ArticlePublisher preview available

Discharge hydraulic behavior comparison of two karstic springs in Kuhe-Safid anticline, Khuzestan, Iran

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract and Figures

Karstic aquifers are important groundwater reservoirs that supply water to many communities in different countries, such as Iran. Therefore, studying the discharge volume and its fluctuations in addition to identify the hydraulic behavior of the karstic springs is very important. This knowledge can be realized by monitoring and analyzing of spring hydrograph in the simplest and effective way, especially by multi-year hydrograph. The main objective of this study is to compare the discharge regimes of Barme-Jamal and Poto karstic springs, formed in Kuhe-Safid anticline, south-east of Khuzestan Province, using multi-year hydrograph analysis. The discharge-stage data have been analyzed for several years to determine the recession coefficients, understand the flow regime in the aquifers and description the hydraulic discharge behavior of each spring. Accordingly, the various scenarios have been investigated based on low and high precipitated water-years. The results show that each of two springs reveals a specific hydraulic behavior based on discharge quantity and recession regimes that indicate its aquifer charactristices. The dominance of diffuse-matrix flow over the conduit flow controls the Barme-Jamal Springs discharge regime and consequently it reveals a normal recession behavior, while for the Poto spring the conduit flow with a threshold is dominant which is a scarce and complex hydraulic behavior.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Vol.:(0123456789)
1 3
Carbonates and Evaporites (2019) 34:1343–1351
https://doi.org/10.1007/s13146-018-0427-0
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Discharge hydraulic behavior comparison oftwo karstic springs
inKuhe‑Sad anticline, Khuzestan, Iran
N.Kalantari1· H.Rouhi1
Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published online: 26 February 2018
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
Abstract
Karstic aquifers are important groundwater reservoirs that supply water to many communities in different countries, such as
Iran. Therefore, studying the discharge volume and its fluctuations in addition to identify the hydraulic behavior of the karstic
springs is very important. This knowledge can be realized by monitoring and analyzing of spring hydrograph in the simplest
and effective way, especially by multi-year hydrograph. The main objective of this study is to compare the discharge regimes
of Barme-Jamal and Poto karstic springs, formed in Kuhe-Safid anticline, south-east of Khuzestan Province, using multi-year
hydrograph analysis. The discharge-stage data have been analyzed for several years to determine the recession coefficients,
understand the flow regime in the aquifers and description the hydraulic discharge behavior of each spring. Accordingly,
the various scenarios have been investigated based on low and high precipitated water-years. The results show that each of
twosprings reveals a specific hydraulic behaviorbased on discharge quantity and recession regimes that indicateitsaquifer
charactristices. The dominance of diffuse-matrix flow over the conduit flow controls the Barme-Jamal Springs discharge
regime and consequently it reveals a normal recession behavior, while for the Poto spring the conduit flow with a threshold
is dominant which is a scarce and complex hydraulic behavior.
Keywords Karstic spring· Hydrograph· Recession curve· Hydraulic behavior
Introduction
The nature of karstic aquifers is very complex and hetero-
geneous. In these types of aquifers, the groundwater flow is
controlled by the second and third types of porosity, which,
respectively, include the fractures and large dissolution con-
duits. The initial structures can also control the groundwater
flow in karstic aquifers (Labat etal. 2000). Accordingly,
various flow regimes occur in the aquifer body whose effects
are manifested in the hydrograph trend of the karstic spring.
Although several methods such as geological, hydrogeologi-
cal and geophysical surveys, field observations, and day/
isotopic tracers can provide valuable information about the
aquifer geometry and hydraulic behavior of karstic aquifers,
the time series information from springs hydrograph and
analysis of recession curves reveals the most profitable infor-
mation (Kovacs etal. 2005).
In semi-arid climate regions such as Iran where sea-
sonal variations in precipitation are observed, the recession
curve analysis of karstic springs is more reliable. In these
areas, the karst springs hydrograph clearly shows the fed
water signals to the aquifer system from annual precipita-
tion, because the recession curve usually does not interrupt
during the dry season by new recharge. Many researchers
have provided literature about hydrograph analysis of karst
springs in the globe, including: Bonacci (2001), Karimi etal.
