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Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences

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... Bildungsabschluss: .182 (Cohen 1988). c Anteilsunterschiede in der jeweiligen Rubrik gemäß der Effektgröße Δ. Referenzgröße ist jeweils der GS-Anteilswert. ...
... b Kodierung: 6-stufig ohne Mittelkategorie: 0 = "trifft überhaupt nicht zu" bis 5 = "trifft voll und ganz zu". c Effektstärkemaß d, untere Grenzen für kleine, mittlere und große Effekte: 0.20, 0.50 und 0.80 (Cohen 1988 Das Tätigkeitsprofil nach Häufigkeit, erhoben im Anschluss an Meyer 2017, offenbart erneut Schulformunterschiede mit einem im Schnitt höheren Aktivitätsniveau der Schulbegleitungen an Förderschulen (vgl. Tab. 3). ...
... b Kodierung: 6-stufig: 0 = nie, 1 = sehr selten, 2 = selten, 3 = gelegentlich, 4 = oft, 5 = sehr oft. c Effektstärkemaß d, untere Grenzen für kleine, mittlere und große Effekte: 0.20, 0.50 und 0.80 (Cohen 1988 ...
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Zur Bewältigung zunehmender schulischer Inklusionsprozesse gilt (multi-)professionelle Kooperation in inklusiven Schulen als ein zentraler Faktor. Die aktuelle Studienlage zeigt, dass die schulische Kooperation weiterhin auszubauen und zu professionalisieren ist. Dieser Sammelband greift aktuelle Fragen hinsichtlich der multiprofessionellen Kooperation sowie der Professionalisierung für Kooperation im Kontext inklusiver Bildung auf. Es werden theoretische Konzepte, empirische Befunde, Praxiseinblicke sowie Professionalisierungsmöglichkeiten für schulische Akteur:innen präsentiert.
... 0.21; visual DM, f 2 ! 0.19; and LANG, f 2 ¼ 0.16) across all three cognitive measures (Cohen, 1988). Effects were all in the expected direction, with PTSD þ diagnosis being associated with poorer performances on cognitive tasks. ...
... Regarding prediction of the EF measure (i.e., TMT-B), the effect was notably small to medium (f 2 ¼0.08, R 2 ¼.07) for PTSD diagnosis (Cohen, 1988). Alternatively, the effects of PTSD diagnosis on auditory WM/A (i.e., WMI) and verbal DM (i.e., CVLT-II) measures were small (f 2 <0.03), with much weaker coefficients of determination (R 2 <.03) compared to EF. ...
... within the PTSD À group, the only significant correlations were observed between Animal Naming performance and both the reexperiencing [r(44)¼ À.43] and avoidance [r(44)¼ À.46] symptom subscales. These effects were medium to large in size, whereas remaining nonsignificant correlations were generally small in size (Cohen, 1988). ...
Article
Self-reported histories of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are prevalent among post-9/11 veterans. Both are associated with subjective and often overlapping symptom complaints, but variably with objective neuropsychological test performances. These outcomes are seldom explored in relation to lifetime mTBI burden. This cross-sectional study examined associations of PTSD and lifetime mTBI with subjective (persistent symptoms after concussion and cognitive complaints) and objective (performances across five cognitive domains) measures among 46 veterans. Within this sample, 20 veterans had Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) confirmed PTSD (PTSDþ), whereas 26 demographically similar participants did not meet criteria (PTSDÀ). The Boston Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury-Lifetime (BAT-L) yielded total mTBI scores ranging from 0 to 8. Regressions showed PTSD was associated with increased subjective symptoms/cognitive complaints, along with reduced verbal fluency, visuospatial memory, and processing speed performances. Lifetime mTBI burden was associated with subjective symptoms, but not with objective cognitive test performance, after controlling for PTSD. No significant interactions were observed. Exploratory correlations suggested that all PTSD symptom clusters were generally associated with the subjective and objective measures. However, fewer significant associations emerged within the PTSDþ/À groups separately, with each group yielding somewhat different patterns of relationships. PTSD and increasing mTBI burden are consistently associated with negative subjective symptoms, including cognitive complaints. Each condition likely explains some degree of unique variance in symptom reporting. PTSD is associated with poorer objective cognition on some tasks, including processing speed, executive functioning, and learning/memory. Implications are explored.
... indicating that females slightly outperformed males in DT scores (i.e., total fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration, resistance to premature closure, and abstractness of titles). However, this mean effect was close to zero, and considered a small effect based on Cohen's (Cohen, 1988(Cohen, , 1992 guidelines for interpreting effect sizes (Cohen, 1988). ...
... indicating that females slightly outperformed males in DT scores (i.e., total fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration, resistance to premature closure, and abstractness of titles). However, this mean effect was close to zero, and considered a small effect based on Cohen's (Cohen, 1988(Cohen, , 1992 guidelines for interpreting effect sizes (Cohen, 1988). ...
... Although seminal review research on gender differences in mean DT scores supported the gender similarity hypothesis (e.g., Baer, 2012;Baer & Kaufman, 2008;Kogan, 1974;Runco et al., 2010), an empirical quantitative investigation was warranted. The current results show a small effect size (Cohen, 1988), favoring females. Interestingly, previous findings indicated that females mostly outperformed males in DT abilities (Thompson et al., 2021), yet males have shown a slight advantage in terms of creative performance (Hora et al., 2021). ...
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The current study examined gender differences in divergent thinking (DT) using meta-analyses of mean difference and variation. The main objective of the meta-analysis of mean difference was to resolve contradictory findings in the creativity literature regarding the prevalence of creativity among males or females in creative potential. The meta-analysis of variation aimed to test the greater male variability hypothesis (GMVH) in DT. To test gender differences in means (i.e., Hedges’ g), results from 213 studies (k = 1,251; N = 115,289) were analyzed using a three-level approach. Females slightly outperformed males in DT, g = -.065, 95% CI [-.095, -.034], p = < .001. Three-level multiple regression analyses showed that the mean effect size significantly varied by (a) country, (b) DT subscale, (c) type of task, and (d) ability (gifted vs. non-gifted). In the second meta-analysis, the GMVH in creative potential was tested by synthesizing the results of 1,152 effect sizes from 187 studies (k = 1,152; N = 101,328). The results confirmed the existence of greater male variability (GMV) in DT, (InVR) = 1.216, 95% CI [1.14, 1.29], p = < .001, indicating 21.6% GMV in DT. Multiple regression analyses explained 29.82% of variability in the mean effect (InVR) at Level-2 (within-studies variance), and 5% of the variability in the mean effect at Level-3 (between-studies variance). The mean difference findings support the gender similarity hypothesis, while variation results tend to support the gender differences hypothesis. Limitations and recommendations for future studies are discussed.
... In this research, the conceptual model was generated through literature, which was used to accumulate the predicted relationship between constructs, drawn through hypotheses. The hypotheses were required to choose the appropriate method [20] for the exploratory analysis that is essential to the most common and well-known design of quantitative analysis [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33] to test literature prediction from empirical data. Therefore, in this study quantitative analysis was selected by applying the statistical tools of SPSS and Smart-PLS. ...
... Therefore, in this study quantitative analysis was selected by applying the statistical tools of SPSS and Smart-PLS. SPSS is more suitable for descriptive analysis, and Smart-PLS is more appropriate for inferential statistics [30][31][32][33]. The research model was reflective rather than formative. ...
... A plan for addressing the research topic is called a research design, while an approach utilized to carry out that plan is a research methodology [30]. Although research design and techniques are distinct, they are closely connected, because sound research design guarantees that the information gathered will enable a more fully addressed research issue [33]. So, in this study quantitative design was adopted to find the answers from survey data, which was a Likert scale of 1 to 5 points. ...
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The goal of this research was to create a partial least square structural equation model (PLS-SEM) with a second-order structural model to investigate the interaction between research-based methodologies and relationship factors that significantly influence learning satisfaction among university students. The instruments used in this study were a simple random sampling technique for structural equation model (SEM) analysis, while a quantitative process of survey data collection was manipulated through SPSS and Smart-PLS. The presented study attempted to explore whether teachers’ strategies are linked with their students for the students’ learning satisfaction. Thus, it represents the demands and expectations of two statistically significant common phenomena: research-based components and relationship approach components. This set of teaching techniques encourages university students and enhances their learning satisfaction. Moreover, this study explored teaching strategies that influence factors having a directly significant influence on learning satisfaction at university level. Each factor measures the relationship’s construct, proven to be a second-order SEM reflective model that is statistically significant. Our study explored learning satisfaction as an integral part of teaching strategies, by first- and second-order structural equation modeling, supported by students’ expectations, and the study’s empirical results provide potential implications for learning satisfaction. View Full-Text Keywords: learning satisfaction; research-based techniques; relationships; PLS-SEM
... The paper 14 concludes in Section 6 with a summary of findings, implications, and future research 15 directions. 16 The study applies the generalized partial credit model (GPCM; Muraki, 1992) to 19 model item response scores and the log-normal model (LNM; van der Linden, 2006) to 20 describe response time behavior. GPCM describes the probability of an item score as 22 where X j (∈ {0, 1, . . . ...
... 17 giving a marginal maximum likelihood estimator. 18 In the case that priors are available for the item parameters, ξ can be estimated via 19 marginal maximum a posteriori. Let us apply a normal prior on the transformed item 20 parameters, (log a, b, log α, β), and ξ * contain the corresponding structural parameters. ...
... Both the indices characterize relative location of an item 18 on the ability continuum. The item selection based on these indices can be seen as 19 adapting item's overall difficulty to an examinee's ability level. As explained earlier, since 20 examinees typically have a wide variety of ability levels, we anticipate that the 21 location-matched item selection achieve greater diversity in item sampling than the 22 maximum-information criterion. ...
