Transrational Methods of Peace Research: The Researcher as (Re)source

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This chapter takes one step towards conceptualizing a transrational peace research methodology through the lens of the researcher. It commences from the assumption that positivist, modern research tries to negate the influence of the researcher on the research topic and is guided by ideals of objectivity and neutrality, postmodern research seeks to problematize the researcher by contextualizing her position in order to make visible unexamined biases and assumptions. In postmodern manner, it is assumed that any research conducted in the field of Peace Studies cannot be separated from the researcher’s particular perspective that frames and shapes the research process. This chapter then complements the postmodern critical stance by assuming in humanistic fashion hat the researcher is both source for and resource during the research process. The text so (1) gives a very brief overview on modern and postmodern research methodologies as they are relevant for Peace Studies. It (2) renders the ontological and anthropological basis for a transrational peace research that takes the researcher as starting point, (3) elaborates the epistemological consequences of such a view and (4) briefly addresses the ethical aspects that are implicit in this transrational shift. Turning to the researcher as (re)source (5) five systemically interrelated forms of knowing are identified. The question of (6) how to possibly structure research findings is addressed. The chapter concludes with (7) a general remark about the transdisciplinary nature of such (transrational) peace research.

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... Cremin, EchavarrÍa, and Kester (2018) call for space for alternative epistemologies in peacebuilding education and argue for a "transrational pedagogy that gives attention to the emotional, embodied, and metaphysical aspects of peace learning" (p.299) to transcend the fields limited analytic, rational, and psycho-social approaches. Finally, Koppensteiner (2018; builds upon the Transrational framework towards approaches to research and facilitation. Koppensteiner (2020) particularly suggests these two as inseparable, arguing facilitation as an act of research and research as an act of facilitation that both call into existence awareness(es) at intra and inter-relational levels. ...
... Resonant relations are mind (thinking), body (sensing), heart (feeling), soul (intuiting) and spirit (witnessing) (Koppensteiner 2018;. These ideas of the matter and resonance might provide new innovative ways to conceive of peace education spaces that are supportive, engaging, and able to foster the analytical and affective (Reardon & Snauwaert 2015a;Kester, Archer & Bryant 2019) aspects required for exploring the topics of peace and masculinity. ...
This research is about being able to return to peace education as a reputable educator. To be able to do so required research that not only found pedagogical resolutions but embodied the values I hold as central to peace education. This research is about me trying to walk my talk. I felt peace education was ineffective for many of the young men with which I worked. The research aimed to develop new innovative pedagogies for engaging young men about peace. However, it soon also became a deeply personal journey into my own relationship with masculinity and peace. This research tries to make peace with those pieces of my masculinity so I can facilitate peace with other men. The research showcases a novel methodology using autoethnography, interviews and innovative perspectives of second-order reflexivity and diffraction that propelled me to an additional research step of undertaking a Vision Quest. This approach was developed as I believe it not only provided approaches for finding resolutions to my questions but did so in ways that espoused the values of peace important to my identity. In so doing I believe diffractive autoethnography showcases a peaceful research methodology useful for undertaking research that ensures “synergy with peace values” (Cremin 2016). This approach provides the new methodology I can embrace as a peace educator. A key theme that emerged is the importance of my own being as a peace educator. This being is achieved through commitments to constantly work on myself through diffractive reflection, vulnerability, and authentic presence during interactions with others. The research also suggests a possible importance of providing opportunities for participants to similarly diffract their perspectives and supporting them craft and transition to new stages in their lives. The utility of autoethnography in particular emerged as a viable peace pedagogy for these endeavours with its ability to challenge individuals to reflect and reach out in conversation with others. In this role I seek to develop myself as an Elder rather than expert: one where I am there for participants opposed to educating them. Through this research I might finally come to believe in myself as a peace educator and come into the peaceful male I hope to be. I hope this research engages you in conversation and challenges you to reflect upon your life so we might keep the conversation going (Bochner & Riggs 2014).