(2005), Geyer etal. (2008), Birk and Hergarten (2010), Fior-
illo (2014), Chang etal. (2015), Li etal. (2016), and Hamidi
Zadeh etal. (2012).
The Barme-Jamal and Poto Karstic springs are impor-
tant water resources in the Meydavod County, Khuzestan
province, which play a significant role in the economy and
population of this region. Barme-Jamal aquifer and Poto
Spring aquifer are formed into the Asmari and Ilam-Sar-
vak formations, respectively. The purpose of this study is
to investigate and compare the two aforementioned springs
from the aspects of reservoir hydrogeological characteristics,
flow regimes and discharge hydraulic behavior. This infor-
mation is useful for the evaluation of discharge potential, the
* N. Kalantari
nkalantari@hotmail.com
1 Department ofGeology, Faculty ofEarth Sciences, Shahid
Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... Given the limited drainage capacity of the conduit, water levels increase rapidly, reaching levels higher than those in fissures, which would drive the conduit-borne solutes both in the unsaturated and saturated zone flowing into the surrounding fissures for storage. When the rainfall ceases, the conduit's hydraulic head diminishes due to the recharge recession and becomes inverted, thereby mobilizing the groundwater stored in fissures, pushing the stored solutes from fissures into conduits ( Fig. 2b) Faulkner et al., 2009;Kalantari and Rouhi, 2019;Li et al., 2008;Shirafkan et al., 2021). ...
Article
The contaminant transport processes in karst water systems have a direct impact on the quality and utilization of karst water resources. The storage and release of contaminants or conservative solutes during the solute transport process is a common phenomenon in karst aquifers. The impact of the storage and release is more prevalent after focused recharge events. In this study, laboratory experimental and numerical studies were conducted to quantify the storage and release processes of conservative solute. The results showed that, conduit water recharges into fissures under high water head conditions, and the fissure water drains back into the conduit while the hydraulic gradient reverse. The conservative solute storage-release process controlled by hydrodynamic conditions produces strong asymmetry, long tailing, or bi-peak in the breakthrough curves (BTCs). The BTCs change from single peak to bi-peak with enhanced hydrodynamics under focused recharge conditions. The dual heterogeneous domain model was calibrated to simulate the long-tailing of the BTCs and their noticeably bimodal characteristics. The flow velocity and dispersion coefficient are the major variables that regulate the bimodal structure of the BTCs, which also control the solute storage-release differences between the conduit and fissures. The bimodal structure of the BTCs becomes more pronounced for large discrepancies in flow velocities. The total BTCs are a superposition of solute transport in the conduit path and storage-release path. A method to evaluate the mass of conservative solute transport in storage-release paths was proposed by segmenting the transport curve in the conduit from the total BTCs, thus quantifying the effects of the groundwater storage-release mechanism on the solute transport process in the karst water system.
... This is due to the expansion of the cone of the depression of the spring to the lateral noflow boundaries. The increase of the slope of the recession curve during the late time (long time after the end of the recharge period) is also reported in some case studies (Bagheri et al., 2016;Kalantari and Rouhi, 2019;Lauber et al., 2014;Nassery et al., 2014) and is called convex recession. Schmidt et al. (2014) modeled the convex recession considering a mature Karstic aquifer with well-developed conduit flow. ...