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The paper presents adaptive testing strategies for polytomous technology-enhanced innovative items. We investigate item selection methods that match examinee's ability levels in location and explore ways to leverage test-taking speeds during item selection. Existing approaches to selecting polytomous items are mostly based on information measures and tend to experience a skewed item pool usage problem. In this study, we introduce location indices for polytomous items and show that location-matched item selection significantly improves the usage problem and achieves more diverse item sampling. We also contemplate matching items' time intensities so that testing times can be regulated across the examinees. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to examine the performance of different item selection methods. Numerical experiment suggests that location-matched item selection achieves significantly better and more balanced item pool usage. Leveraging working speed in item selection distinctly reduced the average testing times as well as variation across the examinees. Both the procedures incurred marginal measurement cost (e.g., precision, efficiency) and yet showed significant improvement in administrative outcomes. The experiment in two test settings also suggested that the procedures can lead to different administrative gains depending on the test design.
... This test allows the statistical distance between samples to be measured in standard deviation units (Cohen, 1988). We chose this test because it is easy to use and interpret its results. ...
... In the literature, we find a series of works that use this test to compare groups, such as differences in performance according to gender (Hyde & Linn, 2006;Ryan & DeMark, 2002.) To identify whether the difference between the compared groups is significant, we agreed on a metric to analyse the values of d (Cohen, 1988). However, the definitions of the distance ranges can vary according to the number of people that make up the data; in our case, we have many candidates that make up the data, and our scale is like that of jobs with many individuals (Aylon & Liveh, 2013;Hyde & Linn, 2013;Ryan & DeMark, 2002). ...
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Background: Natural sciences is considered a markedly masculine field of study. Despite the criticisms and changes observed in recent years, the effects on society of male science are still observed in school performance. Objectives: This study proposes to compare the performance inequality based on students' gender in the contents of natural sciences in Brazil at the end of two learning cycles, lower secondary education (LSE) and upper secondary education or high school (USE). Design: The research was designed to identify the size of the effect on the performance of male and female groups in the International Student Assessment Program (PISA) and in the National High School Exam (ENEM) between 2009 and 2018. Setting and Participants: Public school students who, in the year in which the exam was taken, were in their final year of LSE or USE. Data collection and analysis: PISA performance data were collected from the PISA Data Explorer. From ENEM, they came directly from the database made available by INEP. We applied statistical significance tests to identify differences in performance in the natural sciences test of the two exams. Results: The PISA results indicate that there is no difference in the students' performance based on gender. In contrast, the ENEM results indicate a difference of 0.3 standard deviations in favour of boys. Conclusions: The results point to an expansion of the gender-based differences in the contents of natural sciences during the EM.
... Effect size (ES) for ANOVA is presented as partial eta squared (η 2 p ) and interpreted as 0.01 as small, 0.09 as medium, and 0.25 as large (Suppiah et al., 2016;Mesquita et al., 2019). ES for pairwise caparisons is presented as Cohen's (d) (Cohen, 1988), adopting the magnitude <0.2 (trivial), 0.2 to 0.6 (small), >0.6 to 1.2 (moderate), >1.2 to 2 (large), 2 to 4.0 (very large) and >4 (almost perfect) (Hopkins et al., 2009). Furthermore, Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between technical-tactical performance and hormonal levels was calculated, with magnitude classified as 0 to 0.29 (small), >0.29 to 0.49 (moderate), >0.49 to 1 (large) (Cohen, 1988). ...
... ES for pairwise caparisons is presented as Cohen's (d) (Cohen, 1988), adopting the magnitude <0.2 (trivial), 0.2 to 0.6 (small), >0.6 to 1.2 (moderate), >1.2 to 2 (large), 2 to 4.0 (very large) and >4 (almost perfect) (Hopkins et al., 2009). Furthermore, Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between technical-tactical performance and hormonal levels was calculated, with magnitude classified as 0 to 0.29 (small), >0.29 to 0.49 (moderate), >0.49 to 1 (large) (Cohen, 1988). All procedures were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). ...
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The present study aimed to investigate (i) di erences in salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations before, during, and after simulated beach volleyball match, depending on match outcome (winning vs. losing); (ii) the relationship between technical-tactical performance indicators in beach volleyball and salivary hormonal concentrations (i.e., testosterone, cortisol). We hypothesized (i) salivary testosterone concentrations would be greater in winners and salivary cortisol would be lower; (ii) testosterone would associate with positive technical-tactical performance and cortisol would associate with negative technical-tactical performance. Sixteen athletes participated in the study and were grouped according to the result of a simulated game (winners: n = ; losers: n =). Salivary hormone concentration of testosterone and cortisol were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pre-match, post first set, and post-match), and the coe cient of performance and e ciency were used as technical-tactical performance indicators. Regarding testosterone, there was a large e ect size for match outcome after the first set (i.e., Winner vs. Losers) and a moderate e ect size for the time in winners (pre-match vs. post-match). Regarding cortisol, there was a moderate e ect size of time in losers only (pre-match vs. post-match). Moreover, cortisol pre-match was negatively correlated with the o ensive performance (attack performance coe cient: r = −. ; p =. ; attack e ciency: r = −. ; p = .). In conclusion, the e ect of match outcome on testosterone and cortisol levels was moderate in winners and losers, respectively. Moreover, resting cortisol concentration appears to be related to a diminished attack technical-tactical performance. However, larger confirmatory studies are required to confirm these data to corroborate winning increases testosterone levels and/or reduces cortisol in a sporting setting.
... 3.7.1 Assessment of coefficient of determination (R 2 ), effect size (f 2 ), and predictive relevance (Q 2 ) Cohen (1988) points out specific ranges like 0.02, 0.13, and 0.27, indicating that the coefficient of determination (R 2 ) is showing weak, moderate, and substantial effects, respectively. Table 6 explains that the calculated values of R 2 are 0.229 and 0.336, which reach moderate and substantial standards, respectively (Cohen, 1988). ...
... 3.7.1 Assessment of coefficient of determination (R 2 ), effect size (f 2 ), and predictive relevance (Q 2 ) Cohen (1988) points out specific ranges like 0.02, 0.13, and 0.27, indicating that the coefficient of determination (R 2 ) is showing weak, moderate, and substantial effects, respectively. Table 6 explains that the calculated values of R 2 are 0.229 and 0.336, which reach moderate and substantial standards, respectively (Cohen, 1988). Moreover, the study has calculated the effect size to find out the impact on latent endogenous variables by omitting exogenous variables (Hair and Sarstedt, 2013). ...
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The adoption of e-commerce is essential in today’s dynamic business environment to optimize the overall firm performance of manufacturing SMEs. This research investigates the influence of environmental and technological factors to promote e-commerce adoption and subsequent firm performance in manufacturing SMEs. Technology usage for sustainable production is becoming a global phenomenon, though it seems less prevalent in emerging economies. Fewer studies address technology adoption issues to enhance corporate performance in Pakistani manufacturing SMEs. The present study adopted a resource-based view with the diffusion of innovation theory to formulate a research framework. We chose a stratified proportionate random sampling method to collect data by selecting four heterogeneous strata. Out of 800 distributed questionnaires, 368 top- and middle-level managers of textile, leather, sports, and surgical SMEs of Pakistan returned the questionnaire. This study employed PLS-SEM for empirical analysis. The results showed that both the technological factors’ relative advantage and technology readiness have a significant positive relationship with the use of e-commerce. However, environmental factors, i.e., competitive pressure, have an insignificant effect on e-commerce usage. Nevertheless, the government support has a significant positive effect on e-commerce usage in SMEs. Overall, e-commerce adoption depicts a positive association with firm performance.
... In the case of the upper cervi- 33 cal spine, it would be advisable to minimise the risks 34 associated with direct mobilization or manipulation on 35 C1-C2 at the end of the range of rotation [12]. Hidalgo 36 et al. demonstrated in vitro that C0-C1 segment stiff- 37 ness reduced range of motion and increased resistance 38 to upper cervical rotation [13]. This influence of C0-C1 39 on upper cervical rotation could mean that the kinemat- 40 ics of C0-C1 may be related to the tensioning of the 41 alar ligament and, indirectly, to the range of motion of 42 C1-C2 in the transverse plane [13]. ...
... 237Cohen's coefficients were interpreted as follows: large 238 effect sizes, d > 0.8; moderate effect sizes, d = 0.5-239 0.79; and small effect sizes, d = 0.2-0.49[38]. The 240 significance level was set at p < 0.05. ...
Article
Background: Chronic neck pain is one of the main reasons for visiting a healthcare professional. In recent years, it has been shown that upper cervical restriction may be a factor involved in neck pain. Objective: To compare the immediate effects of a real cervical mobilization technique versus a sham cervical mobilization technique in patients with chronic neck pain and upper cervical restriction. Methods: This was a randomised, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Twenty-eight patients with chronic neck pain were recruited and divided into two groups (14 = real cervical mobilization; 14 = sham mobilization). Both groups received a single 5-minute treatment session. Upper cervical range motion, flexion-rotation test, deep cervical activation and pressure pain threshold were measured. Results: In the between-groups comparison, statistically significant differences were found in favour of the real cervical mobilization group in upper cervical extension (p= 0.003), more restricted side of flexion-rotation test (p< 0.001) and less restricted side of flexion-rotation test (p= 0.007) and in the pressure pain threshold of the right trapezius (p= 0.040) and right splenius (p= 0.049). No differences in deep muscle activation were obtained. Conclusion: The real cervical mobilization group generates improvements in upper cervical spine movement and pressure pain threshold of right trapezius and right splenius compared to the sham group in patients with chronic neck pain and upper cervical restriction.
... d = 0.703]. Cohen's d (Cohen, 1988). According to these findings, it can be said that mobile-assisted seamless learning environments are effective in increasing student success. ...