... First, employing a diffractive approach to peace work implies a comprehensive engagement with the study of conflict and peace from the perspectives of mind, body, heart, spirit, and materiality conjoined. Koppensteiner (2018), for example, discusses the value brought by exploring the different ways of knowing available to us, including: somatic knowing through the body (sensing); empathic and affective knowing through the heart (feeling); intellectual knowing through the mind (thinking); intuitive knowing through the soul (intuiting); and transpersonal knowing through the spirit (witnessing) (68). These renderings allow scholars and students to experience peace and conflict from multiple sites and draw parallels within and across relational layers of knowing, and ultimately being (Dietrich 2014). ...
... This 'contact boundary' includes the material world in which these human relations are caught in mutual entanglement. Koppensteiner (2018) discusses the teacher, environment and researcher as mutual (re)sources assisting participants to explore issues through different ways of knowing and being as discussed above. This in turn affects the time, space, place, and person in intersecting ways, or what diffractive scholars describe as 'working the ruins' together (Lather 2018;St. ...
This paper draws on the theoretical lens of diffraction to conceptualize a new approach to transrational peace education theory and praxis in the post-2016 posttruth political era and Industry 4.0 economic period. The paper reviews foundational concepts and approaches from key founders of the field — Paulo Freire and Betty Reardon — before turning to two contemporary peace education scholars — Wolfgang Dietrich and Hilary Cremin — to investigate the contributions of recent scholarship toward diverse diffractive possibilities for transrational peace education. In this sense, diffraction offers pluralistic views and transformative possibilities for transrational peace education in varied contexts. Transrational peace education builds upon peace education to integrate affective and aesthetic perspectives into peace education theory and praxis. Before concluding, we offer some theoretical implications and pedagogic responses for scholars seeking to work at diffractive transrational intersections. The contribution of the paper is toward theorizing new perspectives for transrational peace education theory and praxis in the 21st century.
... Commonly embedded in peace studies programmes are field studies components, in both local and international locations, which put students, researchers, and faculty in active situations. The side-by-side methodological approach takes from these experiential pedagogies and contributes to a body of research that is inclusive of the researcher in the research (Koppensteiner, 2018). The focus on developing informed understanding of the dynamic and changing nature of the research site, as well as the unpredictability of the stimuli offered in a setting, takes an interdisciplinary approach. ...
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In shifting environments common to peace and conflict research, methodological grounding is rooted in the fluctuating roles undertaken by the researcher through time and space as one seeks a worldview that is experienced by research participants. This article introduces a side-by-side methodological approach, which developed through research of cross-community interaction amongst ice hockey supporters in Belfast. Influenced by qualitative research that sought to access local voices, this article moves from conceptual guidance and planning into the stands of the SSE Arena, where interviews were conducted with the person in the seat beside the researcher during ice hockey games. In doing so, this immersive methodology offers a contribution to unearthing unheard voices in this oft-studied region through the opportunity to make connection that was unscripted, aided by the informality of the research setting and the limited face-to-face interaction.
... The fifth principle of PE pedagogy that we wish to introduce is reflexivity (Cremin, 2018;Koppensteiner, 2018). Students and lecturers are encouraged to question how they fit within national and global systems of defense, militarism, capitalism, and patriarchy. ...
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This paper examines the intersections of peace education (PE) and global citizenship education (GCED) as twin educational fields committed to the cultivation of a global culture of peace. The paper is organized in six sections. The first section outlines a brief history and evolution of GCED and PE in the 20th and 21st centuries. It then provides an overview of various contents and methods of peace education for GCED through examining some common normative documents in PE. Next, the paper discusses the influence of various cultural orientations on the different philosophical approaches to PE and GCED. Following this, the paper translates the history, philosophy, and concepts of PE and GCED into practical activities for teachers and teacher-trainers before reviewing four successful cases of PE around the world. The paper then concludes with a discussion of some new pedagogic possibilities emerging for PE and GCED.
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Scholarly debates about how we conceptualise, theorise and measure peace have recently intensified, yet exactly how peace scholars translate these theoretical innovations into concrete methodological tools and practices is less clear. We argue that pluralism, temporality and the role of affect are three recent focal points in current scholarly debates that aim to further our conceptual understanding of peace. Taking these theoretical developments seriously requires us to consider our methodological tools to approach each one, but these concepts also point to methodological issues on their own. This special issue aims to investigate our assumptions about peace, and how these in turn shape the way we approach the study of peace, in terms of both research design and data collection as well as in the process of writing up and disseminating findings, all departing from these three specific challenges. As such, this special issue contributes to efforts of making peace beyond the absence of war more researchable.
