: This paper identifies trends and problems and methodological issues. Conclusion: A mixed-approach investigation consisting of both quantitative and qualitative method is recommended to provide a comprehensive understanding of addiction and its impact on students' academic achievement.
Full-text available
Purpose This study aimed to classify distinct subgroups of people who use both smartphone and the internet based on addiction severity levels. Additionally, how the classified groups differed in terms of sex and psychosocial traits was examined. Methods A total of 448 university students (178 males and 270 females) in Korea participated. The participants were given a set of questionnaires examining the severity of their internet and smartphone addictions, their mood, their anxiety, and their personality. Latent class analysis and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were the statistical methods used. Results Significant differences between males and females were found for most of the variables (all <0.05). Specifically, in terms of internet usage, males were more addicted than females (P<0.05); however, regarding smartphone, this pattern was reversed (P<0.001). Due to these observed differences, classifications of the subjects into subgroups based on internet and smartphone addiction were performed separately for each sex. Each sex showed clear patterns with the three-class model based on likelihood level of internet and smartphone addiction (P<0.001). A common trend for psychosocial trait factors was found for both sexes: anxiety levels and neurotic personality traits increased with addiction severity levels (all P<0.001). However, Lie dimension was inversely related to the addiction severity levels (all P<0.01). Conclusion Through the latent classification process, this study identified three distinct internet and smartphone user groups in each sex. Moreover, psychosocial traits that differed in terms of addiction severity levels were also examined. It is expected that these results should aid the understanding of traits of internet and smartphone addiction and facilitate further study in this field.
Full-text available
The intention of this study is to investigate how Smartphone‘s are impacting the society and also how Smartphone‘s are going to transform the culture, social life, technology landscape and other diverse aspects of modern society. The intention of this study is to understand all the positive and negative aspects of Smartphone on the society. The study will primarily focus on impact of Smartphone on business, education, health sectors, human psychology and social life. At the end, the study will summarize the impact and conclude based on wide range of impacts that Smartphone‘s have on society. The paper will also recommend solutions, in order to reduce the negative impacts of Smartphone‘s and realizes more benefits of this exiting technology.
This study presents an examination of the effects of the sub-factors of both self-control and school adjustment on smartphone addiction among a sample of elementary school students. The study is comprised of 93 5th-grade students from x elementary school located in Seoul, Korea. A descriptive analysis, Pearson`s correlation, and multiple regression analysis were performed, and the following two study results are presented: 1) Among the sub-factors of self-control, instant gratification positively predicts smartphone addiction. 2) Among the sub-factors of school adjustment, a student`s adherence to school rules negatively predicts smartphone addiction. Based on these results, the implications for preventing smartphone addiction among elementary-school students are discussed.
Since the smartphone was first released in 2009, its common use has made everyday life convenient but caused many social problems. In this article, we surveyed the status of smartphone usage and identified the influence of smartphone addiction on mental health, campus life and personal relations of university students. We gave the methods to prevent smartphone addiction, which could be used as basic materials for solving the problems. We found the smartphone addiction syndrome cause problems of mental health, campus life and personal relations in many ways. In addition to significant direct effects, smartphone addiction has significant indirect effects on personal relations via mental health and campus life as a medium.
The dark side of mobile phones. Department of Language and Foreign Studies
  • N S Baron
Baron, N. S. 2010. The dark side of mobile phones. Department of Language and Foreign Studies, American University, Washington DC, USA.