... d = 0.633]. Cohen's d effect size calculated regarding the difference indicates a medium effect size (Cohen, 1988). According to these findings, it can be said that the mobile technology-assisted seamless learning environments are effective in increasing the mathematics motivation of students. ...
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Due to rapid developments, mobile technologies started to play an essential role in designing seamless learning environments. Due to the availability of mobile technologies, students can access learning materials without being bound by time and place. On the grounds that these applications allow information exchange, time and space limitations such as classrooms or school bells have been eliminated. Therefore, this study aims to assess mobile-assisted seamless learning environments’ effects on students’ success and motivation in the secondary school 7th grade mathematics class algebra unit and student opinions about the application. The research is designed using the descriptive pattern of mixed-method research. The sample of the study is 73 middle school students (30 male and 43 female) in Turkey. Augmented Reality (AR) applications developed in teaching algebra to support individual learning and to utilize mobile technologies, WhatsApp groups were created. Algebra Achievement Test (AAT), Mathematics Motivation Scale (MMS), and semi-structured interview forms were used as data collection tools in the research. The results of the study showed that there were statistically significant differences in favor of the experiment group in AAT and MMS scores. However, no significant difference was found between the groups in intrinsic goal orientation and test anxiety scores, which are motivation sub-dimensions. The findings obtained from AAT, MMS, and the students’ opinions showed that mobile technology applications used in out-of-school learning environments positively affect the learning process.
... Moreover, the results of f 2 show that the government policies, considered the first moderator in the study, have a moderate effect on social empowerment and sustainable development, while the national culture, considered the second moderator in the study, has a weak impact on social empowerment and sustainable development in Saudi Arabia. According to Cohen [125] guidelines, f 2 ≥ 0.02, f 2 ≥ 0.15, and f 2 ≥ 0.35 represent weak, moderate, and strong effects, respectively. The different authors have given other points of view about R 2 values. ...
... Falk and Miller [126] have suggested that R 2 ≥ 0.10 is acceptable for the endogenous construct to the variance explained. Cohen [125] recommended the R 2 values of 0.26, 0.13, and 0.02 as substantial, moderate, and weak, respectively, for the endogenous construct to the variance explained. Chin [127] suggested that R 2 values of 0.67, 0.33, and 0.19 are substantial, moderate, and weak, respectively. ...
Article
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Abstract: This study analyzes the role of education, training, and e-learning (ETL) in empowering Saudi society, leading to sustainable employment generation in Saudi Arabia. It applies the theory of constructivism, scoping to human aspects of teaching and learning in sustainable employment generation and social empowerment. The study primarily collects the existing variable pools from the available literature on education (EDU), training (TRA), e-learning (ELRN), government policies (GPOL), national culture (NCUL), sustainable employment generation (SUEG), and social empowerment (SEMP). The study performs second-order partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) with moderation analysis. The study aims to obtain the combined effect of ETL on SUEG and SEMP in the presence of GPOL and NCUL in Saudi Arabia. Primarily, the results of the path diagramshowthatETLhasasignificantdirectimpactonSEMPandSUEG.Secondly,themoderation analysis results show that GPOL has been a significant moderator between ETL and SUEG and ETL andSEMP.Incontrast,theanalysisresultsshowthattheNCULisnotasignificantmoderatorbetween ETL and SUEG, or between ETL and SEMP. Additionally, the moderation analysis results show that NCUL directly impacts SEMP. In contrast, it does not show a significant direct relationship with SUEG. In the article, the theory of constructivism emphasizes the learners’ active role in constructing knowledge, which is significant for both individuals and society, and the validity of constructed knowledge and its realistic representation in the real world. The practical implementation of the education and e-learning approach of constructivism will help to bridge the gap between the skilled workforce in Saudi Arabia and the rest of the world. Moreover, the students, as learners, will be able to assert their experiences by connecting with the outside world, constructing a sustainable society, leading to sustainable employment generation and social empowerment in Saudi Arabia. The study alsohasabroadscopeforhighereducationalinstitutions,trainingcenters,andorganizationsinSaudi Arabia and the rest of the world. Keywords:constructivism;education;training;e-learning;socialempowerment;sustainableemployment; Saudi Arabia
... For all estimated effects, effect sizes [52] are reported to ease interpretation of results and compare the effects across outcomes. An effect size of 0.5 (medium) or greater was considered clinically meaningful. ...
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Background To combat the opioid epidemic in the USA, unprecedented federal funding has been directed to states and territories to expand access to prevention, overdose rescue, and medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD). Similar to other states, California rapidly allocated these funds to increase reach and adoption of MOUD in safety-net, primary care settings such as Federally Qualified Health Centers. Typical of current real-world implementation endeavors, a package of four implementation strategies was offered to all clinics. The present study examines (i) the pre-post effect of the package of strategies, (ii) whether/how this effect differed between new (start-up) versus more established (scale-up) MOUD practices, and (iii) the effect of clinic engagement with each of the four implementation strategies. Methods Forty-one primary care clinics were offered access to four implementation strategies: (1) Enhanced Monitoring and Feedback, (2) Learning Collaboratives, (3) External Facilitation, and (4) Didactic Webinars. Using linear mixed effects models, RE-AIM guided outcomes of reach, adoption, and implementation quality were assessed at baseline and at 9 months follow-up. Results Of the 41 clinics, 25 (61%) were at MOUD start-up and 16 (39%) were at scale-up phases. Pre-post difference was observed for the primary outcome of percent of patient prescribed MOUD (reach) (βtime = 3.99; 0.73 to 7.26; p = 0.02). The largest magnitude of change occurred in implementation quality (ES = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.70). Baseline MOUD capability moderated the change in reach (start-ups 22.60%, 95% CI = 16.05 to 29.15; scale-ups −4.63%, 95% CI = −7.87 to −1.38). Improvement in adoption and implementation quality were moderately associated with early prescriber engagement in Learning Collaboratives (adoption: ES = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.25 to 0.96; implementation quality: ES = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.41 to 0.69). Improvement in adoption was also associated with early prescriber engagement in Didactic Webinars (adoption: ES = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.20 to 1.05). Conclusions Rather than providing an all-clinics-get-all-components package of implementation strategies, these data suggest that it may be more efficient and effective to tailor the provision of implementation strategies based on the needs of clinic. Future implementation endeavors could benefit from (i) greater precision in the provision of implementation strategies based on contextual determinants, and (ii) the inclusion of strategies targeting engagement.
... We conducted pairwise t-tests to examine change in each clinical measure from pre-to during the pandemic. Cohen's d is computed as a measure of effect size, with d = 0.2 considered a small effect, d = 0.5 a medium and d = 0.8 a large effect [49]. Supplementary Materials contain an additional analyses examining change in symptoms separately for heathy controls and youth with pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic is a chronically stressful event, particularly for youth. Here, we examine (i) changes in mood and anxiety symtpoms, (ii) pandemic-related stress as a mediator of change in symptoms, and (ii) threat processing biases as a predictor of increased anxiety during the pandemic. A clinically well-characterized sample of 81 youth ages 8–18 years (M = 13.8 years, SD = 2.65; 40.7% female) including youth with affective and/or behavioral psychiatric diagnoses and youth without psychopathology completed pre- and during pandemic assessments of anxiety and depression and COVID-related stress. Forty-six youth also completed a threat processing fMRI task pre-pandemic. Anxiety and depression significantly increased during the pandemic (all ps < 0.05). Significant symptom change was partially mediated by pandemic stress and worries. Increased prefrontal activity in response to neutral faces pre-pandemic was associated with more intense parent-reported anxiety during the pandemic (all Fs(1.95,81.86) > 14.44, ps < 0.001). The present work extends existing knowledge on the mediating role of psychological stress on symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth.
... Les résultats indiquent que les cas de la classe 4 présentent un score SeSaS moyen de 4,92, qui est significativement plus élevé que celui des autres classes (H(3) = 67,39, p < 0.001, ω 2 = 0,10). Cette variable présente une taille d'effet moyenne (selon les seuils de l'oméga carrée fixés par Cohen, [1988]). Les résultats indiquent que les homicides sadiques sont nettement plus élevés dans la classe 4, où ils représentent un tiers des cas (χ 2 = 55,10, 8. Les nombres entre parenthèses sont les probabilités d'appartenance à une classe. ...
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Résumé de l'article Cette étude a pour objectif de déterminer si les agresseurs sexuels sadiques constituent une population hétérogène. Notamment, le premier objectif de cette étude consiste à déterminer s’il existe des groupes distincts d’agresseurs sadiques en fonction de la manière dont se manifestent leurs fantaisies sexuelles déviantes. Le second objectif à déterminer si les facteurs individuels ainsi que les caractéristiques du mode opératoire sont associés à des manifestations propres au sadisme. L’échantillon utilisé dans cette étude est composé de 735 délinquants sexuels sadiques évalués avec la Sexual Sadism Scale (SeSaS). Une analyse de classe latente a été utilisée pour évaluer l’hétérogénéité des comportements sadiques tandis qu’une analyse de validité externe a été utilisée pour confirmer le modèle. Les résultats ont montré que le sadisme sexuel peut se manifester selon quatre types distincts dans les crimes sexuels sadiques : le sadique violent, le sadique tortionnaire, le sadique dominateur et le sadique mutilant. De plus, ces différents types sont influencés par des caractéristiques individuelles et de modus operandi. Les implications théoriques et pratiques sont discutées dans la conclusion.
... We explored both the significance of correlations, and the strength of effects where correlations of .1, .3, and .5 are associated with small, medium, and large effect sizes [47]. We selected variables for subsequent moderator analyses that had significant correlations associated with small to medium effect sizes with all three home scenario variables, resulting in two subsequent analyses in which family obligations (high vs low) and respondent age (young, middle-aged, old) were added as independent variables to the base model described above. ...