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In this theoretical article, the qualities of the artist for peacebuilding and peace education are explored. Peacebuilding and peace education are not only based on skills and knowledge, but also on art, a creative process that originates in our imagination. The question guiding this paper is: How can we, as peacebuilders and educators, imagine, invent, and create cultures of peace and build spaces for others to do so? Based on Lederach’s moral imagination, I present a conceptualization of a poiesis of peace as a frame for peace education. This so-called poiesis of peace is built on the sensibility of the heart as the feeling center that can perceive the imaginal and the relationality of breath as described by Irigaray as a field of intersubjectivity and interconnectedness. The potential of this imaginative sensibility is the ability to feel into another experience, described as empathy and resonance, which might manifest as an ethics of care and nonviolence. Using arts based methods in peace education can be one way to encourage feelings of interconnectedness and empathy.
The introductory chapter lays the research interest and methodological foundations of the book. It outlines the two main motivations of this research: to investigate how peace and dance have been related and what elements contribute to or limit the experience of peace, and to explore movement as method to elicit conflict transformation. I argue that peace theory and practice can be enriched by understanding peace and conflict as embodied, relational, and in movement, and by developing corresponding methods for transformation. I present popular education, multiple ways of knowing, and embodied writing as methods that inform the investigation. This chapter presents author´s perspective, research question, methods and structure, and state of the art.
In this chapter, I consider the conceptual premises and methodological aspects that guide my research. In order to understand what a transrational peace research methodology could look like, it is first of all necessary to ask the preliminary questions of what is to be understood by the key terms of research and knowing. Transformation, furthermore, is an important concept for elicitive and transrational approaches and I want to understand its relevance and meaning for peace research. Transrational research can only be conceived against the background of energetic, modern and postmodern methodologies from which it emerges. Hence, in order to understand transrational methodologies, this ground needs to be covered first.
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En medio de los retos para implementar el Acuerdo Final entre el gobierno colombiano y la guerrilla de las FARC-EP, prácticas artísticas dan vida a la construcción de paz y reconciliación, conformando elementos clave de las pedagogías para la reconciliación. El texto comienza con una revisión de literatura de en la Investigación para la Paz resaltando la Filosofía para hacer las Paces y las capacidades de individuos y comunidades para reconciliarse. Luego se discute la arquitectura del Sistema de Justicia Transicional, con énfasis en la Comisión para la Verdad. Finalmente, el texto presenta tres ejemplos cualitativos de investigación autoetnográfica, entrevista semiestructurada y grupos de enfoque sobre la exposición de fotografía El Testigo de Jesús Abad Colorado, los documentales de Daniela Abad Lombana y la Asociación Más Arte Más Paz. Los resultados de investigación ponen de manifiesto claves para las pedagogías de reconciliación para hacer las paces en el post-acuerdo colombiano.
This article discusses the potentials of the dancing body in peace education seen from a transrational perspective. The author explores how the multifaceted and creative body as worked with in the conscious dance and movement practice Open Floor can be tapped into and drawn upon to engage the multiple potentials of humans as contact boundaries at work. She reflects in this regard upon her own experiences as an Open Floor teacher. The article first discusses how the experience of dancing in Open Floor unfolds a creative process that is 1) both intrarelational and interrelational, and 2) always in transformation. Further, the article discusses how the dancing body is engaged as holistic, relational and dynamic through the Open Floor teaching tool 4 × 4, and how this dancing body supports a creative engagement with intra-inter dynamics in peace education.