Article
Springs are important source of fresh water for many regions of the world. Most mathematical models simulating spring discharge are linear and non-linear reservoir-based models that are simple and easy to use. They, however, suffer from oversimplification and a lack of physical processes that limit their applicability. The goal of this work is to present process-based analytical model of discharge variation of multiple springs associated with a rectangular fractured aquifer subjected to arbitrary recharge. The solution is obtained via Laplace and Fourier transformations along with the superposition principle and image well method for a constant flux point sink. Then the constant head point sink solution representing a single spring is obtained from the constant flux point sink solution. Finally, the constant head point sink solution is extended to simulate the multiple constant head sinks (or springs) utilizing the principle of superposition and matrix solution. The solution considers the vertical anisotropy of fractures, the inter-porosity flow between fractures and matrix blocks and the instantaneous gravity drainage of the water table. The results of this study are presented in the form of dimensionless discharge-time curve and dimensionless spring depletion volume-time curves. The influences of aquifer geometric and hydraulic parameters on spring discharge variation are explored. The presented model can be utilized to simulate the discharge variation of multiple springs depleting a fractured aquifer, to estimate the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer utilizing the discharge data of springs, and to evaluate the dynamic storage volume of multiple springs depleting a fractured aquifer, among other applications.
Article
Full-text available
Spring discharge often responds to rainfall with a rapid increase followed by a slower recession, and the mode of recession is often exponential-like. We propose a new model of the response of spring discharge to rainfall based on the square law for turbulent conduit flow. The new non-exponential model is compared against the exponential model under specific constraints. A hydrograph of St. Marks River in Florida is used to illustrate that when the change in ?sinkhole head? (defined as the hydraulic head at the upstream end of the karst conduit connected to the spring) is relatively small, the solution of the new model is close to that of the exponential model, which extends the validity and application of the exponential solution. When the change in sinkhole head is very large, the solutions from the two models clearly differ from each other. Limitations of the non-exponential model are analyzed by simulation of a hydrograph observed downstream of Wakulla Springs. It is concluded that both solutions are applicable when spring response is smaller than or comparable to the base flow, but are nonphysical when the response is much larger than the base discharge.
Article
Full-text available
This study constitutes a review of spring hydrograph recession analysis, and it is focused on karst aquifers. The different literature models have been separated into empirical and physically-based models; in the last ones, only analytical models have been considered, as they provide the discharge equation during recession. Under constant geometrical and hydraulic aquifer characteristics, it has been found that the “exponential form” appears to be the most recurrent theoretical type, at least during the long-term flow recession. During this stage, any deviation from the exponential form, may suggest hydraulic anisotropy of actual aquifers, as well as aquifer geometry has a fundamental role in controlling the shape of spring hydrographs. The hydrodynamics of karst aquifer under recession has been described, associating any segment of the hydrograph to a specific hydrologic condition of the aquifer, and also to a specific physical law which control the water flow.
Article
Full-text available
The responses of karstic aquifers to storms are often used to obtain information about aquifer geometry. In general, spring hydrographs are a function of both system geometry and recharge. However, the majority of prior work on storm pulses through karst has not studied the effect of recharge on spring hydrographs. To examine the relative importance of geometry and recharge, we break karstic aquifers into elements according to the manner of their response to transient flow and demonstrate that each element has a characteristic response timescale. These fundamental elements are full pipes, open channels, reservoir/constrictions, and the porous matrix. Taking the ratio of the element timescale with the recharge timescale produces a dimensionless number, γ, that is used to characterize aquifer response to a storm event. Using sets of simulations run with randomly selected element parameters, we demonstrate that each element type has a critical value of γ below which the shape of the spring hydrograph is dominated by the shape of the recharge hydrograph and above which the spring hydrograph is significantly modified by the system geometry. This allows separation of particular element/storm pairs into recharge-dominated and geometry-dominated regimes. While most real karstic aquifers are complex combinations of these elements, we draw examples from several karst systems that can be represented by single elements. These examples demonstrate that for real karstic aquifers full pipe and open channel elements are generally in the recharge-dominated regime, whereas reservoir/constriction elements can fall in either the recharge- or geometry-dominated regimes.