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Background Death at home has been identified as a key quality indicator for Canadian health care systems and is often assumed to reflect the wishes of the entire Canadian public. Although research in other countries has begun to question this assumption, there is a dearth of rigorous evidence of a national scope in Canada. This study addresses this gap and extends it by exploring three factors that moderate preferences for setting of death: situational severity (entailing both symptoms and supports), perceptions of family obligation, and respondent age. Methods Two thousand five hundred adult respondents from the general population were recruited using online panels between August 2019 and January 2020. The online survey included three vignettes, representing distinct dying scenarios which increased in severity based on symptom management alongside availability of formal and informal support. Following each vignette respondents rated their preference for each setting of death (home, acute/intensive care, palliative care unit, nursing home) for that scenario. They also provided sociodemographic information and completed a measure of beliefs about family obligations for end-of-life care. Results Home was the clearly preferred setting only for respondents in the mild severity scenario. As the dying scenario worsened, preferences fell for home death and increased for the other options, such that in the severe scenario, most respondents preferred a palliative care or hospice setting. This pattern was particularly distinct among respondents who also were less supportive of family obligation norms, and for adults 65 years of age and older. Conclusions Home is not universally the preferred setting for dying. The public, especially older persons and those expressing lower expectations of families in general, express greater preference for palliative care settings in situations where they might have less family or formal supports accompanied by more severe and uncontrolled symptoms. Findings suggest a) the need for public policy and health system quality indicators to reflect the nuances of public preferences, b) the need for adequate investment in hospices and palliative care settings, and c) continuing efforts to ensure that home-based formal services are available to help people manage symptoms and meet their preferences for setting of death.
... The standard mean difference (SMD) of each study and the pooled SMD were calculated. If the SMD was between 0.2 and 0.5, the efficacy of MBIs was considered mild-to-moderate, whereas SMD values between 0.5 and 0.8 indicated that the efficacy of MBIs was moderate-to-large (Cohen, 1988). I 2 was calculated to determine the heterogeneity in the effect size for the meta-analysis (for the calculation formulas of I 2 and SMD, see Supplemental Fig. 1). ...
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Objectives Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can effectively relieve negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. However, the effect size of MBIs and their potential influencing factors remain unclear. Methods We searched different databases and performed a meta-analysis to determine the efficacy of MBIs for the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess effect sizes of MBIs for negative symptoms. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis were used to explore the potential influencing factors of the pooled SMD of MBIs for negative symptoms. Results We identified 26 randomized controlled trials including 1725 individuals with schizophrenia. We observed a small-to-large effect size of MBIs for negative symptoms. The pooled SMD of MBIs for negative symptoms was − 0.59 (95% CI: − 0.87 to − 0.32), with a heterogeneity (I²) of 83.6% (95% CI: 76.9 to 88.4%; p < 0.01) based on a random effects model. In the subgroup analysis, significant differences were found with “Different Geographical Location of Treatment Study” (p < 0.01) and “Different Lengths of MBIs treatment” (p = 0.02). Meta-regression analysis showed that publication year was a significant predictor of the effect size of MBIs for negative symptoms (p < 0.001). Conclusions We identified a small-to-large effect size of MBIs to relieve negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The number of sessions and different cultures were associated with the efficacy of MBT for negative symptoms.
... Secondly, nearly half the patients were rated as having normal functioning on the outcome measure CGAS at follow-up. The analysis from baseline to follow-up showed a highly significant change in the overall sample for all outcome variables (emotional symptoms, functioning, general psychological distress, depressive and anxiety symptoms), and the effect sizes were all well above what Cohen characterized as large effects [76]. However, it is important to note that these effects sizes were within-effect sizes and can only be denoted as large when compared to other within-effect sizes. ...
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Background There is a need for long-term effectiveness trials of transdiagnostic treatments. This study investigates the effectiveness and diagnosis-specific trajectories of change in adolescent patients attending SMART, a 6-week transdiagnostic CBT for anxiety and depression, with 6-month follow-up. Methods A randomized controlled trial with waiting list control (WLC) was performed at three child and adolescent mental health outpatient services (CAMHS) in Norway. Referred adolescents (N = 163, age = 15.72, 90.3% females) scoring 6 or more on the emotional disorders subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were randomly assigned to treatment or to WLC. Long-term follow-up (N = 83, baseline age = 15.57, 94% females) was performed 6 months after treatment completion (Mean = 7.1 months, SD = 2.5). Linear mixed model analysis was used to assess time by group effects in patients with no diagnosis, probable anxiety, depressive disorder, and combined anxiety and depressive disorder. Results Almost one third (31%) obtained full recovery according to the inclusion criterium (SDQ emotional). There was highly significant change in all outcome variables. Effect sizes (ES) were largest for general functioning, measured with CGAS (ES: d = 2.19), and on emotional problems measured with SDQ (ES: d = 2.10), while CORE-17, BDI-II and CGAS all obtained ES’s close to 1. There were no significant time by diagnostic group interactions for any outcomes, indicating similar trajectories of change, regardless of diagnostic group. Waiting 6 weeks for treatment had no significant impact on long-term treatment effects. Limitations Possible regression to the mean. Attrition from baseline to follow-up. Conclusions Six weeks of transdiagnostic treatment for adolescents with emotional problems showed highly significant change in emotional symptoms and functioning at 6-month follow-up. Patients with anxiety, depression, combined anxiety and depression, and emotional problems with no specific diagnoses, all had similar trajectories of change. Hence this transdiagnostic SMART treatment can be recommended for adolescent patients with symptoms within the broad spectrum of emotional problems. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02150265. First registered May 29, 2014.
... We also conducted a power analysis to check and validate the results and findings of the study. We calculated the effect size (Cohen's d) for each data set collected [11], selected the minimum effect size (Cohen's d = 0.69) and estimated the statistical power (1 − β ) of data to check whether the type II error probability (β ) is within an acceptable range for a given sample size (n = 16 per group) and a significance level (α = 0.05). The estimated power value 0.96 shows that with the given sample size, we can have more than a 90% chance that we correctly reject the null hypothesis with a significance level of 0.05. ...
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Learning vocabulary in a primary or secondary language is enhanced when we encounter words in context. This context can be afforded by the place or activity we are engaged with. Existing learning environments include formal learning, mnemonics, flashcards, use of a dictionary or thesaurus, all leading to practice with new words in context. In this work, we propose an enhancement to the language learning process by providing the user with words and learning tools in context, with VocabulARy. VocabulARy visually annotates objects in AR, in the user's surroundings, with the corresponding English (first language) and Japanese (second language) words to enhance the language learning process. In addition to the written and audio description of each word, we also present the user with a keyword and its visualisation to enhance memory retention. We evaluate our prototype by comparing it to an alternate AR system that does not show an additional visualisation of the keyword, and, also, we compare it to two non-AR systems on a tablet, one with and one without visualising the keyword. Our results indicate that AR outperforms the tablet system regarding immediate recall, mental effort and task completion time. Additionally, the visualisation approach scored significantly higher than showing only the written keyword with respect to immediate and delayed recall and learning efficiency, mental effort and task-completion time.
... The mean plus one standard deviation, and the relative difference (Δ, in %) were calculated as descriptive statistics. Cohen's d was selected as standardized effect size, and interpreted as: (i) small effect size 0 ≤ |d| ≤ 0.2; (ii) medium effect size if 0.2 < |d| ≤ 0.5 and; (iii) large effect size if |d| > 0.5 (Cohen, 1988). ...
Article
Physical activity plays a paramount role on children growth and schools emerged as a key setting for promoting physical activity during childhood. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a high intensity circuit training performed during regular physical education classes at schools. One hundred and five children aged 11-14 years (71 boys and 34 girls) were evaluated. The participants were split into a control group (boys: N = 47; girls: N = 16) and an experimental group (boys: N = 24; girls: N = 18). Besides the normal physical education classes, the experimental group also performed a high intensity circuit training for eight weeks, twice a week, at the beginning of the lesson. A pre-post-test was performed. Cardiorespiratory (20 m shuttle run test) and a set of strength variables were evaluated. Percentage of fat mass was used as a somatic indicator. The 20 m shuttle run test presented a significant time effect, but not a time X sex, time X group, and time X weight status interactions. Conversely, the strength variables presented a significant time X group interaction (significant differences between groups). Percentage of fat mass presented a significant time effect, but not a significant time X group interaction. Data showed that adding a high intensity circuit training to physical education classes would result in a significant increase in muscular fitness performance in children, but cardiorespiratory fitness may not present the same magnitude of improvement. High intensity circuit training programs (performed during regular physical education classes at schools) seem to present a positive and significant effect in physical fitness parameters as well as reducing the percentage of fat mass.
... The computerized experiment was programmed using Z-tree [34] and conducted in October 2020. We used G*power 3.1.9.7 [35] to calculate the sample size with a power of 80%, a 5% significance level and an effect size of 0.5 [36], and the results showed that it needed at least 23 physicians per group. Considering the experimental operability and the sample size of related economic experiments on payment systems (e.g. ...