In this article, we present the idea of a territorial peace and explore it in the context of Colombia. We locate our investigation in peace education, particularly in Colombia’s Catedra de Paz, and explore the adaptations and application of the iPEACES programme (originally the iPEACE programme, developed by one of the authors with Bevington in 2017) as a possible way of contributing to sustaining the plurality of many peaces in this and other contexts. We outline the Innsbruck school’s many peaces approach and Elicitive Conflict Mapping (ECM) framework in order to show how they contributed to developing the iPEACES programme – which is responsive to territorial peace in the Colombian context. We end by presenting limited findings from four surveys with teachers in Colombia who attended a taster day for the iPEACES programme in 2018. We discuss their contributions and perspectives, and the ways in which we feel the iPEACES programme might be taken up more widely in schools in Colombia and elsewhere.
Why is feminist research carried out in international relations (IR)? What are the methodologies and methods that have been developed in order to carry out this research? Feminist Methodologies for International Relations, first published in 2006, offers students and scholars of IR, feminism, and global politics practical insight into the innovative methodologies and methods that have been developed-or adapted from other disciplinary contexts-in order to do feminist research for IR. Both timely and timeless, this volume makes a diverse range of feminist methodological reflections wholly accessible. Each of the twelve contributors discusses aspects of the relationships between ontology, epistemology, methodology, and method, and how they inform and shape their research. This important and original contribution to the field will both guide and stimulate new thinking.
This book poses the question, "How do we transcend the cycles of violence that bewitch our human community while still living in them?" Peacebuilding, in the view of this book, is both a learned skill and an art. Finding this art, this book says, requires a worldview shift. Conflict professionals must envision their work as a creative act - an exercise of what the book terms the "moral imagination." This imagination must, however, emerge from and speak to the hard realities of human affairs. The peacebuilder must have one foot in what is and one foot beyond what exists. The book is organized around four guiding stories that point to the moral imagination but are incomplete. The book seeks to understand what happened in these individual cases and how they are relevant to large-scale change. The purpose is not to propose a grand new theory; instead it wishes to stay close to the "messiness" of real processes and change, and to recognize the serendipitous nature of the discoveries and insights that emerge along the way. Like most professional peacemakers, the author of this book sees his work as a religious vocation.
George Lakoff and Mark Johnson take on the daunting task of rebuilding Western philosophy in alignment with three fundamental lessons from cognitive science: The mind is inherently embodied, thought is mostly unconscious, and abstract concepts are largely metaphorical. Why so daunting? "Cognitive science--the empirical study of the mind--calls upon us to create a new, empirically responsible philosophy, a philosophy consistent with empirical discoveries about the nature of mind," they write. "A serious appreciation of cognitive science requires us to rethink philosophy from the beginning, in a way that would put it more in touch with the reality of how we think." In other words, no Platonic forms, no Cartesian mind-body duality, no Kantian pure logic. Even Noam Chomsky's generative linguistics is revealed under scrutiny to have substantial problems. Parts of Philosophy in the Flesh retrace the ground covered in the authors' earlier Metaphors We Live By , which revealed how we deal with abstract concepts through metaphor. (The previous sentence, for example, relies on the metaphors "Knowledge is a place" and "Knowing is seeing" to make its point.) Here they reveal the metaphorical underpinnings of basic philosophical concepts like time, causality--even morality--demonstrating how these metaphors are rooted in our embodied experiences. They repropose philosophy as an attempt to perfect such conceptual metaphors so that we can understand how our thought processes shape our experience; they even make a tentative effort toward rescuing spirituality from the heavy blows dealt by the disproving of the disembodied mind or "soul" by reimagining "transcendence" as "imaginative empathetic projection." Their source list is helpfully arranged by subject matter, making it easier to follow up on their citations. If you enjoyed the mental workout from Steven Pinker's How the Mind Works , Lakoff and Johnson will, to pursue the "Learning is exercise" metaphor, take you to the next level of training. --Ron Hogan Two leading thinkers offer a blueprint for a new philosophy. "Their ambition is massive, their argument important.…The authors engage in a sort of metaphorical genome project, attempting to delineate the genetic code of human thought." -The New York Times Book Review "This book will be an instant academic best-seller." -Mark Turner, University of Maryland This is philosophy as it has never been seen before. Lakoff and Johnson show that a philosophy responsible to the science of the mind offers a radically new and detailed understandings of what a person is. After first describing the philosophical stance that must follow from taking cognitive science seriously, they re-examine the basic concepts of the mind, time, causation, morality, and the self; then they rethink a host of philosophical traditions, from the classical Greeks through Kantian morality through modern analytical philosophy.