Article
Full-text available
Podenow Anticline is located in the Zagros Mountain Range, southern Iran. This anticline is exposed in an outcrop of Tertiary karstic limestone-dolomite Asmari Formation which is sandwiched between two impermeable marly formations. Part of the Podenow aquifer is discharged by 23 springs on the southern flank. Nineteen of these springs are concentrated in an area less than 0.5 km2. The major ions, electrical conductivity, temperature and pH of these springs were measured once every two to three weeks for a period of 17 months. Geological setting, geomorphology, topography, lithology of the karst aquifer and surrounding formations, ratio of SO4 to total anions, time series of specific conductance, hydrograph of springs, elevation of water level in piezometers and aquifer water balance were used to determine the probable catchment area of the springs. These parameters indicate that the sources of four springs are most probably the southern flanks and the sources of the other springs are both the southern and northern flanks. The time series of specific conductance of the fourteen Atashkadeh springs overlap which implies that all of these springs share a common conduit and the same catchment area. But the catchment area of one of the Atashkadeh springs is different from the other springs, even though it is surrounded by those other springs. A later tracer study confirmed the above discussion.
Article
Full-text available
By analysing the hydrographs of karst springs it is possible to identify aquifer characteristics and, accordingly, the main features of a karst rock-fissure massif. Consequently, relevant data can be obtained by analysing hydrograph recession curves. This paper presents a detailed analysis and explanation of numerous cases of break points on recession curves via various values of the recession coefficient α in Maillet's (1905) equation. The paper also identifies the relationship between α and a linear reservoir coefficient by employing groundwater hydrograph methods. It is shown that the linear reservoir coefficient changes with time in accordance with changes of the flow conditions in the karst massif.
Article
Spring hydrograph, especially the recession curve, is widely used to understand the internal information of the karst aquifer. However, how the turbulent conduit network influences the spring hydrograph is still unclear. Generally, the spring hydrograph could be divided into the early portion recharged by the point recharge and late portion from the diffuse recharge. In this paper, MODFLOW-CFP is used to understand the influence of turbulent conduit on the spring hydrograph from the diffuse recharge and different influences of the turbulent and laminar conduit on this spring hydrograph. And then, a conceptual model is used to further interpret it. Based on the analysis results, the influence of turbulent conduit on the spring hydrograph from the point recharge is also discussed. For the spring hydrograph from the diffuse recharge, when ignoring the storage variation of the conduit network, the turbulent conduit just influences the early recession curve and this influence decreases with the spring discharge or rainfall intensity until it disappears. When the spring hydrography is strongly reshaped by the storage of the turbulent conduit network, only the early recession behavior is influenced by the turbulent conduit network as well. However, the laminar conduit network has a strongly influence on the whole recession behavior. The late exponential recession coefficient decreases with the conduit diameter and conduit storage. These different influences of turbulent and laminar conduit on the spring hydrograph are mainly caused by their different flow characteristics. Although the turbulent conduit network could also strongly influence the early spring hydrograph, the late spring hydrograph is mainly controlled by diffuse recharge and the influence from the turbulent conduit may also disappear.
Article
Karstic basins contain large reserves of subsurface water. In this paper, three karstic systems located in the Pyrénées Mountains (Ariège, France) are studied. Long records of rainfall and discharge rates for these karstic springs are available, sampled at different rates: daily, hourly and half-hourly. This study aims at illustrating and assessing the capabilities and limitations of linear black-box methods for analysing rainfall–runoff type relationships and reconstructing runoffs from rainfall rate data using such systems.In this study, precipitation and discharge rates are considered as two autocorrelated and cross-correlated stochastic processes. A linear and stationary rainfall–runoff model is adopted, which is used for identification and simulation purposes. Different versions are analysed, including a model based on a convolution integral between the precipitation rate P(τ) and a transfer function h(t−τ) which can be thought of as the unit impulse response of the system. It is shown that this linear stochastic model (i.e. the statistical version), although accurate in some respects, does not represent the hydraulic behaviour of the system very well during low flow episodes and floods. It is also shown that the use of Fourier analysis, alone, does not lead to a satisfactory reconstitution of observed runoff sequences. For these reasons, the use of non-linear random process input–output models based on Volterra integral series is proposed and discussed.