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Background Healthcare reforms in many countries have shown a movement from pure payment systems to mixed payment systems. However, there remains an insufficient understanding of how to design better mixed payment systems and how such systems, especially Diagnosis-Related-Group (DRG)-based systems, benefit patients. We therefore designed a controlled laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of fee-for-service (FFS), DRG, and mixed payment systems on physicians’ service provision. Methods A total of 210 medical students were recruited from Capital Medical University as subjects. They, in the role of physicians, were randomly divided into seven groups and chose the quantity of medical services for different patient types under pure FFS, pure DRG, or mixed payment schemes that included two FFS-based mixed payment schemes and three DRG-based mixed payment schemes. There were five rounds of each group of experiments, and each subject made 18 decisions per round. The quantity of medical services provided by subjects were collected. And relevant statistics were computed and analyzed by nonparametric tests and random effects model. Results The results showed that the physicians’ overprovision (underprovision) of services under FFS (DRG) schemes decreased under mixed payment schemes, resulting in higher benefit to patients under mixed payment schemes. Patients’ health conditions also affected physicians’ behavior but in different directions. Higher disease severity was associated with higher deviation of physicians’ quantity choices from the optimal quantity under DRG and DRG-based mixed payment schemes, while the opposite was found for FFS and FFS-based mixed payment schemes. Conclusions Mixed payment systems are a better way to balance physicians’ profit and patients’ benefit. The design of mixed payment systems should be adjusted according to the patient’s health conditions. When patients are in lower disease severity and resource consumption is relatively small, prospective payments or mixed systems based on prospective payments are more suitable. While for patients in higher disease severity, retrospective payments or mixed systems based predominantly on retrospective payments are better.
... The minimum sample size required for chi-square and goodness of fit tests applied for hypothesis testing was calculated. The limit value for effect size (w), shown in Table 1, is 0.50 as the ideal value proposed by Cohen (1988), I. type error (α) level = 0.05, II. type error level (i.e., the strength of the test, the probability of rejecting an incorrect null hypothesis) was entered into the system as (1-β) = 0.95 and degree of freedom (df)= 474. ...
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As part of the Internet of things, wearable devices can provide access and transmission of information in real-time while acting as a gateway (Fernández Caramés and Fraga-Lamas, 2018, Ferreira et al., 2021). At the World Economic Forum, it is predicted that in 2025, 10% of the world's population will use wearable technologies that can be connected to the Internet. Thanks to the rapidly advancing technology, companies have diversified the production of these products as consumer interest in smart textile products has increased (Turhan and Doba Kadem, 2021). Consumer purchasing behaviors are motivated towards the product that will bring the most benefit to them (İslamoğlu, 2009). According to various wearable technology product benefits and consumer interest in these products, how to shape the cognitive, sensory, and behavioral responses that arise against the purchase of such products has been the focus of this study
... Spearman correlation was used to assess the relationships between SSSQ4 scores and scores for the HIQ, TIQ, SAD-T, ULLmin, PTA across ears, HTL and ULL slopes and age. The strength of the correlation coefficient (ρ) was considered as weak if ρ < 0.2, moderate if ρ was between 0.2 and 0.5, and strong if ρ > 0.5 (Cohen, 1988;Hemphill, 2003). Variables that were significantly correlated with SSSQ4 scores were included in a logistic regression model to assess whether the SSSQ4 score (dependent variable) was related to ULLmin, scores for the HIQ, TIQ, SAD-T, and ULL and HTL slopes (independent variables). ...
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This paper evaluates the proportion and the audiological and other characteristics of patients with symptoms of misophonia among a population seeking help for tinnitus and/or hyperacusis at an audiology clinic (n = 257). To assess such symptoms, patients were asked “over the last 2 weeks, how often have you been bothered by any of the following problems? Feeling angry or anxious when hearing certain sounds related to eating noises, lip-smacking, sniffling, breathing, clicking sounds, tapping?”. The results of routine audiological tests and self-report questionnaires were gathered retrospectively from the records of the patients. Measures included: pure tone audiometry, uncomfortable loudness levels (ULLs), and responses to the tinnitus impact questionnaire (TIQ), the hyperacusis impact questionnaire (HIQ), and the screening for anxiety and depression in tinnitus (SAD-T) questionnaire. The mean age of the patients was 53 years (SD = 16) (age range 17 to 97 years). Fifty four percent were female. Twenty-three percent of patients were classified as having misophonia. The presence and frequency of reporting misophonia symptoms were not related to audiometric thresholds, except that a steeply sloping audiogram reduced the likelihood of frequent misophonia symptoms. Those with more frequent misophonia symptoms had lower values of ULLmin (the across-frequency average of ULLs for the ear with lower average ULLs) than those with less frequent or no reported symptoms. The reported frequency of experiencing misophonia symptoms increased with increasing impact of tinnitus (TIQ score ≥9), increasing impact of hyperacusis (HIQ score >11), and symptoms of anxiety and depression (SAD-T score ≥4). It is concluded that, when assessing individuals with tinnitus and hyperacusis, it is important to screen for misophonia, particularly when ULLmin is abnormally low or the TIQ, HIQ or SAD-T score is high. This will help clinicians to distinguish patients with misophonia, guiding the choice of therapeutic strategies.
... Replacing r with 0.7 in sensitivity analyses did not affect the findings of this study. SMD were considered statistically significant at the 5% level (p < 0.05), and classified as small (0.1-0.3), medium (0.3-0.6) or large (>0.6) [31]. In studies with two intervention groups and a single control group, the sample size of the control group was halved in the statistical analysis to avoid miscalculating the population size [32]. ...
Article
Physical exercise is considered to be a non-pharmacological strategy for reducing symptoms of cancer-related fatigue (CRF) in women with breast cancer (BC). This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the effects of non-supervised exercise programs in comparison with the effects of supervised exercise interventions for CRF in BC patients. Randomized controlled trials that investigated the effect of exercise on CRF in women were searched for until 29 June 2022. Inclusion criteria comprised women diagnosed with BC; exercise-based interventions; trials comparing at least one exercise group vs. a control group; trials that assessed exercise effects on CRF. Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 2964). Both non-supervised and supervised exercise programs significantly reduced CRF (standard mean difference (SMD) = -0.46, confidence interval (CI) = (-0.64, -0.28), p < 0.0001 and SMD = -0.74, CI = (-0.99, -0.48), p < 0.0001, respectively), without statistical difference (p = 0.09). However, a short-term training program subgroup analyses showed significant differences between supervised and non-supervised training programs (p = 0.01), showing that supervised training programs have a greater effect (SMD = -1.33, CI = (-1.92, -0.73), p < 0.0001) than non-supervised ones (SMD = -0.44, CI = (-0.78, -0.11), p = 0.009). Both supervised and non-supervised exercise programs may reduce CRF in BC patients; however, in the short-term, supervised exercise may have a greater effect on CRF in BC patients.
... Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org To evaluate effect sizes, we used the references recommended by Cohen (1988). Skewness (>2) and kurtosis (>7) cutoffs were based on Finney and DiStefano (2006) (Hu and Bentler, 1999). ...
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Background Comparative analyses of alternative interventions within the same trial enable acceptability and fidelity of each to be investigated more critically. In addition, whereas so far studies have focused on efficacy evaluations, more understanding is needed on motivational factors influencing the uptake of mental health-promoting practices rather than solely their effects.PurposeThis study investigates whether the motivational responses to a mindfulness intervention are different from a relaxation intervention. We compare social cognitions outlined by the reasoned action approach and their roles in practice uptake, self-reported reasons for non-practice, and experienced benefits.Methods In a cluster-randomized trial (ISRCTN18642659; N = 3134), 12–15-year-old participants were given a 9-week intervention and followed up to 52 weeks. Main statistical analyses included t-tests, mixed ANOVAs, path models, and chi-square tests.ResultsSocial cognitions in the mindfulness arm were slightly more positive immediately post-intervention, but recipients mostly responded similarly to the two interventions in the longer term. While attitudes, norms, intention, and self-efficacy were relatively high post-intervention, most of them slightly decreased by 26 weeks. Main reasons for non-practice in both arms included not finding the exercises helpful, no felt need, boringness of exercises and forgetting. The most common benefits experienced by practicing respondents were stress management and concentration ability. Better sleep was a more frequently reported benefit in the relaxation arm, but no other major differences emerged.Conclusion This study offers an example of comparing motivational responses to experimental and active control arm interventions, a potentially helpful approach in improving intervention adherence.
... Child and parent well-being of the total sample were compared to normative data (as provided by the respective manuals [46,48]) at each timepoint using one-sample t tests for normally distributed data and Mann-Whitney U tests for skewed data. Effect sizes were estimated with Cohen's d (small effect > 0.2, moderate effect > 0.5, and strong effect > 0.8 [51]). The proportion of children and parents scoring below the normal range (> 1 SD below the normative mean or median) were reported separately for each time-point to illustrate clinical relevance of low well-being. ...
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The objective of this study is to understand the long-term mental sequelae for families over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic by longitudinally investigating the well-being of children with and without complex medical histories and their parents. Well-being of 200 children (between 7 and 18 years of age; 73 typically developing, 46 born very preterm, 73 with complex congenital heart disease) and 175 of their parents was assessed prior to and during the first (April–May 2020), second (October–November 2020), third (April–May 2021), and fourth wave (October–November 2021) of the pandemic with standardized questionnaires. Linear mixed models were used to investigate longitudinal changes in child and parent well-being compared to before the pandemic. Social and COVID-19-specific determinants were investigated as predictors of impaired well-being. To illustrate clinical relevance, the proportion of children and parents scoring > 1 SD below normative mean/median was reported. Compared to before the pandemic, child proxy-reported well-being was lower during the first but not the second, third, and fourth waves. Child self-reported well-being was not lower during the pandemic compared to before. Parent well-being dropped during the first wave and remained low throughout the subsequent waves. Proxy-reported child and self-reported parent well-being was lower in families with sparse social support and poor family functioning. Parents of typically developing children reported lower well-being than parents of children born very preterm or with a complex congenital heart disease. In November 2021, 20% of children (both self- and proxy-report) and 24% of parents scored below the normal range compared to 11% (child self-report), 10% (child proxy-report), and 16% (parent self-report), respectively, before the pandemic. The pandemic continues to impact the well-being of parents of school-aged children with and without complex medical histories more than 1 year after its outbreak. Children’s well-being was specifically affected during the first wave of the pandemic and has recovered thereafter. Families with sparse social support and poor family functioning are particularly at risk for compromised well-being and support should be provided to them.