Organic inquiry is an emerging approach to qualitative research that attracts people and topics related to psycho-spiritual growth. The psyche of the researcher becomes the subjective ''instrument'' of the research, working in partnership with liminal and spiritual influences as well as with the experiences of participants. A three-step process of preparation, inspiration, and integration governs both data collection and analysis. Analysis involves the cognitive integration of liminal/spiritual encounters with the data. Organic inquiry invites transformative change, which includes not only information, but also a transformation that consists of both changes of mind and changes of heart. The approach offers a process for cultivating these changes, not only to researcher and participants, but additionally to readers of the research. Stories present the findings using both feeling and thinking modalities, in order to engage the reader in a similar process of transformative interpretation.
Would it ever be possible to devise a genuine "Theory of Everything," one that would truly explain not just the world of insentient matter addressed by physics, but the emotional, mental, and spiritual realms as well? In this book, Ken Wilber begins just such an attempt with a concise presentation of his integral vision--a quest for a holistic approach that, he says, invites us to be a little more whole, a little less fragmented, in our work, our lives, and our destiny. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This reprinted article originally appeared in (Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1955, pp. 1-30). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1956-00483-002.) Drawing on evidence from psychotherapy, brain injured soldiers, psychoanalysis, creativeness, and child psychology, "growth" needs are postulated as a basic type of motivation aimed at self-perfection, and are differentiated from the "deficiency" needs with which most of the previous work in this field has dealt. Differences in attitude toward impulses, effects of gratification, kinds of pleasure, and interpersonal relations are among the topics discussed which differentially characterize the deficiency-need-gratification-bent individual and the self-actualizing individual. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This book is a continuation of my Motivation and Personality, published in 1954. It was constructed in about the same way, that is, by doing one piece at a time of the larger theoretical structure. It is a predecessor to work yet to be done toward the construction of a comprehensive, systematic and empirically based general psychology and philosophy which includes both the depths and the heights of human nature. The last chapter is to some extent a program for this future work, and serves as a bridge to it. It is a first attempt to integrate the "health-and-growth psychology" with psychopathology and psychoanalytic dynamics, the dynamic with the holistic, Becoming with Being, good with evil, positive with negative. Phrased in another way, it is an effort to build on the general psychoanalytic base and on the scientific-positivistic base of experimental psychology, the Eupsychian, B-psychological and metamotivational superstructure which these two systems lack, going beyond their limits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
William James, filósofo y psicólogo estadounidense, nació en 1842 en el seno de una familia encabezada por su padre, el filósofo trascendentalista Henry James, y formada también por su hermano, el conocido novelista Henry James Junior. William James concluyó sus estudios de medicina en 1869, pero en los años siguientes se dedicó al estudio autodidáctico de la psicología y fue el primer profesor universitario de esta ciencia en Estados Unidos. Considerado un pionero de la psicología como disciplina independiente de la fisiología, James publicó en 1890 su libro Principios de psicología, una obra precursora directa del funcionalismo que reúne la suma de conocimientos de psicología hasta el último tercio del siglo XIX. El norteamericano prosiguió su obra filosófica hasta su muerte, ocurrida en 1910, con títulos como La voluntad de creer y otros ensayos de filosofía popular (1897), Las variedades de la experiencia religiosa (1902), El pragmatismo (1907), El significado de la verdad (1909), Problemas de filosofía (1911, obra inconclusa) y Ensayos sobre el empirismo radical, publicado dos años después de su fallecimiento. Las variedades de la experiencia religiosa -obra que también ha sido traducida al español con el título Fases del sentimiento religioso- surge de una serie de conferencias sobre teología natural dictadas por el autor en el bienio 1901-1902 en la Universidad de Edimburgo, en las que James plantea las experiencias religiosas -antes que las instituciones- como el objeto central de estudio de la religión y acomete su análisis, incluidas las variedades que pudieran catalogarse como patológicas, desde la perspectiva de la psicología.
The Varieties of Religious Experience : a Study in Human Nature / William James Note: The University of Adelaide Library eBooks @ Adelaide.
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