... This study establishes positive relationships between total quality management components and operational performance, as well as the mediating role of innovation speed among Nigerian manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises. As small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) make significant contributions to the development of a nation's economy, the findings of this study have revealed the urgent necessity of quality practices for their survival, as these practices have a significant impact on their performance and ability to continue operations [97]. The accomplishment of a company's goals cannot be isolated from the quality of its products or processes. ...
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This study focuses on investigating the role of innovation speed in mediating the relationship between total quality management and small and medium-sized enterprise performance. Cross-sectional data from 484 Nigerian small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises were collected using judgmental sampling, which was targeted at the owners and managers of small-scale manufacturing enterprises within Nigeria. The obtained data were evaluated using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Hence, the heuristic model for the relationship was subjected to a string of tests using the partial least squares structural equation modeling technique. The results show that total quality management is positively related to operational performance as well as innovation speed, which has a substantial influence on the nexus between total quality management (TQM) and small and medium-sized enterprises’ (SME) performance. The study expands the understanding of innovation, regarding speed and its measures within total quality management, where the five basic dimensions of total quality management are top management quality practices, employee quality management, customer orientation, process management, and employee knowledge and training. Furthermore, the model contributes to the scarce literature on the mediating factors needed to boost the operational performance of small-scale manufacturing firms.
... Effect sizes of 0.2 were categorized as small, 0.5 as medium, and 0.8 as large. 46 ...
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Background: More than 80% of adolescent and young adult cancer patients (AYACPs) experienced psychological distress. Physical activity and behavioral activation are effective to relieve the psychological distress in AYACPs. Methods: Participants aged 15-39 years diagnosed with malignant tumors were included. A total of 143 eligible AYACPs were randomly assigned to three groups. The treatment-as-usual group (N = 48) received routine care, the physical activity group (N = 47) received 8 weeks of physical activity program based on intelligent wearable devices, and the behavioral activation group (N = 48) received an internet-based modified behavioral activation program for 8 weeks. Objective outcome measures included salivary cortisol and testosterone. Results: Linear mixed-model analyses showed significant differences between treatment-as-usual, physical activity and behavioral activation in salivary cortisol, as well as total scores on depression and anxiety, physical activity, self-efficacy, and social support. Significantly stronger effect sizes for physical activity group compared with behavioral activation group were found on physical activity (d = 0.53) (1 week after intervention), moderate activity (d = 0.61), and walking activity (d = 0.57) (3-month follow-up). Conclusions: Intelligent, wearable, device-based physical activity program is more effective in alleviating anxiety and depression, reducing saliva cortisol, and improving physical activity in AYACPs than internet-based modified behavioral activation program. Intelligent, wearable, device-based physical activity program can reduce the time cost of AYACPs to ensure that the intervention is carried out.
... This finding is consistent with previous research identifying the benefits of listening for reducing stress and its related aversive feelings such as state anxiety (Itzchakov, 2020), state social anxiety (Itzchakov et al., 2018;Itzchakov & Kluger, 2017b;Itzchakov et al., 2017), and negative affect (Lloyd, Boer, Kluger, et al., 2015). Although the magnitude of the interaction effect size, .04, is small according to (Cohen, 1988), a 30-year review of 261 interaction effects in applied psychology and management indicates that it is in the 88.90 th percentile (Aguinis et al., 2005). ...
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When principals listen to their teachers, they may foster an open and receptive work environment that helps teachers adapt during stressful times. Two studies examined the role of perceived principals' listening to teachers on workplace outcomes. Study 1 (N = 218) was conducted during the first nationwide lockdown in Israel. Study 2 (N = 247) was conducted during a later lockdown and controlled for social support to test the independent effects of the two distinct interpersonal experiences. Findings supported our hypothesis that principals' listening would relate to lower teacher turnover intention. In addition, in line with our hypothesis, teachers high on perceived stress generally reported higher turnover intentions. However, the detrimental effect of perceived stress was not observed when teachers evaluated their principals as good listeners. Finally, we anticipated and found that principal listening is associated with organizational citizenship behavior. Specifically, teachers were more likely to help one another when feeling listened to by their principals.
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The 8th annual International Conference of the Immersive Learning Research Network (iLRN2022) was the first iLRN event to offer a hybrid experience, with two days of presentations and activities on the iLRN Virtual Campus (powered by ©Virbela), followed by three days on location at the FH University of Applied Sciences BFI in Vienna, Austria.
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Background: Telemonitoring, a branch of telemedicine, involves the use of technological tools to remotely detect clinical data and evaluate patients. Telemonitoring of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) should be performed using reliable and discriminant motor measures. Furthermore, the method of data collection and transmission, and the type of subjects suitable for telemonitoring must be well defined. Objective: To analyze differences in patients with PD and healthy controls (HC) with the wearable inertial device SensHands-SensFeet (SH-SF), adopting a standardized acquisition mode, to verify if motor measures provided by SH-SF have a high discriminating capacity and high intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Methods: Altogether, 64 patients with mild-to-moderate PD and 50 HC performed 14 standardized motor activities for assessing bradykinesia, postural and resting tremors, and gait parameters. SH-SF inertial devices were used to acquire movements and calculate objective motor measures of movement (total: 75). For each motor task, five or more biomechanical parameters were measured twice. The results were compared between patients with PD and HC. Results: Fifty-eight objective motor measures significantly differed between patients with PD and HC; among these, 32 demonstrated relevant discrimination power (Cohen's d > 0.8). The test-retest reliability was excellent in patients with PD (median ICC = 0.85 right limbs, 0.91 left limbs) and HC (median ICC = 0.78 right limbs, 0.82 left limbs). Conclusion: In a supervised environment, the SH-SF device provides motor measures with good results in terms of reliability and discriminant ability. The reliability of SH-SF measurements should be evaluated in an unsupervised home setting in future studies.
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Purpose: This study aims to analyze scientometrics of two Iranian journals published in the English language in the field of Knowledge and information science (International Journal of Information Science and Management (IJISM), since 2008-2020 and Webology since 2006-2020) based on co-authorship and co-word indicators. Methodology: This applied and quantitative scientometric research is conducted using the methods of social network analysis, lexical coherence analysis, and co-authorship analysis. VOSviewer and UCINET software are used for visualization and centrality measures. Findings: The IJISM had published a total number of 242 articles with the participation of 435 researchers, 365 institutions, and 29 countries. Iran, citation analysis, and e-commerce were the three most frequently used terms in the articles of this journal. The Webology journal had published a total number of 187 articles with the participation of 290 authors, 267 institutions, and 37 countries. Citation analysis, open access, and In-ternet / Iran were the most three frequent keywords of articles in this journal. Conclustion: Although most of the articles for both journals had been written by Iranian researchers, the number of received citations by the foreign researchers was further. The authorship pattern of the articles was two, one, and three authors, respectively.
Article
Although sex chromosomal trisomies (SCT) in children are highly prevalent and associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental difficulties including socio-emotional problems, little is known about underlying mechanisms that could drive this risk. Studying emotional reactivity and expressivity of young children with SCT in early childhood could identify deviations in early emotional development and potentially serve as risk markers to guide clinical care in developing interventions. Participants in the current study were 90 SCT children and 97 population-based controls, aged 1 to 7 years, who experienced a stress-inducing event in which physiological (heart rate) and observational data (expression of negative emotions) were collected. Results showed early disturbances in the emotion system of young children with SCT, in terms of blunted but prolonged emotional reactivity and a reduced emotional expressivity in response to stress. Further, the concordance between emotional reactivity (arousal response) and expressivity was significantly lower in SCT, compared to controls. Given the significant impact of emotions on adaptive day-to-day functioning, deviations in processing emotions could be an important underlying mechanism in explaining the heterogeneity and variability in developmental outcomes often described in individuals with SCT.
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This study investigates goal orientations, and self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies, particularly for differential equations (DEs) based problem-solving. Two adapted self-designed questionnaires for goal orientations, and SRL and an assessment test containing five self-developed DEs tasks were distributed among 430 students studying in inter-colleges. Collected data was further examined through SPSS and Smart PLS software. Initially, direct effects of goal orientations (mastery, performance, and avoidance goal) and SRL (elaboration and critical thinking) were considered. Findings revealed that mastery, avoidance goals, and elaboration had a significant direct effect on DEs’ problem-solving. However, no such effect was observed for performance goals and critical thinking. Similarly, it was revealed that only elaboration had the role of mediation for both mastery and performance goals. Likewise, in the case of critical thinking, no significant effects were observed. The current study confirmed that goal orientations and SRL strategies influence DE problem-solving. Therefore, educators and teachers may structure their classroom activities to review and incorporate these learning strategies, which will enhance students’ internal motivation, resulting in significant improvement in their problem-solving ability.
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Lack of motivation and low adherence rates are critical concerns of long-term rehabilitation programmes, such as cardiac rehabilitation. Socially assistive robots are known to be effective in improving motivation in therapy. However, over longer durations, generic and repetitive behaviours by the robot often result in a decrease in motivation and engagement, which can be overcome by personalising the interaction, such as recognising users, addressing them with their name, and providing feedback on their progress and adherence. We carried out a real-world clinical study, lasting 2.5 years with 43 patients to evaluate the effects of using a robot and personalisation in cardiac rehabilitation. Due to dropouts and other factors, 26 patients completed the programme. The results derived from these patients suggest that robots facilitate motivation and adherence, enable prompt detection of critical conditions by clinicians, and improve the cardiovascular functioning of the patients. Personalisation is further beneficial when providing high-intensity training, eliciting and maintaining engagement (as measured through gaze and social interactions) and motivation throughout the programme. However, relying on full autonomy for personalisation in a real-world environment resulted in sensor and user recognition failures, which caused negative user perceptions and lowered the perceived utility of the robot. Nonetheless, personalisation was positively perceived, suggesting that potential drawbacks need to be weighed against various benefits of the personalised interaction.
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Objective – Sustainable entrepreneurship is considered to be combined with economic, social, and environmental value creation, and is considered a combination of social enterprise and environmental enterprise. The small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia are without exception. However, due to the lack of research, the existing literature has not yet provided sufficient explanation for the establishment of sustainable entrepreneurship in Malaysian SMEs. This research included an introduction that gives an overview of the research, continued by the review of existing literature that correlates to the research topic followed by the methodology adopted for this research. Methodology – Specifically, this research extends the Entrepreneurial Event Model to test the proposed framework. To test the research framework and to achieve the research objectives, the survey questionnaire was used to collect the primary data of 200 respondents (entrepreneurs from Malaysian SMEs). The research used Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) and Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) to encode and analyse the main data collected in this study. Findings – This research's findings revealed that the developed model was sustainable. All the constructs were reliable and valid, and the value was acceptable. The research novelty present in the paper regarding many researchers pay little attention to the key factors that affect the sustainable entrepreneurial ability of SMEs. At this point, this study had proposed a new variable such as environmental awareness and examined its impact on sustainable entrepreneurship performance. Furthermore, the research also provides references for future practical and theoretical contributions. Novelty – This research provides new and important insights for SMEs, entrepreneurs, employees, and institutions through empirical testing of the framework, thereby contributing to knowledge. Type of Paper: Empirical JEL Classification: L21, L26, M19 Keywords: Sustainable Entrepreneurship; Perceived Desirability; Perceived Feasibility; Propensity to Act; Environmental Awareness Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Fong, C.W; Yen, Y.Y; Ramasamy, S. (2022). Sustainable Entrepreneurship in SMEs, J. Bus. Econ. Review, 7(1), 92–102. https://doi.org/10.35609/jber.2022.7.1(4)
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Background Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) disease is a rare genetic disorder with symptoms and complications that can significantly affect patients’ daily lives. To date, no scale has been validated to assess the specific symptoms of this disease on the quality of life (QOL) of HHT patients. This makes it difficult for clinicians to accurately measure the quality of life of patients with HHT. The present study aims to develop and validate a QOL measurement tool specific to HHT disease: the QOL questionnaire in HHT (QoL-HHT). Methods A quantitative, non-interventional, multi-center study involving HHT patients in twenty French HHT expert centers was conducted. A calibration sample of 415 HHT patients and a validation sample of 228 HHT patients voluntarily participated in the study. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) analyses, reliability analyses, and correlational analyses. Results The EFA, CFA and ESEM results allowed us to provide evidence of the factorial structure of a questionnaire composed of 24 items measuring 6 domains of QOL: Physical limitations, social relationships, concern about bleeding, relationship with the medical profession, experience of symptoms, and concern about the evolution of the disease. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (> 0.70) demonstrated reliable internal consistency of all the QoL-HHT scores (dimensions). The results of the test–retest provided further evidence of the reliability of the QOL-HHT scores over time. Correlational analyses provided evidence for the convergent validity of the QoL-HHT scores. Conclusions We developed a simple and quick self-assessment tool to measure quality of life specific to HHT disease. This study demonstrated reliability and validity of our QoL-HHT scores. It is a very promising tool to evaluate the impact of HHT disease on all aspects of the quality of life of HHT patients in order to offer them individualized medico-psycho-social support. Trial registration : ClinicalTrials, NCT03695874. Registered 04 October 2018, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03695874
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Saudi teachers are unsure how to include critical thinking into their classrooms.This study aimed at identifying the knowledge of Saudi teachers regarding critical thinking skills and exploring their attitudes towards improving Saudi students’ critical thinking skills. To identify if there are statistically significant differences at the level of significance (0.05) between the response averages of the study sample members about the degree of assessment of Saudi teachers about their knowledge of self-critical thinking skills due to the variables (specialization, experience, and gender), the quantitative approach was used employing a three-part questionnaire as the study’s instrument to achieve objectives. The first part gathered the demographic information of the participants focusing on three variables: “specialization,” “years of experience,” and “gender. The second part was designed to assess the participants' critical thinking abilities. The third part was to determine the participants’ attitudes about improving students’ critical thinking skills. The sample of the study consisted of (408) teachers (male and female) who were teaching at secondary school level in Hail City, Saudi Arabia during the academic year 2020-2021. The results revealed that the level of Saudi Teachers’ knowledge of critical thinking skills was high and that their attitudes towards improving students’ critical thinking skills were positive. Statistically, there were significant differences in favor of the “sciences specialization” versus the “humanities specialization” in the questionnaire’s two objectives. On the other hand, there were no statistically significant differences in the “gender” and “years of experience” variables. For future research, there is still a need to further examine Saudi teachers’ critical thinking skills and their attitudes towards improving Saudi students’ critical thinking skills. Its relevance to e-learning and adaptable settings is also discussed. Future research could look into the many interactions between different learning methods and strategies utilized in the development of camel thinking. Keywords: attitudes towards critical thinking, Critical Thinking (CT), Critical Thinking Skills (CTS), Saudi Teachers (ST)
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Background There is not a general consensus on the best type of intervention to improve the motor proficiency (MP) of adolescents with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Considering the effect of socio-economic status (SES) in relation to the MP of adolescents with DCD, it is necessary to examine this issue further. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Karate-Do interventions on the MP of adolescents with DCD from high/low SES. Methods Participants included 16 adolescent girls (12 to 13 years old) with DCD, and their classification into high/low SES groups was done by using appropriate previously validated questionnaire. A short form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2), was used to assess fine motor precision, fine motor integration, manual dexterity, upper limb coordination, bilateral coordination, balance, strength, speed, agility, and overall MP level of the participants. Both high/low-SES groups completed a specifically prescribed Karate-Do intervention program for 8 consecutive weeks (3 sessions per week with each session lasting for 75 min). Results Results from this 8-week intervention showed that the pattern of change in manual dexterity, bilateral coordination, strength and the total MP score improved over time in both groups with varied socioeconomic backgrounds. Specifically, the high-SES group performed significantly better than their low-SES counterparts during the 8-week Karate-Do intervention ( p < 0.05). Conclusions Following participants’ completion of the Karate-Do intervention, the existence of significant changes in the MP of adolescents’ with DCD at high/low SES confirmed our hypothesis. Compared to the low-SES group, adolescents with high SES displayed superior MP following the intervention. It seems that karate (kata) training serves as a good alternative for rehabilitation MP programs, however, an important issue concerning social infrastructure is to create a suitable exercise environment for adolescents at lower SES. Until the SES achievement gap in female adolescent MP is stable, future work is warranted to discover more practical and meaningful interventions.
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Purpose The EQ VAS is an integral part of EQ-5D, a commonly used instrument for health-related quality of life assessment. This study aimed to calculate the minimal important change (MIC) thresholds for the EQ VAS for improvement and deterioration after surgery for disk herniation or spinal stenosis. Methods Patients, who were surgically treated for disk herniation or spinal stenosis between 2007 and 2016, were recruited from the Swedish spine register. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative data for a total of 25772 procedures were available for analysis. We used two anchor-based methods to estimate MIC for EQ VAS: (1) a predictive model based on logistic regression and (2) receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. The SF-36 health transition item was used as anchor. Results The EQ VAS MIC threshold for improvement after disk herniation surgery ranged from 8.25 to 11.8 while the corresponding value for deterioration ranged from − 6.17 to 0.5. For spinal stenosis surgery the corresponding MIC values ranged from 10.5 to 14.5 and − 7.16 to − 6.5 respectively. There were moderate negative correlations (disk herniation − 0.47, spinal stenosis − 0.46) between the 1 year change in the EQ VAS and the SF-36 health transition item (MIC anchor). Conclusions For EQ VAS, we recommend a MIC threshold of 12 points for improvement after surgery for disk herniation or spinal stenosis, whereas the corresponding threshold for deterioration is − 7 points. There are marked differences between the EQ VAS MIC for improvement and deterioration after surgery for disk herniation or spinal stenosis. The MIC value varied depending on the method used for MIC estimation.
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Background Levels of the biomarkers amyloid-β 1–42 (Aβ42), tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The mechanism behind this is unknown, but one potential explanation is dilution by excessive CSF volumes. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of a dilution effect, by studying the relationship between ventricular volume (VV) and the levels of the CSF biomarkers. Methods In this cross-sectional observational study, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and lumbar CSF was acquired from 136 patients with a median age of 76 years, 89 men and 47 females, selected for surgical treatment for iNPH. The CSF volume of the lateral and third ventricles was segmented on MRI and related to preoperative concentrations of Aβ42, tau and p-tau. Results In the total sample VV (Median 140.7 mL) correlated weakly (r s = − 0.17) with Aβ42 (Median 534 pg/mL), but not with tau (Median 216 pg/mL) nor p-tau (Median 31 pg/mL). In a subgroup analysis, the correlation between VV and Aβ42 was only present in the male group (r s = − 0.22, p = 0.038). Further, Aβ42 correlated positively with tau (r s = 0.30, p = 0.004) and p-tau (r s = 0.26, p = 0.012) in males but not in females. Conclusions The findings did not support a major dilution effect in iNPH, at least not in females. The only result in favor for dilution was a weak negative correlation between VV and Aβ42 but not with the other lumbar CSF biomarkers. The different results between males and females suggest that future investigations of the CSF pattern in iNPH would gain from sex-based subgroup analysis.
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To cross a road safely, pedestrians estimate the time remaining until an approaching vehicle arrives at their location (time-to-collision, TTC). For visually presented accelerated objects, however, TTC estimates are known to show a first-order pattern indicating that acceleration is not adequately considered. We investigated whether added vehicle sound can reduce these estimation errors. Twenty-five participants estimated the TTC of vehicles approaching with constant velocity or accelerating, from a pedestrian’s perspective at the curb in a traffic simulation. For visually-only presented accelerating vehicles, the TTC estimates showed the expected first-order pattern and thus large estimation errors. With added vehicle sound, the first-order pattern was largely removed, and TTC estimates were significantly more accurate compared to the visual-only presentation. For constant velocities, TTC estimates in both presentation conditions were predominantly accurate. Taken together, the sound of an accelerating vehicle can compensate for erroneous visual TTC estimates presumably by promoting the consideration of acceleration.
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Background: Military personnel face numerous challenges transitioning from military jobs to meaningful civilian employment. Many veterans seek help finding employment, but few veteran employment programs have been rigorously studied. Transitioning veterans generally have access to Local Community Resources (LCR), which include the Veterans Health Administration vocational rehabilitation services, the state-federal Vocational Rehabilitation program, and the Department of Labor’s American Job Centers. By contrast, the innovative National Career Coach Program (NCCP) offers intensive career coaching and financial incentives for working. Methods: This study used a randomized controlled design to compare the NCCP and LCR approaches for 208 transitioning service members (recent or pending transition). Researchers conducted interviews by telephone every four months for two years. Outcomes included earnings, months worked, and standardized self-report measures of health and well-being. Findings: At two-year follow-up, significantly more NCCP participants had worked in paid employment than LCR participants (95% vs. 83%). NCCP participants averaged $2568 in monthly earnings compared to $1865 for LCR participants, thus averaging $16,872 more total income per participant over the two-year period. Employment outcomes significantly improved between Year 1 and Year 2. NCCP participants also reported significantly greater improvements in both physical and mental health compared to LCR participants. Average monthly earnings correlated with changes in health outcomes. Conclusions: Veterans receiving multi-faceted employment services early in the transition from the military showed sustained benefit over a two-year period with increased earnings over time and improved mental and physical outcomes. Positive employment outcomes may have contributed to improved health outcomes.
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Background COVID-19 confinement affected lifestyles. There is inconclusive evidence about changes in eating patterns, and there are few studies on the impact on body mass index (BMI), the occurrence of dysfunctional behaviors (binge eating, fat intake), and the predictive role of maladaptive eating styles (emotional, external, and restrained eating). Objectives (1) To analyze the differences in binge eating, fat intake, BMI, and maladaptive eating styles before and during COVID-19 confinement, and (2) to analyze whether maladaptive eating styles (before confinement) predicted binge eating, fat intake, and BMI during confinement. Methods The sample consisted of 146 Spanish college students, divided into 104 females (71.2%; age: M = 22.20, SD = 2.97) and 42 males (28.8%; age: M = 24.74; SD = 3.53). All completed several dietary measures and BMI twice: before COVID-19 confinement (T1, November 2019) and during COVID-19 confinement (T2, April 2020). Results BMI and maladaptive eating styles did not change in T2 (vs. T1). However, binge eating and fat intake decreased in T2. Emotional eating at T1 positively predicted BMI and binge eating at T2. External eating at T1 positively (and marginally) predicted fat intake at T2. Restrained eating at T1 positively predicted binge eating at T2, and negatively (and marginally) predicted BMI and fat intake at T2. The model explained 80.5% of the variance in BMI, 41.5% of the variance in binge eating, and 25.8% of the variance in fat intake during COVID-19 confinement. Conclusions The COVID-19 confinement had a positive impact on some eating behaviors. Future policies should focus part of their prevention on maladaptive eating styles to curb dysfunctional eating behaviors and BMI problems in times of stress.
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Disruptions of self-regulation are a hallmark of numerous psychiatric disorders. Here, we examine the relationship between transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology and changes in self-regulation in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. We used a data-driven approach on a large number of cognitive tasks and self-reported surveys in training datasets. Then, we derived measures of self-regulation and psychiatric functioning in an independent population sample (N = 102) tested both before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, when the restrictions in place represented a threat to mental health and forced people to flexibly adjust to modifications of daily routines. We found independent relationships between transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology and longitudinal alterations in specific domains of self-regulation defined using a diffusion decision model. Compared to the period preceding the onset of the pandemic, a symptom dimension related to anxiety and depression was characterized by a more cautious behavior, indexed by the need to accumulate more evidence before making a decision. Instead, social withdrawal related to faster non-decision processes. Self-reported measures of self-regulation predicted variance in psychiatric symptoms both concurrently and prospectively, revealing the psychological dimensions relevant for separate transdiagnostic dimensions of psychiatry, but tasks did not. Taken together, our results are suggestive of potential cognitive vulnerabilities in the domain of self-regulation in people with underlying psychiatric difficulties in face of real-life stressors. More generally, they also suggest that the study of cognition needs to take into account the dynamic nature of real-world events as well as within-subject variability over time.
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Upon examining studies on translation competence in the field of translation studies, it is observed that although there are numerous studies in the literature as to the definition of translation competence, what the concept consists of, and evaluation of its acquisition process, much of the research up to now has been descriptive. Previous studies were not carried out to create a translation competence scale. The leading translation competence models addressed in the literature can be classified as ) individual competence models based on observation and experience, b) translation competence models based on the data obtained through research projects and longitudinal empirical research, c) translation competence models based on the industry. However, in our study, we created scale items and components based on the translation competence models mentioned earlier, paving the way to develop a translation competence scale. Through this new translation competence scale, we also evaluated prospective translators’ translation competencies studying at different universities and professional translators working in the translation market in Turkey. The main aim of this study is to develop a translation competence scale and examine the opinions of prospective translators and professional translators as to translation competence. The research was carried out via a survey model and it was found that the model has significant, good and acceptable values when comparing the fit indices with the data obtained from the results of the confirmatory factor analysis of the translation competence scale (TCS) (χ2 =461,554; sd=186; p=,000; χ2/sd = 2,481; SRMR = ,0488; RMSEA = ,061; CFI = ,918; TLI = ,908; GFI =,904; AGFI = ,880). It was also concluded that the scale is valid and reliable (with three-dimensional and 21-items). There is also a significant difference regarding the translation competence in favor of the male participants, and the effect is medium and positive. The mean scores of the participants regarding the translation competence who are 46 years old and above are higher than those who are 25 years old and below. There is a significant difference for those who have lived in a country where a foreign language is spoken for more than three months, and the effect is -medium and positive, in line with the correlation values. There is a low and negative significant relationship with living in a country, while the translation competence of the participants is low and positive with sex and age. Considering these results, the following recommendations have been made: The experience factor plays a vital role in acquiring translation competence. As the level of world knowledge, subject knowledge, a field of expert knowledge and exposure to working languages in translation increase with age, the acquisition of the translation competence also develops in parallel. Accordingly, both prospective translators and professional translators should be engaged in activities towards increasing their translation experience.
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This study synthesizes and reports patient-reported outcomes (PROs) among athletes vs nonathletes after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement. A systematic review was performed in November 2020 with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) process. We included studies that reported PROs for athletes vs nonathletes. We excluded articles that did not contain full text, that were not in English, and that included level IV evidence. Four studies reporting on a total of 294 athletes and 230 nonathletes were included. Of these studies, 3 found superior outcomes among athletes, and 1 found that athletes recovered faster, but nonathletes had equivalent outcomes at later follow-up. Athletes and nonathletes showed significant improvements in PROs; however, athletes showed a trend toward superior PROs. Thus, pre-operative athletic activity is associated with favorable outcomes after hip arthroscopy. [Orthopedics. 20XX;XX(X):xx-xx.].
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Corona Pandemics results in a radical changes in the lifestyle and buying pattern of consumers around the world which adversely affected the global economy. This paper aims o to explore the effect of package elements on consumer’s purchasing decision during Corona Pandemic in Jordan, which helps the producers and marketers of frozen foodstuff to design and develop packages that motivate consumers to complete the purchase process particularly during Corona Pandemic. The study dealt with four independent variables (package color, package shape, package size and package logo) and one dependent variable (consumer purchasing decision. And three moderator variables for demographic factors (age, education level and income level). A questionnaire was designed based on previous studies, and 440 questionnaires were electronically distributed, which were suitable for analysis. The data were analyzed using the SPSS to analyze the data. The results showed that there was a statistically significant effect of the package elements on the consumer’s purchasing decision separately during Corona Pandemic in Jordan. The study concludes that shape has a very important role in consumer’s point of view by about (38.8%), moreover the income level also has an important effect on consumer’s purchasing decision. The study recommends companies that produces frozen foods to design attractive packaging and to develop them continuously because of its importance to consumers during the buying process.
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Objectives The mindfulness stress buffering account posits mindfulness may benefit physical health by reducing stress. Previous research supports this account and suggests the non-judging facet of mindfulness may be most strongly associated with physical symptoms of stress, via lower perceived stress. The current replication study used structural equation modeling to analyze relationships between multiple facets of mindfulness, perceived stress, and physical symptoms of stress. Methods Undergraduate students (n = 534, 68% White, 65% female) completed surveys measuring trait mindfulness (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire—Short Form), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and physical symptoms of stress (Cohen-Hoberman Inventory of Physical Symptoms). Results As hypothesized, results showed the negative relationship between four facets of mindfulness (describing, non-judging, non-reactivity, and acting with awareness) and physical symptoms of stress was partially mediated by lower perceived stress. Observing, however, was associated with more physical symptoms of stress. Conclusions The current findings successfully replicated the results of two previous studies in an independent sample, using a more parsimonious analytic strategy that included all variables in a single path model. Results confirm the stress-buffering effect of trait mindfulness, particularly non-judging. Future research may test whether changes in trait mindfulness, particularly non-judging, explain individual differences in objective measures of stress and physical health.
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